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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230965/prevention-of-chemotherapy-induced-cachexia-by-acvr2b-ligand-blocking-has-different-effects-on-heart-and-skeletal-muscle
#1
Juha J Hulmi, Tuuli A Nissinen, Markus Räsänen, Joni Degerman, Juulia H Lautaoja, Karthik Amudhala Hemanthakumar, Janne T Backman, Olli Ritvos, Mika Silvennoinen, Riikka Kivelä
BACKGROUND: Toxicity of chemotherapy on skeletal muscles and the heart may significantly contribute to cancer cachexia, mortality, and decreased quality of life. Doxorubicin (DOX) is an effective cytostatic agent, which unfortunately has toxic effects on many healthy tissues. Blocking of activin receptor type IIB (ACVR2B) ligands is an often used strategy to prevent skeletal muscle loss, but its effects on the heart are relatively unknown. METHODS: The effects of DOX treatment with or without pre-treatment with soluble ACVR2B-Fc (sACVR2B-Fc) were investigated...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226282/feasibility-of-conducting-a-6-month-long-home-based-exercise-program-with-protein-supplementation-in-elderly-community-dwelling-individuals-with-heart-failure
#2
Masil George, Gohar Azhar, Amanda Pangle, Eric Peeler, Amanda Dawson, Robert Coker, Kellie S Coleman, Amy Schrader, Jeanne Wei
Objective: Cardiac cachexia is a condition associated with heart failure, particularly in the elderly, and is characterized by loss of muscle mass with or without the loss of fat mass. Approximately 15% of elderly heart failure patients will eventually develop cardiac cachexia; such a diagnosis is closely associated with high morbidity and increased mortality. While the mechanism(s) involved in the progression of cardiac cachexia is incompletely established, certain factors appear to be contributory...
2017: Journal of Physiotherapy & Physical Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224095/sex-differences-in-muscle-wasting
#3
Lindsey J Anderson, Haiming Liu, Jose M Garcia
With aging and other muscle wasting diseases, men and women undergo similar pathological changes in skeletal muscle: increased inflammation, enhanced oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, satellite cell senescence, elevated apoptosis and proteasome activity, and suppressed protein synthesis and myocyte regeneration. Decreased food intake and physical activity also indirectly contribute to muscle wasting. Sex hormones also play important roles in maintaining skeletal muscle homeostasis. Testosterone is a potent anabolic factor promoting muscle protein synthesis and muscular regeneration...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222689/long-term-quantitative-evaluation-of-muscle-and-bone-wasting-induced-by-botulinum-toxin-in-mice-using-microcomputed-tomography
#4
Hélène Libouban, Claude Guintard, Nicolas Minier, Eric Aguado, Daniel Chappard
Muscle and bone masses are highly correlated and muscles impose large loads on bone. Muscle wasting that accompanies bone loss has been poorly investigated. 21 female mice were spread into seven groups. At day 0, 18 mice received Botulinum toxin (BTX) injection in the quadriceps muscle to induce paralysis of the right hind limb; the left contralateral side was used as control. Mice were sacrificed at 7, 14, 21, 28, 56 and 90 days post-injection. A remaining group was sacrificed at day 0. Trabecular bone volume was determined by microcomputed tomography (microCT) at the distal femur and tibia proximal metaphyses on both sides...
December 8, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218435/educational-review-measurement-of-gfr-in-special-populations
#5
Guido Filler, Misan Lee
IMPORTANCE: Changes in kidney function are typically followed by the sequential estimation of glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Formulae for eGFR work well on a population basis, but there are well-known conditions where they do not work. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this review is to summarize the existing literature on special populations in the pediatric age range and provide recommendations on how to estimate GFR in these populations. FINDINGS: The reliability of creatinine depends on muscle mass, while cystatin C (not widely available) is limited by inflammation and changes in protein catabolism...
