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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907969/physiological-and-behavioural-responses-of-grazing-dairy-cows-to-an-acute-metabolic-challenge
#1
Esther Müller, Andreas Münger, Roi Mandel, Lukas Eggerschwiler, Ann-Catherine Schwinn, Josef J Gross, Rupert M Bruckmaier, H Dieter Hess, Frigga Dohme-Meier
Due to seasonal changes in the quality and quantity of herbage, the nutrient supply to grazing dairy cows is not always sufficient, which may increase their metabolic load. To investigate the temporal pattern of behavioural changes in relation to concomitant metabolic alterations, we subjected 15 multiparous early lactating Holstein dairy cows (24 (SD 7.4) days in milk) to a short-term metabolic challenge, which we provoked by abruptly withdrawing concentrate for 1 week. Cows grazed full-time and were supplemented with concentrate in experimental week (EW) 1 and EW 3, whereas concentrate was withdrawn in EW 2...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907938/analysis-of-the-gut-microbial-diversity-of-dairy-cows-during-peak-lactation-by-pacbio-single-molecule-real-time-smrt-sequencing
#2
Weicheng Li, Qiangchuan Hou, Yanjie Wang, Huimin Ma, Yahua Liu, Feiyan Zhao, Jing Li, Lai-Yu Kwok, Jie Yu, Zhihong Sun, Tiansong Sun
BACKGROUND: The gut microbes of dairy cows are strongly associated with their health, but the relationship between milk production and the intestinal microbiota has seldom been studied. Thus, we explored the diversity of the intestinal microbiota during peak lactation of dairy cows. METHODS: The intestinal microbiota of nine dairy cows at peak lactation was evaluated using the Pacific Biosciences single-molecule real-time (PacBio SMRT) sequencing approach. RESULTS: A total of 32,670 high-quality 16S rRNA gene sequences were obtained, belonging to 12 phyla, 59 families, 107 genera, and 162 species...
June 15, 2018: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907842/reward-representing-d1-type-neurons-in-the-medial-shell-of-the-accumbens-nucleus-regulate-palatable-food-intake
#3
Máté Durst, Katalin Könczöl, Tamás Balázsa, Mark D Eyre, Zsuzsanna E Tóth
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Dysfunction in reward-related aspects of feeding, and consequent overeating in humans, is a major contributor to obesity. Intrauterine undernutrition and overnutrition are among the predisposing factors, but the exact mechanism of how overeating develops is still unclear. Consummatory behavior is regulated by the medial shell (mSh) of the accumbens nucleus (Nac) through direct connections with the rostral part of the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA). Our aim was to investigate whether an altered Nac-LHA circuit may underlie hyperphagic behavior...
June 15, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907660/survey-of-dry-cow-management-on-uk-commercial-dairy-farms
#4
Mayumi Fujiwara, Marie J Haskell, Alastair I Macrae, Kenneth M D Rutherford
Dry period management of the dairy cow focuses on maximising milk production during the subsequent lactation but may include procedures that negatively affect dry cow health and welfare. A survey of dairy farmers in the UK was conducted to investigate dry cow management procedures. The questionnaire was completed by 148 farmers. Most farms (84 per cent) kept dry cows in dynamic social groups. The median length of the dry period was 56 days, and 83 per cent of farms stopped milking abruptly, regardless of milk production level at dry-off...
June 15, 2018: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907614/human-milk-as-a-protective-factor-for-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
Jinglan Huang, Li Zhang, Jun Tang, Jing Shi, Yi Qu, Tao Xiong, Dezhi Mu
OBJECTIVE: To summarise current evidence evaluating the effects of human milk on the risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in preterm infants. DESIGN: We searched for studies on human milk and BPD in English and Chinese databases on 26 July 2017. Furthermore, the references of included studies were also screened. The inclusion criteria in this meta-analysis were the following: (1) preterm infants (<37 weeks); (2) human milk; (3) comparing with formula feeding; (4) the outcome included BPD; and (5) the type of study was randomised controlled trial (RCT) or cohort study...
