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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231078/effects-of-aerobic-exercise-training-on-ace-and-adrb2-gene-expression-plasma-angiotensin-ii-level-and-flow-mediated-dilation-a-study-on-obese-postmenopausal-women-with-prehypertension
#1
Noushin Azadpour, Bakhtyar Tartibian, Şükran Nazan Koşar
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of 10 weeks of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise training (MIET) on blood pressure (BP), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and β2-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) gene expression in leukocytes, plasma angiotensin II (Ang II), and flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in obese postmenopausal women (PMW) with prehypertension. METHODS: Twenty-four obese prehypertensive PMW (aged 50-70 y; body mass index ≥30 kg/m) randomly assigned to control (n = 12) and exercise (n = 12) groups...
March 2017: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230765/metabolic-effects-of-glucose-fructose-co-ingestion-compared-to-glucose-alone-during-exercise-in-type-1-diabetes
#2
Lia Bally, Patrick Kempf, Thomas Zueger, Christian Speck, Nicola Pasi, Carlos Ciller, Katrin Feller, Hannah Loher, Robin Rosset, Matthias Wilhelm, Chris Boesch, Tania Buehler, Ayse S Dokumaci, Luc Tappy, Christoph Stettler
This paper aims to compare the metabolic effects of glucose-fructose co-ingestion (GLUFRU) with glucose alone (GLU) in exercising individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Fifteen male individuals with type 1 diabetes (HbA1c 7.0% ± 0.6% (53 ± 7 mmol/mol)) underwent a 90 min iso-energetic continuous cycling session at 50% VO2max while ingesting combined glucose-fructose (GLUFRU) or glucose alone (GLU) to maintain stable glycaemia without insulin adjustment. GLUFRU and GLU were labelled with (13)C-fructose and (13)C-glucose, respectively...
February 21, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230530/developing-a-multi-component-immune-model-for-evaluating-the-risk-of-respiratory-illness-in-athletes
#3
Maree Gleeson, David B Pyne, Lisa J Elkington, Sharron T Hall, John R Attia, Christopher Oldmeadow, Lisa G Wood, Robin Callister
Clinical and laboratory identification of the underlying risk of respiratory illness in athletes has proved problematic. The aim of this study was to determine whether clinical data, combined with immune responses to standardised exercise protocols and genetic cytokine polymorphism status, could identify the risk of respiratory illness (symptoms) in a cohort of highly-trained athletes. Male endurance athletes (n=16; VO2max 66.5 ± 5.1 mL.kg-1.min-1) underwent a clinical evaluation of known risk factors by a physician and comprehensive laboratory analysis of immune responses both at rest and after two cycling ergometer tests: 60 min at 65% VO2max (LONG); and 6 x 3 min intervals at 90% VO2max (INTENSE)...
2017: Exercise Immunology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229643/vestpd-as-a-measure-of-ventilatory-acclimatization-to-hypobaric-hypoxia
#4
J A Loeppky, A C Sheard, R M Salgado, C M Mermier
This study compared the ventilation response to an incremental ergometer exercise at two altitudes: 633 mmHg (resident altitude = 1,600 m) and following acute decompression to 455 mmHg (≈4,350 m altitude) in eight male cyclists and runners. At 455 mmHg, the VESTPD at RER <1.0 was significantly lower and the VEBTPS was higher because of higher breathing frequency; at VO2max, both VESTPD and VEBTPS were not significantly different. As percent of VO2max, the VEBTPS was nearly identical and VESTPD was 30% lower throughout the exercise at 455 mmHg...
