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Oriented Cell Division

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642045/mutations-on-ftsz-lateral-helix-h3-that-disrupt-cell-viability-hamper-reorganization-of-polymers-on-lipid-surfaces
#1
Ileana F Márquez, Pablo Mateos-Gil, Jae Yen Shin, Rosalba Lagosb, Octavio Monasterio, Marisela Vélez
FtsZ filaments localize at the middle of the bacterial cell and participate in the formation of a contractile ring responsible for cell division. Previous studies demonstrated that the highly conserved negative charge of glutamate 83 and the positive charge of arginine 85 located in the lateral helix H3 bend of Escherichia coli FtsZ are required for in vivo cell division. In order to understand how these lateral mutations impair the formation of a contractile ring, we extend previous in vitro characterization of these mutants in solution to study their behavior on lipid modified surfaces...
June 19, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633908/dynamics-of-the-cell-division-orientation-of-granule-cell-precursors-during-cerebellar-development
#2
Satoshi Miyashita, Toma Adachi, Mariko Yamashita, Takayuki Sota, Mikio Hoshino
The cerebellar granule cell (GC) system provides a good model for studying neuronal development. In the external granule layer (EGL), granule cell precursors (GCPs) rapidly and continuously divide to produce numerous GCs as well as GCPs. In some brain regions, the orientation of cell division affects daughter cell fate, thus the direction of GCP division is related to whether it produces a GCP or a GC. Therefore, we tried to characterize the orientation of GCP division from embryonic to postnatal stages and to identify an environmental cue that regulates the orientation...
June 17, 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623561/variation-in-cucumber-cucumis-sativus-l-fruit-size-and-shape-results-from-multiple-components-acting-pre-anthesis-and-post-pollination
#3
Marivi Colle, Yiqun Weng, Yunyan Kang, Ron Ophir, Amir Sherman, Rebecca Grumet
Morphological, QTL, and gene expression analyses indicate variation in cucumber fruit size and shape results from orientation, timing, and extent of cell division and expansion, and suggest candidate gene factors. Variation in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) fruit size and shape is highly quantitative, implicating interplay of multiple components. Recent studies have identified numerous fruit size and shape quantitative trait loci (QTL); however, underlying factors remain to be determined. We examined ovary and fruit development of two sequenced cucumber genotypes with extreme differences in fruit size and shape, Chinese Long '9930' (CL9930), and pickling type 'Gy14'...
June 16, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602953/patterning-and-morphogenesis-of-the-intricate-but-stereotyped-oikoplastic-epidermis-of-the-appendicularian-oikopleura-dioica
#4
Kanae Kishi, Momoko Hayashi, Takeshi A Onuma, Hiroki Nishida
Mechanisms for morphogenetic processes that generate complex patterns in a reproducible manner remain elusive. Live imaging provides a powerful tool to record cell behaviors. The appendicularian, Oikopleura dioica, is a planktonic tunicate that has a rapid developmental speed, small number of cells (less than 3500 cells in a juvenile), and a transparent body. The trunk epidermis, called the oikoplastic epithelium (OE), has elaborate cellular arrangements showing a complex pattern to secrete so-called "house" made of extracellular components...
June 8, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600788/the-spindle-orientation-machinery-beyond-mitosis-when-cell-specialization-demands-polarization
#5
Abigail L D Tadenev, Basile Tarchini
Mitosis is a process requiring strict spatial organization of cellular components. In particular, the orientation of the mitotic spindle with respect to the tissue defines the division plane. In turn, the orientation of cell division can regulate tissue morphology or the fate of daughter cells. While we have learned much about the mechanisms of mitotic spindle orientation, recent studies suggest that the proteins implicated can also play important roles in post-mitotic cells. Interestingly, post-mitotic protein function often involves polarizing the cell cytoskeleton during differentiation, mirroring its ability to orient the mitotic spindle during division...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600781/consequences-of-centrosome-dysfunction-during-brain-development
#6
Maddalena Nano, Renata Basto
Development requires cell proliferation, differentiation and spatial organization of daughter cells to occur in a highly controlled manner. The mode of cell division, the extent of proliferation and the spatial distribution of mitosis allow the formation of tissues of the right size and with the correct structural organization. All these aspects depend on cell cycle duration, correct chromosome segregation and spindle orientation. The centrosome, which is the main microtubule-organizing centre (MTOC) of animal cells, contributes to all these processes...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596780/katanin-effects-on-dynamics-of-cortical-microtubules-and-mitotic-arrays-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-revealed-by-advanced-live-cell-imaging
#7
George Komis, Ivan Luptovčiak, Miroslav Ovečka, Despina Samakovli, Olga Šamajová, Jozef Šamaj
Katanin is the only microtubule severing protein identified in plants so far. Previous studies have documented its role in regulating cortical microtubule organization during cell growth and morphogenesis. Although, some cell division defects are reported in KATANIN mutants, it is not clear whether or how katanin activity may affect microtubule dynamics in interphase cells, as well as the progression of mitosis and cytokinesis and the orientation of cell division plane (CDP). For this reason, we characterized microtubule organization and dynamics in growing and dividing cotyledon cells of Arabidopsis ktn1-2 mutant devoid of KATANIN 1 activity...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591614/cell-division-induces-and-switches-coherent-angular-motion-within-bounded-cellular-collectives
#8
Michael J Siedlik, Sriram Manivannan, Ioannis G Kevrekidis, Celeste M Nelson
Collective cell migration underlies many biological processes, including embryonic development, wound healing, and cancer progression. In the embryo, cells have been observed to move collectively in vortices using a mode of collective migration known as coherent angular motion (CAM). To determine how CAM arises within a population and changes over time, here, we study the motion of mammary epithelial cells within engineered monolayers, in which the cells move collectively about a central axis in the tissue...
