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Oriented Cell Division

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107549/myosin-2-induced-mitotic-rounding-enables-columnar-epithelial-cells-to-interpret-cortical-spindle-positioning-cues
#1
Soline Chanet, Rishabh Sharan, Zia Khan, Adam C Martin
During epithelial cell proliferation, planar alignment of the mitotic spindle allows the daughter cells to stay within the epithelium. Previous work has identified cortical cues that regulate spindle orientation and the division axis [1, 2]. One such cue is cortical Pins (LGN in vertebrates) [3-6], which recruits the conserved Mud/NuMA protein and the dynein/dynactin complex to the cortex. The dynein/dynactin motor complex pulls astral microtubules to orient the spindle. Cortical Pins can therefore dictate the division axis...
November 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097729/akap350-recruits-eb1-to-the-spindle-poles-ensuring-proper-spindle-orientation-and-lumen-formation-in-3d-epithelial-cell-cultures
#2
Evangelina Almada, Facundo M Tonucci, Florencia Hidalgo, Anabela Ferretti, Solange Ibarra, Alejandro Pariani, Rodrigo Vena, Cristián Favre, Javier Girardini, Arlinet Kierbel, M Cecilia Larocca
The organization of epithelial cells to form hollow organs with a single lumen requires the accurate three-dimensional arrangement of cell divisions. Mitotic spindle orientation is defined by signaling pathways that provide molecular links between specific spots at the cell cortex and astral microtubules, which have not been fully elucidated. AKAP350 is a centrosomal/Golgi scaffold protein, implicated in the regulation of microtubule dynamics. Using 3D epithelial cell cultures, we found that cells with decreased AKAP350 expression (AKAP350KD) formed polarized cysts with abnormal lumen morphology...
November 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074622/replication-origin-flanking-roadblocks-reveal-origin-licensing-dynamics-and-altered-sequence-dependence
#3
Megan D Warner, Ishara F Azmi, Yanding Zhao, Sukhyun Kang, Stephen P Bell
In eukaryotes, DNA replication initiates from multiple origins of replication for timely genome duplication. These sites are selected by origin licensing, during which the core enzyme of the eukaryotic DNA replicative helicase, the Mcm2-7 (minichromosome maintenance) complex, is loaded at each origin. This origin licensing requires loading two Mcm2-7 helicases around origin DNA in a head-to-head orientation. Current models suggest that the origin recognition complex (ORC) and cell-division cycle 6 (Cdc6) proteins recognize and encircle origin DNA and assemble an Mcm2-7 double hexamer around adjacent double-stranded DNA...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074565/fine-tuning-the-orientation-of-the-polarity-axis-by-rga1-a-cdc42-gtpase-activating-protein
#4
Kristi E Miller, Wing-Cheong Lo, Mid Eum Lee, Pil Jung Kang, Hay-Oak Park
In yeast and animal cells, signaling pathways involving small guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) regulate cell polarization. In budding yeast, selection of a bud site directs polarity establishment and subsequently determines the plane of cell division. Rga1, a Cdc42 GTPase-activating protein, prevents budding within the division site by inhibiting Cdc42 repolarization. A protein complex including Nba1 and Nis1 is involved in preventing rebudding at old division sites, yet how these proteins and Rga1 might function in negative polarity signaling has been elusive...
October 26, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070485/functions-of-wnt-signaling-pathway-in-hair-cell-differentiation-and-regeneration
#5
Qing-Qing Fan, Fei-Long Meng, Ran Fang, Gao-Peng Li, Xiao-Li Zhao
Wnt signaling pathway plays important roles in the development and homeostasis of multicellular organisms. Through their bindings with the Frizzled receptors, the Wnt ligands regulate a wide range of developmental processes, such as axis patterning, cell division, and cell fate specification. Wnt signaling plays vital roles in the development of inner ear of the mouse. In the early stages of inner ear development, Wnt signaling specifies the size of the placode and the formation of the otic vesicle. In later stages, Wnt signaling mediates hair cell specification and orients the stereociliary bundles in a uniform direction...
