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Muscle wasting

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684841/use-of-visible-and-near-infrared-reflectance-spectra-to-predict-lipid-peroxidation-of-light-lamb-meat-and-discriminate-dam-s-feeding-systems
#1
G Ripoll, S Lobón, M Joy
Measurement of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) is a well-established method for determine lipid oxidation in meat. This assay, however, is time-consuming and generates undesired chemical waste. Dam's milk is the principal source of vitamins and provitamins that delay lipid oxidation of light lamb meat; these compounds are stored in the lamb's muscle tissue. Hence, lamb meat could be used to determine the origin of the dam's diet. The aim of this study is to evaluate Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) as a tool for determining the lipid peroxidation of light lamb meat and differentiate the meat of light lambs according the diet of their dams during lactation (grazing alfalfa, lucerne, or fed a total mixed ration)...
April 9, 2018: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682218/influence-of-physical-exercise-on-micrornas-in-skeletal-muscle-regeneration-aging-and-diseases
#2
REVIEW
Simona Ultimo, Giorgio Zauli, Alberto M Martelli, Marco Vitale, James A McCubrey, Silvano Capitani, Luca M Neri
Skeletal muscle is a dynamic tissue with remarkable plasticity and its growth and regeneration are highly organized, with the activation of specific transcription factors, proliferative pathways and cytokines. The decline of skeletal muscle tissue with age, is one of the most important causes of functional loss of independence in older adults. Maintaining skeletal muscle function throughout the lifespan is a prerequisite for good health and independent living. Physical activity represents one of the most effective preventive agents for muscle decay in aging...
March 30, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682162/metabolic-alterations-in-a-slow-paced-model-of-pancreatic-cancer-induced-wasting
#3
Elisabeth Wyart, Simone Reano, Myriam Y Hsu, Dario Livio Longo, Mingchuan Li, Emilio Hirsch, Nicoletta Filigheddu, Alessandra Ghigo, Chiara Riganti, Paolo Ettore Porporato
Cancer cachexia is a devastating syndrome occurring in the majority of terminally ill cancer patients. Notably, skeletal muscle atrophy is a consistent feature affecting the quality of life and prognosis. To date, limited therapeutic options are available, and research in the field is hampered by the lack of satisfactory models to study the complexity of wasting in cachexia-inducing tumors, such as pancreatic cancer. Moreover, currently used in vivo models are characterized by an explosive cachexia with a lethal wasting within few days, while pancreatic cancer patients might experience alterations long before the onset of overt wasting...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679921/electromyographic-and-biomechanical-analysis-of-step-negotiation-in-charcot-marie-tooth-subjects-whose-level-walk-is-not-impaired
#4
Tiziana Lencioni, Giuseppe Piscosquito, Marco Rabuffetti, Enrica Di Sipio, Manuela Diverio, Isabella Moroni, Luca Padua, Emanuela Pagliano, Angelo Schenone, Davide Pareyson, Maurizio Ferrarin
BACKGROUND: Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) is a slowly progressive disease characterized by muscular weakness and wasting with a length-dependent pattern. Mildly affected CMT subjects showed slight alteration of walking compared to healthy subjects (HS). RESEARCH QUESTION: To investigate the biomechanics of step negotiation, a task that requires greater muscle strength and balance control compared to level walking, in CMT subjects without primary locomotor deficits (foot drop and push off deficit) during walking...
April 13, 2018: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679381/comparative-gel-based-proteomic-analysis-of-chemically-crosslinked-complexes-in-dystrophic-skeletal-muscle
#5
Sandra Murphy, Margit Zweyer, Rustam R Mundegar, Dieter Swandulla, Kay Ohlendieck
Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a highly progressive muscle wasting disease with a complex pathophysiology that is based on primary abnormalities in the dystrophin gene. In order to study potential changes in the oligomerisation of high-molecular-mass protein complexes in dystrophic skeletal muscle, chemical crosslinking was combined with mass spectrometric analysis. The biochemical stabilization of protein interactions was carried out with the homo-bifunctional and amine-reactive agent bis[sulfosuccinimidyl]suberate, followed by protein shift analysis in one-dimensional gels...
