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"Neonatal loss"

Kristin A Dimac-Stohl, Charli S Davies, Nicholas M Grebe, Alexandra C Stonehill, Lydia K Greene, Jessica Mitchell, Tim Clutton-Brock, Christine M Drea
Meerkats are group-living, insectivorous herpestids in which subordinate members provide extensive care for the dominant female's young. In contrast to some cooperative breeders, subordinate female meerkats are physiologically able to reproduce and occasionally do so successfully; their attempts are more frequently 'suppressed' via eviction or infanticide by the dominant female. Spontaneous abortion and neonatal loss occur with some regularity, further negatively impacting reproductive success. Here, we compared the reproductive outcomes and endocrine profiles, including of serum progesterone (P4 ), serum estradiol (E2 ), and fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (fGCm), of dominant and subordinate dams residing within their clans in the Kalahari Desert of South Africa...
May 2, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Barbara Torlinska, Sarah C Bath, Aisha Janjua, Kristien Boelaert, Shiao-Yng Chan
Severe iodine deficiency during pregnancy has been associated with pregnancy/neonatal loss, and adverse pregnancy outcomes; however, the impact of mild-to-moderate iodine insufficiency, though prevalent in pregnancy, is not well-documented. We assessed whether mild iodine deficiency during pregnancy was associated with pregnancy/infant loss, or with other adverse pregnancy outcomes. We used samples and data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), from 3140 singleton pregnancies and from a further 42 women with pregnancy/infant loss...
March 1, 2018: Nutrients
X Zhang, J Xiao, L Ba, F Wang, D Gao, J Zhang, C Pan, P Qi
Senecavirus A (SVA) is an emerging non-enveloped virus with a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genome that belongs to the Senecavirus genus in the Picornaviridae family. Senecavirus A-associated swine idiopathic vesicular disease and epidemic transient neonatal losses have caused substantial economic losses for the swine industry. Here, we describe a case of re-emerging vesicular disease among sows and finishing pigs on a swine farm in Fujian Province of southeast China. Other causative pathogens, including FMDV, SVDV and VSV, were excluded, and a novel SVA strain, CH-FJZZ-2017, was isolated...
April 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Thalita E S Oliveira, Mariana M Z Michelazzo, Thiago Fernandes, Admilton G de Oliveira, Raquel A Leme, Alice F Alfieri, Amauri A Alfieri, Selwyn A Headley
Epidemic Transient Neonatal Losses (ETNL) is a disease of piglets caused by Senecavirus A (SVA) in which the method of dissemination and associated lesions are not well-defined. This study investigated the possible SVA-induced lesions by examining spontaneous infections in newborn piglets. Histopathology revealed ballooning degeneration of transitional epithelium, nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis, plexus choroiditis, and atrophic enteritis. RT-PCR identified SVA in all tissues evaluated and sequencing confirmed these results...
November 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
Isabel Couck, Nada Mourad Tawfic, Jan Deprest, Luc De Catte, Roland Devlieger, Liesbeth Lewi
BACKGROUND: It is insufficiently known to what degree the site of the cord insertions influences the risk of a complicated outcome in monochorionic twin pregnancies. OBJECTIVES: The purpose is to examine if the site of cord insertions as determined on prenatal ultrasound scan increases the risk of adverse outcome -defined as fetal or neonatal loss or birth prior to 32 weeks-, twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) and discordant growth. METHODS: We retrospectively studied a consecutive cohort of monochorionic diamniotic twin pregnancies followed from the first trimester...
October 11, 2017: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Md Sakirul Islam Khan, Hiroaki Nabeka, Farzana Islam, Tetsuya Shimokawa, Shouichiro Saito, Xuan Li, Soichiro Kawabe, Fumihiko Hamada, Tetsuya Tachibana, Seiji Matsuda
Spina bifida aperta (SBA), one of the most common congenital malformations, causes lifelong neurological complications, particularly in terms of motor dysfunction. Fetuses with SBA exhibit voluntary leg movements in utero and during early neonatal life, but these disappear within the first few weeks after birth. However, the pathophysiological sequence underlying such motor dysfunction remains unclear. Additionally, because important insights have yet to be obtained from human cases, an appropriate animal model is essential...
