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Oriented Cell Division

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888194/a-set-of-simple-cell-processes-are-sufficient-to-model-spiral-cleavage
#1
Miguel Brun-Usan, Miquel Marín-Riera, Cristina Grande, Marta Truchado-Garcia, Isaac Salazar-Ciudad
During cleavage the zygote becomes partitioned into a set of cells with a particular spatial arrangement. Spiral cleavage is the most abundant cleavage type at the phylum level. Different cellular processes have been hypothesized to be responsible for the development of the specific spatial arrangement of blastomeres in the spiral blastula. These include the orientation of cell division according to an animal-vegetal gradient, according to cells' main axis (Hertwig's rule), according to the contact areas between cells or orthogonally to previous divisions (Sach's rule)...
November 25, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837282/the-chromosomal-basis-of-meiotic-acentrosomal-spindle-assembly-and-function-in-oocytes
#2
REVIEW
Sarah J Radford, Alexandra L Nguyen, Karen Schindler, Kim S McKim
Several aspects of meiosis are impacted by the absence of centrosomes in oocytes. Here, we review four aspects of meiosis I that are significantly affected by the absence of centrosomes in oocyte spindles. One, microtubules tend to assemble around the chromosomes. Two, the organization of these microtubules into a bipolar spindle is directed by the chromosomes. Three, chromosome bi-orientation and attachment to microtubules from the correct pole require modification of the mechanisms used in mitotic cells. Four, chromosome movement to the poles at anaphase cannot rely on polar anchoring of spindle microtubules by centrosomes...
November 11, 2016: Chromosoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829356/alternative-evolution-of-a-spheroidal-colony-in-volvocine-algae-developmental-analysis-of-embryogenesis-in-astrephomene-volvocales-chlorophyta
#3
Shota Yamashita, Yoko Arakaki, Hiroko Kawai-Toyooka, Akira Noga, Masafumi Hirono, Hisayoshi Nozaki
BACKGROUND: Volvocine algae, which range from the unicellular Chlamydomonas to the multicellular Volvox with a germ-soma division of labor, are a model for the evolution of multicellularity. Within this group, the spheroidal colony might have evolved in two independent lineages: Volvocaceae and the goniacean Astrephomene. Astrephomene produces spheroidal colonies with posterior somatic cells. The feature that distinguishes Astrephomene from the volvocacean algae is lack of inversion during embryogenesis; the volvocacean embryo undergoes inversion after successive divisions to orient flagella toward the outside...
November 9, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825067/cells-walls-and-endless-forms
#4
REVIEW
Marie Monniaux, Angela Hay
A key question in biology is how the endless diversity of forms found in nature evolved. Understanding the cellular basis of this diversity has been aided by advances in non-model experimental systems, quantitative image analysis tools, and modeling approaches. Recent work in plants highlights the importance of cell wall and cuticle modifications for the emergence of diverse forms and functions. For example, explosive seed dispersal in Cardamine hirsuta depends on the asymmetric localization of lignified cell wall thickenings in the fruit valve...
November 5, 2016: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822450/a-simple-and-effective-method-for-ultrastructural-analysis-of-mitosis-in-drosophila-s2-cells
#5
Anton Strunov, Lidiya V Boldyreva, Gera A Pavlova, Alexey V Pindyurin, Maurizio Gatti, Elena Kiseleva
The Drosophila S2 tissue culture cells are a widely used system for studies on mitosis. S2 cells are particularly sensitive to gene silencing by RNA interference (RNAi), allowing targeted inactivation of mitotic genes. S2 cells are also well suited for high-resolution light microscopy analysis of mitosis in fixed cells, and can be easily immunostained to detect mitotic components. In addition, S2 cells are amenable to transformation with plasmid encoding fluorescently tagged mitotic proteins, allowing in vivo analysis of their behavior throughout cell division...
2016: MethodsX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810634/early-plant-embryogenesis-dark-ages-or-dark-matter
#6
REVIEW
Martin Bayer, Daniel Slane, Gerd Jürgens
In nearly all flowering plants, the basic body plan is laid down during embryogenesis. In Arabidopsis, the crucial cell types are established extremely early as reflected in the stereotypic sequence of oriented cell divisions in the developing young embryo. Research into early embryogenesis was especially focused on the role of the infamous tryptophan derivative auxin in establishing embryo polarity and generating the main body axis. However, it is becoming obvious that the mere link to auxin does not provide any mechanistic understanding of early embryo patterning...
October 31, 2016: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795847/cleavage-of-human-embryos-options-and-diversity
#7
Yu K Doronin, I V Senechkin, L V Hilkevich, M A Kurcer
In order to estimate the diversity of embryo cleavage relatives to embryo progress (blastocyst formation), time-lapse imaging data of preimplantation human embryo development were used. This retrospective study is focused on the topographic features and time parameters of the cleavages, with particular emphasis on the lengths of cleavage cycles and the genealogy of blastomeres in 2- to 8-cell human embryos. We have found that all 4-cell human embryos have four developmental variants that are based on the sequence of appearance and orientation of cleavage planes during embryo cleavage from 2 to 4 blastomeres...
