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Muscle wasting

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29932505/physiological-culture-conditions-alter-myotube-morphology-and-responses-to-atrophy-treatments-implications-for-in-vitro-research-on-muscle-wasting
#1
Elodie Archer-Lahlou, Cathy Lan, R Thomas Jagoe
Standard in vitro myotube culture conditions are nonphysiological and there is increasing evidence that this may distort adaptations to both catabolic and anabolic stimuli and hamper preclinical research into mechanisms and treatments for muscle atrophy in cancer and other chronic diseases. We tested a new model of myotube culture which mimics more accurately the basal conditions for muscle tissue in patients with chronic disease, such as cancer. Myotubes derived from C2C12 myoblasts, cultured under the modified conditions were thinner, more numerous, with more uniform morphology and an increased proportion of mature myotubes...
June 2018: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29931992/endoscopic-closure-of-tracheoesophageal-fistula-for-tuberculosis-with-an-over-the-scope-clip
#2
Gabriel Mosquera Klinger, Andrea Holguín-Cardona
Surgical management has been the main approach for enteral fistulae. This approach is usually complex due to comorbidities, a wasted nutritional state and anatomical difficulties related to prior multiple interventions. Therefore, endoscopic methods such as clips, self-expanding metal stent (SEMS) and recently, the over scope clip (OTSC®) are increasing in popularity and use. Herein, we present the case of a patient with a HIV infection who was admitted due to respiratory symptoms. Radiological and microbiological studies documented a tracheoesophageal fistula due to tuberculosis (TB) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection...
June 22, 2018: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29931773/association-between-hand-grip-strength-with-weaning-and-intensive-care-outcomes-in-copd-patients-a-pilot-study
#3
Aliae Ar Mohamed-Hussein, Hoda A Makhlouf, Zahraa I Selim, Waleed Gamaleldin Saleh
BACKGROUND: In COPD weight loss and muscle wasting contribute significantly to morbidity, disability and handicap. Dominant-handgrip strength for evaluation of muscle strength has not been tested as a parameter to predict outcome of weaning from mechanical ventilation (MV). OBJECTIVES: to evaluate the association between handgrip strength and the duration and success of weaning and extubation outcome. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This prospective study included 34 COPD patients requiring MV for at least 48 hours...
June 22, 2018: Clinical Respiratory Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929978/toll-like-receptor-2-deficiency-hyperactivates-the-foxo1-transcription-factor-and-induces-aging-associated-cardiac-dysfunction-in-mice
#4
Kondapalli Mrudula Spurthi, Mohsen Sarikhani, Sneha Mishra, Perumal Arumugam Desingu, Shikha Yadav, Swathi Rao, Sangeeta Maity, Ankit Kumar Tamta, Shweta Kumar, Shamik Majumdar, Aditi Jain, Aishwarya Raghuraman, Danish Khan, Ishwar Singh, Rosa J Samuel, Subbaraya G Ramachandra, Dipankar Nandi, Nagalingam R Sundaresan
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a family of pattern-recognition receptors involved in innate immunity. Previous studies have shown that TLR2 inhibition protects the heart from acute stress, including myocardial infarction and doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in animal models. However, the role of TLR2 in the development of aging-associated heart failure is not known. In this work, we studied aging-associated changes in structure and function of TLR2- deficient mice hearts. Whereas young TLR2-KO mice did not develop marked cardiac dysfunction, 8- and 12-months-old TLR2-KO mice exhibited spontaneous adverse cardiac remodeling and cardiac dysfunction in an age-dependent manner...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928520/can-muscle-protein-metabolism-be-specifically-targeted-by-nutritional-support-and-exercise-training-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#5
REVIEW
Ramzi Lakhdar, Roberto A Rabinovich
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) associates with several extra-pulmonary effects. Muscle dysfunction and wasting is one of the most prominent extra-pulmonary effects and contributes to exercise limitation and health related quality of life (HRQoL), morbidity as well as mortality. The loss of muscle mass is characterised by an impaired balance between protein synthesis (anabolism) and protein breakdown (catabolism) which relates to nutritional disturbances, muscle disuse and the presence of a systemic inflammation, among other factors...
