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Oriented Cell Division

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095623/xenopus-as-a-model-for-studies-in-mechanical-stress-and-cell-division
#1
REVIEW
G A Stooke-Vaughan, L A Davidson, S Woolner
We exist in a physical world, and cells within biological tissues must respond appropriately to both environmental forces and forces generated within the tissue to ensure normal development and homeostasis. Cell division is required for normal tissue growth and maintenance, but both the direction and rate of cell division must be tightly controlled to avoid diseases of over-proliferation such as cancer. Recent studies have shown that mechanical cues can cause mitotic entry and orient the mitotic spindle, suggesting that physical force could play a role in patterning tissue growth...
January 17, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079247/dynamic-location-changes-of-bub1-phosphorylated-h2athr133-with-cenh3-nucleosome-in-maize-centromeric-regions
#2
Handong Su, Yalin Liu, Qianhua Dong, Chao Feng, Jing Zhang, Yang Liu, James A Birchler, Fangpu Han
The genomic stability of all organisms requires precise cell division with proper chromosome orientation. The Bub1-H2Aph-Sgo1 pathway and spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) components have been identified in yeast and mammals that are important for sister centromere orientation and chromosome segregation. However, their roles in plants are not clear. Maize meiotic mutants and minichromosomes were used to study the role of H2AThr133 phosphorylation and SAC components in sister centromere orientation and chromosome segregation...
January 12, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065316/single-molecule-measurements-to-study-polymerization-dynamics-of-ftsz-ftsa-copolymers
#3
N Baranova, M Loose
Bacterial cytokinesis is commonly initiated by the Z-ring, a dynamic cytoskeletal structure that assembles at the site of division. Its primary component is FtsZ, a tubulin-like GTPase, that like its eukaryotic relative forms protein filaments in the presence of GTP. Since the discovery of the Z-ring 25years ago, various models for the role of FtsZ have been suggested. However, important information about the architecture and dynamics of FtsZ filaments during cytokinesis is still missing. One reason for this lack of knowledge has been the small size of bacteria, which has made it difficult to resolve the orientation and dynamics of individual FtsZ filaments in the Z-ring...
2017: Methods in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059469/orientation-of-the-mitotic-spindle-in-the-development-of-tubular-organs
#4
Tao Zhong, Jun Zhou
Formation of organs that consist primarily or exclusively of tubes is essential for metazoan development. Increasing evidence suggests that the morphogenesis and homeostasis of these tubular organs depend on proper orientation of the mitotic spindle during cell division. Consequently, improper spindle orientation can perturb spatial arrangement of daughter cells, resulting in congenital malformations or dysfunctions of tubular organs. Over the past decade, the association of spindle misorientation with brain diseases and cancer has been extensively studied...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045117/cell-division-orientation-is-coupled-to-cell-cell-adhesion-by-the-e-cadherin-lgn-complex
#5
Martijn Gloerich, Julie M Bianchini, Kathleen A Siemers, Daniel J Cohen, W James Nelson
Both cell-cell adhesion and oriented cell division play prominent roles in establishing tissue architecture, but it is unclear how they might be coordinated. Here, we demonstrate that the cell-cell adhesion protein E-cadherin functions as an instructive cue for cell division orientation. This is mediated by the evolutionarily conserved LGN/NuMA complex, which regulates cortical attachments of astral spindle microtubules. We show that LGN, which adopts a three-dimensional structure similar to cadherin-bound catenins, binds directly to the E-cadherin cytosolic tail and thereby localizes at cell-cell adhesions...
