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Sputum cytology

Yongsheng Guo, Yingxue Zou, Jia Zhai, Jiao Li, Jie Liu, Cuian Ma, Xingnan Jin, Liansheng Zhao
BACKGROUND: To identify inflammatory cell types by phenotypic analysis of the inflammatory cells in the induced sputum. METHODS: This retrospective study included 1232 children and infants, who were assigned into mild/moderate groups (326) and severe group (602) by clinical symptom scores. Phenotypes of sputum inflammatory cells were analyzed using liquid-based thin-cytologic test and eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN) was quantified by ELISA. RESULTS: Blood eosinophil count, serum total IgE level, and allergen detection rate were significantly higher in the severe group...
January 15, 2019: Pediatric Research
Bhagaban Behera, Rathin Joshi, Anil Vishnu G K, Sanjay Bhalerao, Hardik J Pandya
In human-exhaled breath, more than 3000 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are found which are directly or indirectly related to internal biochemical processes in the body. Electronic noses (E-noses) could play a potential role in screening/analyzing various respiratory and systemic diseases by studying breath signatures. E-nose integrates sensor array and an artificial neural network that responds to specific patterns of VOCs and thus can act as a non-invasive technology for disease monitoring. Gold standard blood glucose monitoring for diabetes diagnostics is invasive and highly uncomfortable...
January 8, 2019: Journal of Breath Research
Meiling Sheng, Zhaohui Dong, Yanping Xie
Background: Lung cancer is a severe cancer with a high death rate. The 5-year survival rate for stage III lung cancer is much lower than stage I. Early detection and intervention of lung cancer patients can significantly increase their survival time. However, conventional lung cancer-screening methods, such as chest X-rays, sputum cytology, positron-emission tomography (PET), low-dose computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging, and gene-mutation, -methylation, and -expression biomarkers of lung tissue, are invasive, radiational, or expensive...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
Bernd Kowall, Karl-Heinz Jöckel, Andreas Stang
Screening studies on conventional chest X‑rays and on sputum cytology did not show a reduction in lung cancer mortality. However, screening by low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) is more promising because it allows tumor detection in early stages at fairly low radiation levels. No reduction of lung cancer mortality was found in two small, randomized clinical studies on LDCT screening in Europe. However, in the by far largest LDCT trial, the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) in the USA, a relative reduction of lung cancer mortality by 20...
October 31, 2018: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
Dharmendra Kumar Jha, Anshu Kumar Jha, Rajeev Kumar Singh
A patient complained of fever on and off, difficulty in swallowing and cough (with scanty expectoration) since one and a half months and weight loss over 2 months. On examination, pallor was found to be present. Then ultrasonography of abdomen was done and it showed mesenteric and retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy. Sputum for acid-fast Bacilli was examined and found to be negative but despite this, based on the epidemiological data, antitubercular therapy (ATT) was started but after 2 weeks no clinical improvement was found...
November 2018: Oxford Medical Case Reports
X J Wu, M Li, Q Y Zhan
Lipoid pneumonia (LP) is an uncommon form of pneumonia that is characterized by the presence of intra-alveolar lipid and lipid-laden macrophages on microscopy. It categorized as exogenous lipoid pneumonia (ExLP) and endogenous lipoid pneumonia (EnLP). Exogenous lipoid pneumonia caused by inhalation of liposuction substances (animal fat, vegetable oil, or mineral oil), mostly, in adult cases, they were medicines for constipation or rhinopharyngitis. Most of these patients showed mild clinical manifestations, and chronic medical condition...
October 18, 2018: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
Subhabrata Moitra, Jayashree Ghosh, Jannatul Firdous, Arghya Bandyopadhyay, Monojit Mondal, Jayanta Kumar Biswas, Subhashis Sahu, Soumya Bhattacharyya, Saibal Moitra
BACKGROUND: Despite the available clinico-epidemiological evidence of heavy metal-associated respiratory health hazards among metal arc-welders, experimental confirmation of such an association is lacking. METHODS: In this study, we recruited 15 metal arc-welders and 10 referent workers without direct exposure. We assessed respiratory health through a questionnaire and spirometry; estimated manganese, nickel and cadmium levels in blood, urine and induced sputum; performed differential counts of sputum leucocytes and measured plasma malondialdehyde (MDA)...
