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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324016/cardiorespiratory-fitness-and-adiposity-as-determinants-of-metabolic-health-pooled-analysis-of-two-twin-cohorts
#1
Sakari Jukarainen, René Holst, Christine Dalgård, Päivi Piirilä, Jesper Lundbom, Antti Hakkarainen, Nina Lundbom, Aila Rissanen, Jaakko Kaprio, Kirsten Ohm Kyvik, Thorkild I A Sørensen, Kirsi H Pietiläinen
Context: The joint effects of cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition on metabolic health are not well known. Objective: To examine the associations of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), fat free mass index (FFMI) and fat mass index (FMI) with metabolic health in individual twins and controlling for genetic and shared environmental effects by studying monozygotic intrapair differences. Design, setting & participants: Two cross-sectional samples of healthy adult monozygotic and dizygotic twins were drawn from population-based Danish and Finnish national twin registries (n=996 and n=309)...
January 23, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319786/lower-cardiorespiratory-fitness-is-associated-with-more-time-spent-sedentary-in-first-episode-psychosis-a-pilot-study
#2
Davy Vancampfort, Marc De Hert, Inez Myin-Germeys, Ruud van Winkel, Joseph Firth, Tine Van Damme, Michel Probst
Patients with a psychotic disorder show lower cardiorespiratory fitness and higher mortality rates compared to healthy individuals. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to explore whether in patients with first-episode psychosis a low cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with decreased physical activity and increased sedentary levels. Twenty-nine outpatients (21 men; 22.8±5.1 years) performed a maximal exercise test to assess their maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max), wore a Senswear armband for five consecutive days and were assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale...
March 14, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318852/cardiorespiratory-optimal-point-during-exercise-testing-as-a-predictor-of-all-cause-mortality
#3
Plínio S Ramos, Claudio Gil S Araújo
INTRODUCTION AND AIM: The cardiorespiratory optimal point (COP) is a novel index, calculated as the minimum oxygen ventilatory equivalent (VE/VO2) obtained during cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). In this study we demonstrate the prognostic value of COP both independently and in combination with maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max) in community-dwelling adults. METHODS: Maximal cycle ergometer CPET was performed in 3331 adults (66% men) aged 40-85 years, healthy (18%) or with chronic disease (81%)...
March 17, 2017: Portuguese Journal of Cardiology: An Official Journal of the Portuguese Society of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301436/the-effects-of-recovery-duration-during-high-intensity-interval-exercise-on-time-spent-at-high-rates-of-oxygen-consumption-oxygen-kinetics-and-blood-lactate
#4
Ilias Smilios, Aristides Myrkos, Andreas Zafeiridis, Argyris Toubekis, Apostolos Spassis, Savas P Tokmakidis
The recovery duration and the work to recovery ratio are important aspects to consider when designing a high-intensity aerobic interval exercise (HIIE). This study examined the effects of recovery duration on total exercise time performed above 80, 90 and 95% of maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max) and heart rate (HRmax) during a single-bout HIIE. We also evaluated the effects on VO2 and HR kinetics, blood lactate concentration and rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Eleven moderately trained males (22.1±1 yrs...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294290/genetic-obesity-risk-and-attenuation-effect-of-physical-fitness-in-mexican-mestizo-population-a-case-control-study
#5
Paula Costa-Urrutia, Carolina Abud, Valentina Franco-Trecu, Valentina Colistro, Martha Eunice Rodríguez-Arellano, Joel Vázquez-Pérez, Julio Granados, Marilia Seelaender
We analyzed commonly reported European and Asian obesity-related gene variants in a Mexican-Mestizo population through each single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and a genetic risk score (GRS) based on 23 selected SNPs. Study subjects were physically active Mexican-Mestizo adults (n  =  608) with body mass index (BMI) values from 18 to 55 kg/m(2) . For each SNP and for the GRS, logistic models were performed to test for simple SNP associations with BMI, fat mass percentage (FMP), waist circumference (WC), and the interaction with VO2max and muscular endurance (ME)...
