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Plant based eating

John J B Anderson, David C Nieman
The Mediterranean diet is upheld in the 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines as an example of an eating pattern that promotes good health, a healthy body weight, and disease prevention throughout the lifespan. The Mediterranean eating pattern is based on a variety of unprocessed plant foods including fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, nuts, and seeds that are high in polyphenols. The majority of polyphenols arrive in the colon where bacteria degrade them into smaller phenolics that can be translocated via the portal vein to the liver...
October 14, 2016: Nutrients
Jenna B Gillen, Jorn Trommelen, Floris C Wardenaar, Naomi Y J Brinkmans, Joline J Versteegen, Kristin L Jonvik, Christoph Kapp, Jeanne de Vries, Joost J G C van den Borne, Martin J Gibala, Luc J C van Loon
Dietary protein intake should be optimized in all athletes to ensure proper recovery and enhance the skeletal muscle adaptive response to exercise training. In addition to total protein intake, the use of specific protein-containing food sources and the distribution of protein throughout the day are relevant for optimizing protein intake in athletes. In the present study, we examined the daily intake and distribution of various protein-containing food sources in a large cohort of strength, endurance and team-sport athletes...
October 6, 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Russell J de Souza, Michael A Zulyniak, Dipika Desai, Mateen R Shaikh, Natalie C Campbell, Diana L Lefebvre, Milan Gupta, Julie Wilson, Gita Wahi, Stephanie A Atkinson, Koon K Teo, Padmaja Subbarao, Allan B Becker, Piushkumar J Mandhane, Stuart E Turvey, Malcolm R Sears, Sonia S Anand
BACKGROUND: Canada is an ethnically diverse nation, which introduces challenges for health care providers tasked with providing evidence-based dietary advice. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to harmonize food-frequency questionnaires (FFQs) across 4 birth cohorts of ethnically diverse pregnant women to derive robust dietary patterns to investigate maternal and newborn outcomes. METHODS: The NutriGen Alliance comprises 4 prospective birth cohorts and includes 4880 Canadian mother-infant pairs of predominantly white European [CHILD (Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development) and FAMILY (Family Atherosclerosis Monitoring In earLY life)], South Asian [START (SouTh Asian birth cohoRT)-Canada], or Aboriginal [ABC (Aboriginal Birth Cohort)] origins...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
P Smith-Brown, M Morrison, L Krause, P S W Davies
The first 1000 days (conception to 24 months) is when gut microbiota composition and eating patterns are established, and a critical period influencing lifelong health. The aim of this study is to examine the associations between food intakes and microbiota composition at the end of this period. Diet was quantified for 37 well-nourished Australian children aged between 2 to 3 years by using a food frequency questionnaire and 24 hr recalls. Both dairy and plant-based (fruit, vegetables, soy, pulses and nuts) food intakes were associated with distinct microbiota profiles...
October 3, 2016: Scientific Reports
A C Hoek, D Pearson, S W James, M A Lawrence, S Friel
Internationally, there is increasing recognition of the importance of multilevel policies and actions that address healthy and environmentally friendly food behaviours. However it is not yet clear which actions are most suitable to support consumers to adopt both behaviours concurrently. To this end, we undertook a qualitative study to assess consumer perceptions, experiences and attitudes towards healthy and environmentally friendly foods and four target behaviours: reducing overconsumption of food beyond energy needs, reducing consumption of low-nutrient energy dense foods, eating less animal- and more plant-derived foods, and reducing food waste...
September 26, 2016: Appetite
Cinzia Germinario, Alfredo Caprioli, Mario Giordano, Maria Chironna, Maria Serena Gallone, Silvio Tafuri, Fabio Minelli, Antonella Maugliani, Valeria Michelacci, Luisa Santangelo, Onofrio Mongelli, Cosimo Montagna, Gaia Scavia
In summer 2013, an excess of paediatric cases of haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) in a southern region of Italy prompted the investigation of a community-wide outbreak of Shiga toxin 2-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O26:H11 infections. Case finding was based on testing patients with HUS or bloody diarrhoea for STEC infection by microbiological and serological methods. A case-control study was conducted to identify the source of the outbreak. STEC O26 infection was identified in 20 children (median age 17 months) with HUS, two of whom reported severe neurological sequelae...