October 20, 2017: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038308/cell-dynamics-underlying-oriented-growth-of-the-drosophila-wing-imaginal-disc
#6
Natalie A Dye, Marko Popović, Stephanie Spannl, Raphaël Etournay, Dagmar Kainmüller, Suhrid Ghosh, Eugene W Myers, Frank Jülicher, Suzanne Eaton
Quantitative analysis of the dynamic cellular mechanisms shaping the Drosophila wing during its larval growth phase has been limited, impeding our ability to understand how morphogen patterns regulate tissue shape. Such analysis requires imaging explants under conditions that maintain both growth and patterning, as well as methods to quantify how much cellular behaviors change tissue shape. Here, we demonstrate a key requirement for the steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) in the maintenance of numerous patterning systems in vivo and in explant culture...
October 16, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033332/disruption-of-core-planar-cell-polarity-signaling-regulates-renal-tubule-morphogenesis-but-is-not-cystogenic
#7
Koshi Kunimoto, Roy D Bayly, Eszter K Vladar, Tyson Vonderfecht, Anna-Rachel Gallagher, Jeffrey D Axelrod
Oriented cell division (OCD) and convergent extension (CE) shape developing renal tubules, and their disruption has been associated with polycystic kidney disease (PKD) genes, the majority of which encode proteins that localize to primary cilia. Core planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling controls OCD and CE in other contexts, leading to the hypothesis that disruption of PCP signaling interferes with CE and/or OCD to produce PKD. Nonetheless, the contribution of PCP to tubulogenesis and cystogenesis is uncertain, and two major questions remain unanswered...
October 23, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032586/cohesion-and-centromere-activity-are-required-for-histone-h3-phosphorylation-in-maize
#8
Yang Liu, Handong Su, Yalin Liu, Jing Zhang, Qianhua Dong, James A Birchler, Fangpu Han
Haspin-mediated histone H3-threonine 3 phosphorylation (H3T3ph) promotes proper deposition of Aurora B at the inner centromere to ensure faithful chromosome segregation in metazoans. However, the function of H3T3ph remains relatively unexplored in plants. Here, we show that in maize (Zea mays L.) mitotic cells, H3T3ph is concentrated at pericentromeric and centromeric regions. Additional weak H3T3ph signals occur between cohered sister chromatids at prometaphase. Immunostaining on dicentric chromosomes reveals that an inactive centromere cannot maintain H3T3ph at metaphase, indicating that a functional centromere is required for H3T3 phosphorylation...
October 15, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994651/hmmr-acts-in-the-plk1-dependent-spindle-positioning-pathway-and-supports-neural-development
#9
Marisa Connell, Helen Chen, Jihong Jiang, Chia-Wei Kuan, Abbas Fotovati, Tony Lh Chu, Zhengcheng He, Tess C Lengyell, Huaibiao Li, Torsten Kroll, Amanda M Li, Daniel Goldowitz, Lucien Frappart, Aspasia Ploubidou, Millan S Patel, Linda M Pilarski, Elizabeth M Simpson, Philipp F Lange, Douglas W Allan, Christopher A Maxwell
Oriented cell division is one mechanism progenitor cells use during development and to maintain tissue homeostasis. Common to most cell types is the asymmetric establishment and regulation of cortical NuMA-dynein complexes that position the mitotic spindle. Here, we discover that HMMR acts at centrosomes in a PLK1-dependent pathway that locates active Ran and modulates the cortical localization of NuMA-dynein complexes to correct mispositioned spindles. This pathway was discovered through the creation and analysis of Hmmr-knockout mice, which suffer neonatal lethality with defective neural development and pleiotropic phenotypes in multiple tissues...
October 10, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994649/planar-cell-polarity-signaling-coordinates-oriented-cell-division-and-cell-rearrangement-in-clonally-expanding-growth-plate-cartilage
#10
Yuwei Li, Ang Li, Jason Junge, Marianne Bronner
Both oriented cell divisions and cell rearrangements are critical for proper embryogenesis and organogenesis. However, little is known about how these two cellular events are integrated. Here we examine the linkage between these processes in chick limb cartilage. By combining retroviral-based multicolor clonal analysis with live imaging, the results show that single chondrocyte precursors can generate both single-column and multi-column clones through oriented division followed by cell rearrangements. Focusing on single column formation, we show that this stereotypical tissue architecture is established by a pivot-like process between sister cells...
