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Dietary nitrate

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974486/combined-dietary-nitrate-and-exercise-intervention-in-peripheral-artery-disease-protocol-rationale-and-design
#1
Mary N Woessner, Mitch D VanBruggen, Carl F Pieper, Erin K O'Reilly, William E Kraus, Jason D Allen
BACKGROUND: Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is caused by atherosclerotic occlusions in the legs. It affects approximately 8-12 million people in the United States alone, one-third of whom suffer from intermittent claudication (IC), defined as ischemic leg pain that occurs with walking and improves with rest. Patients with IC suffer a markedly impaired quality of life and a high perception of disability. Improving pain-free walking time is a primary goal of rehabilitation in this population...
October 3, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960068/mineral-dietary-supplement-to-decrease-cadmium-relative-bioavailability-in-rice-based-on-a-mouse-bioassay
#2
Di Zhao, Albert L Juhasz, Jun Luo, Lei Huang, Xiao-San Luo, Hong-Bo Li, Lena Q Ma
To determine the effectiveness of mineral dietary supplements to modulate cadmium (Cd) exposure, an in vivo mouse bioassay was conducted to determine Cd relative bioavailability (Cd-RBA) in Cd-contaminated rice (0.80 mg Cd kg(-1)) with and without Zn, Fe, or Ca supplements as nitrate or chloride salts. Without mineral supplements, Cd-RBA was 43 ± 5.3% based on average Cd accumulation in the liver plus kidneys as the end point. Among Ca(NO3)2, Zn(NO3)2, and Fe(NO3)2 supplements, 150-5000 mg kg(-1) Ca was the most effective in reducing rice Cd-RBA by 31-80% to 8...
October 9, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952199/beetroot-and-sodium-nitrate-ameliorate-cardiometabolic-changes-in-diet-induced-obese-hypertensive-rats
#3
Maharshi Bhaswant, Lindsay Brown, Andrew J McAinch, Michael L Mathai
SCOPE: Dietary intake of beetroot by humans reduces blood pressure but whether this is caused by nitrate or betanin is not well-defined; neither are effects on other signs of metabolic syndrome. METHODS AND RESULTS: Rats fed a high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet (H) for 16 weeks developed abdominal obesity, hypertension, altered cardiovascular and liver structure and function, and impaired glucose tolerance compared to rats fed a corn starch diet (C). H rats treated with ∼16 mg/kg/day of nitrate either from beetroot juice (H+B) or sodium nitrate (H+N) for the last 8 weeks reduced systolic blood pressure by ∼25 mmHg, improved cardiac structure and function, plasma lipid profile and plasma markers of liver function, reduced inflammatory cell infiltration in heart and liver and decreased left ventricular fibrosis...
September 27, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941934/effects-of-dietary-nitrate-supplementation-on-the-response-to-extremity-cooling-and-endothelial-function-in-individuals-with-cold-sensitivity-a-double-blind-placebo-controlled-crossover-randomised-control-trial
#4
Clare M Eglin, Joseph T Costello, Stephen J Bailey, Mark Gilchrist, Heather Massey, Anthony I Shepherd
Individuals with cold sensitivity have low peripheral skin blood flow and skin temperature possibly due to reduced nitric oxide (NO•) bioavailability. Beetroot has a high concentration of inorganic nitrate and may increase NO-mediated vasodilation. Using a placebo-controlled, double blind, randomised, crossover design, this study tested the hypotheses that acute beetroot supplementation would increase the rate of cutaneous rewarming following a local cold challenge and augment endothelium-dependent vasodilation in cold sensitive individuals...
September 20, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921575/ingested-nitrate-and-nitrite-disinfection-by-products-and-pancreatic-cancer-risk-in-postmenopausal-women
#5
Arbor J L Quist, Maki Inoue-Choi, Peter J Weyer, Kristin E Anderson, Kenneth P Cantor, Stuart Krasner, Laura E Beane Freeman, Mary H Ward, Rena R Jones
Nitrate and nitrite are precursors of N-nitroso compounds (NOC), probable human carcinogens that cause pancreatic tumors in animals. Disinfection by-products (DBP) exposures have also been linked with digestive system cancers, but few studies have evaluated relationships with pancreatic cancer. We investigated the association of pancreatic cancer with these drinking water contaminants and dietary nitrate/nitrite in a cohort of postmenopausal women in Iowa (1986-2011). We used historical monitoring and treatment data to estimate levels of long-term average nitrate and total trihalomethanes (TTHM; the sum of the most prevalent DBP class) and the duration exceeding one-half the maximum contaminant level (>½ MCL; nitrate-nitrogen 5mg/L, 40µg/L TTHM) among participants on public water supplies (PWS) >10 years...
