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Oriented Cell Division

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786506/wing-morphogenesis-in-lepidoptera
#1
REVIEW
H Frederik Nijhout, Kenneth Z McKenna
The wings of Lepidoptera develop from imaginal disks that are made up of a simple two-layered epithelium whose structure is always congruent with the final adult wing. It is therefore possible to map every point on the imaginal disk to a location on the adult wing throughout the period of growth and morphogenesis. The wings of different species of Lepidoptera differ greatly in both size and shape, yet it is possible to fate-map homologous locations on the developing wing disks and explicitly monitor the growth, size, and shape of the wing, or any of its regions, throughout the entire ontogeny of the wing...
April 26, 2018: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778912/alcohol-inhibits-the-proliferation-of-neuro2a-cells-via-promoting-the-asymmetric-cell-division-through-down-regulation-of-the-expression-of-centrosome-protein-j
#2
Tao Xu, Shan-Yu Zhang, Xiao-Mei Xu, Shuai Zhao, Kai-Heng Zhu, Wei-Wei Zhang, Ling-Li Zhao
Alcohol can decrease cell proliferation in neural cells. The proliferation of neural cells can be inhibited by the asymmetric division of neural progenitor cells. However, whether alcohol inhibits cell proliferation through inducing cell asymmetric division is not yet clear. Here, we reported that the percentage of asymmetric division was increased in alcohol-treated Neuro2a cells owing to the impaired-spindle orientation. Meanwhile, the expression of Centrosome protein-J (CPAP) which plays an important role in spindle orientation was reduced in Neuro2a cells...
May 17, 2018: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761930/multiple-phosphorylation-sites-on-%C3%AE-tubulin-are-essential-and-contribute-to-the-biogenesis-of-basal-bodies-in-tetrahymena
#3
Ewa Joachimiak, Maria Jerka-Dziadosz, Łucja Krzemień-Ojak, Ewa Wacławek, Katarzyna Jedynak, Paulina Urbanska, Wojciech Brutkowski, Hanna Sas-Nowosielska, Hanna Fabczak, Jacek Gaertig, Dorota Wloga
The mechanisms that regulate γ-tubulin, including its post-translational modifications, are poorly understood. γ-Tubulin is important for the duplication of centrioles and structurally similar basal bodies (BBs), organelles which contain a ring of nine triplet microtubules. The ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila carries hundreds of cilia in a single cell and provides an excellent model to specifically address the role of γ-tubulin in the BBs assembly and maintenance. The genome of Tetrahymena contains a single γ-tubulin gene...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736710/a-cell-based-assay-for-mitotic-spindle-orientation
#4
Elina Glaubke, Holger Bastians
The regulation of mitotic spindle orientation is essential to ensure proper cell division and development (Kiyomitsua and Cheeseman Nat Cell Biol 14:311-317, 2012). For identification of potential spindle orientation regulators, determination of the mitotic spindle angle is a well-known but time-consuming procedure. Here we describe a simple and time-saving phenotypic screening assay for the identification of potential spindle orientation regulators. This screen is based on the analysis of monopolar mitotic spindle structures, which form upon inhibition of the mitotic kinesin Eg5/KSP by the small-molecule inhibitor dimethylenastron (DME) or similar compounds...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701870/an-overview-of-plant-division-plane-orientation
#5
REVIEW
Carolyn G Rasmussen, Marschal Bellinger
Contents Summary 1 I. Introduction 1 II. Models of plant cell division 1 III. Establishing the division plane 2 IV. Maintaining the division plane during mitosis and cytokinesis 5 Acknowledgements 6 References 6 SUMMARY: Plants, a significant source of planet-wide biomass, have an unique type of cell division in which a new cell wall is constructed de novo inside the cell and guided towards the cell edge to complete division. The elegant control over positioning this new cell wall is essential for proper patterning and development...