October 10, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992197/relating-cell-shape-and-mechanical-stress-in-a-spatially-disordered-epithelium-using-a-vertex-based-model
#11
Alexander Nestor-Bergmann, Georgina Goddard, Sarah Woolner, Oliver E Jensen
Using a popular vertex-based model to describe a spatially disordered planar epithelial monolayer, we examine the relationship between cell shape and mechanical stress at the cell and tissue level. Deriving expressions for stress tensors starting from an energetic formulation of the model, we show that the principal axes of stress for an individual cell align with the principal axes of shape, and we determine the bulk effective tissue pressure when the monolayer is isotropic at the tissue level. Using simulations for a monolayer that is not under peripheral stress, we fit parameters of the model to experimental data for Xenopus embryonic tissue...
August 8, 2017: Mathematical Medicine and Biology: a Journal of the IMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973935/cytoplasmic-mtocs-control-spindle-orientation-for-asymmetric-cell-division-in-plants
#12
Ken Kosetsu, Takashi Murata, Moé Yamada, Momoko Nishina, Joanna Boruc, Mitsuyasu Hasebe, Daniël Van Damme, Gohta Goshima
Proper orientation of the cell division axis is critical for asymmetric cell divisions that underpin cell differentiation. In animals, centrosomes are the dominant microtubule organizing centers (MTOC) and play a pivotal role in axis determination by orienting the mitotic spindle. In land plants that lack centrosomes, a critical role of a microtubular ring structure, the preprophase band (PPB), has been observed in this process; the PPB is required for orienting (before prophase) and guiding (in telophase) the mitotic apparatus...
October 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973348/plk1-mediated-phosphorylation-of-wdr62-mcph2-ensures-proper-mitotic-spindle-orientation
#13
Tatsuo Miyamoto, Silvia Natsuko Akutsu, Akihiro Fukumitsu, Hiroyuki Morino, Yoshinori Masatsuna, Kosuke Hosoba, Hideshi Kawakami, Takashi Yamamoto, Kenji Shimizu, Hirofumi Ohashi, Shinya Matsuura
Primary microcephaly (MCPH) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by congenital reduction of head circumference. Here, we identified compound heterozygous mutations c.731 C > T (p.Ser 244 Leu) and c.2413 G > T (p.Glu 805 X) in the WDR62/MCPH2 gene, which encodes the mitotic centrosomal protein WDR62, in two siblings in a Japanese family with microcephaly using whole-exome sequencing. However, the molecular and cellular pathology of microcephaly caused by WDR62/MCPH2 mutation remains unclear...
November 15, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959238/z-ring-structure-and-constriction-dynamics-in-e-coli
#14
Pramod Kumar, Amarjeet Yadav, Itzhak Fishov, Mario Feingold
The Z-ring plays a central role in bacterial division. It consists of FtsZ filaments, but the way these reorganize in the ring-like structure during septation remains largely unknown. Here, we measure the effective constriction dynamics of the ring. Using an oscillating optical trap, we can switch individual rod-shaped E. coli cells between horizontal and vertical orientations. In the vertical orientation, the fluorescent Z-ring image appears as a symmetric circular structure that renders itself to quantitative analysis...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943256/spindle-misorientation-of-cerebral-and-cerebellar-progenitors-is-a-mechanistic-cause-of-megalencephaly
#15
Huaibiao Li, Torsten Kroll, Jürgen Moll, Lucien Frappart, Peter Herrlich, Heike Heuer, Aspasia Ploubidou
Misoriented division of neuroprogenitors, by loss-of-function studies of centrosome or spindle components, has been linked to the developmental brain defects microcephaly and lissencephaly. As these approaches also affect centrosome biogenesis, spindle assembly, or cell-cycle progression, the resulting pathologies cannot be attributed solely to spindle misorientation. To address this issue, we employed a truncation of the spindle-orienting protein RHAMM. This truncation of the RHAMM centrosome-targeting domain does not have an impact on centrosome biogenesis or on spindle assembly in vivo...