September 16, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916479/dietary-nitrate-increases-vo2peak-and-performance-but-does-not-alter-ventilation-or-efficiency-in-patients-with-heart-failure-with-reduced-ejection-fraction
#6
Andrew R Coggan, Seth R Broadstreet, Kiran Mahmood, Deana Mikhalkova, Michael Madigan, Indra Bole, Soo Park, Joshua L Leibowitz, Ana Kadkhodayan, Deepak P Thomas, Dakkota Thies, Linda R Peterson
BACKGROUND: Patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) exhibit lower efficiency, dyspnea, and diminished peak O2 uptake (VO2peak) during exercise. Dietary nitrate (NO3(-)), a source of nitric oxide (NO), has improved these measures in some studies of other populations. We determined the effects of acute NO3(-) ingestion on exercise responses in eight patients with HFrEF using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design. METHODS AND RESULTS: Plasma NO3(-), nitrite (NO2(-)), and breath NO were measured at multiple time points and respiratory gas exchange was determined during exercise after ingestion of beetroot juice containing or devoid of 11...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Cardiac Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867090/nutrients-and-natural-toxic-substances-in-commonly-consumed-jerusalem-artichoke-helianthus-tuberosus-l-tuber
#7
Kunchit Judprasong, Nidthida Archeepsudcharit, Kedsiri Chantapiriyapoon, Pharrunrat Tanaviyutpakdee, Piya Temviriyanukul
This study determined nutrients, chemical contaminants, (insecticide residues and heavy metals), and natural toxic substances (nitrate, nitrite, cyanide, oxalate, phytate, and trypsin inhibitor) in tubers of Jerusalem artichokes-Kaentawan in the Thai language-grown in four major provinces in Thailand. They were purchased, prepared, homogenized, and freeze-dried for further analysis using standard methods. All Kaentawan samples contained considerable amounts of fructans and dietary fiber (15.4±0.2gand3.2±0...
January 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866266/subchronic-toxicity-study-of-yttrium-nitrate-by-90-day-repeated-oral-exposure-in-rats
#8
Yi-Mei Wang, Zhou Yu, Zeng-Ming Zhao, Li Jia, Hai-Qin Fang, Ting-Fen Zhang, Xiao-Yan Yuan, Yu-Lei Shu, Jun He, Hui Peng, Li-Zhong Li, Jun Zhao, Xu-Dong Jia, Shuang-Qing Peng
Concerns regarding the adverse effects of long-term exposure to low levels of rare earth elements (REEs) from foods on human health have arisen in recent years. Nevertheless, no official acceptable daily intake (ADI) has yet been proposed for either total REEs or individual REE. In accordance with the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) testing guideline, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the subchronic toxicity of yttrium, a representative heavy REE with higher contaminated level in foods in China, to achieve a no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) which is a critical basis for the establishment of an ADI...
September 1, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832370/dietary-nitrate-as-modulator-of-physical-performance-and-cardiovascular-health
#9
Conor P Kerley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Early interventional trials reported improvements in cardiac and exercise outcomes with inorganic nitrate ingestion. The current review aims to provide a brief update of recent evidence regarding ergogenic and cardiovascular effects of dietary nitrate and practical recommendations. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent evidence has been inconsistent and questions remain regarding effective dose, duration, and source of nitrate and cohorts likely to benefit...
November 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805918/effects-of-encapsulated-nitrate-on-growth-performance-carcass-characteristics-nitrate-residues-in-tissues-and-enteric-methane-emissions-in-beef-steers-finishing-phase
#10
C Lee, R C Araujo, K M Koenig, K A Beauchemin
A finishing feedlot study was conducted with beef steers to determine effects of encapsulated nitrate (EN) on growth performance, carcass characteristics, methane production, and nitrate (NO) residues in tissues. The 132 crossbred steers were backgrounded in a feedlot for 91 d and transitioned for 28 days to the high-concentrate diets evaluated in the present study, maintaining the treatment and pen assignments designated at the start of the backgrounding period. The steers were initially assigned to 22 pens (6 animals per pen) in a randomized complete block design with BW (18 pens) and animals designated for methane measurement (4 pens) as blocking factors...