March 15, 2017: Annals of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292885/heavy-strength-training-improves-running-and-cycling-performance-following-prolonged-submaximal-work-in-well-trained-female-athletes
#6
Olav Vikmoen, Bent R Rønnestad, Stian Ellefsen, Truls Raastad
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of adding heavy strength training to female duathletes' normal endurance training on both cycling and running performance. Nineteen well-trained female duathletes (VO2max cycling: 54 ± 3 ml∙kg(-1)∙min(-1), VO2max running: 53 ± 3 ml∙kg(-1)∙min(-1)) were randomly assigned to either normal endurance training (E, n = 8) or normal endurance training combined with strength training (E+S, n = 11). The strength training consisted of four lower body exercises [3 × 4-10 repetition maximum (RM)] twice a week for 11 weeks...
March 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289644/quality-of-life-and-physical-ability-changes-after-hospital-based-cardiac-rehabilitation-in-patients-with-myocardial-infarction
#7
Byung Joo Lee, Jin Young Go, Ae Ryung Kim, Seong Min Chun, Minhyuk Park, Dong Heon Yang, Hun Sik Park, Tae-Du Jung
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of hospital-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR) on quality of life (QOL) and physical ability in patients with myocardial infarction (MI). METHODS: Patients with MI who were referred to the Cardiac Health and Rehabilitation Center 2 weeks after percutaneous coronary intervention were divided into CR and non-CR groups. The CR group performed supervised exercises 3 times a week for 2 months. QOL assessment, using the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) and physical ability evaluation were performed at the beginning and end of CR...
February 2017: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286674/the-effect-of-exercise-intensity-on-total-pyy-and-glp-1-in-healthy-females-a-pilot-study
#8
Jillian R Hallworth, Jennifer L Copeland, Jon Doan, Tom J Hazell
We compared the acute response of anorexigenic signals (total PYY and GLP-1) in response to submaximal and supramaximal exercise. Nine females completed three sessions: (1) moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT; 30 min; 65%  VO2max); (2) sprint interval training (SIT; 6 × 30 sec "all-out" cycling sprints with 4 min recovery); or (3) control (CTRL; no exercise). PYY and GLP-1 were measured via blood samples drawn before, immediately after, and 90 min after exercise. Perceptions of hunger were rated using a visual analogue scale at all blood sampling time points...
2017: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286137/impact-of-cardiorespiratory-fitness-on-all-cause-and-disease-specific-mortality-advances-since-2009
#9
REVIEW
Matthew P Harber, Leonard A Kaminsky, Ross Arena, Steven N Blair, Barry A Franklin, Jonathan Myers, Robert Ross
Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) has been one of the most widely examined physiological variables, particularly as it relates to functional capacity and human performance. Over the past three decades, CRF has emerged as a strong, independent predictor of all-cause and disease-specific mortality. The evidence supporting the prognostic use of CRF is so powerful that the American Heart Association recently advocated for the routine assessment of CRF as a clinical vital sign. Interestingly, the continuity of evidence of the inverse relationship between CRF and mortality over the past decade exists despite a wide variation of methods used to assess CRF in these studies, ranging from the gold-standard method of directly measured maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) during cardiopulmonary exercise testing to estimation from exercise tests and non-exercise prediction equations...
March 9, 2017: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282741/effects-of-acute-exercise-dehydration-and-rehydration-on-cognitive-function-in-well-trained-athletes
#10
Christopher Irwin, Nadia Campagnolo, Elizaveta Iudakhina, Gregory R Cox, Ben Desbrow
This study investigated the effects of aerobic exercise, fluid loss and rehydration on cognitive performance in well-trained athletes. Ten endurance-trained males (25 ± 5 years; 175 ± 5 cm; 70.35 ± 5.46 kg; VO2max, 62.95 ± 7.20 ml · kg.min(-1)) lost ~2.5 ± 0.6% body mass via continuous cycling exercise at ~65% peak sustainable power output (60 min duration) before consuming different beverages (Water = W1 and W2, Sustagen Sport = SS, Powerade = PD) and food ad libitum on four separate occasions...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270588/the-optimal-exercise-intensity-for-the-unbiased-comparison-of-thermoregulatory-responses-between-groups-unmatched-for-body-size-during-uncompensable-heat-stress
#11
Nicholas Ravanelli, Matthew Cramer, Pascal Imbeault, Ollie Jay
We sought to identify the appropriate exercise intensity for unbiased comparisons of changes in rectal temperature (ΔTre) and local sweat rates (LSR) between groups unmatched for body size during uncompensable heat stress. Sixteen males vastly different in body morphology were separated into two equal groups [small (SM): 65.8 ± 6.2 kg, 1.8 ± 0.1 m(2); large (LG): 100.0 ± 13.1 kg, 2.3 ± 0.1 m(2)], but matched for sudomotor thermosensitivity (SM: 1.3 ± 0.6; LG: 1.1 ± 0.4 mg·cm(-2)·min(-1)·°C(-1))...