December 7, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215200/mir-424-5p-reduces-ribosomal-rna-and-protein-synthesis-in-muscle-wasting
#6
Martin Connolly, Richard Paul, Roser Farre-Garros, Samantha A Natanek, Susannah Bloch, Jen Lee, Jose P Lorenzo, Harnish Patel, Cyrus Cooper, Avan A Sayer, Stephen J Wort, Mark Griffiths, Michael I Polkey, Paul R Kemp
BACKGROUND: A loss of muscle mass occurs as a consequence of a range of chronic and acute diseases as well as in older age. This wasting results from an imbalance of protein synthesis and degradation with a reduction in synthesis and resistance to anabolic stimulation often reported features. Ribosomes are required for protein synthesis, so changes in the control of ribosome synthesis are potential contributors to muscle wasting. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are known regulators of muscle phenotype and have been shown to modulate components of the protein synthetic pathway...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203713/therapeutic-potential-of-heat-shock-protein-induction-for-muscular-dystrophy-and-other-muscle-wasting-conditions
#7
REVIEW
Savant S Thakur, Kristy Swiderski, James G Ryall, Gordon S Lynch
Duchenne muscular dystrophy is the most common and severe of the muscular dystrophies, a group of inherited myopathies caused by different genetic mutations leading to aberrant expression or complete absence of cytoskeletal proteins. Dystrophic muscles are prone to injury, and regenerate poorly after damage. Remorseless cycles of muscle fibre breakdown and incomplete repair lead to progressive and severe muscle wasting, weakness and premature death. Many other conditions are similarly characterized by muscle wasting, including sarcopenia, cancer cachexia, sepsis, denervation, burns, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease...
January 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203220/bilateral-spontaneous-anterior-shoulder-dislocation-a-missed-orthopedic-injury-mistaken-as-proximal-neuropathy
#8
Khalil Ahmad, Saeed Bin Ayaz, Heyyan Bin Khalil, Sumeera Matee
A number of orthopedic injuries can occur during epileptic seizures. Anterior shoulder dislocation is one such orthopedic injury that is quite rare. The shoulder dislocation may injure the brachial plexus. Besides seizures, the nerves can also be damaged by anticonvulsive therapy. Muscle wasting following a seizure can misguide a clinician to investigate only neural or muscular pathologies. We report here an individual with epilepsy who was referred to us for electrodiagnostic evaluation of proximal muscle wasting related to a suspected proximal neuropathy...
November 4, 2017: Chinese Journal of Traumatology, Zhonghua Chuang Shang za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202452/systemic-inflammation-is-associated-with-exaggerated-skeletal-muscle-protein-catabolism-in-maintenance-hemodialysis-patients
#9
Serpil M Deger, Adriana M Hung, Jorge L Gamboa, Edward D Siew, Charles D Ellis, Cindy Booker, Feng Sha, Haiming Li, Aihua Bian, Thomas G Stewart, Roy Zent, William E Mitch, Naji N Abumrad, T Alp Ikizler
BACKGROUND: Systemic inflammation and muscle wasting are highly prevalent and coexist in patients on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD). We aimed to determine the effects of systemic inflammation on skeletal muscle protein metabolism in MHD patients. METHODS: Whole body and skeletal muscle protein turnover were assessed by stable isotope kinetic studies. We incorporated expressions of E1, E214K, E3αI, E3αII, MuRF-1, and atrogin-1 in skeletal muscle tissue from integrin β1 gene KO CKD mice models...
November 16, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201118/duchenne-muscular-dystrophy-dmd-protein-protein-interaction-mapping
#10
Mostafa Rezaei Tavirani, Farshad OkHOVATIAN, Mona Zamanian Azodi, Majid Rezaei Tavirani
Objective: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is one of the mortal diseases, subjected to study in terms of molecular investigation. In this study, the protein interaction map of this muscle-wasting condition was generated to gain a better knowledge of interactome profile of DMD. Materials & Methods: Applying Cytoscape and String Database, the protein-protein interaction network was constructed and the gene ontology of the constructed network was analyzed for biological process, molecular function, and cellular component annotations...
