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Oriented Cell Division

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924223/palladin-is-a-novel-microtubule-associated-protein-responsible-for-spindle-orientation
#1
Xiang Zhang, Xinlei Chen, Jing Liu, Xin Xu, Yuanliang Zhang, Zheng Ruan, Yinyin Xie, Qiuhua Huang, Tong Yin, Zhu Chen, Saijuan Chen
Mitotic spindles, which consist of microtubules (MTs) and associated proteins, play critical roles in controlling cell division and maintaining tissue homeostasis. The orientation of the mitotic spindle is closely related with the duration of mitosis. However, the molecular mechanism in regulating the orientation of the mitotic spindles is largely undefined. In this study, we found that Palladin is a novel MT-associated protein and regulator of spindle orientation, which maintains proper spindle orientation by stabilizing astral MTs...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919938/keep-it-on-the-edge-the-post-mitotic-midbody-as-a-polarity-signal-unit
#2
Pablo Lujan, Teresa Rubio, Giulia Varsano, Maja Köhn
The maintenance of the epithelial architecture during tissue proliferation is achieved by apical positioning of the midbody after cell division. Consequently, midbody mislocalization contributes to epithelial architecture disruption, a fundamental event during epithelial tumorigenesis. Studies in 3D polarized epithelial MDCK or Caco2 cell models, where midbody misplacement leads to multiple ectopic but fully polarized lumen-containing cysts, revealed that this phenotype can be caused by 2 different scenarios: the loss of mitotic spindle orientation or the loss of asymmetric abscission...
2017: Communicative & Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910277/interplay-between-microtubule-bundling-and-sorting-factors-ensures-acentriolar-spindle-stability-during-c-elegans-oocyte-meiosis
#3
Timothy J Mullen, Sarah M Wignall
In many species, oocyte meiosis is carried out in the absence of centrioles. As a result, microtubule organization, spindle assembly, and chromosome segregation proceed by unique mechanisms. Here, we report insights into the principles underlying this specialized form of cell division, through studies of C. elegans KLP-15 and KLP-16, two highly homologous members of the kinesin-14 family of minus-end-directed kinesins. These proteins localize to the acentriolar oocyte spindle and promote microtubule bundling during spindle assembly; following klp-15/16 depletion, microtubule bundles form but then collapse into a disorganized array...
September 14, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898655/plant-embryogenesis
#4
Sacco C de Vries, Dolf Weijers
Land plants are called 'embryophytes' and thus, their collective name is defined by their ability to form embryos. Indeed, embryogenesis is a widespread phenomenon in plants, and much of our diet is composed of embryos (just think of grains, beans or nuts; Figure 1). However, in addition to embryos as a source of nutrition, they are also a fascinating study object. Some of the most fundamental decisions on fate and identity, as well as patterning and morphogenesis, are taken during the first days of plant life...
September 11, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894084/tbx3-dependent-amplifying-stem-cell-progeny-drives-interfollicular-epidermal-expansion-during-pregnancy-and-regeneration
#5
Ryo Ichijo, Hiroki Kobayashi, Saori Yoneda, Yui Iizuka, Hirokazu Kubo, Shigeru Matsumura, Satsuki Kitano, Hitoshi Miyachi, Tetsuya Honda, Fumiko Toyoshima
The skin surface area varies flexibly in response to body shape changes. Skin homeostasis is maintained by stem cells residing in the basal layer of the interfollicular epidermis. However, how the interfollicular epidermal stem cells response to physiological body shape changes remains elusive. Here, we identify a highly proliferative interfollicular epidermal basal cell population in the rapidly expanding abdominal skin of pregnant mice. These cells express Tbx3 that is necessary for their propagation to drive skin expansion...
