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Muscle wasting

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036192/viral-infection-upregulates-myostatin-promoter-activity-in-orange-spotted-grouper-epinephelus-coioides
#1
Yi-Tien Chen, Chao-Fen Lin, Young-Mao Chen, Chih-En Lo, Wan-Erh Chen, Tzong-Yueh Chen
Myostatin is a negative regulator of myogenesis and has been suggested to be an important factor in the development of muscle wasting during viral infection. The objective of this study was to characterize the main regulatory element of the grouper myostatin promoter and to study changes in promoter activity due to viral stimulation. In vitro and in vivo experiments indicated that the E-box E6 is a positive cis-and trans-regulation motif, and an essential binding site for MyoD. In contrast, the E-box E5 is a dominant negative cis-regulatory...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033844/syngeneic-b16f10-melanoma-causes-cachexia-and-impaired-skeletal-muscle-strength-and-locomotor-activity-in-mice
#2
Fabrício A Voltarelli, Fernando T Frajacomo, Camila de Souza Padilha, Mayra T J Testa, Paola S Cella, Diogo F Ribeiro, Donizete X de Oliveira, Luciana C Veronez, Gabriela S Bisson, Felipe A Moura, Rafael Deminice
Muscle wasting has been emerging as one of the principal components of cancer cachexia, leading to progressive impairment of work capacity. Despite early stages melanomas rarely promotes weight loss, the appearance of metastatic and/or solid tumor melanoma can leads to cachexia development. Here, we investigated the B16F10 tumor-induced cachexia and its contribution to muscle strength and locomotor-like activity impairment. C57BL/6 mice were subcutaneously injected with 5 × 10(4) B16F10 melanoma cells or PBS as a Sham negative control...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032602/muscle-specific-differences-in-expression-and-phosphorylation-of-the-janus-kinase-2-signal-transducer-and-activator-of-transcription-3-following-long-term-mechanical-ventilation-and-immobilization-in-rats
#3
Heba Salah, Wen Fury, Jesper Gromada, Yu Bai, Tamar Tchkonia, James L Kirkland, Lars Larsson
AIM: Muscle wasting is one of the factors most strongly predicting mortality and morbidity in critically ill intensive care unit (ICU). This muscle wasting affects both limb and respiratory muscles but the understanding of underlying mechanisms and muscle-specific differences remains incomplete. This study aims at investigating the temporal expression and phosphorylation of the Janus kinase / signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway in muscle wasting associated with the ICU condition in order to characterize the JAK/STAT proteins and the related changes leading or responding to their activation during exposure to the ICU condition...
October 15, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031355/adverse-effects-of-the-metabolic-acidosis-of-chronic-kidney-disease
#4
REVIEW
Jeffrey A Kraut, Nicolaos E Madias
The kidney has the principal role in the maintenance of acid-base balance, and therefore, a fall in renal net acid excretion and positive H(+) balance often leading to reduced serum [HCO3(-)] are observed in the course of CKD. This metabolic acidosis can be associated with muscle wasting, development or exacerbation of bone disease, hypoalbuminemia, increased inflammation, progression of CKD, protein malnutrition, alterations in insulin, leptin, and growth hormone, and increased mortality. Importantly, some of the adverse effects can be observed even in the absence of overt hypobicarbonatemia...
September 2017: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030231/als-associated-mutation-sod1-g93a-leads-to-abnormal-mitochondrial-dynamics-in-osteocytes
#5
Huan Wang, Jianxun Yi, Xuejun Li, Yajuan Xiao, Kamal Dhakal, Jingsong Zhou
While the death of motor neuron is a pathological hallmark of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), defects in other cell types or organs may also actively contribute to ALS disease progression. ALS patients experience progressive skeletal muscle wasting that may not only exacerbate neuronal degeneration, but likely has a significant impact on bone function. In our previous published study, we have discovered severe bone loss in an ALS mouse model with overexpression of ALS-associated mutation SOD1(G93A) (G93A)...