2017: Iranian Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192144/downregulation-of-myostatin-pathway-in-neuromuscular-diseases-may-explain-challenges-of-anti-myostatin-therapeutic-approaches
#11
Virginie Mariot, Romain Joubert, Christophe Hourdé, Léonard Féasson, Michael Hanna, Francesco Muntoni, Thierry Maisonobe, Laurent Servais, Caroline Bogni, Rozen Le Panse, Olivier Benvensite, Tanya Stojkovic, Pedro M Machado, Thomas Voit, Ana Buj-Bello, Julie Dumonceaux
Muscular dystrophies are characterized by weakness and wasting of skeletal muscle tissues. Several drugs targeting the myostatin pathway have been used in clinical trials to increase muscle mass and function but most showed limited efficacy. Here we show that the expression of components of the myostatin signaling pathway is downregulated in muscle wasting or atrophying diseases, with a decrease of myostatin and activin receptor, and an increase of the myostatin antagonist, follistatin. We also provide in vivo evidence in the congenital myotubular myopathy mouse model (knock-out for the myotubularin coding gene Mtm1) that a down-regulated myostatin pathway can be reactivated by correcting the underlying gene defect...
November 30, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188135/benefits-of-prenatal-taurine-supplementation-in-preventing-the-onset-of-acute-damage-in-the-mdx-mouse
#12
Robert G Barker, Deanna Horvath, Chris van der Poel, Robyn M Murphy
Introduction: Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is a debilitating muscle wasting disorder with no cure. Safer supplements and therapies are needed to improve the severity of symptoms, as severe side effects are associated with the only effective treatment, corticosteroids. The amino acid taurine has shown promise in ameliorating dystrophic symptoms in mdx mice, an animal model of DMD, however little work is in 21-28 (d)ay animals, the period of natural peak damage. Methods: This study compares the effect of prenatal taurine supplementation on tibialis anterior (TA) in situ contractile function, histopathological characteristics and the abundance of Ca2+-handling as well as pathologically relevant proteins in non-exercised mdx mice at 28 and 70 d...
September 22, 2017: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188128/influenza-a-virus-infection-damages-zebrafish-skeletal-muscle-and-exacerbates-disease-in-zebrafish-modeling-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy
#13
Michelle Goody, Denise Jurczyszak, Carol Kim, Clarissa Henry
INTRODUCTION: Both genetic and infectious diseases can result in skeletal muscle degeneration, inflammation, pain, and/or weakness. Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most common congenital muscle disease. DMD causes progressive muscle wasting due to mutations in Dystrophin. Influenza A and B viruses are frequently associated with muscle complications, especially in children. Infections activate an immune response and immunosuppressant drugs reduce DMD symptoms. These data suggest that the immune system may contribute to muscle pathology...
October 25, 2017: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187513/a-critical-evaluation-of-the-anabolic-response-after-bolus-or-continuous-feeding-in-copd-and-healthy-older-adults
#14
Renate Jonker, Nicolaas Ep Deutz, Rajesh Harrykissoon, Anthony J Zachria, Eugene A Veley, Mariëlle Pkj Engelen
After bolus and continuous enteral feeding of the same protein, different digestion and absorption kinetics and anabolic responses are observed. Establishing which mode of feeding has the highest anabolic potential in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) may aid in the prevention of muscle wasting, but an important confounding factor is the duration of assessments after bolus feeding. We hypothesized that the anabolic response to bolus and continuous feeding in COPD patients is comparable when methodological issues are addressed...
November 29, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184538/circulating-irisin-is-reduced-in-male-patients-with-type-1-and-type-2-myotonic-dystrophies
#15
Elena Dozio, Elena Passeri, Rosanna Cardani, Stefano Benedini, Carmen Aresta, Rea Valaperta, Massimiliano Corsi Romanelli, Giovanni Meola, Valeria Sansone, Sabrina Corbetta
Context: Myotonic dystrophies (DM) are dominantly inherited muscle disorders characterized by myotonia, muscle weakness, and wasting. The reasons for sarcopenia in DMs are uncleared and multiple factors are involved. Irisin, a positive hormone regulator of muscle growth and bone, may play a role. Objectives: To investigate (1) circulating irisin in a series of DM1 and DM2 male patients compared with healthy controls and (2) the relationships between irisin and anthropometric, metabolic and hormonal parameters...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179176/neurons-erythrocytes-and-beyond-the-diverse-functions-of-chorein
#16
Florian Lang, Lisann Pelzl, Ludger Schöls, Andreas Hermann, Michael Föller, Tilman E Schäffer, Christos Stournaras
Chorea-acanthocytosis (ChAc), a neurodegenerative disease, results from loss-of-function-mutations of the chorein-encoding gene VPS13A. Affected patients suffer from a progressive movement disorder including chorea, parkinsonism, dystonia, tongue protrusion, dysarthria, dysphagia, tongue and lip biting, gait impairment, progressive distal muscle wasting, weakness, epileptic seizures, cognitive impairment, and behavioral changes. Those pathologies may be paralleled by erythrocyte acanthocytosis. Chorein supports activation of phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)-p85-subunit with subsequent up-regulation of ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1) activity, p21 protein-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) phosphorylation, and activation of several tyrosine kinases...