December 19, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
Zheng Ao, Dewu Liu, Chengfa Zhao, Zhimin Yue, Junsong Shi, Rong Zhou, Gengyuan Cai, Enqin Zheng, Zicong Li, Zhenfang Wu
Cloned piglets generated through somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) have a high rate of neonatal death. Postnatal loss is associated with low birth weight, umbilical status and placental parameters in fertilisation-derived piglets. To investigate whether or not this relationship also exists in cloned piglets, birth weight, umbilical status, placental parameters, placental morphology and gene expression pattern were compared among four piglet groups, namely, SCNT-derived male piglets that died within 4 days (SCNT-DW4), SCNT-derived male piglets that survived over 4 days (SCNT-SO4), artificial insemination (AI)-generated male piglets that died within 4 days (AI-DW4) and AI-generated male piglets that survived over 4 days (AI-SO4)...
September 2017: Placenta
Mohamed Rezk, Osama Elkilani, Abdelhamid Shaheen, Awni Gamal, Hassan Badr
OBJECTIVE: To assess prospectively the maternal cardiovascular hemodynamic changes and obstetric outcome in women with rheumatic heart disease (RHD) and to detect predictors of poor outcome. METHODS: This prospective observational study included 204 pregnant patients with RHD who were divided into two groups; successful pregnancy group with living fetus (n = 126) and poor obstetric outcome group with fetal or neonatal loss (n = 78). Hemodynamic changes, maternal and fetal outcome were assessed and recorded...
June 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Rahat Wadhwa Desai, Mary Alice Smith
About one in seven cases of listeriosis occurs in pregnant women, and, although listeriosis is rare, it is the third leading cause of death from food-borne infections. Pregnancy-related listeriosis increases the risk for fetal and neonatal mortality by approximately 21%. During pregnancy, infections are more likely to occur in the third trimester (66%) than the first trimester (3%). However, fetal and neonatal adverse effects are less common as gestational age increases or with older gestational age at birth...
March 15, 2017: Birth Defects Research
Suhong Qian, Wenchun Fan, Ping Qian, Huanchun Chen, Xiangmin Li
BACKGROUND: Seneca valley virus (SVV), a member of the Picornaviridae family, is a small non-enveloped RNA virus, that is linked to porcine idiopathic vesicular disease (PIVD). SVV infection in swine results in vesicular disease and epidemic transient neonatal losses (ETNL). The first case of SVV infection was reported in Guangdong, South China in 2015. RESULTS: We isolated and characterized an SVV HB-CH-2016 strain from vesicular lesion tissue specimens from piglets with PIVD in Hubei, Central China...
October 19, 2016: Virology Journal
T Sun, O L Rojas, C Li, L A Ward, D J Philpott, J L Gommerman
Although we know a great deal about which types of dendritic cells (DCs) promote T-cell priming in the periphery, less is known about which DC subset(s) provoke antiviral responses within the gut. Here we report that conventional Zbtb46-dependent DCs were critically required for antiviral CD8+ T-cell responses against rotavirus (RV), the major cause of childhood gastroenteritis worldwide. Furthermore, we found that in adult mice, Batf3-dependent DCs were required for generating optimal RV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses...
May 2017: Mucosal Immunology
Budhan S Pukazhenthi
Wild ungulates throughout the world face the impending risk of extinction. Small founding population size, lack of interest in exhibiting wild ungulates and declining space in zoos are not sustaining ex situ populations. Animals managed in ex situ collections continue to experience >20% neonate loss globally. To ensure population sustainability there is a critical need to: (1) manage ungulates in large herds, increasing mate choice and reproductive efficiency; (2) improve husbandry and genetic management; and (3) develop consistent assisted reproductive technologies, including sperm cryopreservation and AI...
January 6, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Jessica I Lundin, Gina M Ylitalo, Rebecca K Booth, Bernadita Anulacion, Jennifer A Hempelmann, Kim M Parsons, Deborah A Giles, Elizabeth A Seely, M Bradley Hanson, Candice K Emmons, Samuel K Wasser
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), specifically PCBs, PBDEs, and DDTs, in the marine environment are well documented, however accumulation and mobilization patterns at the top of the food-web are poorly understood. This study broadens the understanding of POPs in the endangered Southern Resident killer whale population by addressing modulation by prey availability and reproductive status, along with endocrine disrupting effects. A total of 140 killer whale scat samples collected from 54 unique whales across a 4 year sampling period (2010-2013) were analyzed for concentrations of POPs...
