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Disgust and anxiety

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766462/disgust-and-fear-common-emotions-between-eating-and-phobic-disorders
#1
Rami Bou Khalil, Ibrahim R Bou-Orm, Yara Tabet, Lama Souaiby, Hayat Azouri
Eating disorders (ED) are prevalent mental illnesses composed mainly of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorders. Anxiety disorders are another set of mental illnesses, with phobic disorder (PD) being the most prevalent disorder. ED and PD are highly comorbid. The aim of this study is to assess, in 131 individuals attending an outpatient clinic for different health issues, the level of fear related to situations generating avoidance such as in social anxiety and specific phobias according to the fear questionnaire (FQ), the level of disgust according to the disgust scale (DS-R) and the vulnerability towards ED according to the SCOFF scale to demonstrate that high levels of both fear and disgust increase the vulnerability towards ED...
May 15, 2018: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758391/the-impact-bias-in-self-and-others-affective-and-empathic-forecasting-in-individuals-with-social-anxiety
#2
Kimberly A Arditte Hall, Jutta Joormann, Matthias Siemer, Kiara R Timpano
People tend to overestimate the intensity and duration of affect (i.e., impact bias) when making predictions about their own and others' responding, termed affective and empathic forecasting, respectively. Research links impact biases to clinical symptoms of affective disorders, but little work has been done to examine how social anxiety is related to affective and empathic forecasting biases. The current investigation included two studies examining these associations in independent samples of young adults with dimensionally distributed social anxiety symptoms...
May 7, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704965/changes-in-problematic-anger-shame-and-disgust-in-anxious-and-depressed-adults-undergoing-treatment-for-emotion-dysregulation
#3
Andrada D Neacsiu, Joscelyn Rompogren, Jeremy W Eberle, Kibby McMahon
Emotion dysregulation, the pervasive difficulty managing negative emotions, is a core problem across mood and anxiety disorders. Anger, shame, and disgust are particularly problematic emotions, impacting both disorder severity and treatment outcome. We previously found that a 16-week dialectical behavior therapy skills training group (DBT-ST) was superior to an activities-based support group (ASG) in decreasing emotion dysregulation in 44 adults with high emotion dysregulation who met diagnostic criteria for an anxiety or depressive disorder...
May 2018: Behavior Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683406/influence-of-anxiety-and-alexithymia-on-brain-activations-associated-with-the-perception-of-others-pain-in-autism
#4
Amandine Lassalle, Nicole R Zürcher, Carlo A Porro, Francesca Benuzzi, Loyse Hippolyte, Eric Lemonnier, Jakob Åsberg Johnels, Nouchine Hadjikhani
The circumstances under which empathy is altered in ASD remain unclear, as previous studies did not systematically find differences in brain activation between ASD and controls in empathy-eliciting paradigms, and did not always monitor whether differences were primarily due to ASD "per se", or to conditions overlapping with ASD, such as alexithymia and anxiety. Here, we collected fMRI data from 47 participants (22 ASD) viewing pictures depicting hands and feet of unknown others in painful, disgusting, or neutral situations...
April 23, 2018: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681806/temporal-processing-of-joyful-and-disgusting-food-pictures-by-women-with-an-eating-disorder
#5
Caroline Gagnon, Catherine Bégin, Vincent Laflamme, Simon Grondin
The present study used the presentation of food pictures and judgements about their duration to assess the emotions elicited by food in women suffering from an eating disorder (ED). Twenty-three women diagnosed with an ED, namely anorexia (AN) or bulimia nervosa (BN), and 23 healthy controls (HC) completed a temporal bisection task and a duration discrimination task. Intervals were marked with emotionally pre-rated pictures of joyful and disgusting food, and pictures of neutral objects. The results showed that, in the bisection task, AN women overestimated the duration of food pictures in comparison to neutral ones...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603117/neurocognitive-mechanisms-behind-emotional-attention-inverse-effects-of-anodal-tdcs-over-the-left-and-right-dlpfc-on-gaze-disengagement-from-emotional-faces
#6
Alvaro Sanchez-Lopez, Marie-Anne Vanderhasselt, Jens Allaert, Chris Baeken, Rudi De Raedt
BACKGROUND: Attention to relevant emotional information in the environment is an important process related to vulnerability and resilience for mood and anxiety disorders. In the present study, the effects of left and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (i.e., DLPFC) stimulation on attentional mechanisms of emotional processing were tested and contrasted. METHODS: A sample of 54 healthy participants received 20 min of active and sham anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (i...
