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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655928/effects-of-3-months-sitting-callisthenic-balance-and-resistance-exercise-on-aerobic-capacity-aortic-stiffness-and-body-composition-in-healthy-older-participants-randomized-controlled-trial
#1
Sławomir Kujawski, Agnieszka Kujawska, Małgorzata Gajos, Jacek J Klawe, Małgorzata Tafil-Klawe, Katarzyna Mądra-Gackowska, Błażej Stankiewicz, Julia L Newton, Kornelia Kędziora-Kornatowska, Paweł Zalewski
BACKGROUND: Arterial stiffness (AS) is a reduction in the ability of large arteries to readily accommodate the increase in blood ejected from the heart during systole related with aging. Physical exercise is associated with AS reduction. However, it remains controversial as to which modality and intensity (resistance vs aerobic, high vs low) would be the most effective. The aim of these studies is to examine the effects of 3-months sitting callisthenic balance (SCB) and resistance exercise (RET) on aerobic capacity, aortic stiffness and body composition in older participants...
April 12, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653118/acute-high-intensity-interval-exercise-induces-comparable-levels-of-circulating-cell-free-dna-and-interleukin-6-in-obese-and-normal-weight-individuals
#2
Peter J Ferrandi, Brandon G Fico, Michael Whitehurst, Michael C Zourdos, Fanchen Bao, Katelyn M Dodge, Alexandra A Rodriguez, Gabriel Pena, Chun-Jung Huang
AIMS: Obesity is associated with lipid aggregation in adipocytes and macrophage infiltration, leading to increased oxidative stress and inflammation. Increased cell-free DNA (cfDNA) concentrations have been observed in clinical conditions of systemic inflammation. While the beneficial effects of regular physical activity on the release of circulating cfDNA still remain unknown, acute intense exercise has been shown to increase inflammatory cytokines and cfDNA concentrations in normal-weight individuals...
April 10, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648517/preliminary-evidence-of-reductive-stress-in-human-cytotoxic-t-cells-following-exercise
#3
Alex James Wadley, Adrian Holliday, Rhys G Morgan, Kate J Heesom, Sarah Aldred, Derek M Peters, Allain A Bueno, Steven J Coles
This study investigated immunophenotypic differences in intracellular thiol redox state of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from trained (TR, n=9, mean {plus minus} SD: age 28 {plus minus} 5 years; BMI 23.2 {plus minus} 2.6 kg·m2 ; VO2max 56.9 {plus minus} 6.1 ml·kg-1 ·min-1 ) and recreationally active (RA, n=11, mean {plus minus} SD: age 27 {plus minus} 6 years; BMI 24.2 {plus minus} 3.7 kg·m2 ; VO2max 45.1 {plus minus} 6.4 ml·kg-1 ·min-1 ) participants before and after a maximal aerobic exercise tolerance test...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644889/comparing-exercise-responses-to-aerobic-plus-resistance-training-between-postmenopausal-breast-cancer-survivors-undergoing-aromatase-inhibitor-therapy-and-healthy-women
#4
Thais R S de Paulo, Kerri M Winters-Stone, Juliana Viezel, Fabricio E Rossi, Bruna L Aro, Ana Carolina A C Trindade, Jamile S Codogno, Ismael F Freitas Junior
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to explore whether postmenopausal breast cancer survivors undergoing aromatase inhibitor therapy differ from healthy postmenopausal women in their response to the same aerobic + resistance training. METHODS: The participants were separated into two groups: postmenopausal breast cancer survivors undergoing aromatase inhibitor therapy for an average of 20 months (18 women) and healthy postmenopausal women (24 women). We assessed aerobic capacity (predicted maximum oxygen uptake (VO2 max) and maximum running velocity test (Vmax)) through a walking test, upper and lower body muscle strength using an estimated one-repetition maximum test, and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at baseline and at three, six, and nine months, respectively...
