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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200959/polyphenols-and-health-interactions-between-fibre-plant-polyphenols-and-the-gut-microbiota
#1
C A Edwards, J Havlik, W Cong, W Mullen, T Preston, D J Morrison, E Combet
A high-fibre diet and one rich in fruit and vegetables have long been associated with lower risk of chronic disease. There are several possible mechanisms underpinning these associations, but one likely important factor is the production of bioactive molecules from plant-based foods by the bacteria in the colon. This links to our growing understanding of the role of the gut microbiome in promoting health. Polyphenolic-rich plant foods have been associated with potential health effects in many studies, but the bioavailability of polyphenol compounds, as eaten, is often very low...
December 2017: Nutrition Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166141/adherence-to-the-wcrf-aicr-for-women-in-breast-cancer-adjuvant-treatment-submitted-to-educational-nutritional-intervention
#2
Sheyla de Liz, Francilene Gracieli Kunradi Vieira, Maria Alice Altenburg de Assis, Alyne Lizane Cardoso, Clarice Perucchi Lopes Pazini, Patricia Faria Di Pietro
Patients undergoing breast cancer treatment are susceptible to changes in eating behavior and nutrition status, thus making nutrition education relevant. Based on the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) guide, with recommendations for cancer prevention released in 2007, the present study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of educational nutritional intervention for women with breast cancer undergoing treatment while adhering to the 2007 WCRF/AICR guidelines. A nonrandomized clinical trial was conducted with a population composed of female patients, divided in intervention (IG, n = 18) and comparison (CG, n = 68) groups...
November 22, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071013/recommended-rice-intake-levels-based-on-average-daily-dose-and-urinary-excretion-of-cadmium-in-a-cadmium-contaminated-area-of-northwestern-thailand
#3
Aroon La-Up, Phongtape Wiwatanadate, Sakda Pruenglampoo, Sureeporn Uthaikhup
This study was performed to investigate the dose-response relationship between average daily cadmium dose (ADCD) from rice and the occurrence of urinary cadmium (U-Cd) in individuals eating that rice. This was a retrospective cohort designed to compare populations from two areas with different levels of cadmium contamination. Five-hundred and sixty-seven participants aged 18 years or older were interviewed to estimate their rice intake, and were assessed for U-Cd. The sources of consumed rice were sampled for cadmium measurement, from which the ADCD was estimated...
October 2017: Toxicological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070709/increased-protein-consumption-during-the-day-from-an-energy-restricted-diet-augments-satiety-but-does-not-reduce-daily-fat-or-carbohydrate-intake-on-a-free-living-test-day-in-overweight-women
#4
Jess A Gwin, Kevin C Maki, Heather J Leidy
Background: Higher-protein (HP) energy-restriction diets improve weight management to a greater extent than normal-protein (NP) versions. Potential mechanisms of action with regard to assessment of eating behaviors across the day have not been widely examined during energy restriction.Objectives: The objectives of this study were to test whether the consumption of an HP energy-restriction diet reduces carbohydrate and fat intakes through improvements in daily appetite, satiety, and food cravings compared with NP versions and to test whether protein type within the NP diets alters protein-related satiety...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032907/pharmaceuticals-in-water-fish-and-osprey-nestlings-in-delaware-river-and-bay
#5
Thomas G Bean, Barnett A Rattner, Rebecca S Lazarus, Daniel D Day, S Rebekah Burket, Bryan W Brooks, Samuel P Haddad, William W Bowerman
Exposure of wildlife to Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs) is likely to occur but studies of risk are limited. One exposure pathway that has received attention is trophic transfer of APIs in a water-fish-osprey food chain. Samples of water, fish plasma and osprey plasma were collected from Delaware River and Bay, and analyzed for 21 APIs. Only 2 of 21 analytes exceeded method detection limits in osprey plasma (acetaminophen and diclofenac) with plasma levels typically 2-3 orders of magnitude below human therapeutic concentrations (HTC)...
October 9, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985601/a-risk-based-approach-for-developing-standards-for-irrigation-with-reclaimed-water
#6
Mads Troldborg, Dominic Duckett, Richard Allan, Emily Hastings, Rupert L Hough
A generalised quantitative risk assessment (QRA) is developed to assess the potential harm to human health resulting from irrigation with reclaimed water. The QRA is conducted as a backward calculation starting from a pre-defined acceptable risk level at the receptor point (defined as an annual infection risk of 10(-4) for pathogens and by reference doses (RfD) for chemical hazards) and results in an estimate of the corresponding acceptable concentration levels of the given hazards in the effluent. In this way the QRA is designed to inform the level of water treatment required to achieve an acceptable risk level and help establish reclaimed water quality standards...