May 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928519/can-muscle-protein-metabolism-be-specifically-targeted-by-exercise-training-in-copd
#6
REVIEW
Davina C M Simoes, Ioannis Vogiatzis
Patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) frequently exhibit unintentional accentuated peripheral muscle loss and dysfunction. Skeletal muscle mass in these patients is a strong independent predictor of morbidity and mortality. Factors including protein anabolism/catabolism imbalance, hypoxia, physical inactivity, inflammation, and oxidative stress are involved in the initiation and progression of muscle wasting in these patients. Exercise training remains the most powerful intervention for reversing, in part, muscle wasting in COPD...
May 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29926227/sarcopenia-in-a-mice-model-of-chronic-liver-disease-role-of-the-ubiquitin-proteasome-system-and-oxidative-stress
#7
Fabián Campos, Johanna Abrigo, Francisco Aguirre, Bruno Garcés, Marco Arrese, Saul Karpen, Daniel Cabrera, Marcelo E Andía, Felipe Simon, Claudio Cabello-Verrugio
Sarcopenia is the loss of muscle mass and strength produced by aging or secondary to chronic diseases such as chronic liver disease (CLD). Although not all types of sarcopenia involve the same features, the most common are decreased fiber diameter and myosin heavy chain (MHC) levels, increased activity of ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, we aim to characterize the development of sarcopenia secondary to CLD induced by the hepatotoxin 5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine (DDC)...
June 20, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925948/altered-exocrine-function-can-drive-adipose-wasting-in-early-pancreatic-cancer
#8
Laura V Danai, Ana Babic, Michael H Rosenthal, Emily A Dennstedt, Alexander Muir, Evan C Lien, Jared R Mayers, Karen Tai, Allison N Lau, Paul Jones-Sali, Carla M Prado, Gloria M Petersen, Naoki Takahashi, Motokazu Sugimoto, Jen Jen Yeh, Nicole Lopez, Nabeel Bardeesy, Carlos Fernandez-Del Castillo, Andrew S Liss, Albert C Koong, Justin Bui, Chen Yuan, Marisa W Welch, Lauren K Brais, Matthew H Kulke, Courtney Dennis, Clary B Clish, Brian M Wolpin, Matthew G Vander Heiden
Malignancy is accompanied by changes in the metabolism of both cells and the organism1,2 . Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is associated with wasting of peripheral tissues, a metabolic syndrome that lowers quality of life and has been proposed to decrease survival of patients with cancer3,4 . Tissue wasting is a multifactorial disease and targeting specific circulating factors to reverse this syndrome has been mostly ineffective in the clinic5,6 . Here we show that loss of both adipose and muscle tissue occurs early in the development of pancreatic cancer...
June 20, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29921962/differences-in-the-prevalence-of-sarcopenia-in-peritoneal-dialysis-patients-using-hand-grip-strength-and-appendicular-lean-mass-depends-upon-guideline-definitions
#9
Asmat Abro, Lara-Anne Delicata, Surachet Vongsanim, Andrew Davenport
BACKGROUND: Peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients with sarcopenia have increased risk of mortality. There is consensus that sarcopenia should combine assessments of muscle function and mass. We wished to determine the effect of using different operational definitions in PD patients. METHODS: Hand grip strength (HGS) and segmental bioimpedance derived appendicular lean mass (ALM) were measured and the prevalence of sarcopenia determined using the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health Sarcopenia Project (FNIH), European Working Group on Sarcopenia Older Persons (EWGSOP), and Asian Working Group on Sarcopenia (AWGS) definitions...
June 19, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29921368/time-to-look-past-tnf-and-thalidomide-for-cachexia-could-mast-cells-and-flavonoids-be-the-answer
#10
L King, I Tsilioni, T C Theoharides
Cachexia is a wasting condition associated with late stages of many chronic illnesses and may be present in up to 80% of patients with advanced cancers. Cachexia is a metabolic derangement resulting in a disturbance to the homeostasis of muscle breakdown and synthesis, favoring catabolism and muscle loss. Despite making strides in treating cancer itself, there have been no major advances in the treatment of cachexia pharmacologically or nutritionally. Clinical trials using anti-TNF biologics and thalidomide have largely failed...
