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Oriented Cell Division

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723932/the-nucleoid-occlusion-factor-noc-controls-dna-replication-initiation-in-staphylococcus-aureus
#1
Ting Pang, Xindan Wang, Hoong Chuin Lim, Thomas G Bernhardt, David Z Rudner
Successive division events in the spherically shaped bacterium Staphylococcus aureus are oriented in three alternating perpendicular planes. The mechanisms that underlie this relatively unique pattern of division and coordinate it with chromosome segregation remain largely unknown. Thus far, the only known spatial regulator of division in this organism is the nucleoid occlusion protein Noc that inhibits assembly of the cytokinetic ring over the chromosome. However, Noc is not essential in S. aureus, indicating that additional regulators are likely to exist...
July 19, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720411/modeling-mechanical-control-of-spindle-orientation-of-intestinal-crypt-stem-cells
#2
Zsolt Bertalan, Stefano Zapperi, Caterina A M La Porta
Tissue development requires a control over the sequence of symmetric and asymmetric stem cell divisions to obtain the specific numbers of differentiated cells populating the tissue and stem cells residing in the niche. A good experimental model to study this process is the mouse intestinal crypt development, where it has been shown that stem cells follow an optimal strategy in which asymmetric division occurs only after all symmetric divisions have taken place to reach a fixed number of cells in the niche in the shortest time...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685906/a-morphology-independent-approach-for-identifying-dividing-adult-neural-stem-cells-in-the-mouse-hippocampus
#3
Lachlan Harris, Oressia Zalucki, Sabrina Oishi, Thomas H Burne, Dhanisha J Jhaveri, Michael Piper
Background Type 1 adult hippocampal neural stem cells (AH-NSCs) continue to generate neurons throughout life, albeit at a very low rate. The relative quiescence of this population of cells has led to many studies investigating factors that may increase their division. Current methods of identifying dividing AH-NSCs in vivo require the identification and tracing of radial processes back to nuclei within the subgranular zone. However, caveats to this approach include the time-intensive nature of identifying AH-NSCs with such a process, as well as the fact that this approach ignores the relatively more active population of horizontally oriented AH-NSCs that also reside in the subgranular zone...
July 7, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684399/loss-of-the-canonical-spindle-orientation-function-in-the-pins-lgn-homolog-ags3
#4
Mehdi Saadaoui, Daijiro Konno, Karine Loulier, Rosette Goiame, Vaibhav Jadhav, Marina Mapelli, Fumio Matsuzaki, Xavier Morin
In many cell types, mitotic spindle orientation relies on the canonical "LGN complex" composed of Pins/LGN, Mud/NuMA, and Gαi subunits. Membrane localization of this complex recruits motor force generators that pull on astral microtubules to orient the spindle. Drosophila Pins shares highly conserved functional domains with its two vertebrate homologs LGN and AGS3. Whereas the role of Pins and LGN in oriented divisions is extensively documented, involvement of AGS3 remains controversial. Here, we show that AGS3 is not required for planar divisions of neural progenitors in the mouse neocortex...
July 6, 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684256/new-insights-from-a-high-resolution-look-at-gastrulation-in-the-sea-urchin-lytechinus-variegatus
#5
Megan L Martik, David R McClay
BACKGROUND: Gastrulation is a complex orchestration of movements by cells that are specified early in development. Until now, classical convergent extension was considered to be the main contributor to sea urchin archenteron extension, and the relative contributions of cell divisions were unknown. Active migration of cells along the axis of extension was also not considered as a major factor in invagination. RESULTS: Cell transplantations plus live imaging were used to examine endoderm cell morphogenesis during gastrulation at high-resolution in the optically clear sea urchin embryo...
July 3, 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680690/role-of-growth-rate-on-the-orientational-alignment-of-escherichia-coli-in-a-slit
#6
Julian Sheats, Bianca Sclavi, Marco Cosentino Lagomarsino, Pietro Cicuta, Kevin D Dorfman
We present experimental data on the nematic alignment of Escherichia coli bacteria confined in a slit, with an emphasis on the effect of growth rate and corresponding changes in cell aspect ratio. Global alignment with the channel walls arises from the combination of local nematic ordering of nearby cells, induced by cell division and the elongated shape of the cells, and the preferential orientation of cells proximate to the side walls of the slit. Decreasing the growth rate leads to a decrease in alignment with the walls, which is attributed primarily to effects of changing cell aspect ratio rather than changes in the variance in cell area...
June 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674014/e-cadherin-and-lgn-align-epithelial-cell-divisions-with-tissue-tension-independently-of-cell-shape
#7
Kevin C Hart, Jiongyi Tan, Kathleen A Siemers, Joo Yong Sim, Beth L Pruitt, W James Nelson, Martijn Gloerich
Tissue morphogenesis requires the coordinated regulation of cellular behavior, which includes the orientation of cell division that defines the position of daughter cells in the tissue. Cell division orientation is instructed by biochemical and mechanical signals from the local tissue environment, but how those signals control mitotic spindle orientation is not fully understood. Here, we tested how mechanical tension across an epithelial monolayer is sensed to orient cell divisions. Tension across Madin-Darby canine kidney cell monolayers was increased by a low level of uniaxial stretch, which oriented cell divisions with the stretch axis irrespective of the orientation of the cell long axis...
