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Ana Catarina Sousa, Ricardo J Fernandes, Joao Paulo Vilas Boas, Pedro Figueiredo
To provide information for high-intensity interval training (HIIT) load, we compared the temporal variables of VO2 response at, and after, a time sustained at the exercise intensity corresponding to VO2max (Tlim) in different exercise modes. Forty-five trained male swimmers (11), rowers (13), runners (10) and cyclists (11) completed an incremental protocol to determine the velocity (vVO2max ) or power (wVO2max ) at VO2max and a square wave exercise from rest to 100% of vVO2max /wVO2max . The temporal variables of VO2 response were examined using a breath-by-breath gas analyzer...
June 20, 2018: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Todd A Astorino, Jamie deRevere, Theodore Anderson, Erin Kellogg, Patrick Holstrom, Sebastian Ring, Nicholas Ghaseb
Completion of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) leads to significant increases in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max ) and oxidative capacity. However, individual responses to HIIT have been identified as approximately 20-40% of individuals show no change in VO2max , which may be due to the relatively homogeneous approach to implementing HIIT. PURPOSE: This study tested the effects of HIIT prescribed using ventilatory threshold (VT) on changes in VO2max and cycling performance. METHODS: Fourteen active men and women (age and VO2max  = 27 ± 8 year and 38 ± 4 mL/kg/min) underwent nine sessions of HIIT, and 14 additional men and women (age and VO2max  = 22 ± 3 year and 40 ± 5 mL/kg/min) served as controls...
June 19, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Nicolas Babault, Maxime Poisson, Guiseppe Cimadoro, Carole Cometti, Christos Païzis
Nowadays, fixed gear competitions on outdoor circuits such as criteriums are regularly organized worldwide. To date, no study has investigated this alternative form of cycling. The purpose of the present study was to examine fixed gear performance indexes and to characterize physiological determinants of fixed gear cyclists. This study was carried out in two parts. Part 1 (n = 36) examined correlations between performance indexes obtained during a real fixed gear criterium (time trial, fastest laps, averaged lap time during races, fatigue indexes) and during a sprint track time trial...
June 17, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Russ Best, Stephen Payton, Iain Spears, Florence Riera, Nicolas Berger
This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to assess studies which have investigated cooling methodologies, their timing and effects, on endurance exercise performance in trained athletes (Category 3; VO2max ≥ 55 mL·kg·min-1 ) in hot environmental conditions (≥28 °C). Meta-analyses were performed to quantify the effects of timings and methods of application, with a narrative review of the evidence also provided. A computer-assisted database search was performed for articles investigating the effects of cooling on endurance performance and accompanying physiological and perceptual responses...
February 2, 2018: Sports
Daniel Ramskov, Sten Rasmussen, Henrik Sørensen, Erik Thorlund Parner, Martin Lind, Rasmus Nielsen
Study Design Randomized clinical trial, etiology. Background Training intensity and volume have been proposed to be associated with specific running-related injuries. If such an association exists, secondary preventive measures could be initiated by clinicians based on symptoms of a specific injury diagnosis. Objectives To test the following hypotheses: (i) A running schedule focusing on intensity will increase the risk of sustaining Achilles tendinopathy, gastrocnemius injuries and plantar fasciitis compared with hypothesized volume-related injuries...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
Michael E Hales, John D Johnson
PURPOSE: The study investigated different sport field properties influence on muscular recruitment patterns and metabolic response during a series of running and agility drills. METHODS: Eleven male athletes were fitted with a standard multi-purpose training shoe. The test protocol consisting of four high-intensity trials with 60 seconds rest between trials performed on two fields with different properties. Time-dependent field properties were recorded using ASTM protocol (F-1936)...
June 12, 2018: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Vicente J Clemente-Suárez, Ricardo J Fernandes, Kelly de Jesus, Jailton G Pelarigo, Juan J Arroyo-Toledo, J Paulo Vilas-Boas
BACKGROUND: The purpose of the present research was to analyze the modifications on aerobic swimming performance indicators after performing traditional and reverse training periodizations (TTP and RTP, respectively). METHODS: Seventeen trained swimmers were divided into two groups: one group (N.=7) performed 10 weeks of TTP (based on high volumes and an increased intensity during the program) and the second one (N.=10) was involved in a similar period of RTP (based on low volumes and high intensity during the entire program)...