September 11, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893945/zfp423-znf423-regulates-cell-cycle-progression-the-mode-of-cell-division-and-the-dna-damage-response-in-purkinje-neuron-progenitors
#6
Filippo Casoni, Laura Croci, Camilla Bosone, Roberta D'Ambrosio, Aurora Badaloni, Davide Gaudesi, Valeria Barili, Justyna R Sarna, Lino Tessarollo, Ottavio Cremona, Richard Hawkes, Søren Warming, G Giacomo Consalez
The Zfp423/ZNF423 gene encodes a 30-Zn-finger transcription factor involved in key developmental pathways. While null Zfp423 mutants develop cerebellar malformations, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. ZNF423 mutations have been associated to Joubert Syndrome, a ciliopathy causing cerebellar vermis hypoplasia and ataxia. ZNF423 participates in the DNA damage response, raising questions regarding its role as a regulator of neural progenitor cell cycle progression in cerebellar development. To characterize in vivo the function of ZFP423 in neurogenesis, we analyzed allelic murine mutants in which distinct functional domains are deleted...
September 11, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887437/cell-cell-adhesion-accounts-for-the-different-orientation-of-columnar-and-hepatocytic-cell-divisions
#7
Francisco Lázaro-Diéguez, Anne Müsch
Mitotic spindle alignment with the basal or substrate-contacting domain ensures that dividing epithelial cells remain in the plane of the monolayer. Spindle orientation with respect to the substratum is established in metaphase coincident with maximal cell rounding, which enables unobstructed spindle rotation. Misaligned metaphase spindles are believed to result in divisions in which one daughter loses contact with the basal lamina. Here we describe a rescue mechanism that drives substrate-parallel spindle alignment of quasi-diagonal metaphase spindles in anaphase...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864767/sequential-activities-of-dynein-mud-and-asp-in-centrosome-spindle-coupling-maintain-centrosome-number-upon-mitosis
#8
Floris Bosveld, Anna Ainslie, Yohanns Bellaïche
Centrosomes nucleate microtubules and are tightly coupled to the bipolar spindle to ensure genome integrity, cell division orientation and centrosome segregation. While the mechanisms of centrosome-dependent microtubule nucleation and bipolar spindle assembly have been the focus of numerous works, less is known on the mechanisms ensuring the centrosome-spindle coupling. The conserved NuMA protein (Mud in Drosophila) is best known for its role in spindle orientation. Here we analyzed the role of Mud and two of its interactors, Asp and Dynein, in the regulation of centrosome numbers in Drosophila epithelial cells...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860115/developing-renal-tubules-orient-cell-division-via-afadin-to-position-the-tubule-lumen
#9
Lei Gao, Zhufeng Yang, Chitkale Hiremath, Susan E Zimmerman, Blake Long, Paul R Brakeman, Keith E Mostov, David M Bryant, Katherine Luby-Phelps, Denise K Marciano
In many types of tubules, continuity of the lumen is paramount to tubular function, yet how tubules generate lumen continuity in vivo is not known. We recently found the F-actin binding protein Afadin is required for lumen continuity in developing renal tubules, though its mechanism of action remains unknown. Here we demonstrate Afadin is required for lumen continuity by orienting the mitotic spindle during cell division. Using an in vitro 3D cyst model, we find Afadin localizes to the cell cortex adjacent to the spindle poles and orients the mitotic spindle...
August 31, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853395/polo-like-kinase-cdc5-regulates-spc72-recruitment-to-spindle-pole-body-in-the-methylotrophic-yeast-ogataea-polymorpha
#10
Hiromi Maekawa, Annett Neuner, Diana Rüthnick, Elmar Schiebel, Gislene Pereira, Yoshinobu Kaneko
Cytoplasmic microtubules (cMT) control mitotic spindle positioning in many organisms, and are therefore pivotal for successful cell division. Despite its importance, the temporal control of cMT formation remains poorly understood. Here we show that unlike the best-studied yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, position of pre-anaphase nucleus is not strongly biased toward bud neck in Ogataea polymorpha and the regulation of spindle positioning becomes active only shortly before anaphase. This is likely due to the unstable property of cMTs compared to those in S...