September 2016: Physiol Int
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229577/maximal-aerobic-capacity-can-be-increased-by-enhancing-performers-expectancies
#5
Jeff Montes, Gabriele Wulf, James W Navalta
BACKGROUND: Maximum aerobic capacity (VO2max) is widely accepted as the best measure of cardiovascular fitness and aerobic power. The present study investigated whether enhancing participants' performance expectancies through positive social-comparative feedback would increase VO2max. METHODS: Participants were experienced runners who regularly ran for exercise or competitively. All participants completed two VO2max tests within a 2-week period at similar times of the day...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228584/high-cardiorespiratory-fitness-in-early-to-late-middle-age-preserves-the-cortical-circuitry-associated-with-brain-heart-integration-during-volitional-exercise
#6
Katelyn N Wood, Torri A Luchyshyn, J Kevin Shoemaker
This study tested the hypothesis that high cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max) preserves the cortical circuitry associated with cardiac arousal during exercise in middle to older-aged individuals. Observations of changes in heart rate (HR) and in cortical blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) images were made in 52 healthy, active individuals (45-73 years; 16 female) across a range of fitness (26-66mL/kg/min). Seven repeated bouts of isometric handgrip (IHG) at 40% MVC force were performed using functional magnetic resonance imaging at 3-Tesla, with each contraction lasting 20 sec and separated by 40 sec of rest...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212390/lack-of-effects-of-fish-oil-supplementation-for-12-weeks-on-resting-metabolic-rate-and-substrate-oxidation-in-healthy-young-men-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
Sebastian Jannas-Vela, Kaitlin Roke, Stephanie Boville, David M Mutch, Lawrence L Spriet
: Fish oil (FO) has been shown to have beneficial effects in the body via incorporation into the membranes of many tissues. It has been proposed that omega-3 fatty acids in FO may increase whole body resting metabolic rate (RMR) and fatty acid (FA) oxidation in human subjects, but the results to date are equivocal. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a 12 week FO supplementation period on RMR and substrate oxidation, in comparison to an olive oil (OO) control group, in young healthy males (n = 26; 22...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204901/the-effect-of-hydration-status-on-the-measurement-of-lean-tissue-mass-by-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry
#8
Clodagh M Toomey, William G McCormack, Phil Jakeman
PURPOSE: Athletes cycle between exercise and recovery. Exercise invokes changes in total body water from thermal sweating, muscle and hepatic glycogen depletion and metabolic water loss. Recovery from exercise results in rehydration, substrate repletion, and possible glycogen supercompensation. Such changes may corrupt the measurement of hydrated tissues, such as lean tissue mass (LTM), by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of exercise and thermal dehydration and subsequent glycogen supercompensation on DXA-based measurement of body composition...
February 16, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199991/left-ventricular-longitudinal-strain-in-soccer-referees
#9
Luigi Gianturco, Bruno Bodini, Vincenzo Gianturco, Giuseppina Lippo, Agnese Solbiati, Maurizio Turiel
Along the years, the analysis of soccer referees perfomance has interested the experts and we can find several types of studies in literature using in particular cardiac imaging. The aim of this retrospective study was to observe relationship between VO2max uptake and some conventional and not-conventional echocardiographic parameters. In order to perform this evaluation, we have enrolled 20 referees, belonging to Italian Soccer Referees' Association and we have investigated cardiovascular profile of them. We found a strong direct relationship between VO2max and global longitudinal strain of left ventricle assessed by means of speckle tracking echocardiographic analysis (R2=0...
February 9, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194734/physical-and-physiological-profiles-of-brazilian-jiu-jitsu-athletes-a-systematic-review
#10
REVIEW
Leonardo Vidal Andreato, Francisco Javier Díaz Lara, Alexandro Andrade, Braulio Henrique Magnani Branco
BACKGROUND: Brazilian jiu-jitsu is a grappling combat sport that has intermittency as its core element; in other words, actions of high, moderate and low intensity are interspersed during matches, requiring a high level of conditioning to support optimal levels of performance for the total match time. The athletes perform from four to six matches during a day of competition, and this number may increase if the open-class competition, which is held parallel to the competition by weight class, is considered...