January 3, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030539/local-cell-death-changes-the-orientation-of-cell-division-in-the-developing-drosophila-wing-imaginal-disc-without-using-fat-or-dachsous-as-orienting-signals
#6
Abhijit Kale, Gerard Rimesso, Nicholas E Baker
Drosophila imaginal disc cells exhibit preferred cell division orientations according to location within the disc. These orientations are altered if cell death occurs within the epithelium, such as is caused by cell competition or by genotypes affecting cell survival. Both normal cell division orientations, and their orientations after cell death, depend on the Fat-Dachsous pathway of planar cell polarity (PCP). The hypothesis that cell death initiates a planar polarity signal was investigated. When clones homozygous for the pineapple eye (pie) mutation were made to initiate cell death, neither Dachsous nor Fat was required in pie cells for the re-orientation of nearby cells, indicating a distinct signal for this PCP pathway...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996089/regulation-of-mitotic-spindle-orientation-during-epidermal-stratification
#7
REVIEW
Wei Xie, Jun Zhou
The epidermis is a stratified epithelium that serves as a barrier to infection from environmental pathogens and prevents water loss. Epidermal stratification is tightly controlled during embryogenesis. Progenitor cells in the developing epidermis undergo both symmetric and asymmetric cell divisions to balance the growth of the skin surface area against the generation of differentiated cell layers. Therefore, understanding the relationship between oriented divisions of progenitor cells and the development and stratification of the epidermis is of paramount importance in the field of skin biology and pathology...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27975272/vertebrate-embryonic-cleavage-pattern-determination
#8
Andrew Hasley, Shawn Chavez, Michael Danilchik, Martin Wühr, Francisco Pelegri
The pattern of the earliest cell divisions in a vertebrate embryo lays the groundwork for later developmental events such as gastrulation, organogenesis, and overall body plan establishment. Understanding these early cleavage patterns and the mechanisms that create them is thus crucial for the study of vertebrate development. This chapter describes the early cleavage stages for species representing ray-finned fish, amphibians, birds, reptiles, mammals, and proto-vertebrate ascidians and summarizes current understanding of the mechanisms that govern these patterns...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965439/transcriptional-regulation-of-intermediate-progenitor-cell-generation-during-hippocampal-development
#9
Lachlan Harris, Oressia Zalucki, Ilan Gobius, Hannah McDonald, Jason Osinki, Tracey J Harvey, Alexandra Essebier, Diana Vidovic, Ivan Gladwyn-Ng, Thomas H Burne, Julian I Heng, Linda J Richards, Richard M Gronostajski, Michael Piper
During forebrain development, radial glia generate neurons through the production of intermediate progenitor cells (IPCs). The production of IPCs is a central tenet underlying the generation of the appropriate number of cortical neurons, but the transcriptional logic underpinning this process remains poorly defined. Here, we examined IPC production using mice lacking the transcription factor nuclear factor I/X (Nfix). We show that Nfix deficiency delays IPC production and prolongs the neurogenic window, resulting in an increased number of neurons in the postnatal forebrain...
December 15, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888194/a-set-of-simple-cell-processes-are-sufficient-to-model-spiral-cleavage
#10
Miguel Brun-Usan, Miquel Marín-Riera, Cristina Grande, Marta Truchado-Garcia, Isaac Salazar-Ciudad
During cleavage the zygote becomes partitioned into a set of cells with a particular spatial arrangement. Spiral cleavage is the most abundant cleavage type at the phylum level. Different cellular processes have been hypothesized to be responsible for the development of the specific spatial arrangement of blastomeres in the spiral blastula. These include the orientation of cell division according to an animal-vegetal gradient, according to cells' main axis (Hertwig's rule), according to the contact areas between cells or orthogonally to previous divisions (Sach's rule)...
November 25, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837282/the-chromosomal-basis-of-meiotic-acentrosomal-spindle-assembly-and-function-in-oocytes
#11
REVIEW
Sarah J Radford, Alexandra L Nguyen, Karen Schindler, Kim S McKim
Several aspects of meiosis are impacted by the absence of centrosomes in oocytes. Here, we review four aspects of meiosis I that are significantly affected by the absence of centrosomes in oocyte spindles. One, microtubules tend to assemble around the chromosomes. Two, the organization of these microtubules into a bipolar spindle is directed by the chromosomes. Three, chromosome bi-orientation and attachment to microtubules from the correct pole require modification of the mechanisms used in mitotic cells. Four, chromosome movement to the poles at anaphase cannot rely on polar anchoring of spindle microtubules by centrosomes...
November 11, 2016: Chromosoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829356/alternative-evolution-of-a-spheroidal-colony-in-volvocine-algae-developmental-analysis-of-embryogenesis-in-astrephomene-volvocales-chlorophyta
#12
Shota Yamashita, Yoko Arakaki, Hiroko Kawai-Toyooka, Akira Noga, Masafumi Hirono, Hisayoshi Nozaki
BACKGROUND: Volvocine algae, which range from the unicellular Chlamydomonas to the multicellular Volvox with a germ-soma division of labor, are a model for the evolution of multicellularity. Within this group, the spheroidal colony might have evolved in two independent lineages: Volvocaceae and the goniacean Astrephomene. Astrephomene produces spheroidal colonies with posterior somatic cells. The feature that distinguishes Astrephomene from the volvocacean algae is lack of inversion during embryogenesis; the volvocacean embryo undergoes inversion after successive divisions to orient flagella toward the outside...
November 9, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825067/cells-walls-and-endless-forms
#13
REVIEW
Marie Monniaux, Angela Hay
A key question in biology is how the endless diversity of forms found in nature evolved. Understanding the cellular basis of this diversity has been aided by advances in non-model experimental systems, quantitative image analysis tools, and modeling approaches. Recent work in plants highlights the importance of cell wall and cuticle modifications for the emergence of diverse forms and functions. For example, explosive seed dispersal in Cardamine hirsuta depends on the asymmetric localization of lignified cell wall thickenings in the fruit valve...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822450/a-simple-and-effective-method-for-ultrastructural-analysis-of-mitosis-in-drosophila-s2-cells
#14
Anton Strunov, Lidiya V Boldyreva, Gera A Pavlova, Alexey V Pindyurin, Maurizio Gatti, Elena Kiseleva
The Drosophila S2 tissue culture cells are a widely used system for studies on mitosis. S2 cells are particularly sensitive to gene silencing by RNA interference (RNAi), allowing targeted inactivation of mitotic genes. S2 cells are also well suited for high-resolution light microscopy analysis of mitosis in fixed cells, and can be easily immunostained to detect mitotic components. In addition, S2 cells are amenable to transformation with plasmid encoding fluorescently tagged mitotic proteins, allowing in vivo analysis of their behavior throughout cell division...
