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Disgust and anxiety

Juan Carlos Martínez-Aguayo, Renzo C Lanfranco, Marcelo Arancibia, Elisa Sepúlveda, Eva Madrid
In this article, we describe the case of a girl who suffers from a phobia to repetitive patterns, known as trypophobia. This condition has not yet been recognised by diagnostic taxonomies such as the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Trypophobia usually involves an intense and disproportionate fear towards holes, repetitive patterns, protrusions, etc., and, in general, images that present high-contrast energy at low and midrange spatial frequencies. It is commonly accompanied by neurovegetative symptoms...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Michael Schredl, Anja S Göritz
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Even though the common diagnostic criteria (ICSD-3, DSM-5) acknowledge that nightmares do not only contain anxiety/fear (definition of the ICD-10) but also other emotions such as grief, disgust, and anger, the definition of a nightmare still focuses on threats to survival, security, or physical integrity. However, empirical studies on nightmare content in larger samples are scarce. METHODS: The current study elicited 1,216 of the most recent nightmares including childhood nightmares of a population-based sample...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
Deborah J Wallis, Nathan Ridout, Emma Sharpe
Emotion recognition deficits have consistently been reported in clinical and sub-clinical disordered eating. However, most studies have used static faces, despite the dynamic nature of everyday social interactions. The current aims were to confirm previous findings of emotion recognition deficits in non-clinical disordered eating and to determine if these deficits would be more evident in response to static as compared to dynamic emotional stimuli. We also aimed to establish if these emotion recognition deficits could be explained by comorbid psychopathology (depression, anxiety or alexithymia)...
January 31, 2018: Eating Behaviors
Luyao Xia, Lixia Cui, Qin Zhang, Xiaofei Dong, Guangyuan Shi
There are still some controversies that attentional bias to negative emotions in individuals with high-trait anxiety (HTA), as compare with those with low-trait anxiety (LTA), occurs in the engagement or disengagement facet of attentional selectivity and whether this attentional bias is affected by negative emotional types. In this study, we explored the different attentional selectivity mechanisms for threatening emotions of anger and disgust between individuals with HTA and LTA using the variant attentional-probe paradigm...
December 19, 2017: Neuroreport
Marci D Cottingham, Jill A Fisher
In this article, we explore the role that fictional media (film and television) play in evoking and managing collective and individual anxieties towards biomedical research. We draw on two data sets: fictional media depictions of human research subjects and interviews with Phase I clinical trial participants conducted in the USA in 2013. We show how fictional media provide an outlet for collective uncertainties surrounding biomedical research through depictions that mock and dehumanise research participants, using such emotions of shock, disgust, pity, amusement and humour...
2017: Health, Risk & Society
Haffiezhah A Azlan, Paul G Overton, Jane Simpson, Philip A Powell
The aim of this study was to explore quantitatively the relationship between disgust responses in cancer patients and their partners, and in turn their relationship to patients' psychological well-being. We recruited 50 participants with heterogeneous cancer diagnoses and their partners from cancer-related groups (e.g., charities). Patients completed questionnaires to determine levels of disgust propensity, disgust sensitivity, self-disgust, and symptoms of anxiety and depression. Disgust propensity and sensitivity were also assessed in their partners...
December 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings
Justinn R Cochran, Robert R Kydd, John M J Lee, Natalie Walker, Nathan S Consedine
Background: Graphic health warning labels (GHWLs) on tobacco products attempt to leverage avoidance-promoting emotions, such as anxiety and disgust, to encourage cessation. Prior studies have relied on self-report or attentional metrics that may not accurately illuminate GHWLs' ability to motivate change. This report evaluates the impact of disgust- and anxiety-based GHWLs on electroencephalograph (EEG) measures of motivated attention among two groups of smokers-those that report higher versus lower cigarette dependence...