June 6, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590163/merotelic-kinetochore-attachment-in-oocyte-meiosis-ii-causes-sister-chromatids-segregation-errors-in-aged-mice
#9
Jin-Mei Cheng, Jian Li, Ji-Xin Tang, Xiao-Xia Hao, Zhi-Peng Wang, Tie-Cheng Sun, Xiu-Xia Wang, Yan Zhang, Su-Ren Chen, Yi-Xun Liu
Mammalian oocyte chromosomes undergo two meiotic divisions to generate haploid gametes. The frequency of chromosome segregation errors during meiosis I increase with age. However, little attention has been paid to the question of how aging affects sister chromatid segregation during oocyte meiosis II. More importantly, how aneuploid metaphase II (MII) oocytes from aged mice evade the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) mechanism to complete later meiosis II to form aneuploid embryos remains unknown. Here, we report that MII oocytes from naturally aged mice exhibited substantial errors in chromosome arrangement and configuration compared with young MII oocytes...
June 7, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500523/cell-cycle-machinery-in-bacillus-subtilis
#10
Jeff Errington, Ling Juan Wu
Bacillus subtilis is the best described member of the Gram positive bacteria. It is a typical rod shaped bacterium and grows by elongation in its long axis, before dividing at mid cell to generate two similar daughter cells. B. subtilis is a particularly interesting model for cell cycle studies because it also carries out a modified, asymmetrical division during endospore formation, which can be simply induced by starvation. Cell growth occurs strictly by elongation of the rod, which maintains a constant diameter at all growth rates...
2017: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500339/a-role-for-core-planar-polarity-proteins-in-cell-contact-mediated-orientation-of-planar-cell-division-across-the-mammalian-embryonic-skin
#11
Fazal Oozeer, Laura L Yates, Charlotte Dean, Caroline J Formstone
The question of how cell division orientation is determined is fundamentally important for understanding tissue and organ shape in both healthy or disease conditions. Here we provide evidence for cell contact-dependent orientation of planar cell division in the mammalian embryonic skin. We propose a model where the core planar polarity proteins Celsr1 and Frizzled-6 (Fz6) communicate the long axis orientation of interphase basal cells to neighbouring basal mitoses so that they align their horizontal division plane along the same axis...
May 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492527/single-cell-template-strand-sequencing-by-strand-seq-enables-the-characterization-of-individual-homologs
#12
Ashley D Sanders, Ester Falconer, Mark Hills, Diana C J Spierings, Peter M Lansdorp
The ability to distinguish between genome sequences of homologous chromosomes in single cells is important for studies of copy-neutral genomic rearrangements (such as inversions and translocations), building chromosome-length haplotypes, refining genome assemblies, mapping sister chromatid exchange events and exploring cellular heterogeneity. Strand-seq is a single-cell sequencing technology that resolves the individual homologs within a cell by restricting sequence analysis to the DNA template strands used during DNA replication...
June 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482867/afadin-controls-cell-polarization-and-mitotic-spindle-orientation-in-developing-cortical-radial-glia
#13
Jennifer Rakotomamonjy, Molly Brunner, Christoph Jüschke, Keling Zang, Eric J Huang, Louis F Reichardt, Anjen Chenn
BACKGROUND: In developing tissues, cell polarity and tissue architecture play essential roles in the regulation of proliferation and differentiation. During cerebral cortical development, adherens junctions link highly polarized radial glial cells in a neurogenic niche that controls their behavior. How adherens junctions regulate radial glial cell polarity and/or differentiation in mammalian cortical development is poorly understood. RESULTS: Conditional deletion of Afadin, a protein required for formation and maintenance of epithelial tissues, leads to abnormalities in radial glial cell polarity and subsequent loss of adherens junctions...
May 8, 2017: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454767/emergence-of-tissue-shape-changes-from-collective-cell-behaviours
#14
REVIEW
Frank Jülicher, Suzanne Eaton
Anyone watching a movie of embryonic development immediately appreciates the importance of morphogenetic movements and cell flows that reshape tissue. Dynamic tissue shape changes are genetically choreographed, but their execution is essentially a mechanical event. How the interplay between genetics and tissue mechanics controls tissue shape is a fundamental question. Key insights into this problem have emerged from studies in different model organisms as well as in cultured epithelia. These studies have revealed how gene expression patterns can generate patterns of planar cell polarity that orient cellular force generation and give rise to anisotropic mechanical properties of cells and tissues...
