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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434550/select-skeletal-muscle-mrnas-related-to-exercise-adaptation-are-minimally-affected-by-different-pre-exercise-meals-that-differ-in-macronutrient-profile
#1
Pim Knuiman, Maria T E Hopman, Jeroen A Wouters, Marco Mensink
Background: Substantial research has been done on the impact of carbohydrate and fat availability on endurance exercise adaptation, though its role in the acute adaptive response to resistance exercise has yet to be fully characterized. Purpose: We aimed to assess the effects of a pre-resistance exercise isocaloric mixed meal containing different amounts of carbohydrates and fat, on post-resistance exercise gene expression associated with muscle adaptation. Methods: Thirteen young (age 21.2 ± 1.6 year), recreationally trained (VO2max 51...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431478/high-intensity-interval-training-improves-inflammatory-and-adipokine-profiles-in-postmenopausal-women-with-metabolic-syndrome
#2
Flávia Mariel Steckling, Juliano Boufleur Farinha, Felipe da Cunha Figueiredo, Daniela Lopes Dos Santos, Guilherme Bresciani, Nélson Alexandre Kretzmann, Sílvio Terra Stefanello, Aline Alves Courtes, Maristela de Oliveira Beck, Manuela Sangoi Cardoso, Marta Maria Medeiros Frescura Duarte, Rafael Noal Moresco, Félix Alexandre Antunes Soares
This study investigate the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on systemic levels of inflammatory and hormonal markers in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome (MS). Fifteen postmenopausal women with MS completed the training on treadmills. Functional, body composition parameters, maximal oxygen uptake (VO 2 max), and lipid profile were assessed before and after HIIT. Serum or plasma levels of cytokines and hormonal markers were measured along the intervention. The analysis of messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of these cytokines was performed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC)...
February 12, 2018: Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427511/cardiorespiratory-fitness-not-sedentary-time-or-physical-activity-is-associated-with-cardiometabolic-risk-in-active-older-adults
#3
Ross D Pollock, Niharika A Duggal, Norman R Lazarus, Janet M Lord, Stephen D R Harridge
Sedentary time (ST) and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) are associated with cardiometabolic health. Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is also implicated but often overlooked in health recommendations. This study assessed the relationships between ST, MVPA, CRF and cardiometabolic health in highly active older individuals. 125 healthy amateur cyclists aged 55 to 79 years had their ST and MVPA levels assessed by actigraphy over a 7 day period. CRF was assessed using a maximal effort cycle ergometry test to determine VO2max with results normalised to both body mass and fat free mass measured by DXA...
February 10, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420620/validity-and-reliability-of-gps-and-lps-for-measuring-distances-covered-and-sprint-mechanical-properties-in-team-sports
#4
Matthias W Hoppe, Christian Baumgart, Ted Polglaze, Jürgen Freiwald
This study aimed to investigate the validity and reliability of global (GPS) and local (LPS) positioning systems for measuring distances covered and sprint mechanical properties in team sports. Here, we evaluated two recently released 18 Hz GPS and 20 Hz LPS technologies together with one established 10 Hz GPS technology. Six male athletes (age: 27±2 years; VO2max: 48.8±4.7 ml/min/kg) performed outdoors on 10 trials of a team sport-specific circuit that was equipped with double-light timing gates. The circuit included various walking, jogging, and sprinting sections that were performed either in straight-lines or with changes of direction...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415899/time-dependent-changes-in-increased-levels-of-plasma-irisin-and-muscle-pgc-1%C3%AE-and-fndc5-after-exercise-in-mice
#5
Minhui Pang, Jianwei Yang, Jiaming Rao, Haiqing Wang, Jiayi Zhang, Shengyong Wang, Xiongfei Chen, Xiaomei Dong
Exercise induces the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1-α (PGC-1α) in skeletal muscle, which promotes the cleavage of fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5) to irisin. To explore the relationship between irisin and its regulators, we analyzed the plasma irisin levels and the muscle levels of FNDC5 and PGC-1α after exercise. Male C57BL/6J mice underwent a treadmill exercise (60% of VO 2max ) for 30 min or one hour (h), and blood and gastrocnemius samples were collected before exercise (pre-exercise), immediately after exercise, and during 24-h recovery after 1-h exercise...