September 22, 2016: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
Peter L Zock, Wendy A M Blom, Joyce A Nettleton, Gerard Hornstra
Dietary fats have important effects on the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Abundant evidence shows that partial replacement of saturated fatty acids (SAFA) with unsaturated fatty acids improves the blood lipid and lipoprotein profile and reduces the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Low-fat diets high in refined carbohydrates and sugar are not effective. Very long-chain polyunsaturated n-3 or omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 VLCPUFA) present in fish have multiple beneficial metabolic effects, and regular intake of fatty fish is associated with lower risks of fatal CHD and stroke...
November 2016: Current Cardiology Reports
Tess Pallister, Tim D Spector
Filling in the knowledge gaps between what we eat and the diseases we develop may lie in our guts, literally. The human large intestine houses the largest reservoir of microorganisms in or on the human body. With a 100-fold greater gene count than humans, the gut microbiome has huge potential to place a large metabolic burden (or advantage) on its host. The number of diverse gut microbial species is diminished in nearly all modern chronic conditions studied. The 'Western diet', rich in animal protein, fats and artificial additives, and lacking in fibre, beneficial microbes, plant phytochemicals, vitamins and minerals, is thought to drive these conditions by encouraging gut dysbiosis...
September 2016: Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine
Tonja R Nansel, Leah M Lipsky, Miriam H Eisenberg, Aiyi Liu, Sanjeev N Mehta, Lori M B Laffel
BACKGROUND: Although cost is a frequently cited barrier to healthful eating, limited prospective data exist. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of diet cost with diet quality change. DESIGN: An 18-month randomized clinical trial evaluated a dietary intervention. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: Youth with type 1 diabetes duration ≥1 year, age 8.0 to 16.9 years, receiving care at an outpatient tertiary diabetes center in Boston, MA, participated along with a parent from 2010 to 2013 (N=136)...
August 30, 2016: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
Gustavo Rodrigues Canale, Priscila Suscke, Larissa Rocha-Santos, Christine Steiner São Bernardo, Maria Cecília Martins Kierulff, David John Chivers
In the northern Atlantic Forest, hunting and habitat loss have eliminated most large mammals that disperse zoochoric fruits. Due to the decrease in populations of large seed dispersers, yellow-breasted capuchins (Sapajusxanthosternos) are currently one of the largest arboreal fruit-eating mammals in the region. During 26 months, we followed 14-25 capuchins aiming to (1) present data on their dietary ecology, (2) verify the conservation status of plants in the diet, and (3) determine distance and habitat of seed deposition based on gut retention time...
August 23, 2016: Folia Primatologica; International Journal of Primatology
Sayed Mohammad Ali Soroushzadeh, Ali Khiveh, Valiollah Gerayelimalek
BACKGROUND: In order to define appropriate plans for respiratory infectious diseases, in accordance with Iranian traditional medicine, one should cover the topic of "havae vabai". "Havae vabai" is related to the epidemics of respiratory infectious diseases. METHODS: This study is a review of the role of Iranian traditional medicine in the prevention of respiratory infectious diseases .Resources of traditional medicine with the keyword "havae vabai" were reviewed in Noor digital library...
May 2016: Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences
Karl von Koerber, Nadine Bader, Claus Leitzmann
'Wholesome Nutrition' is a concept of sustainable nutrition that was developed at the University of Giessen in the 1980s. In this concept, health and the ecologic, economic, social and cultural dimensions of nutrition are equally important. In 1992 at the UN-Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro the definition of 'Sustainable Development' comprised the dimensions environment, economy and society. Additionally to these three 'classical' dimensions of sustainability, we included 'health' as the fourth dimension because nutrition has far reaching effects on human health...
August 9, 2016: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Elaine E Guevara, Carrie C Veilleux, Kristin Saltonstall, Adalgisa Caccone, Nicholas I Mundy, Brenda J Bradley
OBJECTIVES: We explored whether variation in the sweet taste receptor protein T1R3 in primates could contribute to differences in sweet taste repertoire among species, potentially reflecting coevolution with local plants. Specifically, we examined which primates are likely to be sweet "tasters" of brazzein, a protein found in the fruit of the African plant Pentadiplandra brazzeana that tastes intensely sweet to humans, but provides little energy. Sweet proteins like brazzein are thought to mimic the taste of sugars to entice seed dispersers...
