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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346936/differential-establishment-of-bifidobacteria-in-the-breastfed-infant-gut
#1
Zachery T Lewis, David A Mills
The composition of an infant's gut microbiome can impact their immediate and long-term health. Bifdobacteria play a major role in structuring the gut microbiome of breastfed infants due to their ability to consume oligosaccharides found in human milk. However, recent studies have revealed that bifidobacteria are often absent in the gut microbiome of breastfed infants in some locations. This lack of colonization may be due either to differences in the environmental conditions in the gastrointestinal tract of uncolonized infants which prohibit the growth of bifidobacteria or a dearth of sources from which infants may acquire these specialized bacterial species...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346933/summary-on-human-milk-oligosaccharides
#2
Philip M Sherman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346932/regulatory-aspects-of-human-milk-oligosaccharides
#3
Seppo Salminen
Human milk oligosaccharides are key components of human milk and appear in various compositions and concentrations in all human milks. In regulatory sense human milk oligosaccharides are classified as novel foods or novel food ingredients requiring safety assessment. In addition, if any health messages are intended to be used also health claim regulations apply. This chapter reviews the regulatory settings and studies human milk oligosaccharides are required to fulfill to be able to enter markets in European Union or United States or elsewhere...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346931/compositional-analysis-and-metabolism-of-human-milk-oligosaccharides-in-infants
#4
Clemens Kunz, Silvia Rudloff
It is a great success that biotechnological means are available today to produce amounts of single human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) in a purity which allows performing metabolic and functional studies even in humans. As recent data indicate that there is a link between the Lewis blood group and the secretor status of an individual and certain inflammatory diseases, this review will also focus on the metabolic fate of secretor- and Lewis blood group-specific components. We conclude that there is no simple urinary or fecal excretion pattern of HMOs, although the pattern in urine often reflects the mother's secretor/nonsecretor status...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346930/enzymes-in-human-milk
#5
David C Dallas, J Bruce German
Milk proteins are a complex and diverse source of biological activities. Beyond their function, intact milk proteins also act as carriers of encrypted functional sequences that, when released as peptides, exert biological functions, including antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activity, which could contribute to the infant's competitive success. Research has now revealed that the release of these functional peptides begins within the mammary gland itself. A complex array of proteases produced in mother's milk has been shown to be active in the milk, releasing these peptides...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346920/microbial-composition-of-the-initial-colonization-of-newborns
#6
Samuli Rautava
Early-life interaction with indigenous intestinal microbes is a prerequisite for healthy immune and metabolic maturation. Human infants acquire their gut microbiota predominantly from the mother. A considerable inoculum of microbes is received by the neonate during vaginal delivery. Recent observations suggest that human gut colonization may be initiated prenatally by microbes in amniotic fluid, but the significance of this phenomenon remains unknown. After birth, neonatal gut colonization is guided by human milk factors, which selectively promote the growth of specific microbes, as well as by live microbes present in human milk...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346913/selected-food-consumption-mediates-the-association-between-education-level-and-metabolic-syndrome-in-korean-adults
#7
Oh Yoen Kim, So-Young Kwak, Boeun Kim, Young-Sun Kim, Hye Young Kim, Min-Jeong Shin
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Low socioeconomic status (SES) is linked to higher incidence/mortality of cardiovascular disease, but emerging evidence inconsistently reported that education level, a proxy for SES, is related to cardiovascular risk and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Koreans. Furthermore, limited information is available on whether dietary components would mediate the relationship between education level and cardiovascular risk. We hypothesized that selected food consumption mediates the association between education level and MetS prevalence...
March 28, 2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346843/analgesic-effect-of-maternal-human-milk-odor-on-premature-neonates
#8
Audrey Baudesson de Chanville, Véronique Brevaut-Malaty, Aurélie Garbi, Barthelemy Tosello, Karine Baumstarck, Catherine Gire
BACKGROUND: Two studies have demonstrated an analgesic effect of maternal milk odor in preterm neonates, without specifying the method of olfactory stimulation. Research aim: This study aimed to assess the analgesic effect of maternal milk odor in preterm neonates by using a standardized method of olfactory stimulation. METHODS: This trial was prospective, randomized, controlled, double blinded, and centrally administered. The inclusion criteria for breastfed infants included being born between 30 and 36 weeks + 6 days gestational age and being less than 10 days postnatal age...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Human Lactation: Official Journal of International Lactation Consultant Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346705/performance-of-a-polymer-coated-silicon-microarray-for-simultaneous-detection-of-food-allergen-specific-ige-and-igg4
#9
Steven Sievers, Marina Cretich, Paola Gagni, Birgit Ahrens, Galina Grishina, Hugh Sampson, Bodo Niggemann, Marcella Chiari, Kirsten Beyer
BACKGROUND: Microarray-based component-resolved diagnostics (CRD) has become an accepted tool to detect allergen specific IgE-sensitization towards hundreds of allergens in parallel from one drop of serum. Nevertheless specificity and sensitivity as well as a simultaneous detection of allergen specific IgG4, as a potential parameter for tolerance development, remain to be optimized. OBJECTIVE: We applied the recently introduced silicon chip coated with a functional polymer named copoly(DMA-NAS-MAPS) to the simultaneous detection of food allergen specific IgE and IgG4, and compared it with ImmunoCAP and ImmunoCAP ISAC...