December 1, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983192/the-role-of-polyphenols-in-modern-nutrition
#7
REVIEW
G Williamson
Polyphenols are found in plant-based foods and beverages, notably apples, berries, citrus fruit, plums, broccoli, cocoa, tea and coffee and many others. There is substantial epidemiological evidence that a diet high in polyphenol-rich fruit, vegetables, cocoa and beverages protects against developing cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. The absorption and metabolism of these compounds have been well described and, for many, the gut microbiota play a critical role in absorption; taking into consideration the parent compound and the metabolites from colon bacteria catabolism, more than 80% of a dose can be absorbed and ultimately excreted in the urine...
September 2017: Nutrition Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980207/soil-eaten-by-chacma-baboons-adsorbs-polar-plant-secondary-metabolites-representative-of-those-found-in-their-diet
#8
Chieu Anh Kim Ta, Paula A Pebsworth, Rui Liu, Stephen Hillier, Nia Gray, John T Arnason, Sera L Young
Geophagy, the deliberate consumption of earth materials, is common among humans and animals. However, its etiology and function(s) remain poorly understood. The major hypotheses about its adaptive functions are the supplementation of essential elements and the protection against temporary and chronic gastrointestinal (GI) distress. Because much less work has been done on the protection hypothesis, we investigated whether soil eaten by baboons protected their GI tract from plant secondary metabolites (PSMs) and described best laboratory practices for doing so...
October 4, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965176/influence-of-rice-pea-and-oat-proteins-in-attenuating-glycemic-response-of-sugar-sweetened-beverages
#9
Sze-Yen Tan, Phei Ching Siow, Elaine Peh, Christiani Jeyakumar Henry
PURPOSE: Liquids have higher ingestion and gastric-emptying rates, resulting in rapid glycemic response. They are also less satiating than solid foods. This study examined if the addition of plant proteins alter postprandial glucose, insulin, triglycerides, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), glycogen-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and appetitive responses to a sugar-sweetened beverage. METHODS: This was a randomized, crossover acute feeding study consisting of four treatments: chocolate beverage alone (50 g carbohydrate), or added with 24 g oat, pea or rice proteins...
September 30, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895501/nourishing-the-spirit-exploratory-research-on-ayahuasca-experiences-along-the-continuum-of-recovery-from-eating-disorders
#10
Adele Lafrance, Anja Loizaga-Velder, Jenna Fletcher, Marika Renelli, Natasha Files, Kenneth W Tupper
Eating disorders (EDs) are serious health conditions that are among the most difficult to treat. Innovative treatments are needed and modalities from across cultures must be considered. Ayahuasca is a psychoactive plant-based tea originally used by Amazonian indigenous groups. A growing body of research points to its promise in the healing of various mental health issues. This study explored the potential therapeutic value of ayahuasca in the context of EDs, including the perceived impact of the preparatory diet and the ayahuasca purge...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881466/a-hot-lunch-for-herbivores-physiological-effects-of-elevated-temperatures-on-mammalian-feeding-ecology
#11
Phillipa K Beale, Karen J Marsh, William J Foley, Ben D Moore
Mammals maintain specific body temperatures (Tb ) across a broad range of ambient temperatures. The energy required for thermoregulation ultimately comes from the diet, and so what animals eat is inextricably linked to thermoregulation. Endothermic herbivores must balance energy requirements and expenditure with complicated thermoregulatory challenges from changing thermal, nutritional and toxicological environments. In this review we provide evidence that plant-based diets can influence thermoregulation beyond the control of herbivores, and that this can render them susceptible to heat stress...
September 7, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813467/meat-consumption-reduction-in-italian-regions-health-co-benefits-and-decreases-in-ghg-emissions
#12
Sara Farchi, Manuela De Sario, Enrica Lapucci, Marina Davoli, Paola Michelozzi
INTRODUCTION: Animal agriculture has exponentially grown in recent decades in response to the rise in global demand for meat, even in countries like Italy that traditionally eat a Mediterranean, plant-based diet. Globalization related dietary changes are contributing to the epidemic of non-communicable diseases and to the global climate crisis, and are associated with huge carbon and water footprints. The objective of the study is to assess inequalities in health impacts and in attributable greenhouse gases-GHG emissions in Italy by hypothesizing different scenarios of reduction in red and processed meat consumption towards healthier consumption patterns more compliant with the recommendations of the Mediterranean food pyramid...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805668/locally-sustainable-school-lunch-intervention-improves-hemoglobin-and-hematocrit-levels-and-body-mass-index-among-elementary-schoolchildren-in-rural-west-java-indonesia
#13
Makiko Sekiyama, Katrin Roosita, Ryutaro Ohtsuka
School lunch is not provided in public elementary schools in Indonesia, and students frequently buy and eat snacks at school. We hypothesized that providing a traditional Sundanese meal as school lunch would be beneficial for children in rural West Java. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the effect of a 1-month school lunch intervention aiming at sustainability and based on children's nutritional intake, hemoglobin and hematocrit levels, and body mass index (BMI). A lunch (including rice, vegetable dish, animal protein dish, plant protein dish, and fruit) containing one-third of the recommended daily allowance of energy was offered every school day for 1 month, targeting 68 fourth-grade elementary schoolchildren...