July 7, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Jan McAllister, Sally Gascoine, Amy Carroll, Kate Humby, Mary Kingston, Lee Shepstone, Helen Risebro, Bundy Mackintosh, Tammy Davidson Thompson, Jo Hodgekins
OBJECTIVE: To determine the feasibility and acceptability of a computerised treatment for social anxiety disorder for adults who stutter including identification of recruitment, retention and completion rates, large cost drivers and selection of most appropriate outcome measure(s) to inform the design of a future definitive trial. DESIGN: Two-group parallel design (treatment vs placebo), double-blinded feasibility study. PARTICIPANTS: 31 adults who stutter...
October 22, 2017: BMJ Open
Izelle Labuschagne, Govinda Poudel, Catarina Kordsachia, Qizhu Wu, Hannah Thomson, Nellie Georgiou-Karistianis, Julie C Stout
People with Huntington's disease (HD) exhibit altered processing of emotional information, especially disgust and other negative emotions. These impairments are likely due to the effects of the disease on underlying brain networks. We examined whether oxytocin, when given intranasally, would normalise aberrant brain reactivity to emotional faces in participants with the gene-expansion for HD. In a double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over design, we measured brain activity, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, whilst nine medication-free HD carriers, and ten control participants viewed emotional (disgust, fear, angry, sad, surprise, happy) and neutral faces, following acute intranasal oxytocin (24IU) and placebo...
September 23, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Hannah L Boal, B K Christensen, S C Goodhew
Selective attention toward threatening facial expressions has been found to precipitate and maintain symptoms of social anxiety. However, the automaticity of this bias is under debate. In the present study, we aimed to test whether top-down (controlled) engagement and disengagement of attention toward threatening faces is associated with social anxiety. This was examined by testing the impact of a secondary working memory (WM) load on attentional biases. In a variation of the dot-probe task, participants' attention was initially cued to the left or right of fixation before an upright face paired with an inverted face was presented (displaying a disgust or neutral expression), and participants responded to a subsequently presented probe...
September 8, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Alan S Cowen, Dacher Keltner
Emotions are centered in subjective experiences that people represent, in part, with hundreds, if not thousands, of semantic terms. Claims about the distribution of reported emotional states and the boundaries between emotion categories-that is, the geometric organization of the semantic space of emotion-have sparked intense debate. Here we introduce a conceptual framework to analyze reported emotional states elicited by 2,185 short videos, examining the richest array of reported emotional experiences studied to date and the extent to which reported experiences of emotion are structured by discrete and dimensional geometries...
September 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Albert Wabnegger, Sonja Übel, Gerald Suchar, Anne Schienle
The predominant symptom of skin-picking disorder (SPD) is the recurrent picking of one's own skin, leading to tissue damage and discomfort. Psychological disorder models suggest an enhanced emotional reactivity in patients with SPD, which contributes to the maintenance of symptoms. This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment analyzed both subjective and neuronal responses to affective pictures (categories: fear, disgust, happiness, neutral) in 19 women with SPD and 16 healthy controls. Also, affective traits (disgust, anxiety, depression) were assessed...
January 15, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Bunmi O Olatunji, Hannah Berg, Rebecca C Cox, Amber Billingsley
Experimental research has shown that conditioned disgust is resistant to extinction, which may account for the slower habituation to disgust relative to fear in contamination-based obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, few studies have examined the efficacy of interventions that may attenuate conditioned disgust responses. Studies of cognitive reappraisal have demonstrated that reinterpreting a stimulus can alter emotional responding. This technique is based on cognitive theories which suggest that anxiety disorders arise from biased cognitions; therefore, changing a person's thoughts will elicit durable changes in emotional responses...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Erica Simon, Alicia E Meuret, Thomas Ritz
The autonomic regulation in blood-injection-injury (BII) phobia has received particular attention due to the unique link between fear and fainting in this anxiety disorder. However, systematic exploration of sympathetic and parasympathetic cardiac activity during exposure to phobia-relevant emotional stimuli has remained rare and inconclusive, including with regard to disgust, a frequent response to BII stimuli. Existing studies using respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) as a noninvasive index of parasympathetic cardiac activity also have not accounted sufficiently for effects of respiration...
