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Disgust and anxiety

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705679/the-effects-of-cognitive-reappraisal-on-conditioned-disgust-in-contamination-based-ocd-an-analogue-study
#1
Bunmi O Olatunji, Hannah Berg, Rebecca C Cox, Amber Billingsley
Experimental research has shown that conditioned disgust is resistant to extinction, which may account for the slower habituation to disgust relative to fear in contamination-based obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, few studies have examined the efficacy of interventions that may attenuate conditioned disgust responses. Studies of cognitive reappraisal have demonstrated that reinterpreting a stimulus can alter emotional responding. This technique is based on cognitive theories which suggest that anxiety disorders arise from biased cognitions; therefore, changing a person's thoughts will elicit durable changes in emotional responses...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667690/sympathetic-and-parasympathetic-cardiac-responses-to-phobia-relevant-and-disgust-specific-emotion-provocation-in-blood-injection-injury-phobia-with-and-without-fainting-history
#2
Erica Simon, Alicia E Meuret, Thomas Ritz
The autonomic regulation in blood-injection-injury (BII) phobia has received particular attention due to the unique link between fear and fainting in this anxiety disorder. However, systematic exploration of sympathetic and parasympathetic cardiac activity during exposure to phobia-relevant emotional stimuli has remained rare and inconclusive, including with regard to disgust, a frequent response to BII stimuli. Existing studies using respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) as a noninvasive index of parasympathetic cardiac activity also have not accounted sufficiently for effects of respiration...
June 30, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662124/individual-perception-of-bees-between-perceived-danger-and-willingness-to-protect
#3
Mona Lisa Schönfelder, Franz Xaver Bogner
The current loss of biodiversity has found its way into the media. Especially the loss of bees as pollinators has recently received much attention aiming to increase public awareness about the consequence of pollinator loss and strategies for protection. However, pollinating insects like bees often prompt considerable anxiety. Negative emotions such as fear and disgust often lead to lack of support for conservation and appropriate initiatives for protection. Our study monitored perceptions of bees in the contexts of conservation and danger bees possibly represent by applying a semantic differential using contrasting adjectives under the heading "I think bees are…"...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651058/is-disgust-proneness-associated-with-anxiety-and-related-disorders-a-qualitative-review-and-meta-analysis-of-group-comparison-and-correlational-studies
#4
Bunmi O Olatunji, Thomas Armstrong, Lisa Elwood
Research suggests that disgust may be linked to the etiology of some anxiety-related disorders. The present investigation reviews this literature and employs separate meta-analyses of clinical group comparison and correlational studies to examine the association between disgust proneness and anxiety-related disorder symptoms. Meta-analysis of 43 group comparison studies revealed those high in anxiety disorder symptoms reported significantly more disgust proneness than those low in anxiety symptoms. Although this effect was not moderated by clinical versus analogue studies or type of disorder, larger group differences were observed for those high in anxiety symptoms associated with contagion concerns compared to those high in anxiety symptoms not associated with contagion concerns...
July 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635077/self-disgust-within-eating-disordered-groups-associations-with-anxiety-disgust-sensitivity-and-sensory-processing
#5
Katie Bell, Helen Coulthard, Diane Wildbur
This study aimed to assess the relationship between self-disgust and sensory processing within eating psychopathology. Five hundred and ninety-one women with a self-reported diagnosis of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa or who had no previous history of an eating disorder completed a battery of online questionnaires measuring disgust, emotion and sensory variables. Those with an eating disorder reported significantly higher rates of self-disgust than those with no history of disordered eating. In groups of women with self-reported bulimia, self-disgust was associated with sensation avoidance and sensation seeking...
June 20, 2017: European Eating Disorders Review: the Journal of the Eating Disorders Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589965/generalization-of-extinguished-fear-to-untreated-fear-stimuli-after-exposure
#6
Friederike Preusser, Jürgen Margraf, Armin Zlomuzica
Exposure therapy is highly effective in treating excessive fear related to specific objects and/or situations. However, patients with anxiety disorders often display a generalization of fear responses towards conceptually and perceptually related stimuli and situations. It is unclear whether the beneficial effects of exposure on fear reduction towards treated fear stimuli can extend to untreated fear stimuli. Here, we investigated whether basic principles of extinction generalization apply to exposure. Spider-phobic participants were randomly assigned to either two sessions of exposure treatment (n=23) with spiders or no-treatment (n=24)...