October 10, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028830/er-stress-and-subsequent-activated-calpain-play-a-pivotal-role-in-skeletal-muscle-wasting-after-severe-burn-injury
#6
Li Ma, Wanli Chu, Jiake Chai, Chuanan Shen, Dawei Li, Xiaoteng Wang
Severe burns are typically followed by hypermetabolism characterized by significant muscle wasting, which causes considerable morbidity and mortality. The aim of the present study was to explore the underlying mechanisms of skeletal muscle damage/wasting post-burn. Rats were randomized to the sham, sham+4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA, a pharmacological chaperone promoting endoplasmic reticulum (ER) folding/trafficking, commonly considered as an inhibitor of ER), burn (30% total body surface area), and burn+4-PBA groups; and sacrificed at 1, 4, 7, 14 days after the burn injury...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026190/growth-hormone-secretagogues-hexarelin-and-jmv2894-protect-skeletal-muscle-from-mitochondrial-damages-in-a-rat-model-of-cisplatin-induced-cachexia
#7
Giuseppe Sirago, Elena Conte, Flavio Fracasso, Antonella Cormio, Jean-Alain Fehrentz, Jean Martinez, Clara Musicco, Giulia Maria Camerino, Adriano Fonzino, Laura Rizzi, Antonio Torsello, Angela Maria Serena Lezza, Antonella Liantonio, Palmiro Cantatore, Vito Pesce
Chemotherapy can cause cachexia, which consists of weight loss associated with muscle atrophy. The exact mechanisms underlying this skeletal muscle toxicity are largely unknown and co-therapies to attenuate chemotherapy-induced side effects are lacking. By using a rat model of cisplatin-induced cachexia, we here characterized the mitochondrial homeostasis in tibialis anterior cachectic muscle and evaluated the potential beneficial effects of the growth hormone secretagogues (GHS) hexarelin and JMV2894 in this setting...
October 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022211/subjective-global-nutritional-assessment-a-reliable-screening-tool-for-nutritional-assessment-in-cerebral-palsy-children
#8
Priyanka Minocha, Sadasivan Sitaraman, Anita Choudhary, Rajiv Yadav
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of undernutrition in children with cerebral palsy and to compare subjective and objective methods of nutritional assessment. METHODS: This was a hospital based analytical observational study in which 180 children of cerebral palsy, aged 1-12 y, attending tertiary level hospital, Jaipur from March, 2012 through March, 2013 were included. Subjective assessment was done by questionnaire (Subjective Global Nutritional Assessment; SGNA) in which questions related to nutrition history and physical examination, signs of fat, muscle wasting and edema was done while objective assessment was done by weight, height and triceps skinfold thickness (TSFT) measurements...
October 12, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021995/tumor-induced-osteomalacia
#9
Pablo Florenzano, Rachel I Gafni, Michael T Collins
Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome clinically characterized by bone pain, fractures and muscle weakness. It is caused by tumoral overproduction of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) that acts primarily at the proximal renal tubule, decreasing phosphate reabsorption and 1α-hydroxylation of 25 hydroxyvitamin D, thus producing hypophosphatemia and osteomalacia. Lesions are typically small, benign mesenchymal tumors that may be found in bone or soft tissue, anywhere in the body...
December 2017: Bone Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021680/nondysraphic-cervicomedullary-intramedullary-lipoma
#10
Sujeet Kumar Meher, Laxmi Narayan Tripathy, Harsh Jain, Sunandan Basu
Spinal cord lipomas are usually associated with spinal dysraphism and is most common in lumbosacral region. Spinal intradural lipoma is a rare condition accounting for less than 1% of spinal cord tumours and is most prevalent in cervicodorsal region. Intramedullary spinal cord lipoma of cervical spine not associated with spinal dysraphism is one of the rarest lesions. They usually present insidiously with slowly progressive myelopathic deficits. We present a case of nondysraphic intramedullary spinal cord lipoma with exophytic component and intracranial extension...
