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Disgust and anxiety

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071144/do-emotions-spark-interest-in-alternative-tobacco-products
#1
Lucy Popova, Jiyeon So, Angeline Sangalang, Torsten B Neilands, Pamela M Ling
BACKGROUND: Exposure to advertisements for tobacco products and tobacco warning labels evokes emotions. This study evaluated the association of discrete positive and negative emotions with interest in alternative tobacco products. METHOD: In 2013, 1,226 U.S. adult nonsmokers and current smokers viewed advertisements for moist snuff, snus, and electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) with various warning labels and then indicated their emotional responses in terms of anger, anxiety, sadness, guilt, disgust, discouragement, hope, and contentment...
January 1, 2017: Health Education & Behavior: the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066706/initial-and-sustained-brain-responses-to-threat-anticipation-in-blood-injection-injury-phobia
#2
Leonie Brinkmann, Hendrik Poller, Martin J Herrmann, Wolfgang Miltner, Thomas Straube
Blood-injection-injury (BII) phobia differs from other subtypes of specific phobia in that it is associated with elevated disgust-sensitivity as well as specific autonomic and brain responses during processing of phobia-relevant stimuli. To what extent these features play a role already during threat anticipation is unclear. In the current fMRI experiment, 16 female BII phobics and 16 female healthy controls anticipated the presentation of phobia-specific and neutral pictures. On the behavioral level, anxiety dominated the anticipatory period in BII phobics relative to controls, while both anxiety and disgust were elevated during picture presentation...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054815/try-to-look-on-the-bright-side-children-and-adults-can-sometimes-override-their-tendency-to-prioritize-negative-faces
#3
Kristin Hansen Lagattuta, Hannah J Kramer
We used eye tracking to examine 4- to 10-year-olds' and adults' (N = 173) visual attention to negative (anger, fear, sadness, disgust) and neutral faces when paired with happy faces in 2 experimental conditions: free-viewing ("look at the faces") and directed ("look only at the happy faces"). Regardless of instruction, all age groups more often looked first to negative versus positive faces (no age differences), suggesting that initial orienting is driven by bottom-up processes. In contrast, biases in more sustained attention-last looks and looking duration-varied by age and could be modified by top-down instruction...
January 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032518/factors-contributing-to-individual-differences-in-facial-expression-categorisation
#4
Corinne Green, Kun Guo
Individuals vary in perceptual accuracy when categorising facial expressions, yet it is unclear how these individual differences in non-clinical population are related to cognitive processing stages at facial information acquisition and interpretation. We tested 104 healthy adults in a facial expression categorisation task, and correlated their categorisation accuracy with face-viewing gaze allocation and personal traits assessed with Autism Quotient, anxiety inventory and Self-Monitoring Scale. The gaze allocation had limited but emotion-specific impact on categorising expressions...
December 29, 2016: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974074/sex-related-differences-in-emotion-recognition-in-multi-concussed-athletes
#5
Edith Léveillé, Samuel Guay, Caroline Blais, Peter Scherzer, Louis De Beaumont
OBJECTIVES: Concussion is defined as a complex pathophysiological process affecting the brain. Although the cumulative and long-term effects of multiple concussions are now well documented on cognitive and motor function, little is known about their effects on emotion recognition. Recent studies have suggested that concussion can result in emotional sequelae, particularly in females and multi-concussed athletes. The objective of this study was to investigate sex-related differences in emotion recognition in asymptomatic male and female multi-concussed athletes...
January 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924707/interindividual-differences-in-chemosensory-perception-toward-a-better-understanding-of-perceptual-ratings-during-chemical-exposures
#6
Marlene Pacharra, Stefan Kleinbeck, Michael Schäper, Stephanie A Juran, Kathrin Hey, Meinolf Blaszkewicz, Marie-Louise Lehmann, Klaus Golka, Christoph van Thriel
Perceptions that arise from stimulation of olfactory and trigeminal receptors in the nasal cavity guide the evaluation of chemical environment in humans. Strong interindividual differences in these assessments may be attributed to nonsensory factors such as gender, anxiety, and chemical sensitivity. Knowledge regarding the influence of these factors originates mainly from basic odor research using short-term exposure scenarios. In situations with continuous chemical exposures-common in the working environment-their impact is less clear...