June 7, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572987/state-anxiety-and-emotional-face-recognition-in-healthy-volunteers
#7
Angela S Attwood, Kayleigh E Easey, Michael N Dalili, Andrew L Skinner, Andy Woods, Lana Crick, Elizabeth Ilett, Ian S Penton-Voak, Marcus R Munafò
High trait anxiety has been associated with detriments in emotional face processing. By contrast, relatively little is known about the effects of state anxiety on emotional face processing. We investigated the effects of state anxiety on recognition of emotional expressions (anger, sadness, surprise, disgust, fear and happiness) experimentally, using the 7.5% carbon dioxide (CO2) model to induce state anxiety, and in a large observational study. The experimental studies indicated reduced global (rather than emotion-specific) emotion recognition accuracy and increased interpretation bias (a tendency to perceive anger over happiness) when state anxiety was heightened...
May 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571795/misophonia-a-new-mental-disorder
#8
Steven Taylor
Misophonia, a phenomenon first described in the audiology literature, is characterized by intense emotional reactions (e.g., anger, rage, anxiety, disgust) in response to highly specific sounds, particularly sounds of human origin such as oral or nasal noises made by other people (e.g., chewing, sniffing, slurping, lip smacking). Misophonia is not listed in any of the contemporary psychiatric classification systems. Some investigators have argued that misophonia should be regarded as a new mental disorder, falling within the spectrum of obsessive-compulsive related disorders...
June 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569092/willingness-to-express-emotion-depends-upon-perceiving-partner-care
#9
Katherine R Von Culin, Jennifer L Hirsch, Margaret S Clark
Two studies document that people are more willing to express emotions that reveal vulnerabilities to partners when they perceive those partners to be more communally responsive to them. In Study 1, participants rated the communal strength they thought various partners felt toward them and their own willingness to express happiness, sadness and anxiety to each partner. Individuals who generally perceive high communal strength from their partners were also generally most willing to express emotion to partners...
June 1, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553252/validating-the-italian-version-of-the-disgust-and-propensity-scale-revised
#10
Riccardo M Martoni, Paola M V Rancoita, Clelia Di Serio, Chiara Brombin
The aim of this work is to evaluate the factor structure and psychometric properties of the Italian version of the Disgust Propensity and Sensitivity Scale-Revised (DPSS-R, 16 items) in two samples taken from the general population. In the first study, 285 participants completed the DPSS-R questionnaire through a web-based survey. Exploratory factor analysis for ordinal Likert-type data supported the existence of four underlying factors, reflecting self-focused disgust, disgust propensity, somatic anxiety and disgust sensitivity...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432314/the-effect-of-acute-social-stress-on-the-recognition-of-facial-expression-of-emotions
#11
Camille Daudelin-Peltier, Hélène Forget, Caroline Blais, Andréa Deschênes, Daniel Fiset
This study investigates the effect of acute social stress on the recognition of facial expression of emotions in healthy young men. Participants underwent both a standardized psychosocial laboratory stressor (TSST-G) and a control condition. Then, they performed a homemade version of the facial expressions megamix. All six basic emotions were included in the task. First, our results show a systematic increase in the intensity threshold for disgust following stress, meaning that the participants' performance with this emotion was impaired...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429858/trauma-related-disgust-in-veterans-with-interpersonal-trauma
#12
Jessica Bomyea, Carolyn B Allard
Although traditionally conceptualized as an anxiety disorder, variability in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may be explained by individual differences in peri- or posttraumatic disgust. We examined relationships between disgust reactions and other trauma-related symptoms in 100 veterans with a history of interpersonal trauma and gender differences in these variables. We also evaluated the mediating role of posttraumatic disgust and guilt in the relationship between peritraumatic disgust and PTSD symptoms...
April 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423069/trypophobia-an-investigation-of-clinical-features
#13
Michelle Vlok-Barnard, Dan J Stein
Objective: Trypophobia refers to the fear of, or aversion to, clusters of holes. We assessed clinical features of trypophobia and investigated whether it most resembled a specific phobia or obsessive-compulsive disorder. Methods: An online survey was conducted to gather information on sociodemographic variables, course and duration, severity, associated features, comorbid psychiatric diagnoses, and levels of psychological distress and impairment in individuals with trypophobia...