July 2017: Journal of Craniovertebral Junction and Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021568/the-brain-and-immune-system-prompt-energy-shortage-in-chronic-inflammation-and-ageing
#11
REVIEW
Rainer H Straub
Sequelae frequently seen in patients with chronic inflammatory diseases, such as fatigue, depressed mood, sleep alterations, loss of appetite, muscle wasting, cachectic obesity, bone loss and hypertension, can be the result of energy shortages caused by an overactive immune system. These sequelae can also be found in patients with chronic inflammatory diseases that are in remission and in ageing individuals, despite the immune system being less active in these situations. This Perspectives article proposes a new way of understanding situations of chronic inflammation (such as rheumatic diseases) and ageing based on the principles of evolutionary medicine, energy regulation and neuroendocrine-immune crosstalk...
October 12, 2017: Nature Reviews. Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016348/parp-1-and-parp-2-activity-in-cancer-induced-cachexia-potential-therapeutic-implications
#12
Esther Barreiro, Joaquim Gea
Skeletal muscle dysfunction and mass loss is a characteristic feature in patients with chronic diseases including cancer and acute conditions such as critical illness. Maintenance of an adequate muscle mass is crucial for the patients' prognosis irrespective of the underlying condition. Moreover, aging-related sarcopenia may further aggravate the muscle wasting process associated with chronic diseases and cancer. Poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activation has been demonstrated to contribute to the pathophysiology of muscle mass loss and dysfunction in animal models of cancer-induced cachexia...
October 26, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993738/continuous-release-of-tumor-derived-factors-improves-the-modeling-of-cachexia-in-muscle-cell-culture
#13
Robert W Jackman, Jess Floro, Rei Yoshimine, Brian Zitin, Maythita Eiampikul, Kahlid El-Jack, Danielle N Seto, Susan C Kandarian
Cachexia is strongly associated with a poor prognosis in cancer patients but the biological trigger is unknown and therefore no therapeutics exist. The loss of skeletal muscle is the most deleterious aspect of cachexia and it appears to depend on secretions from tumor cells. Models for studying wasting in cell culture consist of experiments where skeletal muscle cells are incubated with medium conditioned by tumor cells. This has led to candidates for cachectic factors but some of the features of cachexia in vivo are not yet well-modeled in cell culture experiments...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988850/biomarker-potential-of-extracellular-mirnas-in-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy
#14
REVIEW
Anna M L Coenen-Stass, Matthew J A Wood, Thomas C Roberts
miRNAs are small, noncoding RNAs that not only regulate gene expression within cells, but might also constitute promising extracellular biomarkers for a variety of pathologies, including the progressive muscle-wasting disorder Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD). A set of muscle-enriched miRNAs, the myomiRs (miR-1, miR-133, and miR-206) are highly elevated in the serum of patients with DMD and in dystrophin-deficient animal models. Furthermore, circulating myomiRs might be used as pharmacodynamic biomarkers, given that their levels can be restored towards wild-type levels following exon skipping therapy in dystrophic mice...
October 5, 2017: Trends in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986861/ultrasound-assessment-of-rectus-femoris-and-anterior-tibialis-muscles-in-young-trauma-patients
#15
Maria Giuseppina Annetta, Mauro Pittiruti, Davide Silvestri, Domenico Luca Grieco, Alessio Maccaglia, Michele Fabio La Torre, Nicola Magarelli, Giovanna Mercurio, Anselmo Caricato, Massimo Antonelli
PURPOSE: Quantitative and qualitative changes of skeletal muscle are typical and early findings in trauma patients, being possibly associated with functional impairment. Early assessment of muscle changes-as evaluated by muscle ultrasonography-could yield important information about patient's outcome. METHODS: In this prospective observational study, we used ultrasonography to evaluate the morphological changes of rectus femoris (RF) and anterior tibialis (AT) muscles in a group of young, previously healthy trauma patients on enteral feeding...