April 27, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688794/spindle-assembly-checkpoint-strength-is-linked-to-cell-fate-in-the-c-elegans-embryo
#6
Abigail R Gerhold, Vincent Poupart, Jean-Claude Labbé, Paul S Maddox
The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) is a conserved mitotic regulator that preserves genome stability by monitoring kinetochore-microtubule attachments and blocking anaphase onset until chromosome bi-orientation is achieved. Despite its central role in maintaining mitotic fidelity, the ability of the SAC to delay mitotic exit in the presence of kinetochore-microtubule attachment defects (SAC "strength") appears to vary widely. How different cellular aspects drive this variation remains largely unknown...
April 24, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685992/spindly-is-required-for-rapid-migration-of-human-cells
#7
Claudia Conte, Michelle A Baird, Michael W Davidson, Eric R Griffis
Dynein is the sole processive minus-end directed microtubule motor found in animals. It has roles in cell division, membrane trafficking, and cell migration. Together with dynactin, dynein regulates centrosomal orientation to establish and maintain cell polarity, controls focal adhesion turnover and anchors microtubules at the leading edge. In higher eukaryotes, dynein/dynactin requires additional components such as Bicaudal D to form an active motor complex and for regulating its cellular localization. Spindly is a protein that targets dynein/dynactin to kinetochores in mitosis and can activate its motility in vitro However, no role for Spindly in interphase dynein/dynactin function has been found...
April 23, 2018: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678688/control-in-dormancy-or-eradication-of-cancer-stem-cells-mathematical-modeling-and-stability-issues
#8
Walid Djema, Catherine Bonnet, Frédéric Mazenc, Jean Clairambault, Emilia Fridman, Pierre Hirsch, François Delhommeau
OBJECTIVE: Modeling and analysis of cell population dynamics enhance our understanding of cancer. Here we introduce and explore a new model that may apply to many tissues. ANALYSES: An age-structured model describing coexistence between mutated and ordinary stem cells is developed and explored. The model is transformed into a nonlinear time-delay system governing the dynamics of healthy cells, coupled to a nonlinear differential-difference system describing dynamics of unhealthy cells...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661912/microtubule-end-tethering-of-a-processive-kinesin-8-motor-kif18b-is-required-for-spindle-positioning
#9
Toni McHugh, Agata A Gluszek, Julie P I Welburn
Mitotic spindle positioning specifies the plane of cell division during anaphase. Spindle orientation and positioning are therefore critical to ensure symmetric division in mitosis and asymmetric division during development. The control of astral microtubule length plays an essential role in positioning the spindle. In this study, using gene knockout, we show that the kinesin-8 Kif18b controls microtubule length to center the mitotic spindle at metaphase. Using in vitro reconstitution, we reveal that Kif18b is a highly processive plus end-directed motor that uses a C-terminal nonmotor microtubule-binding region to accumulate at growing microtubule plus ends...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653289/src-activation-decouples-cell-division-orientation-from-cell-geometry-in-mammalian-cells
#10
Xiaoyan Sun, Hongsheng Qi, Xiuzhen Zhang, Li Li, Jiaping Zhang, Qunli Zeng, George S Laszlo, Bo Wei, Tianhong Li, Jianxin Jiang, Alex Mogilner, Xiaobing Fu, Min Zhao
Orientation of cell division plane plays a crucial role in morphogenesis and regeneration. Misoriented cell division underlies many important diseases, such as cancer. Studies with Drosophila and C. elegance models show that Src, a proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase, is a critical regulator of this aspect of mitosis. However, the role for Src in controlling cell division orientation in mammalian cells is not well understood. Using genetic and pharmacological approaches and two extracellular signals to orient cell division, we demonstrated a critical role for Src...