April 20, 2018: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674975/possible-role-of-nadph-oxidase-4-in-angiotensin-ii-induced-muscle-wasting-in-mice
#6
Tomoyasu Kadoguchi, Kazunori Shimada, Hiroshi Koide, Tetsuro Miyazaki, Tomoyuki Shiozawa, Shuhei Takahashi, Tatsuro Aikawa, Shohei Ouchi, Kenichi Kitamura, Yurina Sugita, Al Shahi Hamad, Mitsuhiro Kunimoto, Yayoi Sato-Okabayashi, Koji Akita, Kikuo Isoda, Hiroyuki Daida
Background: Muscle wasting is a debilitating phenotype associated with chronic heart failure (CHF). We have previously demonstrated that angiotensin II (AII) directly induces muscle wasting in mice through the activation of NADPH oxidase (Nox). In this study, we tested the hypothesis that deficiency of NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4), a major source of oxidative stress, ameliorates AII-induced muscle wasting through the regulation of redox balance. Methods and Results: Nox4 knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice were used...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672184/oral-supplementation-with-beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate-arginine-and-glutamine-improves-lean-body-mass-in-healthy-older-adults
#7
Amy C Ellis, Gary R Hunter, Amy M Goss, Barbara A Gower
Oral intake of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB), arginine, and glutamine may ameliorate muscle loss by stimulating protein synthesis and decreasing protein degradation while simultaneously decreasing inflammation. Previous studies provide evidence for improvement in body composition with dietary supplementation of these ingredients among patients with muscle-wasting diseases. The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of this amino acid mixture on lean body mass, muscle volume, and physical function among healthy older adults...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Dietary Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667485/amino-acid-kinetics-and-the-response-to-nutrition-in-patients-with-cancer
#8
Barbara S van der Meij, Laisa Teleni, Marielle Pkj Engelen, Nicolaas Ep Deutz
PURPOSE: Amino acids are involved in many physiological processes in the body and serve as building blocks of proteins which are the main component of muscle mass. Often patients with cancer experience muscle wasting, which is associated with poor outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to discuss amino acid kinetics in cancer, review the evidence on the response to nutrition in patients with cancer, and to give recommendations on the appropriate level of amino acid or protein intake in cancer...
April 18, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666143/truncated-c-terminus-of-fibrillin-1-induces-marfanoid-progeroid-lipodystrophy-mpl-syndrome-in-rabbit
#9
Mao Chen, Bing Yao, Qiangbing Yang, Jichao Deng, Yuning Song, Tingting Sui, Lina Zhou, HaoBing Yao, Yuanyuan Xu, Hongsheng Ouyang, Daxin Pang, Zhanjun Li, Liangxue Lai
Various clinical differences have been observed between patients with the FBN1 gene mutation and those with the classical Marfan phenotype. Although FBN1 knockout (KO) or dominant-negative mutant mice are widely used as an animal model for Marfan syndrome (MFS), these mice cannot recapitulate the genotype/phenotype relationship of Marfanoid-progeroid-lipodystrophy (MPL) syndrome, which is caused by a mutation in the C-terminus of fibrillin-1, the penultimate exon of the FBN1 gene. Here, we describe the generation of a rabbit MPL model with C-terminal truncation of fibrillin-1 using a CRISPR/Cas9 system...
April 9, 2018: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659723/age-related-slowing-of-contractile-properties-differs-between-power-endurance-and-non-athletes-a-tensiomyographic-assessment
#10
Boštjan Šimunic, Rado Pišot, Jörn Rittweger, Hans Degens
Although master athletes maintain high levels of physical activity, they also suffer from an age-related decline in skeletal muscle function. There are indications of disproportional age- and physical inactivity-induced muscle wasting between muscles. Tensiomyography is a non-invasive tool that has been used to study the effects of a variety of sports on the contraction time (Tc) in different skeletal muscles. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess age-related changes in the Tc of the vastus lateralis, gastrocnemius medialis and biceps femoris muscles with Tensiomyography in older non-athletes (age = 62...