October 6, 2017: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985878/effect-of-surgery-induced-acute-muscle-wasting-on-postoperative-outcomes-and-quality-of-life
#16
Dong-Dong Huang, Yan-Bin Ji, Dong-Lei Zhou, Bo Li, Su-Lin Wang, Xiao-Lei Chen, Zhen Yu, Cheng-Le Zhuang
BACKGROUND: Gastrectomy results in a significant loss of body composition in the long term, but the acute skeletal muscle wasting after gastrectomy has been rarely investigated. Moreover, the association between postoperative muscle wasting and quality of life (QOL) has never been reported. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the risk factors for acute muscle wasting after gastric cancer surgery and its effect on QOL and short-term postoperative outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study of patients who underwent curative gastrectomy for gastric cancer between June 2015 and December 2015...
October 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984049/mir-422a-suppresses-smad4-protein-expression-and-promotes-resistance-to-muscle-loss
#17
Richard Paul, Jen Lee, Anna V Donaldson, Martin Connolly, Mohammad Sharif, Samantha Amanda Natanek, Ulrich Rosendahl, Michael I Polkey, Mark Griffiths, Paul R Kemp
BACKGROUND: Loss of muscle mass and strength are important sequelae of chronic disease, but the response of individuals is remarkably variable, suggesting important genetic and epigenetic modulators of muscle homeostasis. Such factors are likely to modify the activity of pathways that regulate wasting, but to date, few such factors have been identified. METHODS: The effect of miR-422a on SMAD4 expression and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β signalling were determined by western blotting and luciferase assay...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979816/post-translationally-modified-muscle-specific-ubiquitin-ligases-as-circulating-biomarkers-in-experimental-cancer-cachexia
#18
Roberto Mota, Jessica E Rodríguez, Andrea Bonetto, Thomas M O'Connell, Scott A Asher, Traci L Parry, Pamela Lockyer, Christopher R McCudden, Marion E Couch, Monte S Willis
Cancer cachexia is a severe wasting syndrome characterized by the progressive loss of lean body mass and systemic inflammation. Up to 80% of cancer patients experience cachexia, with 20-30% of cancer-related deaths directly linked to cachexia. Despite efforts to identify early cachexia and cancer relapse, clinically useful markers are lacking. Recently, we identified the role of muscle-specific ubiquitin ligases Atrogin-1 (MAFbx, FBXO32) and Muscle Ring Finger-1 in the pathogenesis of cardiac atrophy and hypertrophy...
2017: American Journal of Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967304/systemic-smad7-gene-therapy-increases-striated-muscle-mass-and-enhances-exercise-capacity-in-a-dose-dependent-manner
#19
Joseph Maricelli, Yemeserach Bishaw, Bo Wang, Min Du, Buel Dantese Rodgers
Striated muscle wasting occurs with a variety of disease indications, contributing to mortality and compromising life quality. Recent studies indicate that the recombinant adeno-associated viral (serotype 6) Smad7 gene therapeutic, AVGN7, enhances skeletal and cardiac muscle mass and prevents cancer-induced wasting of both tissues. This is accomplished by attenuating ActRIIb intracellular signaling and as a result, the physiological actions of myostatin and other ActRIIb ligands. AVGN7 also enhances isolated skeletal muscle twitch force, but is unknown to similarly improve systemic muscle function, especially exercise capacity...
October 1, 2017: Human Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964569/protein-blend-ingestion-before-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation-improves-protein-energy-malnutrition-in-patients-with-leukemia
#20
Guangxu Ren, Jianping Zhang, Minghua Li, Suqin Yi, Jin Xie, Hongru Zhang, Jing Wang
Severe protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) and skeletal muscle wasting are commonly observed in patients with acute leukemia. Recently, the ingestion of a soy-whey protein blend has been shown to promote muscle protein synthesis (MPS). Thus, we tested the hypothesis that the ingestion of a soy-whey blended protein (BP) may improve the PEM status and muscle mass in acute leukemia patients. In total, 24 patients from the same treatment group were randomly assigned to the natural diet plus soy-whey blended protein (BP) group and the natural diet only (ND) group...
August 25, 2017: Nutrition Research
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