February 2018: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411507/the-contribution-of-physical-fitness-to-individual-and-ethnic-differences-in-risk-markers-for-type-2-diabetes-in-children-the-child-heart-and-health-study-in-england-chase
#6
Claire M Nightingale, Alicja R Rudnicka, Sarah R Kerry-Barnard, Angela S Donin, Soren Brage, Kate L Westgate, Ulf Ekelund, Derek G Cook, Christopher G Owen, Peter H Whincup
BACKGROUND: The relationship between physical fitness and risk markers for type 2 diabetes (T2D) in children and the contribution to ethnic differences in these risk markers have been little studied. We examined associations between physical fitness and early risk markers for T2D and cardiovascular disease in 9- to 10-year-old UK children. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 1445 9- to 10-year-old UK children of South Asian, black African-Caribbean and white European origin...
February 7, 2018: Pediatric Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408567/influence-of-high-intensity-interval-training-on-ventilatory-efficiency-in-trained-athletes
#7
Eduardo Salazar-Martínez, Alfredo Santalla, José Naranjo Orellana, Jochen Strobl, Martin Burtscher, Verena Menz
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 3 weeks high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on ventilatory efficiency (VE/VCO2 slope) in endurance athletes. Sixteen male well-trained (67.72 ml kg min-1) athletes participated in this study. Each participant performed an incremental exercise test with gas analysis (i.e. VE, VO2) and a 400 m running field test (T400m) before and after the 3 weeks intervention period. HIIT group (HIITG) performed 11 HIIT sessions consisting of four 4-min interval bouts at an exercise intensity of 90-95% of the VO2max, separated by 4-min active recovery periods (work/rest ratio = 1:1)...
January 30, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29400626/short-term-folinic-acid-supplementation-and-aerobic-exercise-improve-vascular-reactivity-in-hiv-infected-individuals
#8
Shana S Grigoletti, Jorge P Ribeiro, Eduardo Sprinz, Paula A B Ribeiro
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of supervised exercise and folinic acid supplementation on endothelial function in HIV-infected individuals. A randomized clinical trial, double blinded, was conducted with 16 HIV-infected individuals, antiretroviral therapy (at least 6 months) with undetectable viral load (<50 copies/mL), and CD4 count > 200 cells/mm3. The subjects were randomized to aerobic exercise (n = 5) and daily intake for 4 weeks of 5 mg of folinic acid (n = 6) or placebo (n = 5) groups...
February 5, 2018: HIV Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398617/exercise-increases-circulating-gdf15-in-humans
#9
Maximilian Kleinert, Christoffer Clemmensen, Kim A Sjøberg, Christian Strini Carl, Jacob Fuglsbjerg Jeppesen, Jørgen F P Wojtaszewski, Bente Kiens, Erik A Richter
OBJECTIVE: The growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) is a stress-sensitive circulating factor that regulates systemic energy balance. Since exercise is a transient physiological stress that has pleiotropic effects on whole-body energy metabolism, we herein explored the effect of exercise on a) circulating GDF15 levels and b) GDF15 release from skeletal muscle in humans. METHODS: Seven healthy males either rested or exercised at 67% of their VO2max for 1 h and blood was sampled from the femoral artery and femoral vein before, during, and after exercise...
January 17, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395495/influence-of-a-physical-exercise-program-on-vo2max-in-adults-with-cardiovascular-risk-factors
#10
Marcos Meseguer Zafra, Eliseo García-Cantó, Pedro Luis Rodríguez García, Juan José Pérez-Soto, Pedro Juan Tárraga López, Andrés Rosa Guillamón, M Loreto Tarraga López
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess the influence of a physical exercise program on VO2max in sedentary subjects with cardiovascular risk factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The sample was composed of 214 patients (80 males, 134 females) with an average age of 52 years, who were referred to a physical exercise program from 2 primary care centres of Spanish southeast. It was implemented a 10 week program (3 training×1h/week) combining strength with cardiorespiratory fitness...