July 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665270/meru-couples-planar-cell-polarity-with-apical-basal-polarity-during-asymmetric-cell-division
#8
Jennifer J Banerjee, Birgit L Aerne, Maxine V Holder, Simon Hauri, Matthias Gstaiger, Nicolas Tapon
Polarity is a shared feature of most cells. In epithelia, apical-basal polarity often coexists, and sometimes intersects with planar cell polarity (PCP), which orients cells in the epithelial plane. From a limited set of core building blocks (e.g. the Par complexes for apical-basal polarity and the Frizzled/Dishevelled complex for PCP), a diverse array of polarized cells and tissues are generated. This suggests the existence of little-studied tissue-specific factors that rewire the core polarity modules to the appropriate conformation...
June 30, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642045/mutations-on-ftsz-lateral-helix-h3-that-disrupt-cell-viability-hamper-reorganization-of-polymers-on-lipid-surfaces
#9
Ileana F Márquez, Pablo Mateos-Gil, Jae Yen Shin, Rosalba Lagos, Octavio Monasterio, Marisela Vélez
FtsZ filaments localize at the middle of the bacterial cell and participate in the formation of a contractile ring responsible for cell division. Previous studies demonstrated that the highly conserved negative charge of glutamate 83 and the positive charge of arginine 85 located in the lateral helix H3 bend of Escherichia coli FtsZ are required for in vivo cell division. In order to understand how these lateral mutations impair the formation of a contractile ring,we extend previous in vitro characterization of these mutants in solution to study their behavior on lipid modified surfaces...
June 20, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633908/dynamics-of-the-cell-division-orientation-of-granule-cell-precursors-during-cerebellar-development
#10
Satoshi Miyashita, Toma Adachi, Mariko Yamashita, Takayuki Sota, Mikio Hoshino
The cerebellar granule cell (GC) system provides a good model for studying neuronal development. In the external granule layer (EGL), granule cell precursors (GCPs) rapidly and continuously divide to produce numerous GCs as well as GCPs. In some brain regions, the orientation of cell division affects daughter cell fate, thus the direction of GCP division is related to whether it produces a GCP or a GC. Therefore, we tried to characterize the orientation of GCP division from embryonic to postnatal stages and to identify an environmental cue that regulates the orientation...
June 17, 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623561/variation-in-cucumber-cucumis-sativus-l-fruit-size-and-shape-results-from-multiple-components-acting-pre-anthesis-and-post-pollination
#11
Marivi Colle, Yiqun Weng, Yunyan Kang, Ron Ophir, Amir Sherman, Rebecca Grumet
Morphological, QTL, and gene expression analyses indicate variation in cucumber fruit size and shape results from orientation, timing, and extent of cell division and expansion, and suggest candidate gene factors. Variation in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) fruit size and shape is highly quantitative, implicating interplay of multiple components. Recent studies have identified numerous fruit size and shape quantitative trait loci (QTL); however, underlying factors remain to be determined. We examined ovary and fruit development of two sequenced cucumber genotypes with extreme differences in fruit size and shape, Chinese Long '9930' (CL9930), and pickling type 'Gy14'...
June 16, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602953/patterning-and-morphogenesis-of-the-intricate-but-stereotyped-oikoplastic-epidermis-of-the-appendicularian-oikopleura-dioica
#12
Kanae Kishi, Momoko Hayashi, Takeshi A Onuma, Hiroki Nishida
Mechanisms for morphogenetic processes that generate complex patterns in a reproducible manner remain elusive. Live imaging provides a powerful tool to record cell behaviors. The appendicularian, Oikopleura dioica, is a planktonic tunicate that has a rapid developmental speed, small number of cells (less than 3500 cells in a juvenile), and a transparent body. The trunk epidermis, called the oikoplastic epithelium (OE), has elaborate cellular arrangements showing a complex pattern to secrete so-called "house" made of extracellular components...