April 3, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644457/an-interplay-between-shugoshin-and-spo13-for-centromeric-cohesin-protection-and-sister-kinetochore-mono-orientation-during-meiosis-i-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#11
Gunjan Mehta, Guhan Kaliyaperumal Anbalagan, Akhilendra Pratap Bharati, Purna Gadre, Santanu Kumar Ghosh
Meiosis is a specialized cell division process by which haploid gametes are produced from a diploid mother cell. Reductional chromosome segregation during meiosis I (MI) is achieved by two unique and conserved events: centromeric cohesin protection (CCP) and sister kinetochore mono-orientation (SKM). In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a meiosis-specific protein Spo13 plays a role in both these centromere-specific events. Despite genome-wide association of Spo13, we failed to detect its function in global processes such as cohesin loading, cohesion establishment and homologs pairing...
April 11, 2018: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610353/superresolution-microscopy-reveals-structural-mechanisms-driving-the-nanoarchitecture-of-a-viral-chromatin-tether
#12
Margaret J Grant, Matthew S Loftus, Aiola P Stoja, Dean H Kedes, M Mitchell Smith
By tethering their circular genomes (episomes) to host chromatin, DNA tumor viruses ensure retention and segregation of their genetic material during cell divisions. Despite functional genetic and crystallographic studies, there is little information addressing the 3D structure of these tethers in cells, issues critical for understanding persistent infection by these viruses. Here, we have applied direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (dSTORM) to establish the nanoarchitecture of tethers within cells latently infected with the oncogenic human pathogen, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV)...
April 2, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595475/multi-view-light-sheet-imaging-and-tracking-with-the-mamut-software-reveals-the-cell-lineage-of-a-direct-developing-arthropod-limb
#13
Carsten Wolff, Jean-Yves Tinevez, Tobias Pietzsch, Evangelia Stamataki, Benjamin Harich, Léo Guignard, Stephan Preibisch, Spencer Shorte, Philipp J Keller, Pavel Tomancak, Anastasios Pavlopoulos
During development, coordinated cell behaviors orchestrate tissue and organ morphogenesis. Detailed descriptions of cell lineages and behaviors provide a powerful framework to elucidate the mechanisms of morphogenesis. To study the cellular basis of limb development, we imaged transgenic fluorescently-labeled embryos from the crustacean Parhyale hawaiensis with multi-view light-sheet microscopy at high spatiotemporal resolution over several days of embryogenesis. The cell lineage of outgrowing thoracic limbs was reconstructed at single-cell resolution with new software called Massive Multi-view Tracker (MaMuT)...
March 29, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594501/mechanisms-of-trabecular-formation-and-specification-during-cardiogenesis
#14
Mingfu Wu
Trabecular morphogenesis is a key morphologic event during cardiogenesis and contributes to the formation of a competent ventricular wall. Lack of trabeculation results in embryonic lethality. The trabecular morphogenesis is a multistep process that includes, but is not limited to, trabecular initiation, proliferation/growth, specification, and compaction. Although a number of signaling molecules have been implicated in regulating trabeculation, the cellular processes underlying mammalian trabecular formation are not fully understood...
March 28, 2018: Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590636/vangl2-disruption-alters-the-biomechanics-of-late-spinal-neurulation-leading-to-spina-bifida-in-mouse-embryos
#15
Gabriel L Galea, Oleksandr Nychyk, Matteo A Mole, Dale Moulding, Dawn Savery, Evanthia Nikolopoulou, Deborah J Henderson, Nicholas D E Greene, Andrew J Copp
Human mutations in the planar cell polarity component VANGL2 are associated with the neural tube defect spina bifida. Homozygous Vangl2 mutation in mice prevents initiation of neural tube closure, precluding analysis of its subsequent roles in neurulation. Spinal neurulation involves rostral-to-caudal 'zippering' until completion of closure is imminent, when a caudal-to-rostral closure point, 'Closure 5', arises at the caudal-most extremity of the posterior neuropore (PNP). Here, we used Grhl3Cre to delete Vangl2 in the surface ectoderm (SE) throughout neurulation and in an increasing proportion of PNP neuroepithelial cells at late neurulation stages...
