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Oriented Cell Division

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430635/unsuccessful-mitosis-in-multicellular-tumour-spheroids
#1
Annie Molla, Morgane Couvet, Jean-Luc Coll
Multicellular spheroids are very attractive models in oncology because they mimic the 3D organization of the tumour cells with their microenvironment. We show here using 3 different cell types (mammary TSA/pc, embryonic kidney Hek293 and cervical cancer HeLa), that when the cells are growing as spheroids the frequency of binucleated cells is augmented as occurs in some human tumours.We therefore describe mitosis in multicellular spheroids by following mitotic markers and by time-lapse experiments. Chromosomes alignment appears to be correct on the metaphasic plate and the passenger complex is well localized on centromere...
February 24, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430559/heart-on-a-chip-an-investigation-of-the-influence-of-static-and-perfusion-conditions-on-cardiac-h9c2-cell-proliferation-morphology-and-alignment
#2
Anna Kobuszewska, Ewelina Tomecka, Kamil Zukowski, Elzbieta Jastrzebska, Michal Chudy, Artur Dybko, Philippe Renaud, Zbigniew Brzozka
Lab-on-a-chip systems are increasingly used as tools for cultures and investigation of cardiac cells. In this article, we present how the geometry of microsystems and microenvironmental conditions (static and perfusion) influence the proliferation, morphology, and alignment of cardiac cells (rat cardiomyoblasts-H9C2). Additionally, studies of cell growth after incubation with verapamil hydrochloride were performed. For this purpose, poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS)/glass microfluidic systems with three different geometries of microchambers (a circular chamber, a longitudinal channel, and three parallel microchannels separated by two rows of micropillars) were prepared...
April 1, 2017: SLAS Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427147/brca1-controls-the-cell-division-axis-and-governs-ploidy-and-phenotype-in-human-mammary-cells
#3
Zhengcheng He, Nagarajan Kannan, Oksana Nemirovsky, Helen Chen, Marisa Connell, Brian Taylor, Jihong Jiang, Linda M Pilarski, Markus C Fleisch, Dieter Niederacher, Miguel Angel Pujana, Connie J Eaves, Christopher A Maxwell
BRCA1 deficiency may perturb the differentiation hierarchy present in the normal mammary gland and is associated with the genesis of breast cancers that are genomically unstable and typically display a basal-like transcriptome. Oriented cell division is a mechanism known to regulate cell fates and to restrict tumor formation. We now show that the cell division axis is altered following shRNA-mediated BRCA1 depletion in immortalized but non-tumorigenic, or freshly isolated normal human mammary cells with graded consequences in progeny cells that include aneuploidy, perturbation of cell polarity in spheroid cultures, and a selective loss of cells with luminal features...
February 25, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409313/extracellular-regulation-of-the-mitotic-spindle-and-fate-determinants-driving-asymmetric-cell-division
#4
Prestina Smith, Mark Azzam, Lindsay Hinck
Stem cells use mode of cell division, symmetric (SCD) versus asymmetric (ACD), to balance expansion with self-renewal and the generation of daughter cells with different cell fates. Studies in model organisms have identified intrinsic mechanisms that govern this process, which involves partitioning molecular components between daughter cells, frequently through the regulation of the mitotic spindle. Research performed in vertebrate tissues is revealing both conservation of these intrinsic mechanisms and crucial roles for extrinsic cues in regulating the frequency of these divisions...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409309/asymmetric-and-unequal-cell-divisions-in-ascidian-embryos
#5
Takefumi Negishi, Hiroki Nishida
Asymmetric cell division during embryogenesis contributes to cell diversity by generating daughter cells that adopt distinct developmental fates. In this chapter, we summarize current knowledge of three examples of asymmetric cell division occurring in ascidian early embryos: (1) Three successive cell divisions that are asymmetric in terms of cell fate and unequal in cell size in the germline lineage at the embryo posterior pole. A subcellular structure, the centrosome-attracting body (CAB), and maternal PEM mRNAs localized within it control both the positioning of the cell division planes and segregation of the germ cell fates...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409305/drosophila-melanogaster-neuroblasts-a-model-for-asymmetric-stem-cell-divisions
#6
Emmanuel Gallaud, Tri Pham, Clemens Cabernard
Asymmetric cell division (ACD) is a fundamental mechanism to generate cell diversity, giving rise to daughter cells with different developmental potentials. ACD is manifested in the asymmetric segregation of proteins or mRNAs, when the two daughter cells differ in size or are endowed with different potentials to differentiate into a particular cell type (Horvitz and Herskowitz, Cell 68:237-255, 1992). Drosophila neuroblasts, the neural stem cells of the developing fly brain, are an ideal system to study ACD since this system encompasses all of these characteristics...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409304/the-midbody-and-its-remnant-in-cell-polarization-and-asymmetric-cell-division
#7
Christian Pohl