August 1, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600788/the-spindle-orientation-machinery-beyond-mitosis-when-cell-specialization-demands-polarization
#13
Abigail L D Tadenev, Basile Tarchini
Mitosis is a process requiring strict spatial organization of cellular components. In particular, the orientation of the mitotic spindle with respect to the tissue defines the division plane. In turn, the orientation of cell division can regulate tissue morphology or the fate of daughter cells. While we have learned much about the mechanisms of mitotic spindle orientation, recent studies suggest that the proteins implicated can also play important roles in post-mitotic cells. Interestingly, post-mitotic protein function often involves polarizing the cell cytoskeleton during differentiation, mirroring its ability to orient the mitotic spindle during division...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600781/consequences-of-centrosome-dysfunction-during-brain-development
#14
Maddalena Nano, Renata Basto
Development requires cell proliferation, differentiation and spatial organization of daughter cells to occur in a highly controlled manner. The mode of cell division, the extent of proliferation and the spatial distribution of mitosis allow the formation of tissues of the right size and with the correct structural organization. All these aspects depend on cell cycle duration, correct chromosome segregation and spindle orientation. The centrosome, which is the main microtubule-organizing centre (MTOC) of animal cells, contributes to all these processes...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596780/katanin-effects-on-dynamics-of-cortical-microtubules-and-mitotic-arrays-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-revealed-by-advanced-live-cell-imaging
#15
George Komis, Ivan Luptovčiak, Miroslav Ovečka, Despina Samakovli, Olga Šamajová, Jozef Šamaj
Katanin is the only microtubule severing protein identified in plants so far. Previous studies have documented its role in regulating cortical microtubule organization during cell growth and morphogenesis. Although, some cell division defects are reported in KATANIN mutants, it is not clear whether or how katanin activity may affect microtubule dynamics in interphase cells, as well as the progression of mitosis and cytokinesis and the orientation of cell division plane (CDP). For this reason, we characterized microtubule organization and dynamics in growing and dividing cotyledon cells of Arabidopsis ktn1-2 mutant devoid of KATANIN 1 activity...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591614/cell-division-induces-and-switches-coherent-angular-motion-within-bounded-cellular-collectives
#16
Michael J Siedlik, Sriram Manivannan, Ioannis G Kevrekidis, Celeste M Nelson
Collective cell migration underlies many biological processes, including embryonic development, wound healing, and cancer progression. In the embryo, cells have been observed to move collectively in vortices using a mode of collective migration known as coherent angular motion (CAM). To determine how CAM arises within a population and changes over time, here, we study the motion of mammary epithelial cells within engineered monolayers, in which the cells move collectively about a central axis in the tissue...
June 6, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590163/merotelic-kinetochore-attachment-in-oocyte-meiosis-ii-causes-sister-chromatids-segregation-errors-in-aged-mice
#17
Jin-Mei Cheng, Jian Li, Ji-Xin Tang, Xiao-Xia Hao, Zhi-Peng Wang, Tie-Cheng Sun, Xiu-Xia Wang, Yan Zhang, Su-Ren Chen, Yi-Xun Liu
Mammalian oocyte chromosomes undergo two meiotic divisions to generate haploid gametes. The frequency of chromosome segregation errors during meiosis I increase with age. However, little attention has been paid to the question of how aging affects sister chromatid segregation during oocyte meiosis II. More importantly, how aneuploid metaphase II (MII) oocytes from aged mice evade the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) mechanism to complete later meiosis II to form aneuploid embryos remains unknown. Here, we report that MII oocytes from naturally aged mice exhibited substantial errors in chromosome arrangement and configuration compared with young MII oocytes...
June 7, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500523/cell-cycle-machinery-in-bacillus-subtilis
#18
Jeff Errington, Ling Juan Wu
Bacillus subtilis is the best described member of the Gram positive bacteria. It is a typical rod shaped bacterium and grows by elongation in its long axis, before dividing at mid cell to generate two similar daughter cells. B. subtilis is a particularly interesting model for cell cycle studies because it also carries out a modified, asymmetrical division during endospore formation, which can be simply induced by starvation. Cell growth occurs strictly by elongation of the rod, which maintains a constant diameter at all growth rates...
2017: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500339/a-role-for-core-planar-polarity-proteins-in-cell-contact-mediated-orientation-of-planar-cell-division-across-the-mammalian-embryonic-skin
#19
Fazal Oozeer, Laura L Yates, Charlotte Dean, Caroline J Formstone
The question of how cell division orientation is determined is fundamentally important for understanding tissue and organ shape in both healthy or disease conditions. Here we provide evidence for cell contact-dependent orientation of planar cell division in the mammalian embryonic skin. We propose a model where the core planar polarity proteins Celsr1 and Frizzled-6 (Fz6) communicate the long axis orientation of interphase basal cells to neighbouring basal mitoses so that they align their horizontal division plane along the same axis...
May 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492527/single-cell-template-strand-sequencing-by-strand-seq-enables-the-characterization-of-individual-homologs
#20
Ashley D Sanders, Ester Falconer, Mark Hills, Diana C J Spierings, Peter M Lansdorp
The ability to distinguish between genome sequences of homologous chromosomes in single cells is important for studies of copy-neutral genomic rearrangements (such as inversions and translocations), building chromosome-length haplotypes, refining genome assemblies, mapping sister chromatid exchange events and exploring cellular heterogeneity. Strand-seq is a single-cell sequencing technology that resolves the individual homologs within a cell by restricting sequence analysis to the DNA template strands used during DNA replication...
June 2017: Nature Protocols
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