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Haffiezhah A Azlan, Paul G Overton, Jane Simpson, Philip A Powell
The aim of this study was to explore quantitatively the relationship between disgust responses in cancer patients and their partners, and in turn their relationship to patients' psychological well-being. We recruited 50 participants with heterogeneous cancer diagnoses and their partners from cancer-related groups (e.g., charities). Patients completed questionnaires to determine levels of disgust propensity, disgust sensitivity, self-disgust, and symptoms of anxiety and depression. Disgust propensity and sensitivity were also assessed in their partners...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings
Lara Palmeira, José Pinto-Gouveia, Marina Cunha
This study explores the relationship between self-disgust and eating psychopathology and whether self-compassion plays a mediator role on this relationship. Participants were 203 adults, from both genders, with overweight and obesity ( MBMI = 31.17, standard deviation = 5.43). Women reported higher levels of self-disgust and eating psychopathology and lower levels of self-compassion than men. Path analysis results suggested that the effect of self-disgust on eating psychopathology occurred partially through one's inability to be self-compassionate...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Health Psychology
Katie Bell, Helen Coulthard, Diane Wildbur
This study aimed to assess the relationship between self-disgust and sensory processing within eating psychopathology. Five hundred and ninety-one women with a self-reported diagnosis of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa or who had no previous history of an eating disorder completed a battery of online questionnaires measuring disgust, emotion and sensory variables. Those with an eating disorder reported significantly higher rates of self-disgust than those with no history of disordered eating. In groups of women with self-reported bulimia, self-disgust was associated with sensation avoidance and sensation seeking...
September 2017: European Eating Disorders Review: the Journal of the Eating Disorders Association
Rottraut Ille, Axel Wolf, Peter Valentin Tomazic, Anne Schienle
Reduced olfactory function is associated with altered trait disgust in men. This study sought to determine whether hyposmic women show similar changes in disgust responsiveness. We compared patients with hyposmia (25 men, 23 women) and 50 normosmic individuals (25 men, 25 women) with regard to their tendency to experience disgust across different disgust domains (disgust proneness), their self-disgust and their tendency to perceive their own disgust feelings as difficult to control and embarrassing (disgust sensitivity)...
July 1, 2017: Chemical Senses
Dorina Winter, Martin Bohus, Stefanie Lis
Self-conscious emotions, such as guilt, shame, or self-disgust, as well as self-related motives, such as self-enhancement or self-verification, influence how people perceive, evaluate, memorize, and respond to self-related information. They not only influence peoples' concepts of themselves but may also affect their behavior in social environments. In the current review, we describe alterations of self-related processing in borderline personality disorder (BPD). We chose BPD as an example of a mental disorder of which impairments in self-functioning and identity constitute a major feature...
March 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
C Alex Brake, Sasha M Rojas, Christal L Badour, Courtney E Dutton, Matthew T Feldner
Suicide risk is highly prevalent among individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Self-disgust, defined as disgust directed internally and comprised of disgust with oneself (disgusting self) and with one's behaviors (disgusting ways), may impact this increased risk. The present study examined self-disgust as a putative mechanism linking PTSD symptoms with suicide risk. A sample of 347 trauma-exposed undergraduates completed measures of PTSD symptoms, suicide risk, self-disgust, and depressive symptoms...
April 2017: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Haffiezhah A Azlan, Paul G Overton, Jane Simpson, Philip A Powell
OBJECTIVES: Evidence suggests that disgust responses, known to negatively affect psychological wellbeing, may differ in people with cancer. We performed the first quantitative investigation of three discrete types of disgust trait - disgust propensity, sensitivity and self-directed disgust - in people diagnosed with a broad range of cancers (versus cancer-free controls), and explored their associations with psychological wellbeing. DESIGN: In a cross-sectional survey design, 107 participants with heterogeneous cancer diagnoses, recruited from cancer charities and support groups, were matched with cancer-free controls by age and gender...