June 2018: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Daniel E Brown, Peter T Katzmarzyk, Lincoln A Gotshalk
BACKGROUND: Obesity, particularly in Native Hawaiians, is an important health risk. A possible contributing factor to obesity is reduced physical activity levels. AIM: This study investigates the relationship between measured levels of physical activity and body composition in two grade cohorts of school children of Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander (NHPI) and non-NHPI ethnicity. METHODS: A sample of 105 Kindergarteners and third graders were measured for adiposity, physical fitness, and physical activity levels...
May 2018: Annals of Human Biology
Graham R Scott, Kevin H Guo, Neal J Dawson
Mitochondria play a central role in aerobic performance. Studies aimed at elucidating how evolved variation in mitochondrial physiology contributes to adaptive variation in aerobic performance can therefore provide a unique and powerful lens to understanding the evolution of complex physiological traits. Here, we review our ongoing work on the importance of changes in mitochondrial quantity and quality to adaptive variation in aerobic performance in high-altitude deer mice. Whole-organism aerobic capacity in hypoxia (VO2max) increases in response to hypoxia acclimation in this species, but high-altitude populations have evolved consistently greater VO2max than populations from low altitude...
June 4, 2018: Integrative and Comparative Biology
Rodrigo Fernández-Verdejo, Sudip Bajpeyi, Eric Ravussin, José E Galgani
Metabolic flexibility to lipid (MetFlex-lip) is the capacity to adapt lipid oxidation to lipid availability. Hypothetically, impaired MetFlex-lip in skeletal muscle induces accumulation of lipid metabolites that interfere insulin signaling. Our aim was to compare MetFlex-lip during exercise in subjects with low (Low_IS) vs. high (High_IS) insulin sensitivity. Twenty healthy men were designated as Low_IS or High_IS based on the median of the HOMA-IR. Groups had similar age, BMI and VO2 max. Subjects cycled at 50% VO2max until expending 650 kcal...
June 5, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Veridiana Mota Moreira, Claudinéia Conationi da Silva Franco, Kelly Valério Prates, Rodrigo Mello Gomes, Ana Maria Praxedes de Moraes, Tatiane Aparecida Ribeiro, Isabela Peixoto Martins, Carina Previate, Audrei Pavanello, Camila Cristina Ianoni Matiusso, Douglas Lopes Almeida, Flávio Andrade Francisco, Ananda Malta, Laize Peron Tófolo, Sandra da Silva Silveira, Lucas Paulo Jacinto Saavedra, Katia Machado, Paulo Henrique Olivieri da Silva, Gabriel S Fabrício, Kesia Palma-Rigo, Helenir Medri de Souza, Flaviane de Fátima Silva, Giuliana Regina Biazi, Taís Susane Pereira, Elaine Vieira, Rosiane Aparecida Miranda, Júlio Cezar de Oliveira, Luiz Delmar da Costa Lima, Wilson Rinaldi, Maria Ida Ravanelli, Paulo Cezar de Freitas Mathias
Aerobic exercise training can improve insulin sensitivity in many tissues; however, the relationship among exercise, insulin, and cancer cell growth is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that aerobic exercise training begun during adolescence can attenuate Walker 256 tumor growth in adult rats and alter insulin secretion. Thirty-day-old male Wistar rats engaged in treadmill running for 8 weeks, 3 days/week, 44 min/day, at 55-65% VO2max until they were 90 days old (TC, Trained Control). An equivalently aged group was kept inactive during the same period (SC, Sedentary Control)...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Fairuz Boujibar, Tristan Bonnevie, David Debeaumont, Michael Bubenheim, Antoine Cuvellier, Christophe Peillon, Francis-Edouard Gravier, Jean-Marc Baste
Background: Thoracic surgery is currently the optimal treatment for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, it may be responsible for numerous postoperative complications and is often used in patients with multi co morbidities. In recent years, the optimization of a patient's physical capacity before surgery has been the subject of several studies. The objective of this study was to determine whether participation in a prehabilitation program would improve outcomes after surgery and lower morbidity according to the Clavien-Dindo classification...
April 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Shanhu Qiu, Edit Bosnyák, Gunnar Treff, Jürgen Michael Steinacker, Andreas Michael Nieß, Karsten Krüger, Frank Christoph Mooren, Martina Zügel, Uwe Schumann
There is a growing interest in exploring irisin response to acute exercise; however, the associations of acute exercise-induced irisin release with training status and exercise mode are not fully understood. This study was primarily designed to evaluate these associations. Sixteen healthy adults (8 trained versus 8 untrained) underwent a bout of cycling at 80% of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max ) for 50 min, with blood drawn pre-, 10-, and 180-min post-exercise. Another 17 healthy adults performed 2 bouts of graded exercise (cycling and running) until exhaustion on separate days using a randomized cross-over design, with blood taken pre-, 0-, 10-, and 60-min post-exercise...