April 13, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392773/gender-differences-in-the-difficulty-in-disengaging-from-threat-among-children-and-adolescents-with-social-anxiety
#14
Peng Zhang, Wenjin Ni, Ruibo Xie, Jiahua Xu, Xiangping Liu
There is some research showing that social anxiety is related with attentional bias to threat. However, others fail to find this relationship and propose that gender differences may play a role. The aim of this study was to investigate the gender differences in the subcomponents of attentional bias to threat (hypervigilance and difficulty in disengaging) among children and adolescents with social anxiety. Overall, 181 youngsters aged between 10 and 14 participated in the current study. Images of disgusted faces were used as threat stimuli in an Exogenous Cueing Task was used to measure the subcomponents of attentional bias...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391115/pavlovian-disgust-conditioning-as-a-model-for-contamination-based-ocd-evidence-from-an-analogue-study
#15
Thomas Armstrong, Bunmi O Olatunji
Pavlovian fear conditioning provides a model for anxiety-related disorders, including obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, disgust is the predominant emotional response to contamination, which is a common theme in OCD. The present study sought to identify disgust conditioning abnormalities that may underlie excessive contamination concerns relevant to OCD. Individuals high and low in contamination concern (HCC, n = 32; LCC, n = 30) completed an associative learning task in which one neutral face (conditioned stimulus; CS+) was followed by a disgusting image (unconditioned stimulus; US) and another neutral face (CS-) was unreinforced...
June 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375077/ocd-obsessive-compulsive-%C3%A2-disgust-the-role-of-disgust-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#16
Tracy Bhikram, Elia Abi-Jaoude, Paul Sandor
Recent research has identified the important role of disgust in the symptomatology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Exaggerated and inappropriate disgust reactions may drive some of the symptoms of OCD, and in some cases, may even eclipse feelings of anxiety. This paper reviews behavioural and neuroimaging research that recognizes the prominent role of disgust in contributing to OCD symptoms, especially contamination-based symptoms. We discuss how elevated behavioural and biological markers of disgust reported in OCD populations support the need for alternative clinical treatment strategies and theoretical models of OCD...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258396/emotional-facial-recognition-in-proactive-and-reactive-violent-offenders
#17
Florence Philipp-Wiegmann, Michael Rösler, Petra Retz-Junginger, Wolfgang Retz
The purpose of this study is to analyse individual differences in the ability of emotional facial recognition in violent offenders, who were characterised as either reactive or proactive in relation to their offending. In accordance with findings of our previous study, we expected higher impairments in facial recognition in reactive than proactive violent offenders. To assess the ability to recognize facial expressions, the computer-based Facial Emotional Expression Labeling Test (FEEL) was performed. Group allocation of reactive und proactive violent offenders and assessment of psychopathic traits were performed by an independent forensic expert using rating scales (PROREA, PCL-SV)...
March 3, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228081/the-neurobiology-and-psychiatric-perspective-of-vaginismus-linking-the-pharmacological-and-psycho-social-interventions
#18
Zuri Shahidii Kadir, Hatta Sidi, Jaya Kumar, Srijit Das, Marhani Midin, Najwa Baharuddin
Vaginismus is an involuntary muscle contraction of the outer third of vaginal barrel causing sexual penetration almost impossible. It is generally classified under sexual pain disorder (SPD). In Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 5th edition, it is classified under the new rubric of Genito-Pelvic Pain/Sexual Penetration Disorder. This fear-avoidance condition poses an ongoing significant challenge to the medical and health professionals due to the very demanding needs in health care despite its unpredictable prognosis...
February 22, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208068/altered-olfactory-processing-and-increased-insula-activity-in-patients-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-an-fmri-study
#19
Heather A Berlin, Emily R Stern, Johnny Ng, Sam Zhang, David Rosenthal, Rachel Turetzky, Cheuk Tang, Wayne Goodman
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients show increased insula activation to disgust-inducing images compared to healthy controls (HC). We explored whether this disgust reactivity was also present in the olfactory domain by conducting the first fMRI study of olfaction in OCD. Neural activation in response to pleasant and unpleasant odors (vs. unscented air) was investigated in 15 OCD and 15 HC participants using fMRI. OCD participants (vs. HC) had increased left anterior insula activation to unpleasant odors (vs...
April 30, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181370/development-and-validation-of-a-new-italian-short-measure-of-disgust-propensity-the-disgust-propensity-questionnaire-dpq
#20
Gabriele Melli, Carlo Chiorri, Eleonora Stopani, Francesco Bulli, Claudia Carraresi
Although a few measures of disgust propensity are available in Italy, most of them take a long time to administer and/or have not shown replicable and sound psychometric properties. In the current study, the authors developed an Italian nine-item self-report measure of disgust propensity (particularly of pathogen disgust)-the Disgust Propensity Questionnaire (DPQ)-to address the limitations of currently available measures. In Study 1, the DPQ was developed through exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses from an initial pool of 33 items that were administered to 784 nonclinical participants...
February 8, 2017: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
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