April 12, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658931/optical-cross-sectional-muscle-area-determination-of-drosophila-melanogaster-adult-indirect-flight-muscles
#11
Estela Selma-Soriano, Rubén Artero, Beatriz Llamusi
Muscle mass wasting, known as muscle atrophy, is a common phenotype in Drosophila models of neuromuscular diseases. We have used the indirect flight muscles (IFMs) of flies, specifically the dorso-longitudinal muscles (DLM), as the experimental subject to measure the atrophic phenotype brought about by different genetic causes. In this protocol, we describe how to embed fly thorax muscles for semi thin sectioning, how to obtain a good contrast between muscle and the surrounding tissue, and how to process optical microscope images for semiautomatic acquisition of quantifiable data and analysis...
March 31, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657936/cellular-therapy-for-chronic-traumatic-brachial-plexus-injury
#12
Alok Sharma, Hemangi Sane, Nandini Gokulchandran, Prerna Badhe, Suhasini Pai, Pooja Kulkarni, Jayanti Yadav, Sanket Inamdar
Cellular therapy is being actively pursued as a therapeutic modality in many of the neurological diseases. A variety of stem cells from diverse sources have been studied in detail and have been shown to exhibit angiogenetic and immunomodulatory properties in addition to other neuroprotective effects. Published clinical data have shown bone marrow mononuclear cell (BMMNC) injection in neurological disorders is safe and possesses regenerative potential. We illustrate a case of 27-year-old male with traumatic brachial plexus injury, administered with autologous BMMNCs intrathecally and intramuscularly, followed by multidisciplinary rehabilitation...
2018: Advanced Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656361/characterization-of-the-mitochondrial-aerobic-metabolism-in-the-pre-and-perisynaptic-districts-of-the-sod1-g93a-mouse-model-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#13
Silvia Ravera, Tiziana Bonifacino, Martina Bartolucci, Marco Milanese, Elena Gallia, Francesca Provenzano, Katia Cortese, Isabella Panfoli, Giambattista Bonanno
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an adult-onset fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by muscle wasting, weakness, and spasticity due to a progressive degeneration of cortical, brainstem, and spinal motor neurons. The etiopathological causes are still largely obscure, although astrocytes definitely play a role in neuronal damage. Several mechanisms have been proposed to concur to neurodegeneration in ALS, including mitochondrial dysfunction. We have previously shown profound modifications of glutamate release and presynaptic plasticity in the spinal cord of the SOD1 G93A mouse model of ALS...
April 14, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655777/body-composition-evaluated-by-body-mass-index-and-bioelectrical-impedance-vector-analysis-in-women-with-rheumatoid-arthritis
#14
Juan Antonio Pineda-Juárez, Mariel Lozada-Mellado, Midori Ogata-Medel, Andrea Hinojosa-Azaola, Cira Santillán-Díaz, Luis Llorente, Arturo Orea-Tejeda, Jorge Alcocer-Varela, Rolando Espinosa-Morales, Marco González-Contreras, Lilia Castillo-Martínez
BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a complex inflammatory disease that modifies body composition. Although body mass index (BMI) is one of the clinical nutrition tools widely used to assess indirectly nutritional status, it is not able to identify these body alterations. Bioelectrical Vector Analysis (BIVA) is an alternative method to assess hydration and body cell mass of patients with wasting conditions. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the differences in nutrition status according to BMI groups (normal, overweight and obesity) and BIVA classification (cachectic and non-cachectic) in women with RA...
February 12, 2018: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652699/impact-of-the-glymphatic-system-on-the-kinetic-and-distribution-of-gadodiamide-in-the-rat-brain-observations-by-dynamic-mri-and-effect-of-circadian-rhythm-on-tissue-gadolinium-concentrations
#15
Toshiaki Taoka, Gregor Jost, Thomas Frenzel, Shinji Naganawa, Hubertus Pietsch
OBJECTIVES: The glymphatic system is a recently hypothesized waste clearance system of the brain in which perivascular space constitutes a pathway similar to the lymphatic system in other body regions. Sleep and anesthesia are reported to influence the activity of the glymphatic system. Because rats are nocturnal animals, the glymphatic system is expected to be more active during the day. We attempted to elucidate the influence of the glymphatic system for intravenously injected gadodiamide in the rat brain by 2 experiments...