August 30, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852950/are-tumor-cell-lineages-solely-shaped-by-mechanical-forces
#11
Mathieu Leroy-Lerêtre, Giacomo Dimarco, Martine Cazales, Marie-Laure Boizeau, Bernard Ducommun, Valérie Lobjois, Pierre Degond
This paper investigates cell proliferation dynamics in small tumor cell aggregates using an individual-based model (IBM). The simulation model is designed to study the morphology of the cell population and of the cell lineages as well as the impact of the orientation of the division plane on this morphology. Our IBM model is based on the hypothesis that cells are incompressible objects that grow in size and divide once a threshold size is reached, and that newly born cell adhere to the existing cell cluster...
August 29, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840245/centromere-dynamics-in-male-and-female-germ-cells
#12
Elaine M Dunleavy, Caitríona M Collins
In sexually reproducing organisms the germ line is the cellular lineage that gives rise to gametes. All germ cells originate from germline stem cells that divide asymmetrically to generate gonial pre-cursors, which are amplified in number by mitotic divisions, undergo meiosis and eventually differentiate into mature gametes (haploid eggs and sperm). Information transmitted with gametes is inherited by offspring, and potentially by subsequent generations, instructing in organismal development and beyond. Meiosis comprises one round of DNA replication, followed by two rounds of chromosome segregation; homologous chromosomes segregate in the first division (meiosis I) and sister chromatids segregate in the second division (meiosis II)...
2017: Progress in Molecular and Subcellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803871/an-rnai-screen-in-a-novel-model-of-oriented-divisions-identifies-the-actin-capping-protein-z-%C3%AE-as-an-essential-regulator-of-spindle-orientation
#13
Florencia di Pietro, Léo Valon, Yingbo Li, Rosette Goïame, Auguste Genovesio, Xavier Morin
Oriented cell divisions are controlled by a conserved molecular cascade involving Gαi, LGN, and NuMA. We developed a new cellular model of oriented cell divisions combining micropatterning and localized recruitment of Gαi and performed an RNAi screen for regulators acting downstream of Gαi. Remarkably, this screen revealed a unique subset of dynein regulators as being essential for spindle orientation, shedding light on a core regulatory aspect of oriented divisions. We further analyze the involvement of one novel regulator, the actin-capping protein CAPZB...
August 21, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794059/evolution-and-development-of-monocot-stomata
#14
Paula J Rudall, Elisabeth D Chen, Erin Cullen
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Leaves of monocots are typically linear with parallel venation, though a few taxa have broad leaves. Studies of stomatal patterning and development in monocots required updating in the context of rapidly improving knowledge of both the phylogenetic and development-genetic context of monocots that facilitate studies of character evolution. METHODS: We used an existing microscope-slide collection to obtain data on stomatal structure across all the major monocot clades, including some species with relatively broad leaves...
August 9, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768824/aladin-is-required-for-the-production-of-fertile-mouse-oocytes
#15
Sara Carvalhal, Michelle Stevense, Katrin Koehler, Ronald Naumann, Angela Huebner, Rolf Jessberger, Eric R Griffis
Asymmetric cell divisions depend on the precise placement of the spindle apparatus. In mammalian oocytes, spindles assemble close to the cell's center, but chromosome segregation takes place at the cell periphery where half of the chromosomes are expelled into small, nondeveloping polar bodies at anaphase. By dividing so asymmetrically, most of the cytoplasmic content within the oocyte is preserved, which is critical for successful fertilization and early development. Recently we determined that the nucleoporin ALADIN participates in spindle assembly in somatic cells, and we have also shown that female mice homozygously null for ALADIN are sterile...