March 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270174/aerobic-capacity-and-future-cardiovascular-risk-in-indian-community-from-a-low-income-area-in-cauca-colombia
#12
Robinson Ramírez-Vélez, Jorge Enrique Correa-Bautista, Jeison Alexander Ramos-Sepúlveda, Carlos Andrés Piñeros-Álvarez, Lorena Isabel Giraldo, Mikel Izquierdo, Antonio García-Hermoso, Fernando Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carlos Cristi-Montero
BACKGROUND: Several studies indicates that children's aerobic capacity levels are predictors of the future risk of non-communicable diseases. Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish the proportion of subjects whose aerobic capacity is indicative of future cardiovascular risk in Indian-Nasa community from a low-income area in Cauca, Colombia. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of morphological component (height, weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, triceps skinfold, subscapular skinfold, and body fat percent [BF%]), and the cardiorespiratory component (course-navette 20 m, shuttle run test and estimation of maximal oxygen consumption by indirect VO2max) from 576 participants (319 boys and 257 girls) aged 10 to 17...
March 7, 2017: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251399/change-in-maximal-fat-oxidation-in-response-to-different-regimes-of-periodized-high-intensity-interval-training-hiit
#13
Todd A Astorino, Ross M Edmunds, Amy Clark, Rachael Gallant, Leesa King, Gina M Ordille, Brendyn Heath, Matthew Montell, Jason Bandong
PURPOSE: Increased capacity for fat oxidation (FatOx) is demonstrated in response to chronic endurance training as well as high-intensity interval training (HIIT). This study examined changes in maximal fat oxidation (MFO) in response to 20 sessions of periodized HIIT in an attempt to identify if various regimes of HIIT similarly augment capacity for FatOx. METHODS: Thirty-nine habitually active men and women (mean age and VO2max = 22.5 ± 4.4 year and 40...
March 1, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251397/effect-of-lifelong-football-training-on-the-expression-of-muscle-molecular-markers-involved-in-healthy-longevity
#14
A Mancini, D Vitucci, G Labruna, E Imperlini, M B Randers, J F Schmidt, M Hagman, T R Andersen, R Russo, S Orrù, P Krustrup, F Salvatore, P Buono
PURPOSE: We investigated whether lifelong football training affects the expression of healthy longevity-related muscle molecular markers. METHODS: Biopsies were collected from the vastus lateralis muscle of 10 lifelong football-trained men (68.2 ± 3.0 years) and of 10 active untrained healthy men (66.7 ± 1.3 years). Gene and protein expression was measured by RTqPCR on RNA and by western blotting on protein extracts from muscle biopsies, respectively...
March 1, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246888/the-effects-of-2%C3%A2-weeks-of-statin-treatment-on-mitochondrial-respiratory-capacity-in-middle-aged-males-the-lifestat-study
#15
Magnus Asping, Nis Stride, Ditte Søgaard, Tine Lovsø Dohlmann, Jørn W Helge, Flemming Dela, Steen Larsen
BACKGROUND: Statins are used to lower cholesterol in plasma and are one of the most used drugs in the world. Many statin users experience muscle pain, but the mechanisms are unknown at the moment. Many studies have hypothesized that mitochondrial function could be involved in these side effects. AIM: The aim of the study was to investigate mitochondrial function after 2 weeks of treatment with simvastatin (S; n = 10) or pravastatin (P; n = 10) in healthy middle-aged participants...