March 27, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346070/origin-of-disinfection-by-products-in-cheeses
#10
Maria Jose Cardador, Mercedes Gallego, Francisco Prados, José Fernández-Salguero
The disinfection of water, equipment and surfaces in the cheese factory is one of the factors that can originate disinfection by-products (DBPs) in cheeses. This research has focused on studying cheese factories in order to evaluate the individual contribution of each step of the cheese-making process that can contribute to the presence of DBPs in cheeses. Ten factories were selected according to their salting processes (brine salting or dry salting). Each factory was monitored by the collection of six representative samples (factory water supply, brine solution, milk, whey, curd, and cheese) in which the concentrations of up to eight chemicals were detected...
March 27, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346054/genomic-regions-in-local-endangered-sheep-encode-potentially-favorable-genes
#11
Bianca Moioli, Roberto Steri, Gennaro Catillo
The economic evaluation of farm animal genetic resources plays a key role in developing conservation programs. However, to date, the link between diversity as assessed by neutral genetic markers and the functional diversity is not yet understood. Two genome-wide comparisons, using over 44,000 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms, identified the markers with the highest difference in allele frequency between the Alpago endangered breed and two clusters, composed of four specialized dairy sheep, and four meat breeds respectively...
March 27, 2017: Animal Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345865/human-milk-oligosaccharide-specificities-of-human-galectins-comparison-of-electrospray-ionization-mass-spectrometry-and-glycan-microarray-screening-results
#12
Km Shams-Ud-Doha, Elena N Kitova, Pavel I Kitov, Yves St-Pierre, John S Klassen
The affinities of thirty-two free human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) for four human galectin proteins - a stable mutant of hGal1 (hGal-1), a C-terminal fragment of hGal-3 (hGal-3C), hGal-7 and an N-terminal fragment of hGal-9 (hGal-9N) - were measured using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The binding data show that each of the four galectins recognize the majority of the HMOs tested (hGal-1 binds thirty-two HMOs, hGal-3C binds twenty-six, hGal-7 binds thirty-one and hGal-9N binds twenty-six)...
March 27, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345783/natural-tolerance-development-in-cow-s-milk-allergic-children-ige-and-igg4-epitope-binding
#13
Jean Christoph Caubet, Jing Lin, Birgit Ahrens, Gustavo Gimenez, Luda Bardina, Bodo Niggemann, Hugh A Sampson, Kirsten Beyer
BACKGROUND: Although most of cow's milk (CM) allergic children will outgrow their allergy, the pathomechanism of the natural development of tolerance remains poorly understood. It has been suggested that the balance between milk specific IgE and IgG4 plays a major role. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate differences in IgE and IgG4 antibody binding to cow's milk (CM) epitopes between patients with persistent CM allergy (CMA) and those that naturally became tolerant...
March 27, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345262/purebreeding-of-red-maasai-and-crossbreeding-with-dorper-sheep-in-different-environments-in-kenya
#14
E Zonabend König, E Strandberg, J M K Ojango, T Mirkena, A M Okeyo, J Philipsson
The aim of this article was to study opportunities for improvement of the indigenous and threatened Red Maasai sheep (RM) in Kenya, by comparing purebreeding with crossbreeding with Dorper sheep (D) as a terminal breed, in two different environments (Env. A and a harsher Env. B), assuming different levels of genotype-by-environment interaction (G × E). Breeding goals differed between environments and breeds. Four scenarios of nucleus breeding schemes were stochastically simulated, with the nucleus in Env...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Zeitschrift Für Tierzüchtung und Züchtungsbiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345135/eliminating-cows-milk-but-not-wheat-barley-or-rye-increases-the-risk-of-growth-deceleration-and-nutritional-inadequacies
#15
Jetta Tuokkola, Päivi Luukkainen, Jaakko Nevalainen, Suvi Ahonen, Jorma Toppari, Jorma Ilonen, Riitta Veijola, Mikael Knip, Suvi M Virtanen, Minna Kaila
AIM: Our study examined the growth and nutritional intake of children on milk and, or, wheat, barley or rye elimination diets. METHODS: This was a nested case-control study within the Finnish Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention Study. It investigated 295 children born in the Tampere University Hospital area between 1997-2004 on a diet without cows' milk and, or, wheat, barley or rye due to food allergies and 265 matched controls. Nutritional intake was recorded with three-day food records at the ages of one, two and three years...