August 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805908/effects-of-encapsulated-nitrate-on-growth-performance-nitrate-toxicity-and-enteric-methane-emissions-in-beef-steers-backgrounding-phase
#11
C Lee, R C Araujo, K M Koenig, K A Beauchemin
A long-term experiment was conducted to examine the effects of feeding encapsulated nitrate (EN) on growth, enteric methane production, and nitrate (NO) toxicity in beef cattle fed a backgrounding diet. A total of 108 crossbred steers (292 ± 18 kg) were blocked by BW and randomly assigned to 18 pens. The pens (experimental unit; 6 animals per pen) received 3 dietary treatments: Control, a backgrounding diet supplemented with urea; 1.25% EN, control diet supplemented with 1.25% encapsulated calcium ammonium NO (i...
August 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802834/vegetable-derived-bioactive-nitrate-and-cardiovascular-health
#12
REVIEW
Catherine P Bondonno, Lauren C Blekkenhorst, Alex H Liu, Nicola P Bondonno, Natalie C Ward, Kevin D Croft, Jonathan M Hodgson
Vegetable derived nitrate is now recognised as an important bioactive phytochemical with cardioprotective properties. Nitrate, through the recently described enterosalivary nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide (NO) pathway, increases NO, a molecule pivotal for cardiovascular health. Clinical trials have observed that dietary nitrate has similar effects to NO when supplied exogenously. These effects include reduced blood pressure and improvements in other markers of vascular health such as endothelial function, arterial stiffness, ischemia reperfusion injury, blood flow, and platelet aggregation...
September 6, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789663/inorganic-nitrate-as-a-treatment-for-acute-heart-failure-a-protocol-for-a-single-center-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-pilot-and-feasibility-study
#13
Roman Falls, Michael Seman, Sabine Braat, Joshua Sortino, Jason D Allen, Christopher J Neil
BACKGROUND: Acute heart failure (AHF) is a frequent reason for hospitalization worldwide and effective treatment options are limited. It is known that AHF is a condition characterized by impaired vasorelaxation, together with reduced nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, an endogenous vasodilatory compound. Supplementation of inorganic sodium nitrate (NaNO3) is an indirect dietary source of NO, through bioconversion. It is proposed that oral sodium nitrate will favorably affect levels of circulating NO precursors (nitrate and nitrite) in AHF patients, resulting in reduced systemic vascular resistance, without significant hypotension...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783446/dietary-nitrate-supplementation-does-not-improve-cycling-time-trial-performance-in-the-heat
#14
Georgina L Kent, Brian Dawson, Gregory R Cox, Louise M Burke, Annette Eastwood, Kevin D Croft, Peter Peeling
This investigation examined the effect of beetroot juice (BR) supplementation, a source of dietary nitrate (NO3(-)), on cycling time-trial (TT) performance and thermoregulation in the heat. In a double-blind, repeated-measures design, 12 male cyclists (age 26.6 ± 4.4 years, VO2peak 65.8 ± 5.5 mL.kg(-1).min(-1)) completed four cycling TTs (14 kJ.kg(-1)) in hot (35°C, 48% relative humidity) and euthermic (21°C, 52%) conditions, following 3 days supplementation with BR (6.5 mmol NO3(-) for 2 days and 13 mmol NO3(-) on the final day), or NO3(-)depleted placebo (PLA)...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743821/the-effect-of-dietary-nitrate-supplementation-on-the-spatial-heterogeneity-of-quadriceps-deoxygenation-during-heavy-intensity-cycling
#15
Brynmor C Breese, David C Poole, Dai Okushima, Stephen J Bailey, Andrew M Jones, Narihiko Kondo, Tatsuro Amano, Shunsaku Koga
This study investigated the influence of dietary inorganic nitrate (NO3(-)) supplementation on pulmonary O2 uptake (V˙O2) and muscle deoxyhemoglobin/myoglobin (i.e. deoxy [Hb + Mb]) kinetics during submaximal cycling exercise. In a randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over study, eight healthy and physically active male subjects completed two step cycle tests at a work rate equivalent to 50% of the difference between the gas exchange threshold and peak V˙O2 over separate 4-day supplementation periods with NO3(-)-rich (BR; providing 8...