May 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29920276/twist1-activation-in-muscle-progenitor-cells-causes-muscle-loss-akin-to-cancer-cachexia
#11
Parash Parajuli, Santosh Kumar, Audrey Loumaye, Purba Singh, Sailaja Eragamreddy, Thien Ly Nguyen, Seval Ozkan, Mohammed S Razzaque, Céline Prunier, Jean-Paul Thissen, Azeddine Atfi
Cancer cachexia is characterized by extreme skeletal muscle loss that results in high morbidity and mortality. The incidence of cachexia varies among tumor types, being lowest in sarcomas, whereas 90% of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) patients experience severe weight loss. How these tumors trigger muscle depletion is still unfolding. Serendipitously, we found that overexpression of Twist1 in mouse muscle progenitor cells, either constitutively during development or inducibly in adult animals, caused severe muscle atrophy with features reminiscent of cachexia...
June 18, 2018: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909635/identification-and-pharmacological-profile-of-an-indane-based-series-of-ghrelin-receptor-full-agonists
#12
Cristina Gardelli, Hiroki Wada, Asim Ray, Moya Caffrey, Antonio Llinas, Igor Shamovsky, Joakim Tholander, Joakim Larsson, Ulf Sivars, Leif Hultin, Ulf Andersson, Hitesh J Sanganee, Kristina Stenvall, Brith Leidvik, Karin Gedda, Lisa Jinton, Marie Ryden Landergren, Kostas Karabelas
Cachexia and muscle wasting are very common among patients suffering from cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and other chronic diseases. Ghrelin stimulates growth hormone secretion via the ghrelin receptor, which subsequently leads to increase of IGF-1 plasma levels. The activation of the GH/IGF-1 axis leads to an increase of muscle mass and functional capacity. Ghrelin further acts on inflammation, appetite and adipogenesis, and for this reason was considered an important target to address catabolic conditions...
June 17, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907353/determinants-of-skeletal-muscle-protein-turnover-following-severe-burn-trauma-in-children
#13
Ioannis Malagaris, David N Herndon, Efstathia Polychronopoulou, Victoria G Rontoyanni, Clark R Andersen, Oscar E Suman, Craig Porter, Labros S Sidossis
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Burns remain the fifth cause of non-fatal pediatric injuries globally, with muscle cachexia being a hallmark of the stress response to burns. Burn-induced muscle wasting is associated with morbidity, yet the determinants of muscle protein catabolism in response to burn trauma remains unclear. Our objective was to determine the effect of patient and injury characteristics on muscle protein kinetics in burn patients. METHODS: This retrospective, observational study was performed using protein kinetic data from pediatric patients who had severe burns (>30% of the total body surface area burned) and underwent cross-limb stable isotope infusions between 1999 and 2008 as part of prospective clinical trials...
June 4, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903578/functional-bracing-treatment-for-stable-type-b-ankle-fractures
#14
C van den Berg, T Haak, N L Weil, J M Hoogendoorn
BACKGROUND: In general, stable type B ankle fractures are treated conservatively with cast immobilization or a walking boot during six weeks. Some disadvantages of casting are joint stiffness, muscle wasting and lack of comfort. This study was designed to evaluate whether functional treatment with a removable brace is a safe and more comfortable alternative. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Randomized controlled trial. In the period March 2013 - May 2015, 44 patients visiting the emergency department due to a stable type B ankle fracture were included...
June 4, 2018: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902980/prevalence-and-associated-factors-of-protein-energy-wasting-among-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease-at-mulago-hospital-kampala-uganda-a-cross-sectional-study
#15
Lydia Namuyimbwa, Collins Atuheire, Joel Okullo, Robert Kalyesubula
BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is global health concern and priority. It is the 12th leading cause of death worldwide. Protein Energy Wasting occurs in 20-25% of patients with chronic kidney disease and can lead to a high morbidity and mortality rate. We determined the prevalence of protein energy wasting and factors associated among patients with chronic kidney disease at Mulago National Referral Hospital, Kampala, Uganda. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study recruiting 182 (89 non-CKD patients and 93 CKD patients) consecutively from the outpatient clinic and wards on New Mulago Hospital complex...