March 27, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344976/a-metataxonomic-approach-could-be-considered-for-cattle-clinical-mastitis-diagnostics
#16
Joanne W H Oultram, Erika K Ganda, Sarah C Boulding, Rodrigo C Bicalho, Georgios Oikonomou
Mastitis is one of the most costly diseases affecting the dairy industry, and identification of the causative microorganism(s) is essential. Here, we report the use of next-generation sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes for clinical mastitis diagnosis. We used 65 paired milk samples, collected from the mastitic and a contralateral healthy quarter of mastitic dairy cattle to evaluate the technique as a potential alternative to bacterial culture or targeted PCR. One large commercial dairy farm was used, with one trained veterinarian collecting the milk samples...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344572/gut-colonization-by-methanogenic-archaea-is-associated-with-organic-dairy-consumption-in-children
#17
Jeroen A A van de Pol, Niels van Best, Catherine A Mbakwa, Carel Thijs, Paul H Savelkoul, Ilja C W Arts, Mathias W Hornef, Monique Mommers, John Penders
The gut microbiota represents a complex and diverse ecosystem with a profound impact on human health, promoting immune maturation, and host metabolism as well as colonization resistance. Important members that have often been disregarded are the methanogenic archaea. Methanogenic archaea reduce hydrogen levels via the production of methane, thereby stimulating food fermentation by saccharolytic bacteria. On the other hand, colonization by archaea has been suggested to promote a number of gastrointestinal and metabolic diseases such as colorectal cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, and obesity...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343843/%C3%AE-s1-casein-elucidate-major-t-cell-responses-in-cow-s-milk-allergy
#18
L Diego Archila, Fatima S Khan, Nupur Bhatnagar, David Robinson, Mary L Farrington, William W Kwok
Cow's milk allergy (CMA) is increasing in prevalence, affecting approximately 4% of children. Cow's milk (CM) is a common cause of fatal/ near fatal anaphylactic reactions. Understanding of CM-specific CD4+ T-cells responses to milk allergens should help elucidate the pathological mechanisms of persistent CMA. Milk allergen epitopes specific T-cells were examined in CMA subjects. Frequencies and phenotypes of these T-cells were found to be different between older and younger subjects.
March 23, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343695/treatment-with-milk-fat-globule-epidermal-growth-factor-factor-8-mfg-e8-reduces-inflammation-and-lung-injury-in-neonatal-sepsis
#19
Laura W Hansen, Weng Lang Yang, Alexandra C Bolognese, Asha Jacob, Tracy Chen, Jose M Prince, Jeffrey M Nicastro, Gene F Coppa, Ping Wang
BACKGROUND: Sepsis remains one of the leading causes of infant death worldwide. It is characterized by uncontrolled inflammatory responses due to proven bacterial infection. Despite improvement in supportive care and the availability of effective antibiotics, no specific therapy targeting the dysregulated inflammatory response is available for neonatal sepsis. Milk fat globule epidermal growth factor-factor 8 (MFG-E8) is a secretory glycoprotein abundantly present in human milk. MFG-E8 suppresses the systemic inflammatory responses in adult murine injury models by improving the clearance of dying cells...
March 23, 2017: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343637/investigation-of-preoperative-fasting-times-in-children
#20
Eda Dolgun, Meryem Yavuz, Birsen Eroğlu, Ayşe Islamoğlu
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate preoperative fasting times of children. DESIGN: A prospective and descriptive design was used. METHODS: The study was carried out in the pediatric surgery departments of a University Faculty of Medicine Hospital, between January 1 and May 31, 2012. The sample included 332 pediatric patients having surgery with general anesthesia and their family. Data were collected via patient and family interview using a 28-item questionnaire developed by the researchers...
April 2017: Journal of Perianesthesia Nursing: Official Journal of the American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses
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