November 28, 2017: Neuro-Signals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178303/aanem-choosing-wisely-second-list
#17
(no author information available yet)
Choosing Wisely is an initiative of the ABIM Foundation in partnership with Consumer Reports that seeks to advance a national dialogue on avoiding wasteful or unnecessary medical tests, treatments and procedures. The American Association for Neuromuscular & Electrodiagnostic Medicine's (AANEM) Professional Practice Committee (PPC) identified areas in neuromuscular and electrodiagnostic medicine that have the greatest potential for overuse/misuse and provided five recommendations for both patients and physicians to consider before proceeding with the specified test or treatment...
November 27, 2017: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177207/can-pancreatic-cancer-behavior-be-predicted-based-on-computed-tomography-measurements-of-fat-and-muscle-mass
#18
Whalen Clark, Forat Swaid, Kenneth Luberice, Ty A Bowman, Darrell Downs, Sharona B Ross, Alexander S Rosemurgy
Many studies purport that obesity, and specifically visceral fat, impact survival after pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreatic adenocarcinoma. However, these studies involve crude measures of obesity [eg, body mass index (BMI)] or visceral fat [eg, linear measurements on computed tomographic (CT) scans]. Some studies purport that weight loss and muscle wasting (ie, sarcopenia) presage poor survival in these patients. This study was undertaken to accurately measure and reexamine the impact of visceral fat, subcutaneous fat, and sarcopenia on pancreatic cancer...
December 2016: International Journal of Surgery. Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175948/increased-non-hdl-cholesterol-levels-cause-muscle-wasting-and-ambulatory-dysfunction-in-the-mouse-model-of-lgmd2b
#19
Stephanie L Sellers, Nadia Milad, Zoe White, Chris D Pascoe, Rayleigh Chan, Geoffrey W Payne, Chun Y Seow, Fabio Rossi, Michael A Seidman, Pascal N Bernatchez
Progressive limb and girdle muscle atrophy leading to loss of ambulation is a hallmark of dysferlinopathies, which include limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2B and Miyoshi myopathy. However, animal models fail to fully reproduce the disease severity observed in humans, with Dysferlin-null (Dysf-/-) mice exhibiting minor muscle damage and weakness without dramatic ambulatory dysfunction. As we have previously reported significant Dysf expression in blood vessels, we investigated the role of vascular function in development of muscle pathology by generating a Dysf-deficient mouse model with vascular disease...
November 25, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175173/diagnostic-and-clinical-significance-of-the-titin-fragment-in-urine-of-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy-patients
#20
Hiroyuki Awano, Masaaki Matsumoto, Masashi Nagai, Taku Shirakawa, Nobuhiro Maruyama, Kazumoto Iijima, Yo-Ichi Nabeshima, Masafumi Matsuo
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal progressive muscle wasting disease of childhood. Titin in sarcomere is digested by calcium dependent protease. To explore muscle damage in DMD, the urinary concentrations of the N-terminal fragment of titin were determined using a newly developed enzyme linked immune sorbent assay kit. The urinary titin concentrations were normalized to creatinine (Cr). A total of 145 urine samples were obtained at a single Japanese hospital from 113 DMD patients aged 3-29years. Normalized urinary titin concentration was 965...
November 23, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
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