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Dietary nitrate

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390999/measuring-nitrate-reductase-activity-from-human-and-rodent-tongues
#1
Khandaker A Ahmed, Alexandria L Nichols, Jaideep Honavar, Mark T Dransfield, Sadis Matalon, Rakesh P Patel
Reduction of salivary nitrate to nitrite by oral microbes expressing nitrate-reductase has emerged as a crucial pathway in systemic NO homeostasis in humans and other mammals. Selective depletion of oral microbes prevents dietary nitrate-dependent lowering of blood pressure, inhibition of platelet aggregation and ischemic injury. To date, most studies interrogate enterosalivary nitrate reduction by following changes in saliva or plasma nitrite and NO-signaling (functional) end points. Little is known about whether, and if so how, nitrate-reductase enzymatic activity per se (i...
April 5, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352942/long-term-dietary-nitrite-and-nitrate-deficiency-causes-the-metabolic-syndrome-endothelial-dysfunction-and-cardiovascular-death-in-mice
#2
Mika Kina-Tanada, Mayuko Sakanashi, Akihide Tanimoto, Tadashi Kaname, Toshihiro Matsuzaki, Katsuhiko Noguchi, Taro Uchida, Junko Nakasone, Chisayo Kozuka, Masayoshi Ishida, Haruaki Kubota, Yuji Taira, Yuichi Totsuka, Shin-Ichiro Kina, Hajime Sunakawa, Junichi Omura, Kimio Satoh, Hiroaki Shimokawa, Nobuyuki Yanagihara, Shiro Maeda, Yusuke Ohya, Masayuki Matsushita, Hiroaki Masuzaki, Akira Arasaki, Masato Tsutsui
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Nitric oxide (NO) is synthesised not only from L-arginine by NO synthases (NOSs), but also from its inert metabolites, nitrite and nitrate. Green leafy vegetables are abundant in nitrate, but whether or not a deficiency in dietary nitrite/nitrate spontaneously causes disease remains to be clarified. In this study, we tested our hypothesis that long-term dietary nitrite/nitrate deficiency would induce the metabolic syndrome in mice. METHODS: To this end, we prepared a low-nitrite/nitrate diet (LND) consisting of an amino acid-based low-nitrite/nitrate chow, in which the contents of L-arginine, fat, carbohydrates, protein and energy were identical with a regular chow, and potable ultrapure water...
March 28, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332118/nutrition-and-training-influences-on-the-regulation-of-mitochondrial-adenosine-diphosphate-sensitivity-and-bioenergetics
#3
REVIEW
Graham P Holloway
Since the seminal finding almost 50 years ago that exercise training increases mitochondrial content in skeletal muscle, a considerable amount of research has been dedicated to elucidate the mechanisms inducing mitochondrial biogenesis. The discovery of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator 1α as a major regulator of exercise-induced gene transcription was instrumental in beginning to understand the signals regulating this process. However, almost two decades after its discovery, our understanding of the signals inducing mitochondrial biogenesis remain poorly defined, limiting our insights into possible novel training modalities in elite athletes that can increase the oxidative potential of muscle...
March 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319596/medium-term-effects-of-dietary-nitrate-supplementation-on-systolic-and-diastolic-blood-pressure-in-adults-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
Ammar W Ashor, Jose Lara, Mario Siervo
OBJECTIVES: Dietary nitrate supplementation has been shown to lower blood pressure (BP) particularly in short-term clinical trials. Whether these effects are sustained in the long-term remains to be established. The objective was to conduct a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials that examined whether dietary nitrate supplementation for more than 1 week has beneficial effects on SBP and DBP. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched from inception until May 2016...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273645/biomarkers-of-stress-mediated-metabolic-deregulation-in-diabetes-mellitus
#5
REVIEW
Dina R Johar, Larry H Bernstein
This review illustrates the relationship of oxidative and nitrative stress to diabetes mellitus and its complications. This is of considerable interest because diabetes mellitus is a lifetime systemic metabolic disease that may have childhood or adult onset and affects not only a triad of pancreatic islet cell insulin, pituitary insulin-like growth hormone, and liver steatosis, it has a long-term association with adiposity, atherosclerosis, coronary vascular disease, kidney disease of the nature afferent arteriolar sclerosis and nodular glomerulosclerosis, cerebrovascular disease, and amyloid deposition in the pancreas and kidney...