The midbody is a protein-dense assembly that forms during cytokinesis when the actomyosin ring constricts around bundling central spindle microtubules. After its initial description by Walther Flemming in the late nineteenth century and its rediscovery through electron microscopy in the 1960s and 1970s, its ultrastructural organization and the sequential recruitment of its molecular constituents has only been elucidated in the past decade. Recently, it has become clear that the midbody can serve as a polarity cue during asymmetric cell division, cell polarization, and spindle orientation by coordinating cytoskeletal organization, vesicular transport, and localized cortical cues...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409300/intrinsic-and-extrinsic-determinants-linking-spindle-pole-fate-spindle-polarity-and-asymmetric-cell-division-in-the-budding-yeast-s-cerevisiae
#8
Marco Geymonat, Marisa Segal
The budding yeast S. cerevisiae is a powerful model to understand the multiple layers of control driving an asymmetric cell division. In budding yeast, asymmetric targeting of the spindle poles to the mother and bud cell compartments respectively orients the mitotic spindle along the mother-bud axis. This program exploits an intrinsic functional asymmetry arising from the age distinction between the spindle poles-one inherited from the preceding division and the other newly assembled. Extrinsic mechanisms convert this age distinction into differential fate...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408602/the-preprophase-band-of-microtubules-controls-the-robustness-of-division-orientation-in-plants
#9
Estelle Schaefer, Katia Belcram, Magalie Uyttewaal, Yann Duroc, Magali Goussot, David Legland, Elise Laruelle, Marie-Ludivine de Tauzia-Moreau, Martine Pastuglia, David Bouchez
Controlling cell division plane orientation is essential for morphogenesis in multicellular organisms. In plant cells, the future cortical division plane is marked before mitotic entry by the preprophase band (PPB). Here, we characterized an Arabidopsis trm (TON1 Recruiting Motif) mutant that impairs PPB formation but does not affect interphase microtubules. Unexpectedly, PPB disruption neither abolished the capacity of root cells to define a cortical division zone nor induced aberrant cell division patterns but rather caused a loss of precision in cell division orientation...
April 14, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394342/regulation-of-spindle-integrity-and-mitotic-fidelity-by-bccip
#10
S C Huhn, J Liu, C Ye, H Lu, X Jiang, X Feng, S Ganesan, E White, Z Shen
Centrosomes together with the mitotic spindle ensure the faithful distribution of chromosomes between daughter cells, and spindle orientation is a major determinant of cell fate during tissue regeneration. Spindle defects are not only an impetus of chromosome instability but are also a cause of developmental disorders involving defective asymmetric cell division. In this work, we demonstrate BCCIP, especially BCCIPα, as a previously unidentified component of the mitotic spindle pole and the centrosome. We demonstrate that BCCIP localizes proximal to the mother centriole and participates in microtubule organization and then redistributes to the spindle pole to ensure faithful spindle architecture...
April 10, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381427/the-endoplasmic-reticulum-is-partitioned-asymmetrically-during-mitosis-prior-to-cell-fate-selection-in-proneuronal-cells-in-the-early-drosophila-embryo
#11
Anthony S Eritano, Arturo Altamirano, Sarah Beyeler, Norma Gaytan, Mark Velasquez, Blake Riggs
Asymmetric cell division is the primary mechanism to generate cellular diversity and relies on the correct partitioning of cell fate determinants. However, the mechanism by which these determinants are delivered and positioned is poorly understood and the upstream signal to initiate asymmetric cell division is currently unknown. Here we report that the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) is asymmetrically partitioned during mitosis in epithelial cells just prior to delamination and selection of a proneural cell fate in the early Drosophila embryo...
April 5, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359322/mutation-of-kinesin-6-kif20b-causes-defects-in-cortical-neuron-polarization-and-morphogenesis
#12
Katrina C McNeely, Timothy D Cupp, Jessica Neville Little, Kerstin M Janisch, Ayushma Shrestha, Noelle D Dwyer
BACKGROUND: How neurons change their cytoskeleton to adopt their complex polarized morphology is still not understood. Growing evidence suggests that proteins that help build microtubule structures during cell division are also involved in building and remodeling the complex cytoskeletons of neurons. Kif20b (previously called MPP1 or Mphosph1) is the most divergent member of the Kinesin-6 family of "mitotic" kinesins that also includes Kif23/MKLP1 and Kif20a/MKLP2. We previously isolated a loss-of-function mouse mutant of Kif20b and showed that it had a thalamocortical axon guidance defect and microcephaly...
March 31, 2017: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357999/epithelial-tension-in-the-second-heart-field-promotes-mouse-heart-tube-elongation
#13
Alexandre Francou, Christopher De Bono, Robert G Kelly
Extension of the vertebrate heart tube is driven by progressive addition of second heart field (SHF) progenitor cells to the poles of the heart. Defects in this process cause a spectrum of congenital anomalies. SHF cells form an epithelial layer in splanchnic mesoderm in the dorsal wall of the pericardial cavity. Here we report oriented cell elongation, polarized actomyosin distribution and nuclear YAP/TAZ in a proliferative centre in the posterior dorsal pericardial wall during heart tube extension. These parameters are indicative of mechanical stress, further supported by analysis of cell shape changes in wound assays...