October 14, 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Xinqiang Ji, Yun Fang, Jing Liu
Background: Lung cancer is the primary cause of death among all cancers in China. However, clinical and pathological features and trends among patients with lung cancer in mainland China are largely unknown. This study analyzed the clinicopathological characteristics and trends of patients newly diagnosed as lung cancer and underwent surgery in a tertiary cancer hospital of north China between 2000 and 2013. Methods: Data were collected retrospectively from medical records...
July 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Moegi Komura, Shigehiro Yagishita, Kota Nakamura, Naoko Arano, Tomohito Takeshige, Keiko Muraki, Osamu Nagashima, Hiroshi Izumi, Shigeki Tomita, Shinichi Sasaki, Kazuhisa Takahashi
A 28-year-old woman who was 34 weeks pregnant was admitted with complaints of cough and blood-stained sputum. After delivery of the baby at 37 weeks gestation, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a tumor in the right lung and a 15-mm brain metastasis. A diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma was made, cT4N3M1b (stage IV disease) by pleural fluid cytology. Additional testing for anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion protein showed a strongly positive result, which was then confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization...
September 2018: In Vivo
Bala Prabhakar, Pravin Shende, Steffi Augustine
Cancer is one of most fatal forms of disease with rapid, abnormal and uncontrolled division of cells which spreads into different organs in the body. The primary aim of this review is to showcase the current and emerging diagnostic techniques that are used in lung cancer detection. Lung cancer is a leading cause of death among smokers and it has been emerging in non-smokers due to passive smoke inhalation by non-smokers. The mortality rate of patients with lung cancer is very high due to the change in lifestyle and environmental factors...
October 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Xu Yang, Haining Li, Qianli Ma, Qiao Zhang, Changzheng Wang
Neutrophilic asthma (NA) is an important asthma inflammatory phenotype associated with disease severity, airflow limitation, and steroid resistance, and its mechanism is still uncertain. Evidences suggest a potential role for bacteria in its pathogenesis, but, so far, this remains poorly understood. We sought to investigate airway bacterial burden, community composition, and inflammatory response in NA. Fifty-four stable asthmatics without infection were enrolled and separated into either NA group (n = 20) or non-NA group (n = 34)...
2018: BioMed Research International
Haseeb A Bhatti, Shueeta Kumari, Mohammad Hasan, Amber Siddiqui, Syed Maaz Tariq, Syed Ali Haider
Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is the most common congenital heart disease (CHD) with an incidence of four in every 1000 live births in Pakistan. Classically, these children present with central cyanosis in early life; however, milder defects may remain asymptomatic for months or even years. We report a malnourished and anemic teenage male, who was admitted with shortness of breath, hemoptysis, fever, palpitations, and weight loss. On examination, vitals were stable, except for oxygen saturation, which was 84% on pulse-oximeter...
June 5, 2018: Curēus
Sule Canberk, Diana Montezuma, Ozlem Aydın, Mehmet Polat Demirhas, Barkın Denizci, Meryem Akbas, Can Caliskan, Fatma Tokat, Umit Ince, Fernando Schmitt
BACKGROUND: In 2016, the Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology (PSC) issued a new classification scheme for respiratory cytology. We aim to evaluate our samples according to this classification and to assess risk of malignancy and diagnostic yield of different cytological modalities. METHODS: Respiratory specimens (sputum, bronchial wash/brush, BAL and FNA) obtained between 2007 and 2016 were reclassified according to PSC guidelines. Risk of malignancy for each diagnostic category was determined...