January 29, 2018: Clínica e Investigación en Arteriosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29387446/acetazolamide-reduces-exercise-capacity-following-a-5-day-ascent-to-4559-m-in-a-randomised-study
#11
Arthur R Bradwell, Kimberley Ashdown, Carla Rue, John Delamere, Owen D Thomas, Samuel J E Lucas, Alex D Wright, Stephen J Harris, Stephen D Myers
Objective: To assess whether acetazolamide (Az), used prophylactically for acute mountain sickness (AMS), alters exercise capacity at high altitude. Methods: Az (500 mg daily) or placebo was administered to 20 healthy adults (aged 36±20 years, range 21-77), who were paired for age, sex, AMS susceptibility and weight, in a double-blind, randomised manner. Participants ascended over 5 days to 4559 m, then exercised to exhaustion on a bicycle ergometer, while recording breath-by-breath gas measurements...
2018: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380321/cardiopulmonary-exercise-testing
#12
Derek Tran
Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) is an objective assessment of exercise capacity. It has become increasingly popular in clinical, research, and athletic performance settings. CPET allows for investigation of the cardiovascular, pulmonary, and skeletal muscle systems during exercise-induced stress. The main variable of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) reflects the gold standard measure of exercise capacity. This chapter will describe the method of performing a graded maximal CPET with the Vmax 229 Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing Instrument and CardioSoft program...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29372589/aerobic-exercise-in-depressed-youth-a-feasibility-and-clinical-outcomes-pilot
#13
Natalia Jaworska, Allegra K Courtright, Elisea De Somma, Glenda M MacQueen, Frank P MacMaster
AIM: Major depressive disorder (MDD) onset generally occurs in adolescence/early adulthood. However, pharmacotherapy use in younger populations is restricted due to black box warnings. Aerobic exercise may be a viable treatment option for mild-to-moderate MDD, but little is known about its acceptability/effectiveness in young adults. METHODS: Unmedicated and relatively inactive 18-to-24 olds with MDD completed fitness/clinical assessments at baseline and after 12 weeks of supervised aerobic exercise (3×/wk; 30-minute sessions in target heart rate [HR] zone), with the aim of increasing cardiovascular fitness (VO2max -indexed)...
January 26, 2018: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364940/similarities-and-differences-among-half-marathon-runners-according-to-their-performance-level
#14
Ana Ogueta-Alday, Juan Carlos Morante, Josué Gómez-Molina, Juan García-López
This study aimed to identify the similarities and differences among half-marathon runners in relation to their performance level. Forty-eight male runners were classified into 4 groups according to their performance level in a half-marathon (min): Group 1 (n = 11, < 70 min), Group 2 (n = 13, < 80 min), Group 3 (n = 13, < 90 min), Group 4 (n = 11, < 105 min). In two separate sessions, training-related, anthropometric, physiological, foot strike pattern and spatio-temporal variables were recorded...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364063/impact-of-carbohydrate-mouth-rinsing-on-time-to-exhaustion-during-ramadan-a-randomized-controlled-trial-in-jordanian-men
#15
Mo'ath F Bataineh, Ali M Al-Nawaiseh, Mohammad H Abu Altaieb, David M Bellar, Omar S Hindawi, Lawrence W Judge
Mouth rinsing using a carbohydrate (CHO) solution has been suggested to improve physical performance in fasting participants. This study examined the effects of CHO mouth rinsing during Ramadan fasting on running time to exhaustion and on peak treadmill speed (Vpeak). In a counterbalanced crossover design, 18 sub-elite male runners (Age: 21 ± 2 years, Weight: 68.1 ± 5.7 kg, VO2max: 55.4 ± 4.8 ml/kg/min) who observed Ramadan completed a familiarization trial and three experimental trials. The three trials included rinsing and expectorating a 25 mL bolus of either a 7...
January 24, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29363348/reliability-of-internal-and-external-load-parameters-in-recreational-football-soccer-for-health
#16
Marco Beato, Mikael Jamil, Gavin Devereux
There is limited research focussed around the analysis of internal and external load parameters during football health programmes. The aim of this study was to assess the reliability of internal and external load parameters in this activity. Thrity subjects were enrolled (mean ± SDs; age = 43 ± 3 years, weight = 84 ± 14 kg, height = 176 ± 7 cm, BMI = 27.1 ± 3, VO2max = 40.7 ± 3.4 ml.kg.min-1). The football matches (five a-side) took place on an artificial grass outdoor field (pitch size of 36 × 18...