April 12, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643605/effect-of-aquatic-versus-land-based-exercise-programs-on-physical-performance-in-severely-burned-patients-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
Ibrahim M Zoheiry, Haidy N Ashem, Hamada Ahmed Hamada Ahmed, Rami Abbas
[Purpose] To compare the effect of an aquatic-based versus a land-based exercise regimen on the physical performance of severely burned patients. [Subjects and Methods] Forty patients suffering from severe burn (total body surface area more than 30%) were recruited from several outpatient clinics in Greater Cairo. Their ages ranged between 20 to 40 years and were randomly assigned into two equal groups: group (A), which received an aquatic based exercise program, and group (B), which received a land-based exercise program...
December 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626373/sex-dimorphism-of-substrate-utilization-differences-in-skeletal-muscle-mitochondrial-volume-density-and-function
#6
David Montero, Klavs Madsen, Anne-Kristine Meinild-Lundby, Fredrik Edin, Carsten Lundby
Fat oxidation during exercise is higher in females than males. We sought to determine whether sex differences in substrate metabolism are paralleled by distinct skeletal muscle mitochondrial volume density and oxidative capacity. Whole-body substrate (fat, carbohydrate (CHO)) utilization during submaximal treadmill running was assessed and skeletal muscle biopsies were taken to determine mitochondrial volume density (MitoVD ) and function in healthy young females (n = 12) and males (n = 12) matched by aerobic exercise capacity (VO2max ) and exercise performance...
April 6, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621810/-secondary-full-title-effects-of-high-intensity-interval-training-in-plain-and-uphill-regarding-physical-performance
#7
Natalie Marterer, Verena Menz, Martin Burtscher
BACKGROUND:  As the number of HIITs is increasing in competitive and non-competitive sports, the risk of injuries and overload is increasing. There are no scientific data to support specific recommendations in regard to intensity, duration, number of intervals and gradient for HIIT that result in improved muscular parameters in athletes. Therefore the aim of this study was to compare HIIT in plain and uphill exercise, with respect to exercise tolerance and improvements in performance (VO2max and 800 m running time in the plain and uphill)...
April 5, 2018: Sportverletzung Sportschaden: Organ der Gesellschaft Für Orthopädisch-Traumatologische Sportmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619595/new-zealand-blackcurrant-extract-enhances-fat-oxidation-during-prolonged-cycling-in-endurance-trained-females
#8
Juliette A Strauss, Mark E T Willems, Sam O Shepherd
PURPOSE: New Zealand blackcurrant (NZBC) extract has previously been shown to increase fat oxidation during prolonged exercise, but this observation is limited to males. We examined whether NZBC intake also increases fat oxidation during prolonged exercise in females, and whether this was related to greater concentrations of circulating fatty acids. METHODS: In a randomised, crossover, double-blind design, 16 endurance-trained females (age: 28 ± 8 years, BMI: 21...
April 4, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618981/influence-of-endurance-training-during-childhood-on-total-hemoglobin-mass
#9
Nicole Prommer, Nadine Wachsmuth, Ina Thieme, Christian Wachsmuth, Erica M Mancera-Soto, Andreas Hohmann, Walter F J Schmidt
Elite endurance athletes are characterized by markedly increased hemoglobin mass (Hbmass). It has been hypothesized that this adaptation may occur as a response to training at a very young age. Therefore, the aim of this study was to monitor changes in Hbmass in children aged 8-14 years following systematic endurance training. In the first study, Hbmass, VO2max, and lean body mass (LBM) were measured in 17 endurance-trained children (13 boys and 4 girls; aged 9.7 ± 1.3 years; training history 1.5±1.8 years; training volume 3...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615923/mental-fatigue-alters-cortical-activation-and-psychological-responses-impairing-performance-in-a-distance-based-cycling-trial
#10