June 21, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Pengtao Gong, Lili Cao, Yanbing Guo, Hang Dong, Shuxian Yuan, Xinhua Yao, Wenzhi Ren, Lin Yao, Zhilin Xu, Qiang Sun, Xichen Zhang
The intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii is a major cause of abortion and neonatal loss in livestock, and can cause severe illness to human with weakened immune system. The heavy incidence and severe consequence indicate the development of vaccines against T. gondii is required. In this study, DNA vaccines encoding GRA1 and MIC3 antigens were developed. The parasite-specific immune responses and protection efficiency against toxoplasmosis by these DNA vaccines were evaluated in BALB/c mice. The results demonstrated that the IgG antibody production was significantly increased in multi-antigenic vaccine encoding GRA1 and MIC3 immunized group, as well as the IFN-γ level, when compared with single-gene vaccines and controls groups (p < 0...
July 2016: Experimental Parasitology
Emily Shelkowitz, Sharon L Vessella, Patricia O'Reilly, Richard Tucker, Beatrice E Lechner
BACKGROUND: The death of a newborn is a traumatic life changing event in the lives of parents. We hypothesized that bereaved parents of newborn infants want to have choices in the personal care of their infant at the end of life. METHODS: Parents who had suffered a perinatal or neonatal loss between 1 and 6 years before the survey in a regional level IV neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and associated labor and delivery room were invited to participate. Parents chose between an online survey, paper survey or telephone interview...
2015: BMC Palliative Care
Karen Shapiro, Melissa A Miller, Andrea E Packham, Beatriz Aguilar, Patricia A Conrad, Elizabeth Vanwormer, Michael J Murray
Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis neurona are protozoan parasites with terrestrial definitive hosts, and both pathogens can cause fatal disease in a wide range of marine animals. Close monitoring of threatened southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) in California allowed for the diagnosis of dual transplacental transmission of T. gondii and S. neurona in a wild female otter that was chronically infected with both parasites. Congenital infection resulted in late-term abortion due to disseminated toxoplasmosis...
March 2016: Parasitology
L Williams, K Kennedy, R D Boss
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2015: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
Sandiren Naiken, Mary-Ann Griffiths, Lindsay Edouard, Nada Padayatchy
The cynomolgus monkey is widely used in reproductive research. However, the effects on their reproductive parameters of infant and maternal factors such as birth order, sex of infants, twin births, maternal age and lactation status have not been fully examined. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine how such infant and maternal factors impact on infant birth weight, birth viability, neonatal loss and retained placenta in cynomolgus monkeys. The study was based on birth data from a cohort of 789 females over an eight-year period...
December 2015: American Journal of Primatology
Daniela N Vasquez, Andrea V Das Neves, Laura Vidal, Miriam Moseinco, Jorge Lapadula, Graciela Zakalik, Analía Santa-Maria, Raúl A Gomez, Mónica Capalbo, Claudia Fernandez, Enrique Agüero-Villareal, Santiago Vommaro, Marcelo Moretti, Silvana B Soli, Florencia Ballestero, Juan P Sottile, Viviana Chapier, Carlos Lovesio, José Santos, Fernando Bertoletti, Alfredo D Intile, Pablo M Desmery, Elisa Estenssoro
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate pregnant/postpartum patients requiring ICUs admission in Argentina, describe characteristics of mothers and outcomes for mothers/babies, evaluate risk factors for maternal-fetal-neonatal mortality; and compare outcomes between patients admitted to public and private health sectors. DESIGN: Multicenter, prospective, national cohort study. SETTING: Twenty ICUs in Argentina (public, 8 and private, 12). PATIENTS: Pregnant/postpartum (< 42 d) patients admitted to ICU...
September 2015: Critical Care Medicine
Cali E Willet, Mariano Makara, George Reppas, George Tsoukalas, Richard Malik, Bianca Haase, Claire M Wade
Spondylocostal dysostosis is a congenital disorder of the axial skeleton documented in human families from diverse racial backgrounds. The condition is characterised by truncal shortening, extensive hemivertebrae and rib anomalies including malalignment, fusion and reduction in number. Mutations in the Notch signalling pathway genes DLL3, MESP2, LFNG, HES7 and TBX6 have been associated with this defect. In this study, spondylocostal dysostosis in an outbred family of miniature schnauzer dogs is described. Computed tomography demonstrated that the condition mirrors the skeletal defects observed in human cases, but unlike most human cases, the affected dogs were stillborn or died shortly after birth...
2015: PloS One
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