September 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Pan Xi, Rui Hai Liu
Diet is intimately associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Recently, attention has focused on the contributions of individual nutrients, food groups and eating patterns to the outcome of T2D. High consumption of coffee, whole grains, fruits and vegetables, and nuts are each independently associated with the reduced risk of T2D in high risk, glucose intolerant individuals. Experimental and clinical trials have given insight to the diverse mechanisms that may be responsible for the observed protective effects of certain foods on T2D, including nutrients, phytochemicals and dietary fiber, weight control, enhanced satiety and improvement in glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in diabetic patients...
August 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Xi Sun, Li-Fu Wang, Ying Feng, Hui Xie, Xiao-Ying Zheng, Ai He, Md Robiul Karim, Zhi-Yue Lv, Zhong-Dao Wu
BACKGROUND: Canthariasis is a disease of humans caused by the infestation of beetle larvae. It is the second important insectal disease after myiasis. Several species of beetles are reported to cause the disease in gastrointestinal tract, urogenital system, nasal sinuses, ears and faces of mammals. The cigarette beetle Lasioderma serricorne is a widespread and destructive pest that usually feeds on tobacco, tea, beans, cereal grains, and animal and plant specimen. While there was no previous evidence of human infestation by this worm, we report the first case of L...
2016: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
D Kromhout, C J K Spaaij, J de Goede, R M Weggemans
The objective of this study was to derive food-based dietary guidelines for the Dutch population. The dietary guidelines are based on 29 systematic reviews of English language meta-analyses in PubMed summarizing randomized controlled trials and prospective cohort studies on nutrients, foods and food patterns and the risk of 10 major chronic diseases: coronary heart disease, stroke, heart failure, diabetes, breast cancer, colorectal cancer, lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, dementia and depression...
August 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Marco Springmann, H Charles J Godfray, Mike Rayner, Peter Scarborough
What we eat greatly influences our personal health and the environment we all share. Recent analyses have highlighted the likely dual health and environmental benefits of reducing the fraction of animal-sourced foods in our diets. Here, we couple for the first time, to our knowledge, a region-specific global health model based on dietary and weight-related risk factors with emissions accounting and economic valuation modules to quantify the linked health and environmental consequences of dietary changes. We find that the impacts of dietary changes toward less meat and more plant-based diets vary greatly among regions...
April 12, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Antigone Kouris-Blazos, Regina Belski
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The 68th United Nations General Assembly declared 2016 the International Year of Pulses. Therefore it is timely to review the current evidence of the benefits of legumes for human health with a focus on Australian sweet lupins. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Medline, Pubmed, Cochrane library were searched to identify cross-sectional/epidemiological studies, randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and systematic reviews. RESULTS: The strongest evidence appears to be for links between eating legumes and reduced risk of colorectal cancer as well as eating soy foods and reduced LDL cholesterol...
2016: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Annukka Vainio, Mari Niva, Piia Jallinoja, Terhi Latvala
A better understanding of the motives underlying the adoption of sustainable and healthy diets is needed for designing more effective policies. The aim of the study was to examine how eating motives were associated with self-reported changes in the consumption of beef, beans, and soy products, i.e., changes related to reducing animal and increasing plant proteins. The study analysed a survey of an adult population living in Finland (N = 1048). The eating motives were measured with the Eating Motivation Survey (TEMS), which distinguishes between 15 eating motives...
November 1, 2016: Appetite
Carlos A Villarroel, Wim Jonckheere, Juan M Alba, Joris J Glas, Wannes Dermauw, Michel A Haring, Thomas Van Leeuwen, Robert C Schuurink, Merijn R Kant
Spider mites (Tetranychidae sp.) are widely occurring arthropod pests on cultivated plants. Feeding by the two-spotted spider mite T. urticae, a generalist herbivore, induces a defense response in plants that mainly depends on the phytohormones jasmonic acid and salicylic acid (SA). On tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), however, certain genotypes of T. urticae and the specialist species T. evansi were found to suppress these defenses. This phenomenon occurs downstream of phytohormone accumulation via an unknown mechanism...
April 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
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