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Hydratation, Body mass, Muscle mass

Keisuke Shiose, Yosuke Yamada, Keiko Motonaga, Hideyuki Takahashi
Although each gram of glycogen is well known to bind 2.7-4.0 g of water, no studies have been conducted on the effect of muscle glycogen depletion on body water distribution. We investigated changes in extracellular and intracellular water (ECW and ICW) distribution in each body segment in muscle glycogen-depletion and glycogen-recovery condition using segmental bioimpedance spectroscopy technique (BIS). Twelve male subjects consumed 7.0 body mass-1 of indigestible (glycogen-depleted group) or digestible (glycogen-recovered group) carbohydrate for 24 hours after a glycogen-depletion cycling exercise...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
Flavio A Cadegiani, Claudio E Kater
Overtraining syndrome (OTS) is caused by an imbalance between training, nutrition and resting, and leads to decreased performance and fatigue; however, the precise underlying triggers of OTS remain unclear. This study investigated the body composition, metabolism, eating, sleeping patterns and mood states among participants with OTS. Selected participants were divided into OTS-affected athletes (OTS, n = 14), healthy athletes (ATL, n = 25), and healthy non-physically active controls (NCS, n = 12). Compared to ATL, OTS showed decreased sleep quality (p = 0...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
Luci Maria SantAna Dusse, Marcos Vinícius Ferreira Silva, Letícia Gonçalves Freitas, Milena Soriano Marcolino, Maria das Graças Carvalho
The term 'economy class syndrome' refers to the occurrence of thrombotic events during long-haul flights that mainly occur in passengers in the economy class of the aircraft. This syndrome results from several factors related to the aircraft cabin (immobilization, hypobaric hypoxia and low humidity) and the passenger (body mass index, thrombophilia, oral contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy, cancer), acting together to predispose to excessive blood coagulation, which can result in venous thromboembolism...
October 2017: Revista Brasileira de Hematologia e Hemoterapia
Alessandro Da Ponte, Nicola Giovanelli, Guglielmo Antonutto, Daniele Nigris, Francesco Curcio, Pietro Cortese, Stefano Lazzer
The aim of the study was to evaluate changes in cardiac troponin I levels (cTnI) and the main biomarkers of skeletal muscle damage after an uphill-only marathon, along with its relationship with athletes' physiological parameters. Twenty-two runners participated in the "Supermaratona dell'Etna" (43 km, 0-2850 m AMSL). Before and immediately after the race, body mass and hydration status were measured together with blood sampling. At the end of the race, mean cTnI increased significantly in all athletes (mean +900%), and in 52% of them the cTnI values were over the normal range...
January 2018: Research in Sports Medicine
Martin D Hoffman, Eric D B Goulet, Ronald J Maughan
Hydration guidelines found in the scientific and popular literature typically advise that body mass losses beyond 2% should be avoided during exercise. In this work, we demonstrate that these guidelines are not applicable to prolonged exercise of several hours where body mass loss does not reflect an equivalent loss of body water due to the effects of body mass change from substrate use, release of water bound with muscle and liver glycogen, and production of water during substrate metabolism. These effects on the body mass loss required to maintain body water balance are shown for a 161-km mountain ultramarathon running competition participant utilizing published data for the total energy cost, exogenous energy consumption and percentage from each fuel source, average participant body mass, and the extent of soft tissue fluid accumulation during an ultramarathon...
September 11, 2017: Sports Medicine
Catherine M Bulka, Sithembile L Mabila, James P Lash, Mary E Turyk, Maria Argos
INTRODUCTION: A commonly used approach to adjust for urine dilution in analyses of biomarkers is to adjust for urinary creatinine. However, creatinine is a product of muscle mass and is therefore associated with body mass. In studies of urinary analytes and obesity or obesity-related outcomes, controlling for creatinine could induce collider stratification bias. We illustrate this phenomenon with an analysis of urinary arsenic. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate various approaches of adjustment for urinary dilution on the associations between urinary arsenic concentration and measures of obesity...
August 28, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
Barbara Kuźnar-Kamińska, Marcin Grabicki, Tomasz Trafas, Monika Szulińska, Szczepan Cofta, Tomasz Piorunek, Beata Brajer-Luftmann, Agata Nowicka, Barbara Bromińska, Halina Batura-Gabryel
The aim of this study was to elucidate body composition, anthropometric indices, and hydration status in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients, taking into account different disease stages, gender, and the possibility of the presence of cachexia. There were 98 OSA patients and 23 control subjects enrolled into the study. All study participants underwent polysomnography examination. Body mass index (BMI), fat mass index (FMI), fat free mass, muscle mass, body cell mass, total body water, and extracellular and intracellular water were evaluated...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Clodagh M Toomey, William G McCormack, Phil Jakeman
PURPOSE: Athletes cycle between exercise and recovery. Exercise invokes changes in total body water from thermal sweating, muscle and hepatic glycogen depletion and metabolic water loss. Recovery from exercise results in rehydration, substrate repletion, and possible glycogen supercompensation. Such changes may corrupt the measurement of hydrated tissues, such as lean tissue mass (LTM), by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of exercise and thermal dehydration and subsequent glycogen supercompensation on DXA-based measurement of body composition...