March 30, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602534/an-investigation-of-emotion-recognition-training-to-reduce-symptoms-of-social-anxiety-in-adolescence
#7
Caroline Rawdon, Daria Murphy, Gillian Motyer, Marcus R Munafò, Ian Penton-Voak, Amanda Fitzgerald
This study aimed to examine the effect of emotion recognition training on social anxiety symptoms among adolescents, aged 15-18 years. The study included a screening session, which identified participants who scored above a cut-off on a self-report measure of social anxiety for enrolment into a randomized controlled trial (Clinical Trials ID: NCT02550379). Participants were randomized to an intervention condition designed to increase the perception of happiness over disgust in ambiguous facial expressions or a sham intervention control condition, and completed self-report measures of social anxiety, fear of negative evaluation, anxiety-related disorders, and depressive symptoms...
February 8, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599852/mindfulness-dampens-cardiac-responses-to-motion-scenes-of-violence
#8
Artur Brzozowski, Steven M Gillespie, Louise Dixon, Ian J Mitchell
Mindfulness is linked with improved regulatory processes of attention and emotion. The potential benefits of mindfulness are vast, including more positive emotional states and diminished arousal in response to emotional stimuli. This study aims to expand of the current knowledge of the mechanisms of mindfulness by relating the latter to cardiovascular processes. The paper describes two studies which investigated the relationship of trait mindfulness to self-report measures of emotions elicited during a violent video clip and cardiovascular responses to the clip...
2018: Mindfulness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29479321/trypophobia-what-do-we-know-so-far-a-case-report-and-comprehensive-review-of-the-literature
#9
Juan Carlos Martínez-Aguayo, Renzo C Lanfranco, Marcelo Arancibia, Elisa Sepúlveda, Eva Madrid
In this article, we describe the case of a girl who suffers from a phobia to repetitive patterns, known as trypophobia. This condition has not yet been recognised by diagnostic taxonomies such as the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Trypophobia usually involves an intense and disproportionate fear towards holes, repetitive patterns, protrusions, etc., and, in general, images that present high-contrast energy at low and midrange spatial frequencies. It is commonly accompanied by neurovegetative symptoms...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458691/nightmare-themes-an-online-study-of-most-recent-nightmares-and-childhood-nightmares
#10
Michael Schredl, Anja S Göritz
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Even though the common diagnostic criteria (ICSD-3, DSM-5) acknowledge that nightmares do not only contain anxiety/fear (definition of the ICD-10) but also other emotions such as grief, disgust, and anger, the definition of a nightmare still focuses on threats to survival, security, or physical integrity. However, empirical studies on nightmare content in larger samples are scarce. METHODS: The current study elicited 1,216 of the most recent nightmares including childhood nightmares of a population-based sample...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413820/the-influence-of-non-clinical-eating-related-psychopathology-on-the-recognition-of-emotion-from-static-faces-and-realistic-social-interactions
#11
Deborah J Wallis, Nathan Ridout, Emma Sharpe
Emotion recognition deficits have consistently been reported in clinical and sub-clinical disordered eating. However, most studies have used static faces, despite the dynamic nature of everyday social interactions. The current aims were to confirm previous findings of emotion recognition deficits in non-clinical disordered eating and to determine if these deficits would be more evident in response to static as compared to dynamic emotional stimuli. We also aimed to establish if these emotion recognition deficits could be explained by comorbid psychopathology (depression, anxiety or alexithymia)...
January 31, 2018: Eating Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261562/mechanisms-of-attentional-selection-bias-for-threatening-emotions-of-anger-and-disgust-in-individuals-with-high-trait-anxiety
#12
Luyao Xia, Lixia Cui, Qin Zhang, Xiaofei Dong, Guangyuan Shi
There are still some controversies that attentional bias to negative emotions in individuals with high-trait anxiety (HTA), as compare with those with low-trait anxiety (LTA), occurs in the engagement or disengagement facet of attentional selectivity and whether this attentional bias is affected by negative emotional types. In this study, we explored the different attentional selectivity mechanisms for threatening emotions of anger and disgust between individuals with HTA and LTA using the variant attentional-probe paradigm...
March 7, 2018: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249899/from-fantasy-to-reality-managing-biomedical-risk-emotions-in-and-through-fictional-media
#13
Marci D Cottingham, Jill A Fisher
In this article, we explore the role that fictional media (film and television) play in evoking and managing collective and individual anxieties towards biomedical research. We draw on two data sets: fictional media depictions of human research subjects and interviews with Phase I clinical trial participants conducted in the USA in 2013. We show how fictional media provide an outlet for collective uncertainties surrounding biomedical research through depictions that mock and dehumanise research participants, using such emotions of shock, disgust, pity, amusement and humour...