2016: MethodsX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810634/early-plant-embryogenesis-dark-ages-or-dark-matter
#15
REVIEW
Martin Bayer, Daniel Slane, Gerd Jürgens
In nearly all flowering plants, the basic body plan is laid down during embryogenesis. In Arabidopsis, the crucial cell types are established extremely early as reflected in the stereotypic sequence of oriented cell divisions in the developing young embryo. Research into early embryogenesis was especially focused on the role of the infamous tryptophan derivative auxin in establishing embryo polarity and generating the main body axis. However, it is becoming obvious that the mere link to auxin does not provide any mechanistic understanding of early embryo patterning...
October 31, 2016: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795847/cleavage-of-human-embryos-options-and-diversity
#16
Yu K Doronin, I V Senechkin, L V Hilkevich, M A Kurcer
In order to estimate the diversity of embryo cleavage relatives to embryo progress (blastocyst formation), time-lapse imaging data of preimplantation human embryo development were used. This retrospective study is focused on the topographic features and time parameters of the cleavages, with particular emphasis on the lengths of cleavage cycles and the genealogy of blastomeres in 2- to 8-cell human embryos. We have found that all 4-cell human embryos have four developmental variants that are based on the sequence of appearance and orientation of cleavage planes during embryo cleavage from 2 to 4 blastomeres...
July 2016: Acta Naturae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790724/control-of-developmental-networks-by-rac-rho-small-gtpases-how-cytoskeletal-changes-during-embryogenesis-are-orchestrated
#17
Beatriz Sáenz-Narciso, Eva Gómez-Orte, Angelina Zheleva, Irene Gastaca, Juan Cabello
Small GTPases in the Rho family act as major nodes with functions beyond cytoskeletal rearrangements shaping the Caenorhabditis elegans embryo during development. These small GTPases are key signal transducers that integrate diverse developmental signals to produce a coordinated response in the cell. In C. elegans, the best studied members of these highly conserved Rho family small GTPases, RHO-1/RhoA, CED-10/Rac, and CDC-42, are crucial in several cellular processes dealing with cytoskeletal reorganization...
December 2016: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760363/the-mitotic-spindle-in-the-one-cell-c-elegans-embryo-is-positioned-with-high-precision-and-stability
#18
Jacques Pécréaux, Stefanie Redemann, Zahraa Alayan, Benjamin Mercat, Sylvain Pastezeur, Carlos Garzon-Coral, Anthony A Hyman, Jonathon Howard
Precise positioning of the mitotic spindle is important for specifying the plane of cell division, which in turn determines how the cytoplasmic contents of the mother cell are partitioned into the daughter cells, and how the daughters are positioned within the tissue. During metaphase in the early Caenorhabditis elegans embryo, the spindle is aligned and centered on the anterior-posterior axis by a microtubule-dependent machinery that exerts restoring forces when the spindle is displaced from the center. To investigate the accuracy and stability of centering, we tracked the position and orientation of the mitotic spindle during the first cell division with high temporal and spatial resolution...
October 18, 2016: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723536/coordination-of-plant-cell-growth-and-division-collective-control-or-mutual-agreement
#19
REVIEW
Robert Sablowski
Plant tissue growth requires the interdependent cellular processes of cytoplasmic growth, cell wall extension and cell division, but the feedbacks that link these processes are poorly understood. Recent papers have revealed developmentally regulated coupling between plant cell growth and progression through both mitotic cycles and endocycles. Modeling has given insight into the effects of cell geometry and tissue mechanics on the orientation of cell divisions. Developmental inputs by auxin have been highlighted in the control of cell turgor, vacuole function and the microtubule dynamics that underlies oriented growth and division...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721984/ask1-controls-spindle-orientation-and-positioning-by-phosphorylating-eb1-and-stabilizing-astral-microtubules
#20
Youguang Luo, Jie Ran, Songbo Xie, Yunfan Yang, Jie Chen, Shanshan Li, Wenqing Shui, Dengwen Li, Min Liu, Jun Zhou
Orientation and positioning of the mitotic spindle are involved in dictating cell division axis and cleavage site, and play important roles in cell fate determination and tissue morphogenesis. However, how spindle movement is controlled to achieve a defined alignment within the dividing cell is not fully understood. Here, we describe an unexpected role for apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) in regulating spindle behavior. We find that ASK1 is required for proper mitotic progression and daughter cell adhesion to the substratum...
2016: Cell Discovery
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