February 28, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246499/energy-systems-efficiency-influences-the-results-of-2-000-m-race-simulation-among-elite-rowers
#16
Stefan Adrian Martin, Valeriu Tomescu
HYPOTHESIS: Energy efficiency within an elite group of athletes will ensure metabolic adaptation during training. OBJECTIVES: To identify energy system efficiency and contribution according to exercise intensity, and performance obtained during a 2,000 m race simulation in an elite group of rowers. METHOD: An observational cross-sectional study was conducted in February 2016 in Bucharest, Romania, on a group of 16 elite rowers. Measurements were performed through Cosmed Quark CPET equipment, and Concept 2 ergometer, by conducting a VO2max test over a standard rowing distance of 2,000 m...
2017: Clujul Medical (1957)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242825/impact-of-type-2-diabetes-on-cardiorespiratory-function-and-exercise-performance
#17
Joanie Caron, Gregory R duManoir, Lawrence Labrecque, Audrey Chouinard, Annie Ferland, Paul Poirier, Sylvie Legault, Patrice Brassard
The aim of this study was to examine the impact of well-controlled uncomplicated type 2 diabetes (T2D) on exercise performance. Ten obese sedentary men with T2D and nine control participants without diabetes matched for age, sex, and body mass index were recruited. Anthropometric characteristics, blood samples, resting cardiac, and pulmonary functions and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and ventilatory threshold were measured on a first visit. On the four subsequent visits, participants (diabetics: n = 6; controls: n = 7) performed step transitions (6 min) of moderate-intensity exercise on an upright cycle ergometer from unloaded pedaling to 80% of ventilatory threshold...
February 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241030/effects-of-upper-body-sprint-interval-training-on-strength-and-endurance-capacities-in-female-cross-country-skiers
#18
Kristine Vandbakk, Boye Welde, Andrea Hovstein Kruken, Julia Baumgart, Gertjan Ettema, Trine Karlsen, Øyvind Sandbakk
This study compared the effects of adding upper-body sprint-intervals or continuous double poling endurance training to the normal training on maximal upper-body strength and endurance capacity in female cross-country skiers. In total, 17 female skiers (age: 18.1±0.8yr, body mass: 60±7 kg, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max): 3.30±0.37 L.min-1) performed an 8-week training intervention. Here, either two weekly sessions of six to eight 30-s maximal upper-body double poling sprint-intervals (SIG, n = 8) or 45-75 min of continuous low-to-moderate intensity double poling on roller skis (CG, n = 9) were added to their training...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240714/effects-of-exercise-induced-dehydration-and-glycerol-rehydration-on-anaerobic-power-in-male-collegiate-wrestlers
#19
Zachary J McKenna, Trevor L Gillum
Wrestlers attempting to reach a specific weight class often use rapid weight loss (RWL). RWL is associated with high levels of dehydration, which may hinder athletic performance. Thus, there is a need for wrestlers to optimize re-hydration after achieving a specific weight. We sought to observe the effects of RWL on anaerobic power and the impact of glycerol on rehydration and power in male collegiate wrestlers (n=7, 19.75 ± 1.67 years, 76.8 ± 4.32 kg, 11.6 ± 4.32 % body fat, 59.9 ± 6.42 ml/kg/min). Subjects were assessed for body mass (BM), hydration, and mean power output (Wmean) before exercise (pre), immediately post (3% dehydrated), and 60 min post (rehydrated)...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239483/soldiers-load-carriage-performance-in-high-mountains-a-physiological-study
#20
Tirthankar Chatterjee, Debojyoti Bhattacharyya, Anilendu Pramanik, Madhusudan Pal, Deepti Majumdar, Dhurjati Majumdar
BACKGROUND: The present study was designed to evaluate load carriage performance at extremely high altitudes with different loads and walking speeds in terms of physiological evaluation. The degree of maximum oxygen consumption changes at high altitudes was also examined. METHODS: Twelve Indian Army soldiers were acclimatized at altitudes of 3,505 m and 4,300 m. They walked for 10 minutes on a motorized treadmill at 2.5 km/h and 3.5 km/h speeds during carrying no loads and three magnitudes of load (10...
2017: Military Medical Research
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