January 2017: Psychology & Health
Verena Leutgeb, Mario Leitner, Doris Klug, Anne Schienle
Intrusion into one's own personal space (PS) elicits discomfort. This is especially true when the intruder's facial mimicry expresses disgust or anger. Although it is known that the affective context influences PS processing, this has not been investigated in violent offenders. We presented images of affective facial expressions (i.e., anger, disgust, neutral) of men and women to violent offenders and nonoffenders. All images were shown twice-once as nonanimated photos and a second time as expanding (i.e., appearing to approach the participant)...
December 2017: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
Philip A Powell, Haffiezhah A Azlan, Jane Simpson, Paul G Overton
As maladaptive disgust responses are linked to mental health problems, and cancer patients may experience heightened disgust as a result of treatments they receive, we explored the associations between disgust-related side-effects and symptoms of depression and anxiety in people treated for cancer. One hundred and thirty two (83 women, M age = 57.48 years) participants answered questions about their treatments, side-effects, disgust responding, and mental health. Experiencing bowel and/or bladder problems, sickness and/or nausea (referred to here as "core" disgust-related side-effects) was significantly related to greater symptoms of depression and borderline increased anxiety...
August 2016: Journal of Behavioral Medicine
Rottraut Ille, Axel Wolf, Peter Valentin Tomazic, Anne Schienle
Individuals differ in disgust-related personality traits, such as disgust proneness (DP: tendency to experience disgust), disgust sensitivity (DS: tendency to perceive one's own disgust experiences as difficult to control), and self-disgust (SD: strong dislike/aversion of yourself). Olfaction is one crucial input for the disgust system. The present study investigated disgust dispositions in individuals with persistent olfactory dysfunction. We studied 16 male patients with anosmia, 20 patients with hyposmia, and 20 normosmic men, and compared DP, DS, and SD scores between the groups...
June 2016: Chemical Senses
Stephanie E Bachtelle, Carolyn M Pepper
The psychological meaning of scars from nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) has been examined in case studies, but descriptive studies are needed to better understand the meaning of NSSI scars. College students with NSSI scars (n = 49) completed questionnaires concerning the interpretive meaning of their scars, emotions associated with their scars, and clinical symptoms. Levels of scar-related growth were positively correlated with interpersonal functions of NSSI (e.g., autonomy, self-care) and negatively correlated with likelihood of future self-injury, self-disgust, self-injury regret, and self-injury scar regret...
December 2015: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
A J Laffan, J F A Millar, P M Salkovskis, P Whitby
OBJECTIVES: As people become increasingly physically dependent as they make the transition into older age, they may lose the ability to control bodily functions. Problems with eating, voiding and washing can be linked with feelings of disgust and, given the necessity for some of being assisted with intimate care activities, it has been suggested that self-focused disgust and concerns over the disgust of others may become important preoccupations in older people, with the potential to further impair their quality of life...
February 2017: Aging & Mental Health
Roland Zahn, Karen E Lythe, Jennifer A Gethin, Sophie Green, John F William Deakin, Allan H Young, Jorge Moll
BACKGROUND: Cognitive models predict that vulnerability to major depressive disorder (MDD) is due to a bias to blame oneself for failure in a global way resulting in excessive self-blaming emotions, decreased self-worth, hopelessness and depressed mood. Clinical studies comparing the consistency and coherence of these symptoms in order to probe the predictions of the model are lacking. METHODS: 132 patients with remitted MDD and no relevant lifetime co-morbid axis-I disorders were assessed using a phenomenological psychopathology-based interview (AMDP) including novel items to assess moral emotions (n=94 patients) and the structured clinical interview-I for DSM-IV-TR...