June 14, 2018: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901692/knockout-of-usp19-deubiquitinating-enzyme-prevents-muscle-wasting-by-modulating-insulin-and-glucocorticoid-signaling
#16
Erin S Coyne, Nathalie Bedard, Linda Wykes, Cynthia Stretch, Samer Jammoul, Sihan Li, Kezhuo Zhang, Robert S Sladek, Oliver F Bathe, Robert Thomas Jagoe, Barry I Posner, Simon S Wing
Muscle atrophy arises as a consequence of many chronic illnesses, as well as from prolonged glucocorticoid treatment and nutrient deprivation. We previously demonstrated that the USP19 deubiquitinating enzyme plays an important role in chronic glucocorticoid and denervation induced muscle wasting. However, the mechanisms by which USP19 exerts its effects remain unknown. To explore this further, we fasted mice for 48 hours to try to identify early differences in the response of WT and USP19 KO mice that could yield insights into the mechanisms of USP19 action...
June 12, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896984/lung-cancer-cachexia-can-molecular-understanding-guide-clinical-management
#17
Jonas Sørensen
Cachexia has been recognized for a long time as an adverse effect of cancer. It is associated with reduced physical function, reduced tolerance to anticancer therapy, and reduced survival. This wasting syndrome is mainly known for an ongoing loss of skeletal muscle leading to progressive functional impairment and is driven by a variable combination of reduced food intake and abnormal metabolism. Cytokines derived from host immune system or the tumor itself is believed to play a role in promoting cancer cachexia...
June 1, 2018: Integrative Cancer Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29894511/high-intensity-eccentric-training-ameliorates-muscle-wasting-in-colon-26-tumor-bearing-mice
#18
Daisuke Tatebayashi, Koichi Himori, Ryotaro Yamada, Yuki Ashida, Mitsunori Miyazaki, Takashi Yamada
Eccentric (ECC) contractions are used to maintain skeletal muscle mass and strength in healthy subjects and patients. Here we investigated the effects of ECC training induced by electrical stimulation (ES) on muscle wasting in colon 26 (C-26) tumor-bearing mice. Mice were divided into four groups: control (CNT), CNT + ECC, C-26, and C-26 + ECC. Cancer cachexia was induced by a subcutaneous injection of C-26 cells and developed for four weeks. In experiment 1, muscle protein synthesis rate and mammalian target of rapamycin complex (mTORC) 1 signaling were investigated six hours after one bout of ECC-ES (2 s contraction given every 6 s, 20°/s, 4 sets of 5 contractions)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29894202/insulin-resistance-is-a-significant-determinant-of-sarcopenia-in-advanced-kidney-disease
#19
Serpil Muge Deger, Jennifer R Hewlett, Jorge Gamboa, Charles D Ellis, Adriana M Hung, Edward D Siew, Cindy Mamnungu, Feng Sha, Aihua Bian, Thomas G Stewart, Naji N Abumrad, T Alp Ikizler
Maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients display significant nutritional abnormalities. Insulin is an anabolic hormone with direct effects on skeletal muscle (SM). We examined the anabolic actions of insulin, whole-body (WB) and SM protein turnover, in 33 MHD patients and 17 participants without kidney disease using hyperinsulinemic euglycemic euaminoacidemic (dual) clamp. Gluteal muscle biopsies were obtained before and after the dual-clamp. At baseline, WB protein synthesis and breakdown rates were similar in MHD patients...
June 12, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29891135/11-beta-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase-type-1-regulates-synovitis-joint-destruction-and-systemic-bone-loss-in-chronic-polyarthritis
#20
R S Hardy, C Fenton, A P Croft, A J Naylor, R Begum, G Desanti, C D Buckley, G Lavery, M S Cooper, K Raza
OBJECTIVE: In rheumatoid arthritis, the enzyme 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) is highly expressed at sites of inflammation, where it converts inactive glucocorticoids (GC) to their active counterparts. In conditions of GC excess it has been shown to be a critical regulator of muscle wasting and bone loss. Here we examine the contribution of 11β-HSD1 to the pathology of persistent chronic inflammatory disease. METHODS: To determine the contribution of 11β-HSD1 to joint inflammation, destruction and systemic bone loss associated with persistent inflammatory arthritis, we generated mice with global and mesenchymal specific 11β-HSD1 deletions in the TNF-transgenic (TNF-tg) model of chronic polyarthritis...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Autoimmunity
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