August 12, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758285/effect-of-ozone-on-the-microbiological-status-of-five-dried-aromatic-plants
#14
Martha Kazi, Foteini F Parlapani, Ioannis S Boziaris, Evangelos K Vellios, Christos Lykas
BACKGROUND: Aromatic plants may be contaminated with a wide range of microorganisms making them a potential health hazard when infused or added in ready-to-eat meals. To ensure safety, the effect of gaseous ozone treatment on the population of aerobic plate counts (APC), hygienic indicators (Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp. and Enterobacteriaceae) and fungi was investigated for five dried aromatic plants; i.e. oregano, thyme, mountain tea, lemon verbena and chamomile. Selection, isolation, and further fungi identification were based on the phenotypic and macro and microscopic characteristics...
July 31, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732144/influence-of-high-latitude-light-conditions-on-sensory-quality-and-contents-of-health-and-sensory-related-compounds-in-swede-roots-brassica-napus-l-ssp-rapifera-metzg
#15
Jørgen A B Mølmann, Sidsel Fiskaa Hagen, Gunnar B Bengtsson, Tor J Johansen
BACKGROUND: Vegetable growers in Arctic areas usually must rely on market strategies based on regional origin and product quality. Swede roots (rutabaga) were grown in a phytotron to investigate the effect of high latitude light conditions on sensory quality and some health and sensory-related compounds. Experimental treatments included modifications of 24 h natural day length (69° 39' N), by moving plants at daily intervals to dark chambers with either no light, fluorescent growth light and/or low intensity photoperiod extension...
July 21, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630614/a-plant-based-diet-for-the-prevention-and-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes
#16
REVIEW
Michelle McMacken, Sapana Shah
The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is rising worldwide, especially in older adults. Diet and lifestyle, particularly plant-based diets, are effective tools for type 2 diabetes prevention and management. Plant-based diets are eating patterns that emphasize legumes, whole grains, vegetables, fruits, nuts, and seeds and discourage most or all animal products. Cohort studies strongly support the role of plant-based diets, and food and nutrient components of plant-based diets, in reducing the risk of type 2 diabetes...
May 2017: Journal of Geriatric Cardiology: JGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630613/strategies-for-practitioners-to-support-patients-in-plant-based-eating
#17
Micaela C Karlsen, Kathryn J Pollard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Journal of Geriatric Cardiology: JGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562678/comparison-of-three-nudge-interventions-priming-default-option-and-perceived-variety-to-promote-vegetable-consumption-in-a-self-service-buffet-setting
#18
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Rasmus Friis, Laurits Rohden Skov, Annemarie Olsen, Katherine Marie Appleton, Laure Saulais, Caterina Dinnella, Heather Hartwell, Laurence Depezay, Erminio Monteleone, Agnès Giboreau, Federico J A Perez-Cueto
BACKGROUND: Dietary choices in out-of-home eating are key for individual as well as for public health. These dietary choices are caused by a wide array of determinants, one of which is automatic decision-making. Nudging is attracting considerable interest due to its understanding and application of heuristic biases among consumers. The aim of this study is to test and compare three nudges in promoting vegetable consumption among test persons in a food lab-based experiment. METHODS: The initial sample consisted of 88 participants recruited in Copenhagen, Denmark...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544267/genetic-variation-within-species-and-haplotypes-of-the-wiseana-lepidoptera-hepialidae-complex-and-development-of-non-sequenced-based-identification-tools-to-aid-field-studies
#19
Nicola K Richards, Sarah Mansfield, Richard J Townsend, Colin M Ferguson
BACKGROUND: Porina is the common name used to describe moths and caterpillars of the seven endemic species and three haplotypes of Wiseana in New Zealand. Several species have adapted to eating introduced pasture plants; however, a paucity of defining morphological characteristics has meant that porina are grouped as indistinguishable species within a complex. This study aimed to develop non-sequencing identification methods for porina species. RESULTS: We sequenced 1718 bp of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase genes for all Wiseana species and haplotypes using 75 specimens collected from 42 sites throughout New Zealand...
November 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537331/diet-modeling-in-older-americans-the-impact-of-increasing-plant-based-foods-or-dairy-products-on-protein-intake
#20
J A Houchins, C J Cifelli, E Demmer, V L Fulgoni Iii
OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of increasing plant-based foods or dairy products on protein intake in older Americans by performing diet modeling. DESIGN: Data from What We Eat in America (WWEIA), the dietary component of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2007-2010 for Americans aged 51 years and older (n=5,389), divided as 51-70 years (n=3,513) and 71 years and older (n=1,876) were used. MEASUREMENTS: Usual protein intake was compared among three dietary models that increased intakes by 100%: (1) plant-based foods; (2) higher protein plant-based foods (i...
2017: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
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