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Plant based eating

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528548/adaptive-evolution-to-a-high-purine-and-fat-diet-of-carnivorans-revealed-by-gut-microbiomes-and-host-genomes
#1
Lifeng Zhu, Qi Wu, Cao Deng, Mengjie Zhang, Chenglin Zhang, Hua Chen, Guoqing Lu, Fuwen Wei
Carnivorous members of the Carnivora reside at the apex of food chains and consume meat-only diets, rich in purine, fats and protein. Here, we aimed to identify potential adaptive evolutionary signatures compatible with high purine and fat metabolism based on analysis of host genomes and symbiotic gut microbial metagenomes. We found that the gut microbiomes of carnivorous Carnivora (e.g. Felidae, Canidae) clustered in the same clade, and other clades comprised omnivorous and herbivorous Carnivora (e.g. badgers, bears and pandas)...
March 12, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518923/association-between-frequency-of-consumption-of-fruit-vegetables-nuts-and-pulses-and-bmi-analyses-of-the-international-study-of-asthma-and-allergies-in-childhood-isaac
#2
Clare R Wall, Alistair W Stewart, Robert J Hancox, Rinki Murphy, Irene Braithwaite, Richard Beasley, Edwin A Mitchell
Diets which emphasize intakes of plant-based foods are recommended to reduce disease risk and for promoting healthy weight. The aim of this study was to examine the association between fruit, vegetables, pulses and nut intake and body mass index (BMI) across countries in adolescents (13-14 years) and children (6-7 years). Data from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood; 77,243 children's parents and 201,871 adolescents was used to examine the association between dietary intake (Food Frequency Questionnaire) and BMI using general linear models, adjusting for country gross national index...
March 7, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514891/are-we-what-we-eat-changes-to-the-feed-fatty-acid-composition-of-farmed-salmon-and-its-effects-through-the-food-chain
#3
REVIEW
Nini H Sissener
'Are we what we eat?' Yes and no. Although dietary fat affects body fat, there are many modifying mechanisms. In Atlantic salmon, there is a high level of retention of the n-3 fatty acid (FA) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) relative to the dietary content, whereas saturated FAs never seem to increase above a specified level, which is probably an adaptation to low and fluctuating body temperature. Net production of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and especially DHA occurs in salmon when dietary levels are low; however, this synthesis is not sufficient to maintain EPA and DHA at similar tissue levels to those of a traditional fish oil-fed farmed salmon...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29512375/angioedema-due-to-lamiaceae-allergy
#4
Selçuk Yazıcı, Hikmet Tekin Nacaroglu, Semiha Bahçeci Erdem, Sait Karaman, Demet Can
We present a 13-year-old male childallergic to three different plants (Salvia officinalis, Mentha piperita and Origanum onites L.) of Lamiaceae family. The patient developed angioedema 20-30 minutes after eating chicken meat with cheddar cheese. There was no history of allergy. Oral food challenge (OFC) with both cheddar cheese and chicken meat was negative. Skin tests for inhalant allergens were negative. 3 weeks later, the patient was admitted with angioedema after drinking sage tea. OFC with sage was applied and angioedema was observed...
February 2018: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501683/if-you-build-it-will-they-eat-it-consumer-preferences-for-plant-based-and-cultured-meat-burgers
#5
Peter Slade
In a hypothetical choice experiment consumers were given the option of purchasing burgers that were made from beef, plant-based protein, or cultured meat. Willingness to purchase plant-based and cultured meat burgers is linked to age, sex, views of other food technologies, and attitudes towards the environment and agriculture. Although consumers were told that all burgers tasted the same, there was a marked preference for beef burgers. A mixed-logit model predicts that, if prices were equal, 65% of consumers would purchase the beef burger, 21% would purchase the plant-based burger, 11% would purchase the cultured meat burger, and 4% would make no purchase...
February 28, 2018: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473657/fermentable-short-chain-carbohydrate-fodmap-content-of-common-plant-based-foods-and-processed-foods-suitable-for-vegetarian-and-vegan-based-eating-patterns
#6
C Tuck, E Ly, A Bogatyrev, I Costetsou, P Gibson, J Barrett, J Muir
BACKGROUND: The low FODMAP (fermentable, oligo-, di-, mono-saccharides and polyols) diet is an effective strategy to improve symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome. However, combining the low FODMAP diet with another dietary restriction such as vegetarianism/veganism is challenging. Greater knowledge about the FODMAP composition of plant-based foods and food processing practices common to vegetarian/vegan eating patterns would assist in the implementation of the diet in this patient population...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469016/the-potential-health-and-economic-effects-of-plant-based-food-patterns-in-belgium-and-the-united-kingdom
#7
Janne Schepers, Lieven Annemans
OBJECTIVE: Policymakers increasingly require scientific evidence on both health and economic consequences of different nutritional patterns. The aim of this study was to assess health and economic effects of Mediterranean and soy-containing diets. Selected countries were Belgium and the United Kingdom. METHODS: Cost-effectiveness of these plant-based food patterns was assessed in comparison with a "conventional" diet using an age- and sex-dependent prediction model...