September 15, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766983/lkb1-ampk-modulates-nutrient-induced-changes-in-the-mode-of-division-of-intestinal-epithelial-crypt-cells-in-mice
#16
Katherine Blackmore, Weinan Zhou, Megan J Dailey
Nutrient availability influences intestinal epithelial stem cell proliferation and tissue growth. Increases in food result in a greater number of epithelial cells, villi height and crypt depth. We investigated whether this nutrient-driven expansion of the tissue is the result of a change in the mode of intestinal epithelial stem cell division and if LKB1-AMPK signaling plays a role. We utilized in vivo and in vitro experiments to test this hypothesis. C57BL/6J mice were separated into four groups and fed varying amounts of chow for 18 h: (1) ad libitum, (2) 50% of their average daily intake (3) fasted or (4) fasted for 12 h and refed...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765922/electric-field-exposure-promotes-epithelial%C3%A2-mesenchymal-transition-in-human-lens-epithelial-cells-via-integrin-%C3%AE-1%C3%A2-fak-signaling
#17
Jun Liu, Xiao-Long Yan, Xiao-Liang Zheng, Lin Mei, Song Wang, Jing Han, Hong Yan
Electric field (EF) exposure can affect the elongation, migration, orientation, and division of cells. The present study tested the hypothesis that EF may also affect epithelial‑mesenchymal transition (EMT) in lens epithelial cells and that this effect may be an important inducer in the pathological process of posterior capsule opacification (PCO). Human lens epithelial (HLE)‑B3 cells were exposed to an EF. Experiments were performed in the presence or absence of an anti‑integrin β1 blocking antibody or a small molecule inhibitor targeting focal adhesion kinase (FAK)...
October 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757164/surface-topography-guides-morphology-and-spatial-patterning-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-colonies
#18
Giulio Abagnale, Antonio Sechi, Michael Steger, Qihui Zhou, Chao-Chung Kuo, Gülcan Aydin, Carmen Schalla, Gerhard Müller-Newen, Martin Zenke, Ivan G Costa, Patrick van Rijn, Arnold Gillner, Wolfgang Wagner
The relevance of topographic cues for commitment of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) is largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that groove-ridge structures with a periodicity in the submicrometer range induce elongation of iPSC colonies, guide the orientation of apical actin fibers, and direct the polarity of cell division. Elongation of iPSC colonies impacts also on their intrinsic molecular patterning, which seems to be orchestrated from the rim of the colonies. BMP4-induced differentiation is enhanced in elongated colonies, and the submicron grooves impact on the spatial modulation of YAP activity upon induction with this morphogen...
August 8, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755295/centromere-pairing-precedes-meiotic-chromosome-pairing-in-plants
#19
REVIEW
Jing Zhang, Fangpu Han
Meiosis is a specialized eukaryotic cell division, in which diploid cells undergo a single round of DNA replication and two rounds of nuclear division to produce haploid gametes. In most eukaryotes, the core events of meiotic prophase I are chromosomal pairing, synapsis and recombination. To ensure accurate chromosomal segregation, homologs have to identify and align along each other at the onset of meiosis. Although much progress has been made in elucidating meiotic processes, information on the mechanisms underlying chromosome pairing is limited in contrast to the meiotic recombination and synapsis events...
July 26, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754723/a-functional-link-between-bir1-and-the-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-ctf19-kinetochore-complex-revealed-through-quantitative-fitness-analysis
#20
Vasso Makrantoni, Adam Ciesiolka, Conor Lawless, Josefin Fernius, Adele Marston, David Lydall, Michael J R Stark
The chromosomal passenger complex (CPC) is a key regulator of eukaryotic cell division, consisting of the protein kinase Aurora B/Ipl1 in association with its activator (INCENP/Sli15) and two additional proteins (Survivin/Bir1 and Borealin/Nbl1). Here, we report a genome-wide genetic interaction screen in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using the bir1-17 mutant, identifying through quantitative fitness analysis deletion mutations that act as enhancers and suppressors. Gene knockouts affecting the Ctf19 kinetochore complex were identified as the strongest enhancers of bir1-17, while mutations affecting the large ribosomal subunit or the mRNA nonsense-mediated decay pathway caused strong phenotypic suppression...
September 7, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
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