June 30, 2017: Psychophysiology
Mona Lisa Schönfelder, Franz Xaver Bogner
The current loss of biodiversity has found its way into the media. Especially the loss of bees as pollinators has recently received much attention aiming to increase public awareness about the consequence of pollinator loss and strategies for protection. However, pollinating insects like bees often prompt considerable anxiety. Negative emotions such as fear and disgust often lead to lack of support for conservation and appropriate initiatives for protection. Our study monitored perceptions of bees in the contexts of conservation and danger bees possibly represent by applying a semantic differential using contrasting adjectives under the heading "I think bees are…"...
2017: PloS One
Bunmi O Olatunji, Thomas Armstrong, Lisa Elwood
Research suggests that disgust may be linked to the etiology of some anxiety-related disorders. The present investigation reviews this literature and employs separate meta-analyses of clinical group comparison and correlational studies to examine the association between disgust proneness and anxiety-related disorder symptoms. Meta-analysis of 43 group comparison studies revealed those high in anxiety disorder symptoms reported significantly more disgust proneness than those low in anxiety symptoms. Although this effect was not moderated by clinical versus analogue studies or type of disorder, larger group differences were observed for those high in anxiety symptoms associated with contagion concerns compared to those high in anxiety symptoms not associated with contagion concerns...
July 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
Katie Bell, Helen Coulthard, Diane Wildbur
This study aimed to assess the relationship between self-disgust and sensory processing within eating psychopathology. Five hundred and ninety-one women with a self-reported diagnosis of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa or who had no previous history of an eating disorder completed a battery of online questionnaires measuring disgust, emotion and sensory variables. Those with an eating disorder reported significantly higher rates of self-disgust than those with no history of disordered eating. In groups of women with self-reported bulimia, self-disgust was associated with sensation avoidance and sensation seeking...
September 2017: European Eating Disorders Review: the Journal of the Eating Disorders Association
Friederike Preusser, Jürgen Margraf, Armin Zlomuzica
Exposure therapy is highly effective in treating excessive fear related to specific objects and/or situations. However, patients with anxiety disorders often display a generalization of fear responses toward conceptually and perceptually related stimuli and situations. It is unclear whether the beneficial effects of exposure on fear reduction toward treated fear stimuli can extend to untreated fear stimuli. Here, we investigated whether basic principles of extinction generalization apply to exposure. Spider-phobic participants were randomly assigned to either two sessions of exposure treatment (n=23) with spiders or no-treatment (n=24)...
December 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Angela S Attwood, Kayleigh E Easey, Michael N Dalili, Andrew L Skinner, Andy Woods, Lana Crick, Elizabeth Ilett, Ian S Penton-Voak, Marcus R Munafò
High trait anxiety has been associated with detriments in emotional face processing. By contrast, relatively little is known about the effects of state anxiety on emotional face processing. We investigated the effects of state anxiety on recognition of emotional expressions (anger, sadness, surprise, disgust, fear and happiness) experimentally, using the 7.5% carbon dioxide (CO2) model to induce state anxiety, and in a large observational study. The experimental studies indicated reduced global (rather than emotion-specific) emotion recognition accuracy and increased interpretation bias (a tendency to perceive anger over happiness) when state anxiety was heightened...
May 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Steven Taylor
Misophonia, a phenomenon first described in the audiology literature, is characterized by intense emotional reactions (e.g., anger, rage, anxiety, disgust) in response to highly specific sounds, particularly sounds of human origin such as oral or nasal noises made by other people (e.g., chewing, sniffing, slurping, lip smacking). Misophonia is not listed in any of the contemporary psychiatric classification systems. Some investigators have argued that misophonia should be regarded as a new mental disorder, falling within the spectrum of obsessive-compulsive related disorders...
June 2017: Medical Hypotheses
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