2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886574/the-differential-relationship-between-mental-contamination-and-the-core-dimensions-of-contact-contamination-fear
#7
Gabriele Melli, Francesco Bulli, Claudia Carraresi, Federica Tarantino, Simona Gelli, Andrea Poli
Two types of contamination fear are recognized: contact and mental contamination. Contact contamination appears to be motivated both by harm avoidance and disgust avoidance. This study aimed to examine the relationships between disgust propensity, mental contamination and contact contamination while differentiating between harm avoidance and disgust avoidance in contact contamination. 169 OCD patients completed a set of questionnaires assessing mental contamination, contact contamination, disgust propensity, OCD, anxiety and depression...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856343/brain-response-to-masked-and-unmasked-facial-emotions-as-a-function-of-implicit-and-explicit-personality-self-concept-of-extraversion
#8
Thomas Suslow, Harald Kugel, Christian Lindner, Udo Dannlowski, Boris Egloff
Extraversion-introversion is a personality dimension referring to individual differences in social behavior. In the past, neurobiological research on extraversion was almost entirely based upon questionnaires which inform about the explicit self-concept. Today, indirect measures are available that tap into the implicit self-concept of extraversion which is assumed to result from automatic processing functions. In our study, brain activation while viewing facial expression of affiliation relevant (i.e., happiness, and disgust) and irrelevant (i...
January 6, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783965/biases-in-attention-interpretation-memory-and-associations-in-children-with-varying-levels-of-spider-fear-inter-relations-and-prediction-of-behavior
#9
Anke M Klein, Rianne van Niekerk, Giovanni Ten Brink, Ronald M Rapee, Jennifer L Hudson, Susan M Bögels, Eni S Becker, Mike Rinck
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cognitive theories suggest that cognitive biases may be related and together influence the anxiety response. However, little is known about the interrelations of cognitive bias tasks and whether they allow for an improved prediction of fear-related behavior in addition to self-reports. This study simultaneously addressed several types of cognitive biases in children, to investigate attention bias, interpretation bias, memory bias and fear-related associations, their interrelations and the prediction of behavior...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776255/does-the-measure-matter-on-the-association-between-disgust-proneness-and-ocd-symptoms
#10
Bunmi O Olatunji, Chad Ebesutani, Eun Ha Kim
Although some studies suggest that the association between disgust proneness (DP) and obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) is specific to the contamination subtype, others suggest that DP is associated with OCS more broadly. To examine if the discrepant findings may partially reflect differences in self-report measures used, this investigation employed structural equation modeling to examine the association between DP and OCS in three samples that completed different combinations of measures of DP, OCS, and anxiety/negative affect...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744789/sex-differences-in-attention-to-disgust-facial-expressions
#11
Morganne A Kraines, Lucas J A Kelberer, Tony T Wells
Research demonstrates that women experience disgust more readily and with more intensity than men. The experience of disgust is associated with increased attention to disgust-related stimuli, but no prior study has examined sex differences in attention to disgust facial expressions. We hypothesised that women, compared to men, would demonstrate increased attention to disgust facial expressions. Participants (n = 172) completed an eye tracking task to measure visual attention to emotional facial expressions...
October 15, 2016: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744071/is-disgust-proneness-sensitive-to-treatment-for-ocd-among-youth-examination-of-diagnostic-specificity-and-symptom-correlates
#12
Kelly A Knowles, Megan A Viar-Paxton, Bradley C Riemann, David M Jacobi, Bunmi O Olatunji
Although disgust proneness has been implicated in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), there is a paucity of research examining change in disgust proneness during treatment as well as the correlates of such change, especially in children. This study examined the relationship between changes in disgust proneness and disorder-specific symptoms during residential treatment among youth with OCD, anxiety, and mood disorders. Youth ages 12-18 (n=472) completed pre- and post-outcome measures of OCD, anxiety, and mood symptoms and disgust proneness...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732659/factor-structure-reliability-and-validity-of-the-japanese-version-of-the-disgust-propensity-and-sensitivity-scale-revised
#13
Kazunori Iwasa, Tsunehiko Tanaka, Yuki Yamada
The Disgust Propensity and Sensitivity Scale-Revised is one of the most widely used measures of individual differences for the emotion of disgust. It consists of 2 subscales: disgust propensity and disgust sensitivity. This study examined the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the Japanese version of the revised Disgust Propensity and Sensitivity Scale. Japanese participants (N = 1067) completed the scale as well as the Padua Inventory, Anxiety Sensitivity Index, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and Positive and Negative Affective Schedule...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732023/health-anxiety-in-a-disease-avoidance-framework-investigation-of-anxiety-disgust-and-disease-perception-in-response-to-sickness-cues
#14
Erik Hedman, Mats Lekander, Bianka Karshikoff, Brjánn Ljótsson, Erland Axelsson, John Axelsson
Severe health anxiety is characterized by a debilitating fear of somatic illness, and avoidance of disease-related stimuli plays a key role in the maintenance of the disorder. The aim of this study was to investigate severe health anxiety within an evolutionary disease-avoidance framework. We hypothesized that, compared to healthy controls, participants with severe health anxiety would perceive others as sicker, more contagious, and less attractive. We also expected individuals with severe health anxiety to be more prone to avoid interaction with persons who appeared sick, as well as to respond with more health-related worry, more disgust, and more anxiety when confronting such individuals...