October 10, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941984/neural-crest-cells-utilize-primary-cilia-to-regulate-ventral-forebrain-morphogenesis-via-hedgehog-dependent-regulation-of-oriented-cell-division
#16
Elizabeth N Schock, Samantha A Brugmann
Development of the brain directly influences the development of the face via both physical growth and Sonic hedgehog (SHH) activity; however, little is known about how neural crest cells (NCCs), the mesenchymal population that comprise the developing facial prominences, influence the development of the brain. We utilized the conditional ciliary mutant Wnt1-Cre;Kif3a(fl/fl) to demonstrate that loss of primary cilia on NCCs resulted in a widened ventral forebrain. We found that neuroectodermal Shh expression, dorsal/ventral patterning, and amount of proliferation in the ventral neuroectoderm was not changed in Wnt1-Cre;Kif3a(fl/fl) mutants; however, tissue polarity and directional cell division were disrupted...
November 15, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924223/palladin-is-a-novel-microtubule-associated-protein-responsible-for-spindle-orientation
#17
Xiang Zhang, Xinlei Chen, Jing Liu, Xin Xu, Yuanliang Zhang, Zheng Ruan, Yinyin Xie, Qiuhua Huang, Tong Yin, Zhu Chen, Saijuan Chen
Mitotic spindles, which consist of microtubules (MTs) and associated proteins, play critical roles in controlling cell division and maintaining tissue homeostasis. The orientation of the mitotic spindle is closely related with the duration of mitosis. However, the molecular mechanism in regulating the orientation of the mitotic spindles is largely undefined. In this study, we found that Palladin is a novel MT-associated protein and regulator of spindle orientation, which maintains proper spindle orientation by stabilizing astral MTs...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919938/keep-it-on-the-edge-the-post-mitotic-midbody-as-a-polarity-signal-unit
#18
Pablo Lujan, Teresa Rubio, Giulia Varsano, Maja Köhn
The maintenance of the epithelial architecture during tissue proliferation is achieved by apical positioning of the midbody after cell division. Consequently, midbody mislocalization contributes to epithelial architecture disruption, a fundamental event during epithelial tumorigenesis. Studies in 3D polarized epithelial MDCK or Caco2 cell models, where midbody misplacement leads to multiple ectopic but fully polarized lumen-containing cysts, revealed that this phenotype can be caused by 2 different scenarios: the loss of mitotic spindle orientation or the loss of asymmetric abscission...
2017: Communicative & Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910277/interplay-between-microtubule-bundling-and-sorting-factors-ensures-acentriolar-spindle-stability-during-c-elegans-oocyte-meiosis
#19
Timothy J Mullen, Sarah M Wignall
In many species, oocyte meiosis is carried out in the absence of centrioles. As a result, microtubule organization, spindle assembly, and chromosome segregation proceed by unique mechanisms. Here, we report insights into the principles underlying this specialized form of cell division, through studies of C. elegans KLP-15 and KLP-16, two highly homologous members of the kinesin-14 family of minus-end-directed kinesins. These proteins localize to the acentriolar oocyte spindle and promote microtubule bundling during spindle assembly; following KLP-15/16 depletion, microtubule bundles form but then collapse into a disorganized array...
September 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898655/plant-embryogenesis
#20
Sacco C de Vries, Dolf Weijers
Land plants are called 'embryophytes' and thus, their collective name is defined by their ability to form embryos. Indeed, embryogenesis is a widespread phenomenon in plants, and much of our diet is composed of embryos (just think of grains, beans or nuts; Figure 1). However, in addition to embryos as a source of nutrition, they are also a fascinating study object. Some of the most fundamental decisions on fate and identity, as well as patterning and morphogenesis, are taken during the first days of plant life...
September 11, 2017: Current Biology: CB
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