September 2018: Diagnostic Cytopathology
Elvan Şentürk, Savaş Özsu, Erhan Çapkın, Atilla Türkyilmaz
A 56-year-old male patient presented with history of complaints of night sweats, short ness of breath, cough and yellow sputum, fever. There was a history of tumor neurosis factor-alpha (etanercept) due to ankylosing spondylitis. Postero-anterior chest X-ray; the right sinus was blunt, the right diaphragm had linear opacity compatible with atelectasis extending from the diaphragm to the periphery, left pleural effusion, left middle basal paracardiac opacity. In thorax tomography; pleural effusion and pericardial effusion and compressive atelectasis in the adjacent lung parenchyma were detected...
March 2018: Tüberküloz Ve Toraks
Dekel Shlomi, Nir Peled, Yehuda A Schwarz, Guy W Soo Hoo, Raj K Batra, Gershon Fink, Tal Kaplan, Lahav Cohen, Scott Mollan, William R Burfeind
BACKGROUND: Early detection decreases lung cancer mortality. The Target-FISH Lung Cancer Detection (LCD) Test is a non-invasive test designed to detect chromosomal changes (deletion or amplification) via Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH) in sputum specimens from persons suspected of having lung cancer. We evaluated the performance of the LCD test in patients with highly suspicious pulmonary nodules who were scheduled for a biopsy procedure. METHODS: Induced sputum was collected from patients who were scheduled for biopsy of a solitary pulmonary nodule (0...
October 2018: Cancer Genetics
Arshad H Rahmani, Ahmad Almatroudi, Ali Yousif Babiker, Amjad A Khan, Mohammed A Alsahly
BACKGROUND: Cement contains various types of chemicals in addition to lime and silica, and such chemicals cause different health complications and pathogenesis in addition to respiratory disorders. The most important occupational hazards for cement workers are allergy and complication related to respiratory system. AIM: The current study was performed by analysing the questionnaire distributed among the workers and also by the sputum collected from them to study the general health conditions and other life activities...
June 20, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
Mohammed Abdalla, Pavel Sinyagovskiy, Wiam Mohamed, Amro Abdelghani
A 58 years old male who was admitted to the intensive care unit for septic shock secondary to pneumonia, he has Crohn's disease currently treated with Vedolizumab and previously with infliximab. He was started on broad spectrum antibiotics and vasopressors for treatment of septic shock without improvement in the following days, sputum & blood cultures were negative. Bronchoscopy was done for non-resolving pneumonia work up, broncheoalveolar lavage smears and cultures were negative for bacteria, tuberculosis and Fungi...
2018: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
Jinyoung Jeon, Tae-Jung Kim, Hong Sik Park, Kyo-Young Lee
We present a case of 55-year-old man who complained of dyspnea and sputum for a month. He was an ex-smoker with a history of prostate cancer and pulmonary tuberculosis. Chest radiographs revealed bilateral pleural effusions of a small to moderate amount. Pigtail catheters were inserted for drainage. The pleural fluid consisted of large clusters and tightly cohesive groups of malignant cells, which however could not be ascribed to prostate cancer with certainty. We performed immunocytochemical panel studies to determine the origin of cancer metastasis...
July 2018: Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine
Miriam C N Eller, Karina P Vergani, Beatriz M Saraiva-Romanholo, Leila Antonangelo, Claudio Leone, Joaquim C Rodrigues
BACKGROUND: The phenotypes and endotypes of severe therapy-resistant asthma (STRA) have not been fully elucidated in children. The aim of the present study was to investigate inflammatory markers in the induced sputum of children with STRA and to compare them with those present in a group of children who achieved control. METHODS: A prospective cohort of children (6-18 years of age) diagnosed with severe asthma (GINA criteria) who had undergone treatment for at least 6 months was comprehensively followed for 3 months...
September 2018: Pediatric Pulmonology
Yun Su, Hong Bin Fang, Feng Jiang
Background: Methylated genes detected in sputum are promise biomarkers for lung cancer. Yet the current PCR technologies for quantification of DNA methylation and diagnostic value of the sputum biomarkers are not sufficient to be used for lung cancer early detection. The emerging droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) is a straightforward means for precise, direct, and absolute quantification of nucleic acids. Here, we investigate whether ddPCR can sensitively and robustly quantify DNA methylation in sputum for more precise diagnosis of lung cancer...
2018: Clinical Epigenetics
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