December 2017: Sports Medicine—Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192512/explosive-strength-and-endurance-adaptations-in-young-elite-soccer-players-during-two-soccer-seasons
#11
Riccardo Di Giminiani, Christiano Visca
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the explosive strength and endurance adaptations in young elite soccer players who underwent a supervised training program for a period of two years. Nineteen players, with seven years of training experience (age: 13.3 ± 0.1 years; body weight: 57.9 ± 4.9 kg; height: 168.9 ± 4.7 cm; BMI: 20.1 ± 1.1 kg/m2), voluntarily participated in the present study. The testing sessions were performed at the beginning of the preparation period in the first (T1), second (T2), and third year (T3)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190999/higher-drop-in-speed-during-a-repeated-sprint-test-in-soccer-players-reporting-former-hamstring-strain-injury
#12
Ola D Røksund, Morten Kristoffersen, Bård E Bogen, Alexander Wisnes, Merete S Engeseth, Ann-Kristin Nilsen, Vegard V Iversen, Silje Mæland, Hilde Gundersen
Aim: Hamstring strain injury is common in soccer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physical capacity of players who have and have not suffered from hamstring strain injury in a sample of semi-professional and professional Norwegian soccer players in order to evaluate characteristics and to identify possible indications of insufficient rehabilitation. Method: Seventy-five semi-professional and professional soccer players (19 ± 3 years) playing at the second and third level in the Norwegian league participated in the study...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187744/medication-use-by-middle-aged-and-older-participants-of-an-exercise-study-results-from-the-brain-in-motion-study
#13
Tania Pannu, Sarah Sharkey, Grazyna Burek, Daniela Cretu, Michael D Hill, David B Hogan, Marc J Poulin
BACKGROUND: Over the past 50 years, there has been an increase in the utilization of prescribed, over-the-counter (OTC) medications, and natural health products. Although it is known that medication use is common among older persons, accurate data on the patterns of use, including the quantity and type of medications consumed in a generally healthy older population from a Canadian perspective are lacking. In this study, we study the pattern of medication use in a sedentary but otherwise healthy older persons use and determined if there was an association between medication use and aerobic fitness level...
February 10, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181838/physical-activity-questionnaires-do-not-accurately-estimate-fitness-in-older-women
#14
Aurora de Fátima Cabral, Marcelo M Pinheiro, Charlles Hm Castro, Marco Túlio de Mello, Sergio Tufik, Vera L Szejnfeld
OBJECTIVE: To compare the performance of International Physical Activity Questionnaire - IPAQ and Baecke questionnaire to estimate maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) in healthy older women. METHODS: One hundred healthy women aged 60 years and older answered the IPAQ and Baecke questionnaires and underwent cardiopulmonary exercise test. Six-minute walk (6MWT), Timed up and go (TUG) and handgrip strength test (HST) were also performed. RESULTS: Mean age and body mass index were 68...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Aging and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179068/the-effect-of-acute-and-short-term-glucocorticoid-administration-on-exercise-capacity-and-metabolism
#15
REVIEW
Alexander Tacey, Lewan Parker, Andrew Garnham, Tara C Brennan-Speranza, Itamar Levinger
OBJECTIVES: Glucocorticoids (GC) are commonly used in the treatment of inflammatory conditions. Chronic GC administration has severe side effects that can decrease exercise capacity and, as a result performance. The side effects of acute (single dose) and short term (<7 days) GC administration are less severe, therefore the impact on exercise performance is unclear. Consequently, it is of interest to determine the influence of acute and short term GC administration on exercise capacity and performance and investigate the relationship with metabolism...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177737/peak-oxygen-uptake-in-a-sprint-interval-testing-protocol-vs-maximal-oxygen-uptake-in-an-incremental-testing-protocol-and-their-relationship-with-cross-country-mountain-biking-performance
#16
Rafał Hebisz, Paulina Hebisz, Marek Zatoń, Kamil Michalik
The literature finds that the exercise capacity of cyclists is typically assessed using incremental and endurance exercise tests. The aim of the present study was to confirm whether peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) attained in a sprint interval testing protocol correlated with cycling performance and whether it corresponds to maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) determined by an incremental testing protocol. A sample of 28 trained mountain bike cyclists executed three performance tests: a) incremental testing protocol (ITP) in which the participant cycled to volitional exhaustion, b) sprint interval testing protocol (SITP) composed of four 30-s maximal intensity cycling bouts interspersed with 90-s recovery periods, c) competition in a simulated MTB race...