July 2016: Acta Naturae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790724/control-of-developmental-networks-by-rac-rho-small-gtpases-how-cytoskeletal-changes-during-embryogenesis-are-orchestrated
#8
Beatriz Sáenz-Narciso, Eva Gómez-Orte, Angelina Zheleva, Irene Gastaca, Juan Cabello
Small GTPases in the Rho family act as major nodes with functions beyond cytoskeletal rearrangements shaping the Caenorhabditis elegans embryo during development. These small GTPases are key signal transducers that integrate diverse developmental signals to produce a coordinated response in the cell. In C. elegans, the best studied members of these highly conserved Rho family small GTPases, RHO-1/RhoA, CED-10/Rac, and CDC-42, are crucial in several cellular processes dealing with cytoskeletal reorganization...
October 28, 2016: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760363/the-mitotic-spindle-in-the-one-cell-c-elegans-embryo-is-positioned-with-high-precision-and-stability
#9
Jacques Pécréaux, Stefanie Redemann, Zahraa Alayan, Benjamin Mercat, Sylvain Pastezeur, Carlos Garzon-Coral, Anthony A Hyman, Jonathon Howard
Precise positioning of the mitotic spindle is important for specifying the plane of cell division, which in turn determines how the cytoplasmic contents of the mother cell are partitioned into the daughter cells, and how the daughters are positioned within the tissue. During metaphase in the early Caenorhabditis elegans embryo, the spindle is aligned and centered on the anterior-posterior axis by a microtubule-dependent machinery that exerts restoring forces when the spindle is displaced from the center. To investigate the accuracy and stability of centering, we tracked the position and orientation of the mitotic spindle during the first cell division with high temporal and spatial resolution...
October 18, 2016: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723536/coordination-of-plant-cell-growth-and-division-collective-control-or-mutual-agreement
#10
Robert Sablowski
Plant tissue growth requires the interdependent cellular processes of cytoplasmic growth, cell wall extension and cell division, but the feedbacks that link these processes are poorly understood. Recent papers have revealed developmentally regulated coupling between plant cell growth and progression through both mitotic cycles and endocycles. Modeling has given insight into the effects of cell geometry and tissue mechanics on the orientation of cell divisions. Developmental inputs by auxin have been highlighted in the control of cell turgor, vacuole function and the microtubule dynamics that underlies oriented growth and division...
October 7, 2016: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721984/ask1-controls-spindle-orientation-and-positioning-by-phosphorylating-eb1-and-stabilizing-astral-microtubules
#11
Youguang Luo, Jie Ran, Songbo Xie, Yunfan Yang, Jie Chen, Shanshan Li, Wenqing Shui, Dengwen Li, Min Liu, Jun Zhou
Orientation and positioning of the mitotic spindle are involved in dictating cell division axis and cleavage site, and play important roles in cell fate determination and tissue morphogenesis. However, how spindle movement is controlled to achieve a defined alignment within the dividing cell is not fully understood. Here, we describe an unexpected role for apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) in regulating spindle behavior. We find that ASK1 is required for proper mitotic progression and daughter cell adhesion to the substratum...
2016: Cell Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27676437/generating-cellular-diversity-and-spatial-form-wnt-signaling-and-the-evolution-of-multicellular-animals
#12
REVIEW
Kyle M Loh, Renée van Amerongen, Roel Nusse
There were multiple prerequisites to the evolution of multicellular animal life, including the generation of multiple cell fates ("cellular diversity") and their patterned spatial arrangement ("spatial form"). Wnt proteins operate as primordial symmetry-breaking signals. By virtue of their short-range nature and their capacity to activate both lineage-specifying and cell-polarizing intracellular signaling cascades, Wnts can polarize cells at their site of contact, orienting the axis of cell division while simultaneously programming daughter cells to adopt diverging fates in a spatially stereotyped way...
September 26, 2016: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27672091/identification-of-tension-sensing-motif-of-histone-h3-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-and-its-regulation-by-histone-modifying-enzymes
#13
Jianjun Luo, Xiexiong Deng, Christopher Buehl, Xinjing Xu, Min-Hao Kuo
To ensure genome stability during cell division, all chromosomes must attach to spindles emanating from the opposite spindle pole bodies before segregation. The tension between sister chromatids generated by the poleward pulling force is an integral part of chromosome bi-orientation. In budding yeast, the residue Gly44 of histone H3 is critical for retaining the conserved Shugoshin protein Sgo1p at the pericentromeres for monitoring the tension status during mitosis. Studies carried out in this work showed that Lys42, Gly44, and Thr45 of H3 form the core of a tension sensing motif, TSM...
September 26, 2016: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27666746/control-of-oriented-tissue-growth-through-repression-of-organ-boundary-genes-promotes-stem-morphogenesis
#14
Stefano Bencivenga, Antonio Serrano-Mislata, Max Bush, Samantha Fox, Robert Sablowski
The origin of the stem is a major but poorly understood aspect of plant development, partly because the stem initiates in a relatively inaccessible region of the shoot apical meristem called the rib zone (RZ). We developed quantitative 3D image analysis and clonal analysis tools, which revealed that the Arabidopsis homeodomain protein REPLUMLESS (RPL) establishes distinct patterns of oriented cell division and growth in the central and peripheral regions of the RZ. A genome-wide screen for target genes connected RPL directly to many of the key shoot development pathways, including the development of organ boundaries; accordingly, mutation of the organ boundary gene LIGHT-SENSITIVE HYPOCOTYL 4 restored RZ function and stem growth in the rpl mutant...