November 1, 2015: Journal of Affective Disorders
Gonzalo Arrondo, Graham K Murray, Emma Hill, Bence Szalma, Krishna Yathiraj, Chess Denman, Robert B Dudas
Depression and borderline personality disorder (BPD) are both thought to be accompanied by alterations in the subjective experience of environmental rewards. We evaluated responses in women to sweet, bitter and neutral tastes (juice, quinine and water): 29 with depression, 17 with BPD and 27 healthy controls. The BPD group gave lower pleasantness and higher disgust ratings for quinine and juice compared with the control group; the depression group did not differ significantly from the control group. Juice disgust ratings were related to self-disgust in BPD, suggesting close links between abnormal sensory processing and self-identity in BPD...
July 2015: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
Anne Schienle, Verena Leutgeb, Albert Wabnegger
The majority of morphometric studies on borderline personality disorder (BPD) found that diagnosed patients have a reduced amygdala volume. We sought to extend this finding by focusing on amygdala subdivisions (centromedial, laterobasal, superficial) and their association with symptom severity and disgust-related traits. Additional disorder-/disgust-relevant regions (insula, somatosensory cortex) were also investigated. We compared structural imaging data from 25 female BPD patients and 25 healthy women via voxel-based morphometry...
June 30, 2015: Psychiatry Research
Anne Schienle, Albert Wabnegger, Florian Schöngassner, Verena Leutgeb
The amygdala and the parietal cortex play a key role in the neural representation of personal space. Although the concept of personal space is clinically very relevant for borderline personality disorder (BPD), especially in affective contexts, it has not been investigated thus far with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In this fMRI study, 25 female BPD patients and 25 healthy women were exposed to photos of angry, disgusted and neutral facial expressions. All stimuli were once shown as still photos, and once were zoomed-in in order to simulate intrusion into one's own personal space...
October 2015: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Philip A Powell, Jane Simpson, Paul G Overton
In two studies, self-affirming the behavioral trait of kindness was examined as a method of regulating state disgust toward one's physical appearance. In Study 1, 56 participants (37 women, 19 men, Mage=33.16 years) completed either a questionnaire designed to self-affirm kindness or a control equivalent and rated their disgust, anger, sadness, and happiness toward their appearance and behavior. In Study 2, 116 individuals (83 women, 33 men, Mage=24.90 years) participated in the same experiment over the internet in an ecologically valid context...
January 2015: Body Image
Cristiana Duarte, José Pinto-Gouveia, Cláudia Ferreira
Shame has been highlighted as a key component of eating psychopathology. However, the specific impact of body image shame on binge eating and the mechanisms through which it operates remained unexplored. The current study tests a model examining the role that body image shame plays in binge eating and the mediator effect of self-criticism on this association, while controlling for the effect of depressive symptoms, in 329 women from the general population and college students. Correlation analyses showed that binge eating is positively associated with depressive symptoms, body image shame, and self-criticism, namely with a more severe form of self-criticism characterized by self-disgust, hating and wanting to hurt the self - hated self...
December 2014: Eating Behaviors
Bunmi O Olatunji
The present study examined the extent to which engagement in health-related behaviours modulate disgust propensity, a purportedly stable personality trait. Participants were randomised into a health behaviour (n = 30) or control condition (n = 30). After a baseline period, participants in the health behaviour condition spent one week actively engaging in a clinically representative array of health-related behaviours on a daily basis, followed by a second week-long baseline period. Participants in the control condition monitored their normal use of health behaviours...
2015: Cognition & Emotion
Noelle B Smith, Ashton M Steele, Meara L Weitzman, Ana F Trueba, Alicia E Meuret
Self-directed disgust, a component of self-criticism, may present an important, yet unexplored emotion in the context of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI). The aim of this study was to examine the role of self-disgust in NSSI, specifically as a potential mediator in the relations between depression and NSSI as well as sexual abuse and NSSI, and to also better understand characteristics that might differentiate recent and past self-injurers. A total of 549 college students completed measures assessing NSSI, self-disgust, depression, anxiety sensitivity, and physical and sexual abuse...
2015: Archives of Suicide Research: Official Journal of the International Academy for Suicide Research
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