April 12, 2018: Investigative Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648516/the-phosphodiesterase-4-inhibitor-roflumilast-reverts-proteolysis-in-skeletal-muscle-cells-of-patients-with-copd-cachexia
#16
Esther Barreiro, Ester Puig-Vilanova, Anna Salazar-Degracia, Sergi Pascual-Guardia, Carme Casadevall, Joaquim Gea
Peripheral muscle weakness and mass loss are characteristic features in severe COPD. We hypothesized that the phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor roflumilast-induced cAMP may ameliorate proteolysis and metabolism in skeletal muscles of COPD patients with severe muscle wasting. In myogenic precursor cells (isolated from muscle biopsies and cultured up to obtain differentiated myotubes) from 10 severe COPD patients and 10 healthy controls, which were treated with 1 microM roflumilast N-oxide (RNO) for three time-cohorts (1h, 6h, and 24h), genes of antioxidant defense and oxidative stress marker, myogenesis and muscle metabolism, proteolysis (tyrosine release assay) and ubiquitin-proteasome system markers, autophagy, and myosin isoforms were analyzed using RT-PCR and immunoblotting...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627324/from-excitation-to-intracellular-ca-2-movements-in-skeletal-muscle-basic-aspects-and-related-clinical-disorders
#17
REVIEW
Bruno Allard
In skeletal muscle fiber, excitation-contraction coupling corresponds to the sequence of events occurring from action potential firing to initiation of contraction by an increase in cytosolic Ca2+ . These events are elicited in response to excitation of the motor neuron which induces trains of action potentials in the muscle cell that spread along the sarcolemma and in depth along the T-tubule membrane. Depolarization of the T-tubule membrane induces a conformational change in a protein complex, called the dihydropyridine receptor, which opens a calcium channel anchored in the membrane of the sarcoplasmic reticulum, called the ryanodine receptor, in charge of release of Ca2+ ions that activate contractile proteins...
March 9, 2018: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617642/the-science-and-translation-of-lactate-shuttle-theory
#18
REVIEW
George A Brooks
Once thought to be a waste product of anaerobic metabolism, lactate is now known to form continuously under aerobic conditions. Shuttling between producer and consumer cells fulfills at least three purposes for lactate: (1) a major energy source, (2) the major gluconeogenic precursor, and (3) a signaling molecule. "Lactate shuttle" (LS) concepts describe the roles of lactate in delivery of oxidative and gluconeogenic substrates as well as in cell signaling. In medicine, it has long been recognized that the elevation of blood lactate correlates with illness or injury severity...
April 3, 2018: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616222/does-a-better-perfusion-of-deconditioned-muscle-tissue-release-chronic-low-back-pain
#19
Paola Valdivieso, Martino V Franchi, Christian Gerber, Martin Flück
Non-specific chronic low back pain (nsCLBP) is a multifactorial condition of unknown etiology and pathogenesis. Physical and genetic factors may influence the predisposition of individuals to CLBP, which in many instances share a musculoskeletal origin. A reduced pain level in low back pain patients that participate in exercise therapy highlights that disuse-related muscle deconditioning may predispose individuals to nsCLBP. In this context, musculoskeletal pain may be the consequence of capillary rarefaction in inactive muscle as this would lower local tissue drainage and washing out of toxic waste...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603281/association-of-energy-and-protein-delivery-on-skeletal-muscle-mass-changes-in-critically-ill-adults-a-systematic-review
#20
REVIEW
Kate J Lambell, Susannah J King, Adrienne K Forsyth, Audrey C Tierney
Critically ill patients experience significant and rapid loss of skeletal muscle mass, which has been associated with negative clinical outcomes. The aetiology of muscle wasting is multifactorial and nutrition delivery may play a role. A systematic literature review was conducted to examine the association of energy and/or protein provision on changes in skeletal muscle mass in critically ill patients. Key databases were searched up until March 2016 to identify studies that measured skeletal muscle mass and/or total body protein (TBP) at 2 or more time points during acute critical illness (up to 2 weeks after an intensive care unit [ICU] stay)...
March 30, 2018: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
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