January 24, 2018: Research in Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360396/impact-of-weight-loss-achieved-through-a-multidisciplinary-intervention-on-appetite-in-patients-with-severe-obesity
#17
Silvia R Coutinho, Jens F Rehfeld, Jens J Holst, Bård Kulseng, Catia Martins
The impact of lifestyle-induced weight loss (WL) on appetite in patients with obesity remains controversial. This study aimed was to assess the short- and long-term impact of WL achieved by diet and exercise, on appetite in patients with obesity. Thirty-five (22 females) adults with severe obesity (BMI: 42.5{plus minus}5.0 kg/m2) underwent a 2-year WL program focusing on diet and exercise. Body weight (BW), cardiovascular fitness (VO2max), appetite feelings and plasma concentrations of insulin, active ghrelin (AG), glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY) and cholecystokinin (CCK), in the fasting and postprandial states, were measured at baseline (B), week 4 (W4), 1 and 2-years (and average values for all fasting and postprandial time points computed)...
January 23, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357481/repeated-testing-for-the-assessment-of-individual-response-to-exercise-training
#18
Anne Hecksteden, Werner Pitsch, Friederike Rosenberger, Tim Meyer
Observed response to regular exercise training differs widely between individuals even in tightly controlled research settings. However, the respective contributions of random error and true interindividual differences as well as the relative frequency of non-responders are disputed. Specific challenges of analyses on the individual level as well as a striking heterogeneity in definitions may partly explain these inconsistent results. Repeated testing during the training phase specifically addresses the requirements of analyses on the individual level...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356348/skeletal-muscle-ex%C3%A2-vivo-mitochondrial-respiration-parallels-decline-in%C3%A2-vivo-oxidative-capacity-cardiorespiratory-fitness-and-muscle-strength-the-baltimore-longitudinal-study-of-aging
#19
Marta Gonzalez-Freire, Paul Scalzo, Jarod D'Agostino, Zenobia A Moore, Alberto Diaz-Ruiz, Elisa Fabbri, Ariel Zane, Brian Chen, Kevin G Becker, Elin Lehrmann, Linda Zukley, Chee W Chia, Toshiko Tanaka, Paul M Coen, Michel Bernier, Rafael de Cabo, Luigi Ferrucci
Mitochondrial function in human skeletal muscle declines with age. Most evidence for this decline comes from studies that assessed mitochondrial function indirectly, and the impact of such deterioration with respect to physical function has not been clearly delineated. We hypothesized that mitochondrial respiration in permeabilized human muscle fibers declines with age and correlates with phosphocreatine postexercise recovery rate (kPCr), muscle performance, and aerobic fitness. Mitochondrial respiration was assessed by high-resolution respirometry in saponin-permeabilized fibers from vastus lateralis muscle biopsies of 38 participants from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA; 21 men, age 24-91 years) who also had available measures of peak oxygen consumption (VO2max ) from treadmill tests, gait speed in different tasks, 31 P magnetic resonance spectroscopy, isokinetic knee extension, and grip strength...
January 21, 2018: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355464/verification-testing-to-confirm-vo2max-attainment-in-persons-with-spinal-cord-injury
#20
Todd A Astorino, Noelle Bediamol, Sarah Cotoia, Kenneth Ines, Nicolas Koeu, Natasha Menard, Brianna Nyugen, Cassandra Olivo, Gabrielle Phillips, Ardreen Tirados, Gabriela Velasco Cruz
CONTEXT/OBJECTIVE: Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) is a widely used measure of cardiorespiratory fitness, aerobic function, and overall health risk. Although VO2max has been measured for almost 100 yr, no standardized criteria exist to verify VO2max attainment. Studies document that incidence of 'true' VO2max obtained from incremental exercise (INC) can be confirmed using a subsequent verification test (VER). In this study, we examined efficacy of VER in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI)...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
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