September 14, 2016: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662512/asymmetric-zygote-division-a-mystery-starting-point-of-embryogenesis
#15
Jing Zhao, Meng-Xiang Sun
In angiosperm, asymmetric zygote division is critical for embryogenesis. The molecular mechanism underlying this process has gained a great attention recently. Some players involve in the control of both accurate position and correct orientation of zygote division plane have been found, which provide useful clues for the extensive investigations. It is getting clear that both internal and external factors are involved in this complex regulatory mechanism and the asymmetric zygote division seems with great impact in cell fate determination and embryo pattern formation...
October 2, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662076/cytokinesis-defect-in-by-2-cells-caused-by-atp-competitive-kinase-inhibitors
#16
Elena Kozgunova, Tetsuya Higashiyama, Daisuke Kurihara
Cytokinesis is last but not least in cell division as it completes the formation of the two cells. The main role in cell plate orientation and expansion have been assigned to microtubules and kinesin proteins. However, recently we reported severe cytokinesis defect in BY-2 cells not accompanied by changes in microtubules dynamics. Here we also confirmed that distribution of kinesin NACK1 is not the cause of cytokinesis defect. We further explored inhibition of the cell plate expansion by ATP-competitive inhibitors...
September 23, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651179/discs-large-homologue-1-dlg1-coordinates-mouse-oocyte-polarisation-during-maturation
#17
Jun-Chao Wang, Hong Lv, Ke-Liang Wu, Yun-Shan Zhang, Hai-Ning Luo, Zi-Jiang Chen
Mouse oocyte meiotic division requires the establishment of asymmetries in the oocyte before division, indicating the presence of polarity-establishing molecules. During mouse oocyte maturation proper orientation and positioning of the meiotic spindle at the oocyte cortex, as well as polarity in the oocyte cytoplasm and its oolemma, are necessary for the formation of functional haploid oocytes. Discs large homologue 1 (Dlg1) protein is a conserved protein that regulates cell polarity. In the present study, we found that Dlg1 was expressed at different stages of oocyte development...
September 21, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27606066/externally-imposed-electric-field-enhances-plant-root-tip-regeneration
#18
Nicolas Kral, Alexandra Hanna Ougolnikova, Giovanni Sena
In plants, shoot and root regeneration can be induced in the distinctive conditions of tissue culture (in vitro) but is also observed in intact individuals (in planta) recovering from tissue damage. Roots, for example, can regenerate their fully excised meristems in planta, even in mutants with impaired apical stem cell niches. Unfortunately, to date a comprehensive understanding of regeneration in plants is still missing. Here, we provide evidence that an imposed electric field can perturb apical root regeneration in Arabidopsis...
June 2016: Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27588418/coordination-of-cellular-dynamics-contributes-to-tooth-epithelium-deformations
#19
Ritsuko Morita, Miho Kihira, Yousuke Nakatsu, Yohei Nomoto, Miho Ogawa, Kazumasa Ohashi, Kensaku Mizuno, Tetsuhiko Tachikawa, Yukitaka Ishimoto, Yoshihiro Morishita, Takashi Tsuji
The morphologies of ectodermal organs are shaped by appropriate combinations of several deformation modes, such as invagination and anisotropic tissue elongation. However, how multicellular dynamics are coordinated during deformation processes remains to be elucidated. Here, we developed a four-dimensional (4D) analysis system for tracking cell movement and division at a single-cell resolution in developing tooth epithelium. The expression patterns of a Fucci probe clarified the region- and stage-specific cell cycle patterns within the tooth germ, which were in good agreement with the pattern of the volume growth rate estimated from tissue-level deformation analysis...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27562601/aspm-and-citk-regulate-spindle-orientation-by-affecting-the-dynamics-of-astral-microtubules
#20
Marta Gai, Federico T Bianchi, Cristiana Vagnoni, Fiammetta Vernì, Silvia Bonaccorsi, Selina Pasquero, Gaia E Berto, Francesco Sgrò, Alessandra Ma Chiotto, Laura Annaratone, Anna Sapino, Anna Bergo, Nicoletta Landsberger, Jacqueline Bond, Wieland B Huttner, Ferdinando Di Cunto
Correct orientation of cell division is considered an important factor for the achievement of normal brain size, as mutations in genes that affect this process are among the leading causes of microcephaly. Abnormal spindle orientation is associated with reduction of the neuronal progenitor symmetric divisions, premature cell cycle exit, and reduced neurogenesis. This mechanism has been involved in microcephaly resulting from mutation of ASPM, the most frequently affected gene in autosomal recessive human primary microcephaly (MCPH), but it is presently unknown how ASPM regulates spindle orientation...
October 2016: EMBO Reports
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