July 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739973/conjugated-linoleic-acid-modulates-clinical-responses-to-oral-nitrite-and-nitrate
#16
Kara S Hughan, Stacy Gelhaus Wendell, Meghan Delmastro-Greenwood, Nicole Helbling, Catherine Corey, Landon Bellavia, Gopal Potti, George Grimes, Bret Goodpaster, Daniel B Kim-Shapiro, Sruti Shiva, Bruce A Freeman, Mark T Gladwin
Dietary NO3(-) (nitrate) and NO2(-) (nitrite) support (·)NO (nitric oxide) generation and downstream vascular signaling responses. These nitrogen oxides also generate secondary nitrosating and nitrating species that react with low molecular weight thiols, heme centers, proteins, and unsaturated fatty acids. To explore the kinetics of NO3(-)and NO2(-)metabolism and the impact of dietary lipid on nitrogen oxide metabolism and cardiovascular responses, the stable isotopes Na(15)NO3 and Na(15)NO2 were orally administered in the presence or absence of conjugated linoleic acid (cLA)...
July 24, 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708316/dietary-plant-sterols-supplementation-increases-in-vivo-nitrite-and-nitrate-production-in-healthy-adults-a-randomized-controlled-study
#17
Xing Lin Ho, Wai Mun Loke
A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled and crossover study was conducted to simultaneously measure the effects, 3 h after consumption and after 4-wk daily exposure to plant sterols-enriched food product, on in vivo nitrite and nitrate production in healthy adults. Eighteen healthy participants (67% female, 35.3 [mean] ± 9.5 [SD] years, mean body mass index 22.8 kg/m(2) ) received 2 soy milk (20 g) treatments daily: placebo and one containing 2.0 g free plant sterols equivalent of their palmityl esters (β-sitosterol, 55%; campesterol, 29%; and stigmasterol, 23%)...
July 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701247/the-effect-of-dietary-addition-of-nitrate-or-increase-in-lipid-concentrations-alone-or-in-combination-on-performance-and-methane-emissions-of-beef-cattle
#18
C-A Duthie, S M Troy, J J Hyslop, D W Ross, R Roehe, J A Rooke
Adding nitrate to or increasing the concentration of lipid in the diet are established strategies for reducing enteric methane (CH4) emissions, but their effectiveness when used in combination has been largely unexplored. This study investigated the effect of dietary nitrate and increased lipid included alone or together on CH4 emissions and performance traits of finishing beef cattle. The experiment was a 2×4 factorial design comprising two breeds (cross-bred Aberdeen Angus (AAx) and cross-bred Limousin (LIMx) steers) and four dietary treatments (each based on 550 g forage : 450 g concentrate/kg dry matter (DM))...
July 13, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684588/dietary-nitrate-supplementation-increases-acute-mountain-sickness-severity-and-sense-of-effort-during-hypoxic-exercise
#19
Gabriella M K Rossetti, Jamie Hugo Macdonald, Lee J Wylie, Samuel J Little, Victoria Newton, Benjamin Wood, Kieran A Hawkins, Rhys Beddoe, Hannah E Davies, Samuel James Oliver
Dietary nitrate supplementation enhances sea level performance and may ameliorate hypoxemia at high altitude. However, nitrate may exacerbate acute mountain sickness (AMS), specifically headache. This study investigated the effect of nitrate supplementation on AMS symptoms and exercise responses with 6h hypoxia. Twenty recreationally-active men (mean(SD): age 22(4) years, V̇O2max 51(6) mL·min-1·kg-1) completed this randomized double-blinded placebo-controlled crossover study. Twelve participants were classified as AMS- based on Environmental Symptom Questionnaire (AMS-C) score <0...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670117/dietary-beetroot-juice-effects-on-physical-performance-in-copd-patients-a-randomized-controlled-crossover-trial
#20
Anne Louise Friis, Carina Bjørnskov Steenholt, Anders Løkke, Mette Hansen
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Dietary beetroot juice (BR) supplementation has been shown to reduce the oxygen (O2) consumption of standardized exercise and reduce resting blood pressure (BP) in healthy individuals. However, the physiological response of BR in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remains controversial. The objective was to test exercise performance in COPD, supplementing with higher doses of BR for a longer duration compared to previous trials in this patient group...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
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