May 31, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Christopher A Wolff, Adam R Konopka, Miranda K Suer, Todd A Trappe, Leonard A Kaminsky, Matthew P Harber
BACKGROUND: It is unclear to what extent an improved skeletal muscle phenotype influences maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) when changes in cardiopulmonary function are limited. Thus, to primarily target skeletal muscle adaptations, we employed an alternating single-leg knee extension exercise training protocol and evaluated the impact on skeletal muscle morphology and whole body exercise capacity. METHODS: Eight sedentary volunteers (20±1 y; VO2max: 38.4±2.6 mL...
May 29, 2018: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Alejandro Javaloyes, Jose Manuel Sarabia, Robert Patrick Lamberts, Manuel Moya-Ramon
PURPOSE: Road cycling is a sport with extreme physiological demands. Therefore, there is a need to find new strategies to improve performance. Heart rate variability (HRV) has been suggested as an effective alternative for prescribing training load against predefined training programs. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of training prescription based on HRV in road cycling performance. METHODS: Seventeen well-trained cyclists participated in this study...
May 29, 2018: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Anne Z Beethe, Elizabeth F Nagle, Mita Lovalekar, Takashi Nagai, Bradley C Nindl, Christopher Connaboy
PURPOSE: The current study was designed to examine strength, range of motion (ROM), anthropometric, and physiological contributions to novice surface combat swimming (sCS) performance, and establish differences from freestyle swimming (FS) performance to further understand the transition of FS to sCS performance. METHODS: Thirteen competitive swimmers (7 males, 6 females; 27.7±2.3 years; 176.2±2.6 cm; 75.4±3.9 kg) completed eight testing sessions consisting of the following: physiological land-based measurements for maximal anaerobic and aerobic capacity and upper and lower extremity strength and ROM, a sCS anaerobic capacity swim test measuring peak and mean force and fatigue index, two aerobic capacity tests measuring maximal aerobic capacity for both FS and sCS, and four 500m performance swims for time, one FS and three sCS...
May 29, 2018: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Martin J MacInnis, Aaron C Q Thomas, Stuart M Phillips
PURPOSE: The mean power output (MPO) from a 60-min time trial (TT) - also known as "functional threshold power" or "FTP" - is a standard measure of cycling performance; however, shorter performance tests are desirable to reduce the burden of performance testing. We sought to determine the reliability of 4-min and 20-min TTs and the extent to which these short TTs were associated with 60-min MPO. METHODS: Trained male cyclists (n = 8; age = 25 ± 5 years; VO2max = 71 ± 5 mL/kg/min) performed two 4-min TTs, two 20-min TTs, and one 60-min TT...
May 29, 2018: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Haakon Breien Benestad, Kristin Larsen Sand, Jo Christiansen Bruusgaard
According to the recommendations by The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), people need to exercise in long sessions, performed at high intensity, to achieve maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max , "Fitness") and muscle strength. This implies more than the 30-minute daily activity generally recommended by health authorities. But if one wants to stay fit, how often, how long and how intense should the training be to give a satisfactory result?. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved...
May 26, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Jo Corbett, Rebecca A Rendell, Heather C Massey, Joseph T Costello, Michael J Tipton
AIM: To investigate inter-individual variance in adaptive responses to heat acclimation (HA). METHODS: 17 males (VO2max =58.8(8.4) mL·kg-1 ·min-1 ) undertook 10-days (exercise + heat-stress [40 °C, 50%RH]) HA. Adaptation was assessed by heat stress tests (HST; 60-minutes cycling, 35% peak power output) pre- and post-HA. RESULTS: Inter-individual variability was evident in adaptive responses e.g. mean(range) reduction in end-exercise Tre = -0...
May 2018: Journal of Thermal Biology
Stephen J Carter, David R Bryan, William H Neumeier, Stephen P Glasser, Gary R Hunter
The functional implications of serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), a marker of oxidative stress, on hemodynamic parameters at rest and during physical exertion are unclear. The aims of this investigation were to examine the independent associations of TNF-α on myocardial oxygen demand at rest and during submaximal exercise, while also evaluating the association of TNF-α on exercise tolerance. Forty, postmenopausal women, provided blood samples and completed a modified-Balke protocol to measure maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max )...
2018: International Journal of Exercise Science
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