March 21, 2018: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578412/cytokine-receptor-eb1-interaction-couples-cell-polarity-and-fate-during-asymmetric-cell-division
#16
Cuie Chen, Ryan Cummings, Aghapi Mordovanakis, Alan J Hunt, Michael Mayer, David Sept, Yukiko M Yamashita
Asymmetric stem cell division is a critical mechanism for balancing self-renewal and differentiation. Adult stem cells often orient their mitotic spindle to place one daughter inside the niche and the other outside of it to achieve asymmetric division. It remains unknown whether and how the niche may direct division orientation. Here we discover a novel and evolutionary conserved mechanism that couples cell polarity to cell fate. We show that the cytokine receptor homolog Dome, acting downstream of the niche-derived ligand Upd, directly binds to the microtubule-binding protein Eb1 to regulate spindle orientation in Drosophila male germline stem cells (GSCs)...
March 26, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576473/host-polarized-cell-growth-in-animal-symbionts
#17
Nika Pende, Jinglan Wang, Philipp M Weber, Jolanda Verheul, Erkin Kuru, Simon K-M R Rittmann, Nikolaus Leisch, Michael S VanNieuwenhze, Yves V Brun, Tanneke den Blaauwen, Silvia Bulgheresi
To determine the fundamentals of cell growth, we must extend cell biological studies to non-model organisms. Here, we investigated the growth modes of the only two rods known to widen instead of elongating, Candidatus Thiosymbion oneisti and Thiosymbion hypermnestrae. These bacteria are attached by one pole to the surface of their respective nematode hosts. By incubating live Ca. T. oneisti and T. hypermnestrae with a peptidoglycan metabolic probe, we observed that the insertion of new cell wall starts at the poles and proceeds inward, concomitantly with FtsZ-based membrane constriction...
March 20, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570795/cortical-progenitor-biology-key-features-mediating-proliferation-versus-differentiation
#18
REVIEW
Ana Uzquiano, Ivan Gladwyn-Ng, Laurent Nguyen, Orly Reiner, Magdalena Götz, Fumio Matsuzaki, Fiona Francis
The cerebral cortex is a highly organized structure whose development depends on diverse progenitor cell types, namely apical radial glia, intermediate progenitors and basal radial glia cells, which are responsible for the production of the correct neuronal output. In recent years, these progenitor cell types have been deeply studied, particularly basal radial glial and their role in cortical expansion and gyrification. We review here a broad series of factors to regulate progenitor behavior and daughter cell fate...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523789/insc-lgn-tetramers-promote-asymmetric-divisions-of-mammary-stem-cells
#19
Simone Culurgioni, Sara Mari, Paola Bonetti, Sara Gallini, Greta Bonetto, Martha Brennich, Adam Round, Francesco Nicassio, Marina Mapelli
Asymmetric cell divisions balance stem cell proliferation and differentiation to sustain tissue morphogenesis and homeostasis. During asymmetric divisions, fate determinants and niche contacts segregate unequally between daughters, but little is known on how this is achieved mechanistically. In Drosophila neuroblasts and murine mammary stem cells, the association of the spindle orientation protein LGN with the stem cell adaptor Inscuteable has been connected to asymmetry. Here we report the crystal structure of Drosophila LGN in complex with the asymmetric domain of Inscuteable, which reveals a tetrameric arrangement of intertwined molecules...
March 9, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29521213/advances-in-spirocyclic-hybrids-chemistry-and-medicinal-actions
#20
Mohammed Benabdallah, Oualid Talhi, Fatiha Nouali, Nourredine Choukchou-Braham, Khaldoun Bachari, Artur M S Silva
The present review deals with the progress in medicinal chemistry of spirocyclic compounds, a wider class of natural and synthetic organic molecules, defined as a hybrid of two molecular entities covalently linked via a unique tetrahedral carbon. This spiro central carbon confers to the molecules a tridimensional structurally oriented framework, which is found in many medicinally relevant compounds, a well-known example is the anti-hypertensive spironolactone. Various bioactive natural products possess the privileged spiro linkage and different chemo-types thereof become synthetically accessible since the 20th century...
March 9, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
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