December 12, 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177732/determination-of-the-exercise-intensity-that-elicits-maximal-fat-oxidation-in-individuals-with-obesity
#17
Sune Dandanell, Charlotte Boslev Præst, Stine Dam Søndergård, Camilla Skovborg, Flemming Dela, Steen Larsen, Jørn Wulff Helge
Maximal fat oxidation (MFO) and the exercise intensity that elicits MFO (FatMax) are commonly determined by indirect calorimetry during graded exercise tests in both obese and normal weight individuals. However, no protocol has been validated in individuals with obesity. Thus, the aims were to develop a graded exercise protocol for determination of FatMax in individuals with obesity, and to test validity and inter-method reliability. Fat oxidation was assessed over a range of exercise intensities in 16 individuals (Age: 28 (26-29) years, BMI: 36 (35-38) kg m-2) (95%CI) on a cycle ergometer...
December 19, 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177715/gut-training-the-impact-of-two-weeks-repetitive-gut-challenge-during-exercise-on-gastrointestinal-status-glucose-availability-fuel-kinetics-and-running-performance
#18
Ricardo J S Costa, Atlanta Miall, Anthony Khoo, Christopher Rauch, Rhiannon Snipe, Vera Camões-Costa, Peter Gibson
BACKGROUND: Due to gastrointestinal tract adaptability, the study aimed to determine the impact of two weeks gut-training protocol over two weeks on gastrointestinal status, blood glucose availability, fuel kinetics, and running performance. METHODS: Endurance runners (n= 25) performed a gut-challenge trial (GC1), comprising of 2 h running exercise at 60% VO2max whilst consuming gel-discs containing 30 g carbohydrates (2:1 glucose-fructose, 10% w/v) every 20 min, and a 1 h distance test...
January 19, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169958/cardiorespiratory-function-does-not-improve-two-years-after-posterior-surgical-correction-of-adolescent-idiopathic-scoliosis
#19
Alejandro Lorente, Carlos Barrios, Jesús Burgos, Eduardo Hevia, Luis Fernández-Pineda, Rafael Lorente, Bárbara Rosa, Cristina Pérez-Encinas
STUDY DESIGN: A prospective evaluation of cardiorespiratory function following spinal fusion in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the cardiopulmonary function during exercise in patients with severe AIS, before and two years after undergoing a posterior spinal fusion. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: After surgical correction of scoliosis, a greater cardiorespiratory adaptation to exercise would be expected from correction of the rib cage associated with the spine deformity...
February 6, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160083/high-intensity-aerobic-interval-training-improves-aerobic-fitness-and-hba1c-among-persons-diagnosed-with-type-2-diabetes
#20
Eva Maria Støa, Sondre Meling, Lill-Katrin Nyhus, Glenn Strømstad, Karl Magnus Mangerud, Jan Helgerud, Solfrid Bratland-Sanda, Øyvind Støren
PURPOSE: It remains to be established how high-intensity aerobic interval training (HAIT) affects risk factors associated with type 2 diabetes (TD2). This study investigated effects of HAIT on maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), glycated Hemoglobin type A1C (HbA1c), insulin resistance (IR), fat oxidation (FatOx), body weight (BW), percent body fat (%BF), lactate threshold (LT), blood pressure (BP), and blood lipid profile (BLP) among persons with T2D. Results were compared to the effects after a moderate-intensity training (MIT) program...
February 3, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
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