February 24, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252454/ingested-nitrate-disinfection-by-products-and-kidney-cancer-risk-in-older-women
#6
Rena R Jones, Peter J Weyer, Curt T Dellavalle, Kim Robien, Kenneth P Cantor, Stuart Krasner, Laura E Beane Freeman, Mary H Ward
BACKGROUND: N-nitroso compounds formed endogenously after nitrate/nitrite ingestion are animal renal carcinogens. Previous epidemiologic studies of drinking water nitrate did not evaluate other potentially toxic water contaminants, including the suspected renal carcinogen chloroform. METHODS: In a cohort of postmenopausal women in Iowa (1986-2010), we used historical measurements to estimate long-term average concentrations of nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) and disinfection byproducts (DBP) in public water supplies...
March 1, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251402/dietary-nitrate-supplementation-enhances-short-but-not-longer-duration-running-time-trial-performance
#7
Oliver Michael Shannon, Matthew John Barlow, Lauren Duckworth, Emily Williams, Georgina Wort, David Woods, Mario Siervo, John Paul O'Hara
PURPOSE: This study evaluated the effects of dietary nitrate (NO3(-)) supplementation on physiological functioning and exercise performance in trained runners/triathletes conducting short and longer-distance treadmill running time-trials (TT). METHOD: Eight trained male runners or triathletes completed four exercise performance tests comprising a 10 min warm up followed by either a 1500 or 10,000 m treadmill TT. Exercise performance tests were preceded 3 h before the exercise by supplementation with either 140 ml concentrated nitrate-rich (~12...
April 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244005/sodium-selenite-prevents-paraquat-induced-neurotoxicity-in-zebrafish
#8
Talise E Müller, Mauro E Nunes, Charlene C Menezes, Aline T Marins, Jossiele Leitemperger, Ana Carolina Lopes Gressler, Fabiano B Carvalho, Catiuscia Molz de Freitas, Vanessa A Quadros, Roselei Fachinetto, Denis B Rosemberg, Vania L Loro
Considering the antioxidant properties of sodium selenite (Na2SeO3) and the involvement of oxidative stress events in paraquat-induced neurotoxicity, this study investigated the protective effect of dietary Na2SeO3 on biochemical and behavioral parameters of zebrafish exposed to paraquat (PQ). Fish were pretreated with a Na2SeO3 diet for 21 days and then PQ (20 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally with six injections for 16 days. In the novel tank test, the Na2SeO3 diet prevented the locomotor impairments, as well as the increase in the time spent in the top area of the tank, and the exacerbation of freezing episodes...
February 27, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215082/development-of-a-quechers-based-method-for-determination-of-carcinogenic-2-nitrofluorene-and-1-nitropyrene-in-rice-grains-and-vegetables-a-comparative-study-with-benzo-a-pyrene
#9
Kailin Deng, Wan Chan
Nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAHs) are ubiquitous environmental pollutants attracting increasing attention because of their potent mutagenicity to humans. Previous studies of nitro-PAHs focused on investigating their formation mechanisms and detecting them in atmospheric environment; however, few studies have reported their occurrence in food samples, and regulations on nitro-PAHs are still lacking. We report in this study the development and application of a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) method for determination of nitro-PAHs in rice and vegetable samples...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203456/concurrent-beet-juice-and-carbohydrate-ingestion-influence-on-glucose-tolerance-in-obese-and-nonobese-adults
#10
Joseph W Beals, Scott E Binns, Janelle L Davis, Gregory R Giordano, Anna L Klochak, Hunter L Paris, Melani M Schweder, Garrett L Peltonen, Rebecca L Scalzo, Christopher Bell
Insulin resistance and obesity are characterized by low nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. Insulin sensitivity is improved with stimulation of NO generating pathways. Consumption of dietary nitrate (NO3(-)) increases NO formation, via NO3(-) reduction to nitrite (NO2(-)) by oral bacteria. We hypothesized that acute dietary nitrate (beet juice) ingestion improves insulin sensitivity in obese but not in nonobese adults. 12 nonobese (body mass index: 26.3 ± 0.8 kg/m(2) (mean ± SE)) and 10 obese adults (34...