2017: Health, Risk & Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164511/effect-of-partners-disgust-responses-on-psychological-wellbeing-in-cancer-patients
#14
Haffiezhah A Azlan, Paul G Overton, Jane Simpson, Philip A Powell
The aim of this study was to explore quantitatively the relationship between disgust responses in cancer patients and their partners, and in turn their relationship to patients' psychological well-being. We recruited 50 participants with heterogeneous cancer diagnoses and their partners from cancer-related groups (e.g., charities). Patients completed questionnaires to determine levels of disgust propensity, disgust sensitivity, self-disgust, and symptoms of anxiety and depression. Disgust propensity and sensitivity were also assessed in their partners...
December 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065198/disgust-but-not-health-anxiety-graphic-warning-labels-reduce-motivated-attention-in-smokers-a-study-of-p300-and-late-positive-potential-responses
#15
Justinn R Cochran, Robert R Kydd, John M J Lee, Natalie Walker, Nathan S Consedine
Background: Graphic health warning labels (GHWLs) on tobacco products attempt to leverage avoidance-promoting emotions, such as anxiety and disgust, to encourage cessation. Prior studies have relied on self-report or attentional metrics that may not accurately illuminate GHWLs' ability to motivate change. This report evaluates the impact of disgust- and anxiety-based GHWLs on electroencephalograph (EEG) measures of motivated attention among two groups of smokers-those that report higher versus lower cigarette dependence...
July 7, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061602/cognitive-bias-modification-for-social-anxiety-in-adults-who-stutter-a-feasibility-study-of-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#16
Jan McAllister, Sally Gascoine, Amy Carroll, Kate Humby, Mary Kingston, Lee Shepstone, Helen Risebro, Bundy Mackintosh, Tammy Davidson Thompson, Jo Hodgekins
OBJECTIVE: To determine the feasibility and acceptability of a computerised treatment for social anxiety disorder for adults who stutter including identification of recruitment, retention and completion rates, large cost drivers and selection of most appropriate outcome measure(s) to inform the design of a future definitive trial. DESIGN: Two-group parallel design (treatment vs placebo), double-blinded feasibility study. PARTICIPANTS: 31 adults who stutter...
October 22, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947180/oxytocin-selectively-modulates-brain-processing-of-disgust-in-huntington-s-disease-gene-carriers
#17
Izelle Labuschagne, Govinda Poudel, Catarina Kordsachia, Qizhu Wu, Hannah Thomson, Nellie Georgiou-Karistianis, Julie C Stout
People with Huntington's disease (HD) exhibit altered processing of emotional information, especially disgust and other negative emotions. These impairments are likely due to the effects of the disease on underlying brain networks. We examined whether oxytocin, when given intranasally, would normalise aberrant brain reactivity to emotional faces in participants with the gene-expansion for HD. In a double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over design, we measured brain activity, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, whilst nine medication-free HD carriers, and ten control participants viewed emotional (disgust, fear, angry, sad, surprise, happy) and neutral faces, following acute intranasal oxytocin (24IU) and placebo...
September 23, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887795/social-anxiety-and-attentional-biases-a-top-down-contribution
#18
Hannah L Boal, B K Christensen, S C Goodhew
Selective attention toward threatening facial expressions has been found to precipitate and maintain symptoms of social anxiety. However, the automaticity of this bias is under debate. In the present study, we aimed to test whether top-down (controlled) engagement and disengagement of attention toward threatening faces is associated with social anxiety. This was examined by testing the impact of a secondary working memory (WM) load on attentional biases. In a variation of the dot-probe task, participants' attention was initially cued to the left or right of fixation before an upright face paired with an inverted face was presented (displaying a disgust or neutral expression), and participants responded to a subsequently presented probe...
January 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874542/self-report-captures-27-distinct-categories-of-emotion-bridged-by-continuous-gradients
#19
Alan S Cowen, Dacher Keltner
Emotions are centered in subjective experiences that people represent, in part, with hundreds, if not thousands, of semantic terms. Claims about the distribution of reported emotional states and the boundaries between emotion categories-that is, the geometric organization of the semantic space of emotion-have sparked intense debate. Here we introduce a conceptual framework to analyze reported emotional states elicited by 2,185 short videos, examining the richest array of reported emotional experiences studied to date and the extent to which reported experiences of emotion are structured by discrete and dimensional geometries...
September 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866131/increased-emotional-reactivity-to-affective-pictures-in-patients-with-skin-picking-disorder-evidence-from-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#20
Albert Wabnegger, Sonja Übel, Gerald Suchar, Anne Schienle
The predominant symptom of skin-picking disorder (SPD) is the recurrent picking of one's own skin, leading to tissue damage and discomfort. Psychological disorder models suggest an enhanced emotional reactivity in patients with SPD, which contributes to the maintenance of symptoms. This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment analyzed both subjective and neuronal responses to affective pictures (categories: fear, disgust, happiness, neutral) in 19 women with SPD and 16 healthy controls. Also, affective traits (disgust, anxiety, depression) were assessed...
January 15, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
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