December 15, 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436500/seed-ingestion-and-germination-in-rattlesnakes-overlooked-agents-of-rescue-and-secondary-dispersal
#8
Randall S Reiserer, Gordon W Schuett, Harry W Greene
Seed dispersal is a key evolutionary process and a central theme in the population ecology of terrestrial plants. The primary producers of most land-based ecosystems are propagated by and maintained through various mechanisms of seed dispersal that involve both abiotic and biotic modes of transportation. By far the most common biotic seed transport mechanism is zoochory, whereby seeds, or fruits containing them, are dispersed through the activities of animals. Rodents are one group of mammals that commonly prey on seeds (granivores) and play a critical, often destructive, role in primary dispersal and the dynamics of plant communities...
February 14, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435636/standard-reference-material-srm-2378-fatty-acids-in-frozen-human-serum-certification-of-a-clinical-srm-based-on-endogenous-supplementation-of-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids
#9
Bruce A Benner, Michele M Schantz, Carissa D Powers, Rosemary L Schleicher, Johanna E Camara, Katherine E Sharpless, James H Yen, Lorna T Sniegoski
Dietary fatty acids can be both beneficial and detrimental to human health depending on the degree and type of saturation. Healthcare providers and research scientists monitor the fatty acid content of human plasma and serum as an indicator of health status and diet. In addition, both the Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC) and the National Institutes of Health - Office of Dietary Supplements are interested in circulating fatty acids (FAs) because they may be predictive of coronary heart disease...
February 13, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398571/turning-the-waiting-room-into-a-classroom-weekly-classes-using-a-vegan-or-a-portion-controlled-eating-plan-improve-diabetes-control-in-a-randomized-translational-study
#10
Neal D Barnard, Susan M Levin, Lise Gloede, Rosendo Flores
BACKGROUND: In research settings, plant-based (vegan) eating plans improve diabetes management, typically reducing weight, glycemia, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations to a greater extent than has been shown with portion-controlled eating plans. OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to test whether similar benefits could be found using weekly nutrition classes in a typical endocrinology practice, hypothesizing that a vegan eating plan would improve glycemic control, weight, lipid concentrations, blood pressure, and renal function and would do so more effectively than a portion-controlled eating plan...
February 1, 2018: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378583/associations-of-childhood-maternal-and-household-dietary-patterns-with-childhood-stunting-in-ethiopia-proposing-an-alternative-and-plausible-dietary-analysis-method-to-dietary-diversity-scores
#11
Yohannes Adama Melaku, Tiffany K Gill, Anne W Taylor, Robert Adams, Zumin Shi, Amare Worku
BACKGROUND: Identifying dietary patterns that consider the overall eating habits, rather than focusing on individual foods or simple counts of consumed foods, better helps to understand the combined effects of dietary components. Therefore, this study aimed to use dietary patterns, as an alternative method to dietary diversity scores (DDSs), and investigate their associations with childhood stunting in Ethiopia. METHODS: Mothers and their children aged under 5 years (n = 3788) were recruited using a two-stage random cluster sampling technique in two regions of Ethiopia...
January 29, 2018: Nutrition Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332583/eating-green-shining-light-on-the-use-of-dietary-phytochemicals-as-a-modern-approach-in-the-prevention-and-treatment-of-head-and-neck-cancers
#12
Linda L Eastham, Candace M Howard, Premalatha Balachandran, David S Pasco, Pier Paolo Claudio
Enthusiasm for the use of dietary bioactive compounds as chemopreventive agents and adjuvants for current therapies has increased laboratory research conducted on several types of cancers including Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC). The green chemoprevention movement is a modern approach to highlight healthy lifestyle changes that aim to decrease the incidence of HNSCC. A healthy diet can be an effective way to prevent the development of oral cancers. Discovery of the naturally occurring plant based compounds called phytochemicals has facilitated the development of new treatment strategies for patients that are at risk for, or have developed HNSCC...
January 12, 2018: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324841/honey-bee-apis-mellifera-nurses-do-not-consume-pollens-based-on-their-nutritional-quality
#13
Vanessa Corby-Harris, Lucy Snyder, Charlotte Meador, Trace Ayotte
Honey bee workers (Apis mellifera) consume a variety of pollens to meet the majority of their requirements for protein and lipids. Recent work indicates that honey bees prefer diets that reflect the proper ratio of nutrients necessary for optimal survival and homeostasis. This idea relies on the precept that honey bees evaluate the nutritional composition of the foods provided to them. While this has been shown in bumble bees, the data for honey bees are mixed. Further, there is controversy as to whether foragers can evaluate the nutritional value of pollens, especially if they do not consume it...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233181/why-they-eat-what-they-eat-patterns-of-wild-edible-plants-consumption-in-a-tribal-area-of-western-himalaya
#14
Deepika Thakur, Alpy Sharma, Sanjay Kr Uniyal
BACKGROUND: From time immemorial, wild plants have been used for edible purposes. They still continue to be a major source of nutrition for tribal people. However, unfortunately, their use is now declining. This has implications in food security, narrowing genetic base, and future leads. The present study was, therefore, carried out in Chhota Bhangal region of Western Himalaya to analyze uses of wild edible plants (WEP) and the motivations behind their use or abandonment. METHODS: Field surveys were conducted to the study area from January 2016 to March 2017...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200959/polyphenols-and-health-interactions-between-fibre-plant-polyphenols-and-the-gut-microbiota
#15
C A Edwards, J Havlik, W Cong, W Mullen, T Preston, D J Morrison, E Combet
A high-fibre diet and one rich in fruit and vegetables have long been associated with lower risk of chronic disease. There are several possible mechanisms underpinning these associations, but one likely important factor is the production of bioactive molecules from plant-based foods by the bacteria in the colon. This links to our growing understanding of the role of the gut microbiome in promoting health. Polyphenolic-rich plant foods have been associated with potential health effects in many studies, but the bioavailability of polyphenol compounds, as eaten, is often very low...