2017: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196859/dietary-nitrite-reverses-features-of-postmenopausal-metabolic-syndrome-induced-by-high-fat-diet-and-ovariectomy-in-mice
#11
Kazuo Ohtake, Nobuyuki Ehara, Hiroshige Chiba, Genya Nakano, Kunihiro Sonoda, Junta Ito, Hiroyuki Uchida, Jun Kobayashi
Menopausal women are at greater risk of developing metabolic syndrome with reduced endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity. Hormone replacement therapy increases eNOS activity and normalizes some characteristics of metabolic syndrome. We hypothesized that nitric oxide (NO) supplementation should have a therapeutic effect on this syndrome. We examined the effect of dietary nitrite in a mouse model with postmenopausal metabolic syndrome induced by ovariectomy (OVX) and a high fat diet (HF). C57BL/6 female mice were divided into five groups, sham+normal fat diet (NF), sham+ HF, OVX+HF with or without sodium nitrite (50 mg and 150 mg/l) in the drinking water...
April 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182502/effect-of-dietary-nitrate-supplementation-on-swimming-performance-in-trained-swimmers
#12
Sam Lowings, Oliver Michael Shannon, Kevin Deighton, Jamie Matu, Matthew John Barlow
Nitrate supplementation appears to be most ergogenic when oxygen availability is restricted and subsequently may be particularly beneficial for swimming performance due to the breath-hold element of this sport. This represents the first investigation of nitrate supplementation and swimming time-trial (TT) performance. In a randomised double-blind repeated-measures crossover study, ten (5male, 5female) trained swimmers ingested 140ml nitrate-rich (~12.5mmol nitrate) or nitrate-depleted (~0.01mmol nitrate) beetroot juice...
February 9, 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179228/dietary-nitrate-does-not-reduce-oxygen-cost-of-exercise-or-improve-muscle-mitochondrial-function-in-mitochondrial-myopathy-patients
#13
Miranda Nabben, Joep P J Schmitz, Jolita Ciapaite, Carlijn M P Le Clercq, Natal A van Riel, Harm R Haak, Klaas Nicolay, Irenaeus F de Coo, Hubert J M Smeets, Stephan F Praet, Luc J C van Loon, Jeanine J Prompers
Muscle weakness and exercise intolerance negatively affect the quality of life of mitochondrial myopathy patients. Short-term dietary nitrate supplementation has been shown to improve exercise performance and reduce oxygen cost of exercise in healthy humans and trained athletes. We investigated if 1 week of dietary inorganic nitrate supplementation decreases the oxygen cost of exercise and improves mitochondrial function in mitochondrial myopathy patients. Ten mitochondrial myopathy patients (40 ± 5 years, maximal whole-body oxygen uptake = 21...
February 8, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150478/effects-of-silk-peptides-administration-on-fat-utilization-over-a-whole-day-in-mice
#14
Jisu Kim, Jonghoon Park, Bokyung Kim, Chi-Ho Lee, Kiwon Lim, Heajung Suh
Purpose: The aim of the present narrative review was to consider the evidence on the timing, optimal dose and intake duration of the main dietary supplements β-alanine, nitrate, caffeine, creatine, sodium bicarbonate, carbohydrate and protein. Methods: This review article will focuses on timing, optimal dose and intake duration of main dietary supplements for consuming. Results: This paper reviewed the evidence to determine the optimal time, efficacy doses and intake duration for sports supplements verified by scientific evidence that report a performance enhancing effect in both situation of laboratory and training settings...
December 31, 2016: Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150472/timing-optimal-dose-and-intake-duration-of-dietary-supplements-with-evidence-based-use-in-sports-nutrition
#15
REVIEW
Alireza Naderi, Erick P Oliveira, Tim N Ziegenfuss, MarkE T Willems
Purpose: The aim of the present narrative review was to consider the evidence on the timing, optimal dose and intake duration of the main dietary supplements β-alanine, nitrate, caffeine, creatine, sodium bicarbonate, carbohydrate and protein. Methods: This review article will focuses on timing, optimal dose and intake duration of main dietary supplements for consuming. Results: This paper reviewed the evidence to determine the optimal time, efficacy doses and intake duration for sports supplements verified by scientific evidence that report a performance enhancing effect in both situation of laboratory and training settings...