Flávio O Pires, Fernando L Silva-Júnior, Cayque Brietzke, Paulo E Franco-Alvarenga, Fabiano A Pinheiro, Nanci M de França, Silmar Teixeira, Tony Meireles Santos
Purpose: We sought to verify if alterations in prefrontal cortex (PFC) activation and psychological responses would play along with impairments in pacing and performance of mentally fatigued cyclists. Materials and Methods: Eight recreational cyclists performed two preliminary sessions to familiarize them with the rapid visual information processing (RVP) test, psychological scales and 20 km cycling time trial (TT20km ) (session 1), as well as to perform a VO2MAX test (session 2). Thereafter, they performed a TT20km either after a RVP test (30 min) or a time-matched rest control session (session 3 and 4 in counterbalanced order)...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29613950/-immediate-effects-of-blood-donation-on-physical-and-cognitive-performance-a-randomized-controlled-double-blinded-trial
#11
Håkon S Eliassen, Tor Hervig, Sebastian Backlund, Joar Sivertsen, Vegard Vereiede Iversen, Morten Kristoffersen, Eivind Wengaard, Arne Gramstad, Theodor Fosse, Christopher K Bjerkvig, Torunn Apelseth, Heidi Doughty, Geir Strandenes
BACKGROUND: The success of implementing Damage Control Resuscitation principles pre-hospital has been at the expense of several logistic burdens including the requirements for resupply, and the question of donor safety during the development of whole blood programs. Previous studies have reported effects on physical performance after blood donation, however none have investigated the effects of blood donation on cognitive performance. METHOD: We describe a prospective double blinded, randomized controlled study comprised of a battery of tests: three cognitive tests, and VO2max testing on a cycle ergometer...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599865/effect-of-compression-garments-on-physiological-responses-after-uphill-running
#12
Ivan Struhár, Michal Kumstát, Dagmar Moc Králová
Limited practical recommendations related to wearing compression garments for athletes can be drawn from the literature at the present time. We aimed to identify the effects of compression garments on physiological and perceptual measures of performance and recovery after uphill running with different pressure and distributions of applied compression. In a random, double blinded study, 10 trained male runners undertook three 8 km treadmill runs at a 6% elevation rate, with the intensity of 75% VO2max while wearing low, medium grade compression garments and high reverse grade compression...
March 2018: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599863/aerobic-fitness-of-starter-and-non-starter-soccer-players-in-the-champion-s-league
#13
Giorgos Paraskevas, Marios Hadjicharalambous
To identify individual response patterns in selected aerobic fitness variables of regular starters (ST; N = 7) and non-starters (Non-ST; N = 10), top level professional soccer players were tested for maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), velocity at 4 mM of lactate (V4), velocity at maximal oxygen uptake (νVO2max ) and oxygen pulse (O2 -pulse) in July and December following consecutive periods of fixture congestion. V4 was the only variable that increased significantly in December compared to July (15.1 ± 0.5 vs...
March 2018: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599860/can-supplementation-of-vitamin-d-improve-aerobic-capacity-in-well-trained-youth-soccer-players
#14
Maria Jastrzębska, Mariusz Kaczmarczyk, Małgorzata Michalczyk, Łukasz Radzimiński, Piotr Stępień, Joanna Jastrzębska, Dorota Wakuluk, Arturo Díaz Suárez, Guillermo Felipe López Sánchez, Paweł Cięszczyk, Piotr Godlewski, Paweł Król, Zbigniew Jastrzębski
There is no clear evidence that vitamin D effectively improves physical capacity in high-level athletes. The aim of this study was to confirm that vitamin D supplementation of soccer players during eight-week high-intensity training would have a significant effect on their aerobic capacity. The subjects were divided into two groups: the experimental one that was supplemented with vitamin D (SG, n = 20), and the placebo group (PG, n = 16), not supplemented with vitamin D. All the players were subjected to the same soccer training described as High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT)...