June 15, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907454/unexpected-neighborhood-sources-of-food-and-drink-implications-for-research-and-community-health
#6
Sean C Lucan, Andrew R Maroko, Jason L Seitchik, Dong Hum Yoon, Luisa E Sperry, Clyde B Schechter
INTRODUCTION: Studies of neighborhood food environments typically focus on select stores (especially supermarkets) and/or restaurants (especially fast-food outlets), make presumptions about healthfulness without assessing actual items for sale, and ignore other kinds of businesses offering foods/drinks. The current study assessed availability of select healthful and less-healthful foods/drinks from all storefront businesses in an urban environment and considered implications for food-environment research and community health...
June 11, 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907443/apoa-1milano-muteins-orally-delivered-via-genetically-modified-rice-show-anti-atherogenic-and-anti-inflammatory-properties-in-vitro-and-in-apoe-atherosclerotic-mice
#7
Gabriele Romano, Serena Reggi, Barbara Kutryb-Zajac, Amanda Facoetti, Elisa Chisci, Mariateresa Pettinato, Maria Rita Giuffrè, Federica Vecchio, Silvia Leoni, Marco De Giorgi, Federica Avezza, Massimiliano Cadamuro, Luca Crippa, Biagio Eugenio Leone, Marialuisa Lavitrano, Ilaria Rivolta, Donatella Barisani, Ryszard Tomasz Smolenski, Roberto Giovannoni
BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis is a slowly progressing, chronic multifactorial disease characterized by the accumulation of lipids, inflammatory cells, and fibrous tissue that drives to the formation of asymmetric focal thickenings in the tunica intima of large and mid-sized arteries. Despite the high therapeutic potential of ApoA-1 proteins, the purification and delivery into the disordered organisms of these drugs is still limited by low efficiency in these processes. METHODS AND RESULTS: We report here a novel production and delivery system of anti-atherogenic APOA-1Milano muteins (APOA-1M) by means of genetically modified rice plants...
June 11, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907410/facile-synthesis-of-titanium-iv-ion-immobilized-adenosine-triphosphate-functionalized-silica-nanoparticles-for-highly-specific-enrichment-and-analysis-of-intact-phosphoproteins
#8
Hao Wang, Zhixin Tian
Analysis of phosphoproteins always faces the challenge of low stoichiometry, which demands highly selective and efficient enrichment in the initial sample preparation. Here we report our synthesis of the novel titanium (IV) ion immobilized adenosine triphosphate functionalized silica nanoparticles (Ti4+ -ATP-NPs) for efficient enrichment of intact phosphoproteins. The average diameter of Ti4+ -ATP-NPs was about 128 nm with good dispersibility and the saturated adsorption capacity for β-casein was 1046.5 mg/g...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907148/a-case-of-metaplastic-atrophic-gastritis-in-immune-dysregulation-polyendocrinopathy-enteropathy-x-linked-ipex-syndrome
#9
Youyou Luo, Jie Chen, Youhong Fang, Jingan Lou, Jindan Yu
BACKGROUND: Autoimmune metaplastic atrophic gastritis is a chronic progressive inflammatory condition. The clinical spectrum includes pernicious anemia, atrophic gastritis, antibodies to parietal cell antigens and intrinsic factor, achlorhydria, hypergastrinemia and carcinoma. It is rare in paediatric cohorts. CASE PRESENTATION: We present the case of a boy with metaplastic atrophic gastritis in whom immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked(IPEX) syndrome was confirmed by FOXP3 gene mutation...