March 30, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351864/spindle-orientation-a-question-of-complex-positioning
#14
REVIEW
Dan T Bergstralh, Nicole S Dawney, Daniel St Johnston
The direction in which a cell divides is determined by the orientation of its mitotic spindle at metaphase. Spindle orientation is therefore important for a wide range of developmental processes, ranging from germline stem cell division to epithelial tissue homeostasis and regeneration. In multiple cell types in multiple animals, spindle orientation is controlled by a conserved biological machine that mediates a pulling force on astral microtubules. Restricting the localization of this machine to only specific regions of the cortex can thus determine how the mitotic spindle is oriented...
April 1, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335590/roles-of-budding-yeast-hrr25-in-recombination-and-sporulation
#15
Min-Su Lee, Jeong Hwan Joo, Keunpil Kim
Hrr25, a casein kinase 1 δ/ε homolog in budding yeast, is essential to set up mono-orientation of sister kinetochores during meiosis. Hrr25 kinase activity coordinates sister chromatid cohesion via cohesin phosphorylation. Here, we investigated the prophase roles of Hrr25 using the auxin-inducible degron system and by ectopic expression of Hrr25 during yeast meiosis. Hrr25 mediates nuclear division in meiosis I but does not affect DNA replication. We also found that initiation of meiotic double-strand breaks as well as joint molecule formation were normal in HRR25-deficient cells...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285992/tissue-wide-mechanical-forces-influence-the-polarity-of-stomatal-stem-cells-in-arabidopsis
#16
Martin Bringmann, Dominique C Bergmann
Mechanical information is an important contributor to cell polarity in uni- and multicellular systems [1-3]. In planar tissues like the Drosophila wing, cell polarity reorients during growth as cells divide and reorganize [4]. In another planar tissue, the Arabidopsis leaf epidermis [5], polarized, asymmetric divisions of stomatal stem cells (meristemoid mother cells [MMCs]) are fundamental for the generation and patterning of multiple cell types, including stomata. The activity of key transcription factors, polarizing factors [6], and peptide signals [7] explains some local stomatal patterns emerging from the behavior of a few lineally related cells [6, 8-11]...
March 20, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285879/lineage-specification-from-prostate-progenitor-cells-requires-gata3-dependent-mitotic-spindle-orientation
#17
Maxwell E R Shafer, Alana H T Nguyen, Mathieu Tremblay, Sophie Viala, Mélanie Béland, Nicholas R Bertos, Morag Park, Maxime Bouchard
During prostate development, basal and luminal cell lineages are generated through symmetric and asymmetric divisions of bipotent basal cells. However, the extent to which spindle orientation controls division symmetry or cell fate, and the upstream factors regulating this process, are still elusive. We report that GATA3 is expressed in both prostate basal progenitor and luminal cells and that loss of GATA3 leads to a mislocalization of PRKCZ, resulting in mitotic spindle randomization during progenitor cell division...
April 11, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269158/detecting-cell-division-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-bacteria-from-bright-field-microscopy-images-with-hidden-conditional-random-fields
#18
Lee-Ling S Ong, Xinghua Zhang, Binu Kundukad, Justin Dauwels, Patrick Doyle, H Harry Asada
An approach to automatically detect bacteria division with temporal models is presented. To understand how bacteria migrate and proliferate to form complex multicellular behaviours such as biofilms, it is desirable to track individual bacteria and detect cell division events. Unlike eukaryotic cells, prokaryotic cells such as bacteria lack distinctive features, causing bacteria division difficult to detect in a single image frame. Furthermore, bacteria may detach, migrate close to other bacteria and may orientate themselves at an angle to the horizontal plane...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246178/signaling-networks-in-epithelial-tube-formation
#19
Ilenia Bernascone, Mariam Hachimi, Fernando Martin-Belmonte
Epithelial tubes are crucial to the function of organ systems including the excretory, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and pulmonary. Studies in the last two decades using in vitro organotypic systems and a variety of animal models have substantiated a large number of the morphogenetic mechanisms required to form epithelial tubes in development and regeneration. Many of these mechanisms modulate the differentiation and proliferation events necessary for generating the cell movements and changes in cell shape to delineate the wide variety of epithelial tube sizes, lengths, and conformations...
February 28, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237780/computer-evaluation-of-vire2-protein-complexes-for-ssdna-transfer-ability
#20
Irina Volokhina, Yury Gusev, Svyatoslav Mazilov, Yelizaveta Moiseeva, Mikhail Chumakov
The single-stranded transfer DNA from the Ti plasmid of the soil bacteria Agrobacterium nonspecifically integrates into the plant chromosome and is inherited at subsequent cell divisions. How it is transferred across host membranes is unknown, but it is believed that VirE2 proteins form a membrane-spanning pore or channel in a lipid bilayer and possibly mediate the delivery of the single-stranded transfer DNA-VirD2-VirE2 complex to the plant cell chromosomes. The aim of this work was to perform a computer simulation of VirE2's pore-forming capacity and an evaluation of constructed VirE2 complexes...
February 9, 2017: Computational Biology and Chemistry
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