October 2016: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27615058/differential-disgust-responding-in-people-with-cancer-and-implications-for-psychological-wellbeing
#15
Haffiezhah A Azlan, Paul G Overton, Jane Simpson, Philip A Powell
OBJECTIVES: Evidence suggests that disgust responses, known to negatively affect psychological wellbeing, may differ in people with cancer. We performed the first quantitative investigation of three discrete types of disgust trait - disgust propensity, sensitivity and self-directed disgust - in people diagnosed with a broad range of cancers (versus cancer-free controls), and explored their associations with psychological wellbeing. DESIGN: In a cross-sectional survey design, 107 participants with heterogeneous cancer diagnoses, recruited from cancer charities and support groups, were matched with cancer-free controls by age and gender...
October 4, 2016: Psychology & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27552192/thinking-high-but-feeling-low-an-exploratory-cluster-analysis-investigating-how-implicit-and-explicit-spider-fear-co-vary
#16
Allison J Ouimet, Nancy Bahl, Adam S Radomsky
Research has demonstrated large differences in the degree to which direct and indirect measures predict each other and variables including behavioural approach and attentional bias. We investigated whether individual differences in the co-variance of "implicit" and "explicit" spider fear exist, and whether this covariation exerts an effect on spider fear-related outcomes. One hundred and thirty-two undergraduate students completed direct and indirect measures of spider fear/avoidance, self-report questionnaires of psychopathology, an attentional bias task, and a proxy Behavioural Approach Task...
August 23, 2016: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27500829/the-discrete-emotions-questionnaire-a-new-tool-for-measuring-state-self-reported-emotions
#17
Cindy Harmon-Jones, Brock Bastian, Eddie Harmon-Jones
Several discrete emotions have broad theoretical and empirical importance, as shown by converging evidence from diverse areas of psychology, including facial displays, developmental behaviors, and neuroscience. However, the measurement of these states has not progressed along with theory, such that when researchers measure subjectively experienced emotions, they commonly rely on scales assessing broad dimensions of affect (positivity and negativity), rather than discrete emotions. The current manuscript presents four studies that validate a new instrument, the Discrete Emotions Questionnaire (DEQ), that is sensitive to eight distinct state emotions: anger, disgust, fear, anxiety, sadness, happiness, relaxation, and desire...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27465309/contamination-focused-exposure-as-a-treatment-for-disgust-based-fears-a-preliminary-test-in-spider-fearful-women
#18
Jesse R Cougle, Berta J Summers, Ashleigh M Harvey, Kirsten H Dillon, Nicholas P Allan
BACKGROUND: Disgust is thought to play a prominent role in multiple anxiety disorders and fears, including spider phobia, though little attention has been given to specific treatment strategies that may be effective for multiple disgust-based fears. AIMS: In the present study, we evaluated contamination-focused exposure as a potential transdiagnostic treatment strategy for disgust-based fears in a spider fearful sample. METHOD: Women with significant spider fear were randomized to three 30-minute sessions of exposure therapy involving repeated contact with a dirt mixture (n=17) or a waitlist control condition (n=17)...
November 2016: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27455148/social-anxiety-and-perception-of-un-trustworthiness-in-smiling-faces
#19
Aida Gutiérrez-García, Manuel G Calvo
In social environments the smile can be driven by different motives and convey different emotions. This makes a smiling face ambiguous and amenable to alternative interpretations. We investigated how social anxiety is related to trustworthiness evaluation of morphed dynamic smiling faces depending on changes in the eye expression. Socially anxious and non-anxious participants judged the un/trustworthiness of people with different smiles. Social anxiety was related to reduced trustworthiness of (a) faces with a neutral mouth unfolding to a smile when the eyes were neutral at the beginning or end of the dynamic sequence, and (b) faces with a smiling mouth when happy eyes slightly changed towards neutrality, surprise, fear, sadness, disgust, or anger...
October 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27215910/further-psychometric-evaluation-of-the-child-disgust-scale
#20
Joshua M Nadeau, Alessandro S De Nadai, Megan Viar-Paxton, Bunmi O Olatunji, David M Jacobi, Stephanie C Eken, Brian Kay, Bradley C Riemann, Eric A Storch
This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Child Disgust Scale (CDS) among 457 youth (ages 8-17, M = 14.77 ± 1.98 years) initiating residential treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder and anxiety disorders. Confirmatory factor analysis supported a bifactor model with two distinct factors of Disgust Avoidance and Disgust Affect, in addition to an overall General Disgust factor. Strong internal consistency was observed for the CDS total and factor scores. In addition, CDS scores demonstrated generally modest and positive correlations with child-reported obsessive-compulsive and anxiety symptoms, weaker correlations with parent-reported anxiety and child-rated impairment, and non-significant correlations with parent-rated impairment...
February 2017: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
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