June 15, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907108/development-and-validation-of-a-protocol-to-identify-and-recruit-participants-into-a-large-scale-study-on-liver-fluke-in-cattle
#10
Catherine M McCann, Helen E Clough, Matthew Baylis, Diana J L Williams
BACKGROUND: Liver fluke infection caused by the parasite Fasciola hepatica is a major cause of production losses to the cattle industry in the UK. To investigate farm-level risk factors for fluke infection, a randomised method to recruit an appropriate number of herds from a defined geographical area into the study was required. The approach and hurdles that were encountered in designing and implementing this study are described. The county of Shropshire, England, was selected for the study because of the variation between farms in exposure to fluke infection observed in an earlier study...
June 15, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906754/high-adsorption-performance-for-as-iii-and-as-v-onto-novel-aluminum-enriched-biochar-derived-from-abandoned-tetra-paks
#11
Zhuhong Ding, Xuebin Xu, Thihongnhung Phan, Xin Hu, Guangze Nie
In order to develop promising sorbents for value-added application of solid wastes, low-cost aluminum-enriched biochar was prepared from abandoned Tetra Pak used to hold milks, a paper-polyethylence-Al foil laminated package box, after acid pretreatment and subsequent slow pyrolysis under an oxygen-limited environment at 600 °C. The basic physicochemical properties of the resultant biochar were characterized and the sorption performance of aqueous As(III) and As(V) was investigated via batch and column sorption experiments...
June 12, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906528/cd300c-co-stimulates-ige-mediated-basophils-activation-and-its-expression-is-increased-in-cow%C3%A2-s-milk-allergy
#12
Olatz Zenarruzabeitia, Joana Vitallé, Iñigo Terrén, Ane Orrantia, Itziar Astigarraga, Leire Dopazo, Carlos Gonzalez, Laura Santos-Díez, Carlos Tutau, Pedro M Gamboa, Agurtzane Bilbao, Francisco Borrego
BACKGROUND: Basophils express high-affinity IgE receptors (FcεRI), which play an essential role in allergic diseases. To design promising immunomodulatory therapies, it is important to characterize new cell surface receptors that modulate immunoglobulin (Ig)E-mediated basophil activation threshold. OBJECTIVES: To analyze the expression of CD300 receptors on human basophils and their implication in IgE-mediated basophil activation processes. METHODS: Blood samples from healthy and cow´s milk allergic patients were collected through the Basque Biobank under an institutional review board-approved protocol...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906217/toxoplasma-gondii-antibodies-in-bulk-tank-milk-samples-of-caprine-dairy-herds
#13
Alessia Libera Gazzonis, Sergio Aurelio Zanzani, Katia Stradiotto, Emanuela Olivieri, Luca Villa, Maria Teresa Manfredi
A major public health issue, Toxoplasma gondii infection can affect humans mainly via the consumption of animal products from certain species, including small ruminants. Therefore, a regular monitoring of the infection in ovine and caprine populations is advisable for the control of human and animal toxoplasmosis. Antibody detection in individual and bulk tank milk may represent a valid alternative to serological analysis, being its collection easy and not affecting animal welfare. Many serological tools for milk analysis have already been validated for several parasites, including Apicomplexa...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905984/effect-of-vitamin-e-supplementation-in-milk-replacer-and-shiga-toxoid-vaccination-on-serum-%C3%AE-tocopherol-performance-haematology-and-blood-chemistry-in-male-holstein-calves
#14
Nadine Schmidt, Tim Luhmann, Liane Hüther, Ulrich Meyer, Stefanie A Barth, Lutz Geue, Christian Menge, Jana Frahm, Sven Dänicke
Vitamin E (vit E), an essential antioxidant for maintaining the stability of biological membranes and the function of the immune system, is considered to support adaptive immune responses and performance in cattle. The principal virulence factor of Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), the eponymous Stx, modulates cellular immune responses in cattle, the primary STEC reservoir. Active and passive immunization of calves with Shiga toxoids (rStxMUT ) was recently shown to reduce the STEC shedding...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905945/effect-of-goat-and-cow-milk-ratios-on-the-physicochemical-rheological-and-sensory-properties-of-a-fresh-panela-cheese