December 31, 2016: Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137609/dietary-nitrate-load-lowers-blood-pressure-and-renal-resistive-index-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease-a-pilot-study
#16
Stephan Kemmner, Georg Lorenz, Jana Wobst, Thorsten Kessler, Ming Wen, Roman Günthner, Konrad Stock, Uwe Heemann, Klaus Burkhardt, Marcus Baumann, Christoph Schmaderer
Beetroot has a high concentration of inorganic nitrate, which can serially reduced to form nitrite and nitric oxide (NO) after oral ingestion. Increased renal resistive index (RRI) measured by Doppler ultrasonography is associated with higher cardiovascular mortality in hypertensive patients with reduced renal function over time defined as chronic kidney disease (CKD). Our aim was to investigate whether the supplementation of dietary nitrate by administration of beetroot juice is able to reduce blood pressure and renal resistive index (RRI) as prognostic markers for cardiovascular mortality in CKD patients...
April 1, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120718/nutraceuticals-and-dietary-supplements-to-improve-quality-of-life-and-outcomes-in-heart-failure-patients
#17
Arrigo Fg Cicero, Alessandro Colletti
BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) is a complex clinical syndrome that can result from any structural or functional cardiac disorder that impairs the ability of the ventricle to fill or eject blood. It represents a major public health issue, with a prevalence of over 23 million worldwide. The lifetime risk of developing HF is one in five and the most important risk factors identified are ischemic heart disease, hypertension, smoking, obesity and diabetes. Preventive approaches are based on improvements of lifestyle, associated with pharmacological therapy...
January 24, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107724/effect-of-sole-or-combined-administration-of-nitrate-and-3-nitro-1-propionic-acid-on-fermentation-and-salmonella-survivability-in-alfalfa-fed-rumen-cultures-in-vitro
#18
Alejandro Castañeda Correa, Julian Trachsel, Heather K Allen, Agustin Corral-Luna, Hector Gutierrez-Bañuelos, Pedro Antonia Ochoa-Garcia, Oscar Ruiz-Barrera, Michael E Hume, Todd R Callaway, Roger B Harvey, Ross C Beier, Robin C Anderson, David J Nisbet
Ruminal methanogenesis is a digestive inefficiency resulting in the loss of dietary energy consumed by the host and contributing to environmental methane emission. Nitrate is being investigated as a feed supplement to reduce rumen methane emissions but safety and efficacy concerns persist. To assess potential synergies of co-administering sub-toxic amounts of nitrate and 3-nitro-1-propionate (NPA) on fermentation and Salmonella survivability with an alfalfa-based diet, ruminal microbes were cultured with additions of 8 or 16mM nitrate, 4 or 12mM NPA or their combinations...
April 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105786/development-of-a-reference-database-for-assessing-dietary-nitrate-in-vegetables
#19
Lauren C Blekkenhorst, Richard L Prince, Natalie C Ward, Kevin D Croft, Joshua R Lewis, Amanda Devine, Sujata Shinde, Richard J Woodman, Jonathan M Hodgson, Catherine P Bondonno
SCOPE: Nitrate from vegetables improves vascular health with short term intake. Whether this translates into improved long term health outcomes has yet to be investigated. To enable reliable analysis of nitrate intake from food records there is a strong need for a comprehensive nitrate content of vegetables database. METHODS AND RESULTS: A systematic literature search (1980-2016) was performed using Medline, Agricola and CAB abstracts databases. The nitrate content of vegetables database contains 4237 records from 255 publications with data on 178 vegetables and 22 herbs and spices...
January 19, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100284/role-of-flavonoids-and-nitrates-in-cardiovascular-health
#20
Julie A Lovegrove, Alex Stainer, Ditte A Hobbs
CVD remain the leading cause of death globally. Effective dietary strategies for their reduction are of high priority. Increasing evidence suggests that phytochemicals, particularly dietary flavonoids and nitrates, are key modulators of CVD risk reduction through impact on multiple risk factors. The aim of this review is to explore the evidence for the impact of flavonoid- and nitrate-rich foods and supplements on CVD risk, with specific reference to their importance as mediators of vascular health and platelet function...
January 19, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
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