April 25, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453519/homozygous-arhgef2-mutation-causes-intellectual-disability-and-midbrain-hindbrain-malformation
#15
Ethiraj Ravindran, Hao Hu, Scott A Yuzwa, Luis R Hernandez-Miranda, Nadine Kraemer, Olaf Ninnemann, Luciana Musante, Eugen Boltshauser, Detlev Schindler, Angela Hübner, Hans-Christian Reinecker, Hans-Hilger Ropers, Carmen Birchmeier, Freda D Miller, Thomas F Wienker, Christoph Hübner, Angela M Kaindl
Mid-hindbrain malformations can occur during embryogenesis through a disturbance of transient and localized gene expression patterns within these distinct brain structures. Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (ARHGEF) family members are key for controlling the spatiotemporal activation of Rho GTPase, to modulate cytoskeleton dynamics, cell division, and cell migration. We identified, by means of whole exome sequencing, a homozygous frameshift mutation in the ARHGEF2 as a cause of intellectual disability, a midbrain-hindbrain malformation, and mild microcephaly in a consanguineous pedigree of Kurdish-Turkish descent...
April 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430635/unsuccessful-mitosis-in-multicellular-tumour-spheroids
#16
Annie Molla, Morgane Couvet, Jean-Luc Coll
Multicellular spheroids are very attractive models in oncology because they mimic the 3D organization of the tumour cells with their microenvironment. We show here using 3 different cell types (mammary TSA/pc, embryonic kidney Hek293 and cervical cancer HeLa), that when the cells are growing as spheroids the frequency of binucleated cells is augmented as occurs in some human tumours.We therefore describe mitosis in multicellular spheroids by following mitotic markers and by time-lapse experiments. Chromosomes alignment appears to be correct on the metaphasic plate and the passenger complex is well localized on centromere...
April 25, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430559/heart-on-a-chip-an-investigation-of-the-influence-of-static-and-perfusion-conditions-on-cardiac-h9c2-cell-proliferation-morphology-and-alignment
#17
Anna Kobuszewska, Ewelina Tomecka, Kamil Zukowski, Elzbieta Jastrzebska, Michal Chudy, Artur Dybko, Philippe Renaud, Zbigniew Brzozka
Lab-on-a-chip systems are increasingly used as tools for cultures and investigation of cardiac cells. In this article, we present how the geometry of microsystems and microenvironmental conditions (static and perfusion) influence the proliferation, morphology, and alignment of cardiac cells (rat cardiomyoblasts-H9C2). Additionally, studies of cell growth after incubation with verapamil hydrochloride were performed. For this purpose, poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS)/glass microfluidic systems with three different geometries of microchambers (a circular chamber, a longitudinal channel, and three parallel microchannels separated by two rows of micropillars) were prepared...
April 1, 2017: SLAS Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427147/brca1-controls-the-cell-division-axis-and-governs-ploidy-and-phenotype-in-human-mammary-cells
#18
Zhengcheng He, Nagarajan Kannan, Oksana Nemirovsky, Helen Chen, Marisa Connell, Brian Taylor, Jihong Jiang, Linda M Pilarski, Markus C Fleisch, Dieter Niederacher, Miguel Angel Pujana, Connie J Eaves, Christopher A Maxwell
BRCA1 deficiency may perturb the differentiation hierarchy present in the normal mammary gland and is associated with the genesis of breast cancers that are genomically unstable and typically display a basal-like transcriptome. Oriented cell division is a mechanism known to regulate cell fates and to restrict tumor formation. We now show that the cell division axis is altered following shRNA-mediated BRCA1 depletion in immortalized but non-tumorigenic, or freshly isolated normal human mammary cells with graded consequences in progeny cells that include aneuploidy, perturbation of cell polarity in spheroid cultures, and a selective loss of cells with luminal features...
May 16, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409313/extracellular-regulation-of-the-mitotic-spindle-and-fate-determinants-driving-asymmetric-cell-division
#19
Prestina Smith, Mark Azzam, Lindsay Hinck
Stem cells use mode of cell division, symmetric (SCD) versus asymmetric (ACD), to balance expansion with self-renewal and the generation of daughter cells with different cell fates. Studies in model organisms have identified intrinsic mechanisms that govern this process, which involves partitioning molecular components between daughter cells, frequently through the regulation of the mitotic spindle. Research performed in vertebrate tissues is revealing both conservation of these intrinsic mechanisms and crucial roles for extrinsic cues in regulating the frequency of these divisions...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409309/asymmetric-and-unequal-cell-divisions-in-ascidian-embryos
#20
Takefumi Negishi, Hiroki Nishida
Asymmetric cell division during embryogenesis contributes to cell diversity by generating daughter cells that adopt distinct developmental fates. In this chapter, we summarize current knowledge of three examples of asymmetric cell division occurring in ascidian early embryos: (1) Three successive cell divisions that are asymmetric in terms of cell fate and unequal in cell size in the germline lineage at the embryo posterior pole. A subcellular structure, the centrosome-attracting body (CAB), and maternal PEM mRNAs localized within it control both the positioning of the cell division planes and segregation of the germ cell fates...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
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