#15
Carolina Ramírez-López, Jorge Fernando Vélez-Ruiz
Fresh cheeses, Panela type, were manufactured from cow milk and with goat milk incorporation, constituting 4 blends of milks (G10:C90, G20:C80, G30:C70, G40:C60, v/v). The cheeses were analyzed to determine the effect of the different goat milk ratios on the physicochemical, textural, rheological, and sensory properties over 15 d of storage. Significant differences in protein (14.6% to 18.5%), fat (13.0% to 19.4%), and moisture contents (51.7% to 61.3%), pH (6.38 to 6.67), color (Lh  > 64.4, ah  > 1...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905824/milk-powder-added-to-a-school-meal-increases-cognitive-test-scores-in-ghanaian-children
#16
Reginald Lee, Lauren Singh, Danielle van Liefde, Meghan Callaghan-Gillespie, Matilda Steiner-Asiedu, Kwesi Saalia, Carly Edwards, Anja Serena, Tamara Hershey, Mark J Manary
Background: The inclusion of milk in school feeding is accepted as good nutritional practice, but specific benefits remain uncertain. Objective: The objective was to determine whether consumption of 8.8 g milk protein/d given as milk powder with a multiple micronutrient-enriched porridge resulted in greater increases in linear growth and Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) scores in Ghanaian schoolchildren when compared with 1 of 3 control groups...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905172/got-milk-endoscopic-removal-of-ingested-milk-carton
#17
Abdelhai Abdelqader, Tarika Chowdhary, Hiren Vallabh, Jeremy Cumberledge, John Nasr
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: VideoGIE: an official video journal of the American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904375/quantifying-the-responses-of-three-bacillus-cereus-strains-in-isothermal-conditions-and-during-spray-drying-of-different-carrier-agents
#18
Verônica O Alvarenga, Fernanda B Campagnollo, Arthur K R Pia, Deborah A Conceição, Yuri Abud, Celso Sant'Anna, Miriam D Hubinger, Anderson S Sant'Ana
Spray drying is a widely used method for producing milk powder. This process is not aimed to cause microbial inactivation, thus sporeforming bacteria may be abundant in the microbiota of milk powder. The first aim of this study was to determine the inactivation kinetics parameters in capillary tubes of three Bacillus cereus strains (436, B63, 540) in three menstrua (whole milk, phosphate buffer, and talc suspension) at 90, 100, and 110°C. D -values for B. cereus in the three menstrua were not significantly different at the highest tested temperature ( p > 0...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904200/developing-an-evidence-based-approach-for-antimicrobial-resistance-reporting-for-british-columbia-diagnostic-animal-health-laboratory-data
#19
Theresa Burns, Brian R Radke, Tyler Stitt, Carl Ribble
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) data generated by diagnostic animal health laboratories are underutilized for AMR reporting in Canada. Data assessment, review of practices in other jurisdictions, and expert interviews were used to develop an evidence-guided plan to generate AMR reports from British Columbia Animal Health Centre (AHC) data that would provide transparent, timely, and useful information to public health practitioners, the food animal sector, and the general public. Using the Canadian Animal Health Surveillance Network (CAHSN) platform was the most efficient method of data retrieval...
May 2018: Canadian Veterinary Journal. la Revue Vétérinaire Canadienne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903993/dietary-cholesterol-intake-and-sources-among-u-s-adults-results-from-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-surveys-nhanes-2001%C3%A2-2014
#20
Zhe Xu, Scott T McClure, Lawrence J Appel
The 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommends that individuals should minimize their dietary cholesterol intake. However, current dietary cholesterol intake and its food sources have not been well-characterized. We examined dietary cholesterol intake by age, sex, race, and food sources using 24-h dietary recall data from a nationally representative sample of 5047 adults aged 20 years or older who participated in NHANES (2013⁻2014 survey cycle). We also reported trends in cholesterol intake across the past seven NHANES surveys...
June 14, 2018: Nutrients
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