December 2017: Nutrition Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166141/adherence-to-the-wcrf-aicr-for-women-in-breast-cancer-adjuvant-treatment-submitted-to-educational-nutritional-intervention
#16
Sheyla de Liz, Francilene Gracieli Kunradi Vieira, Maria Alice Altenburg de Assis, Alyne Lizane Cardoso, Clarice Perucchi Lopes Pazini, Patricia Faria Di Pietro
Patients undergoing breast cancer treatment are susceptible to changes in eating behavior and nutrition status, thus making nutrition education relevant. Based on the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) guide, with recommendations for cancer prevention released in 2007, the present study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of educational nutritional intervention for women with breast cancer undergoing treatment while adhering to the 2007 WCRF/AICR guidelines. A nonrandomized clinical trial was conducted with a population composed of female patients, divided in intervention (IG, n = 18) and comparison (CG, n = 68) groups...
November 22, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071013/recommended-rice-intake-levels-based-on-average-daily-dose-and-urinary-excretion-of-cadmium-in-a-cadmium-contaminated-area-of-northwestern-thailand
#17
Aroon La-Up, Phongtape Wiwatanadate, Sakda Pruenglampoo, Sureeporn Uthaikhup
This study was performed to investigate the dose-response relationship between average daily cadmium dose (ADCD) from rice and the occurrence of urinary cadmium (U-Cd) in individuals eating that rice. This was a retrospective cohort designed to compare populations from two areas with different levels of cadmium contamination. Five-hundred and sixty-seven participants aged 18 years or older were interviewed to estimate their rice intake, and were assessed for U-Cd. The sources of consumed rice were sampled for cadmium measurement, from which the ADCD was estimated...
October 2017: Toxicological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070709/increased-protein-consumption-during-the-day-from-an-energy-restricted-diet-augments-satiety-but-does-not-reduce-daily-fat-or-carbohydrate-intake-on-a-free-living-test-day-in-overweight-women
#18
Jess A Gwin, Kevin C Maki, Heather J Leidy
Background: Higher-protein (HP) energy-restriction diets improve weight management to a greater extent than normal-protein (NP) versions. Potential mechanisms of action with regard to assessment of eating behaviors across the day have not been widely examined during energy restriction. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to test whether the consumption of an HP energy-restriction diet reduces carbohydrate and fat intakes through improvements in daily appetite, satiety, and food cravings compared with NP versions and to test whether protein type within the NP diets alters protein-related satiety...
December 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032907/pharmaceuticals-in-water-fish-and-osprey-nestlings-in-delaware-river-and-bay
#19
Thomas G Bean, Barnett A Rattner, Rebecca S Lazarus, Daniel D Day, S Rebekah Burket, Bryan W Brooks, Samuel P Haddad, William W Bowerman
Exposure of wildlife to Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs) is likely to occur but studies of risk are limited. One exposure pathway that has received attention is trophic transfer of APIs in a water-fish-osprey food chain. Samples of water, fish plasma and osprey plasma were collected from Delaware River and Bay, and analyzed for 21 APIs. Only 2 of 21 analytes exceeded method detection limits in osprey plasma (acetaminophen and diclofenac) with plasma levels typically 2-3 orders of magnitude below human therapeutic concentrations (HTC)...
January 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985601/a-risk-based-approach-for-developing-standards-for-irrigation-with-reclaimed-water
#20
Mads Troldborg, Dominic Duckett, Richard Allan, Emily Hastings, Rupert L Hough
A generalised quantitative risk assessment (QRA) is developed to assess the potential harm to human health resulting from irrigation with reclaimed water. The QRA is conducted as a backward calculation starting from a pre-defined acceptable risk level at the receptor point (defined as an annual infection risk of 10(-4) for pathogens and by reference doses (RfD) for chemical hazards) and results in an estimate of the corresponding acceptable concentration levels of the given hazards in the effluent. In this way the QRA is designed to inform the level of water treatment required to achieve an acceptable risk level and help establish reclaimed water quality standards...
December 1, 2017: Water Research
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