March 2018: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599724/age-predicted-maximal-heart-rate-in-recreational-marathon-runners-a-cross-sectional-study-on-fox-s-and-tanaka-s-equations
#15
Pantelis T Nikolaidis, Thomas Rosemann, Beat Knechtle
Age-based prediction equations of maximal heart rate (HRmax ), such as the popular formulas Fox's 220-age, or Tanaka's 208-0.7 × age, have been widely used in various populations. Surprisingly, so far these equations have not been validated in marathon runners, despite the importance of the role of HRmax for training purposes in endurance running. The aim of the present study was to examine the validity of Fox and Tanaka equations in a large sample of women and men recreational marathon runners. Participants ( n = 180, age 43...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594521/cortical-neural-arousal-is-differentially-affected-by-type-of-physical-exercise-performed
#16
Nicholas J Hanson, Lindsey E Short, Lauren T Flood, Nicholas P Cherup, Michael G Miller
Critical flicker frequency (CFF) threshold is a visual discrimination task designed to assess cortical neural arousal, where higher values are associated with increased information processing and improved cognitive function. Previous studies using CFF assessments before and after exercise have only used one type of exercise (e.g., short, fatiguing, steady state, time to exhaustion, etc.). Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of exercise type and intensity on neural arousal. 22 recreational runners (10 men, 12 women; age 25 ± 6 years) volunteered to participate in the study...
March 28, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593565/aerobic-interval-training-prevents-age-dependent-vulnerability-to-atrial-fibrillation-in-rodents
#17
Vegard Malmo, Allen Kelly, Karin S Garten, Tomas Stolen, Natale P L Rolim, Ulrik Wisloff, Godfrey Smith, Jan P Loennechen
Aims: Increasing age is the most important risk factor for atrial fibrillation (AF). Very high doses of exercise training might increase AF risk, while moderate levels seem to be protective. This study aimed to examine the effects of age on vulnerability to AF and whether long-term aerobic interval training (AIT) could modify these effects. Methods: Nine months old, male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to AIT for 16 weeks (old-ex) or to a sedentary control group (old-sed), and compared to young sedentary males (young-sed)...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590534/the-role-of-il-6-in-exercise-induced-anorexia-in-normal-weight-boys
#18
Sascha Hunschede, Alexander Schwartz, Ruslan Kubant, Scott G Thomas, G Harvey Anderson
BACKGROUND: Our previous study showed that Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is associated with a suppression of appetite after high-intensity exercise (HIEX), but an independent role within food intake (FI) was not defined. HYPOTHESIS: IL-6 after HIEX (75% VO2peak) is independent of appetite-hormones in suppressing appetite and FI in normal-weight (NW) boys. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of HIEX, with and without the inflammation inhibitor, ibuprofen (IBU), on IL-6 and selective biomarkers of inflammation and appetite on FI and ratings of appetite in NW boys...
March 28, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590340/exercise-cardiac-magnetic-resonance-to-differentiate-athlete-s-heart-from-structural-heart-disease
#19
Guido Claessen, Frédéric Schnell, Jan Bogaert, Mathias Claeys, Nele Pattyn, Frederik De Buck, Steven Dymarkowski, Piet Claus, Francois Carré, Johan Van Cleemput, Andre La Gerche, Hein Heidbuchel
Aims: The distinction between left ventricular (LV) dilation with mildly reduced LV ejection fraction (EF) in response to regular endurance exercise training and an early cardiomyopathy is a frequently encountered and difficult clinical conundrum. We hypothesized that exercise rather than resting measures would provide better discrimination between physiological and pathological LV remodelling and that preserved exercise capacity does not exclude significant LV damage. Methods and results: We prospectively included 19 subjects with LVEF between 40 and 52%, comprising 10 ostensibly healthy endurance athletes (EA-healthy) and nine patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM)...
March 26, 2018: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582887/cardiorespiratory-adaptations-in-elderly-men-following-different-concurrent-training-regimes
#20
E L Cadore, R S Pinto, J L Teodoro, L X N da Silva, E Menger, C L Alberton, G Cunha, M Schumann, M Bottaro, F ZamboM-Ferraresi, M Izquierdo
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the effects of different intra-session exercise orders during concurrent training (CT) on endurance performance in elderly men, as well as to verify its influence on individual responses in endurance performance. DESIGN: Twenty-five healthy elderly men (64.7 ± 4.1 years) were placed into two groups: strength training prior to endurance training (SE, n=13), and one in the reverse order (ES, n=12). CT was performed three times a week during 12 weeks...
2018: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
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