March 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Kristoffer L Norheim, Christopher K Cullum, Jesper L Andersen, Michael Kjaer, Anders Karlsen
PURPOSE: Aging is associated with a gradual loss of muscle mass, which some have suggested to be accelerated by short periods of muscle disuse due to medical illness. We investigated the effect of hospitalization on skeletal muscle mass in acutely ill geriatric patients with focus on the relationship between systemic inflammatory marker C-reactive protein (CRP) and changes in muscle mass, as well as the influence of resistance training upon muscle mass. METHOD: Unilateral leg press resistance exercise was conducted daily during the hospital period...
June 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Matthew S Palmer, George J F Heigenhauser, MyLinh Duong, Lawrence L Spriet
This study determined whether mild dehydration influenced skeletal muscle glycogen use, core temperature or performance during high-intensity, intermittent cycle-based exercise in ice hockey players vs. staying hydrated with water. Eight males (21.6 ± 0.4 yr, 183.5 ± 1.6 cm, 83.9 ± 3.7 kg, 50.2 ± 1.9 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) performed two trials separated by 7 days. The protocol consisted of 3 periods (P) containing 10 × 45-s cycling bouts at ~133% VO2max, followed by 135 s of passive rest. Subjects drank no fluid and dehydrated during the protocol (NF), or maintained body mass by drinking WATER...
April 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Steve Malangone, Christopher J Campen
A 60-year-old man initially presented with pain in the right upper quadrant in October 2010. A computed tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen pelvis completed at that time showed a mass at the junction of the body and tail of the pancreas and multiple large liver lesions. A CT-guided liver biopsy revealed low-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma. The patient was initially started on systemic treatment with sunitinib (Sutent) and octreotide. He developed intolerable side effects, including nausea and migraine. Therapy was discontinued in October 2011, when a CT scan revealed evidence of disease progression...
November 2015: Journal of the Advanced Practitioner in Oncology
Timothy J Schultz, Peter Roupas, Richard Wiechula, Debra Krause, Susan Gravier, Anthony Tuckett, Sonia Hines, Alison Kitson
BACKGROUND: Optimizing body composition for healthy aging in the community is a significant challenge. There are a number of potential interventions available for older people to support both weight gain (for those who are underweight) and weight loss (for overweight or obese people). While the benefits of weight gain for underweight people are generally clearly defined, the value of weight loss in overweight or obese people is less clear, particularly for older people. OBJECTIVES: This umbrella review aimed to measure the effectiveness of nutritional interventions for optimizing healthy body composition in older adults living in the community and to explore theirqualitative perceptions...
August 2016: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
Giuseppe Sergi, Marina De Rui, Brendon Stubbs, Nicola Veronese, Enzo Manzato
The assessment of body composition has important applications in the evaluation of nutritional status and estimating potential health risks. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a valid method for the assessment of body composition. BIA is an alternative to more invasive and expensive methods like dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, computerized tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. Bioelectrical impedance analysis is an easy-to-use and low-cost method for the estimation of fat-free mass (FFM) in physiological and pathological conditions...
August 2017: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
Corinna Geisler, Wiebke Braun, Maryam Pourhassan, Lisa Schweitzer, Claus-Christian Glüer, Anja Bosy-Westphal, Manfred J Müller
Age-related changes in organ and tissue masses may add to changes in the relationship between resting energy expenditure (REE) and fat free mass (FFM) in normal and overweight healthy Caucasians. Secondary analysis using cross-sectional data of 714 healthy normal and overweight Caucasian subjects (age 18-83 years) with comprehensive information on FFM, organ and tissue masses (as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)), body density (as assessed by Air Displacement Plethysmography (ADP)) and hydration (as assessed by deuterium dilution (D₂O)) and REE (as assessed by indirect calorimetry)...
June 1, 2016: Nutrients
Douglas A Keen, Eleni Constantopoulos, John P Konhilas
BACKGROUND: Dehydration caused by prolonged exercise impairs thermoregulation, endurance and exercise performance. Evidence from animal and human studies validates the potential of desalinated deep-ocean mineral water to positively impact physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Here, we hypothesize that deep-ocean mineral water drawn from a depth of 915 m off the Kona, HI coast enhances recovery of hydration and exercise performance following a dehydrating exercise protocol compared to mountain spring water and a carbohydrate-based sports drink...
2016: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
Daniela Barbieri Hauschild, Eliana Barbosa, Emilia Addison Machado Moreira, Norberto Ludwig Neto, Vanessa Borges Platt, Eduardo Piacentini Filho, Elisabeth Wazlawik, Yara Maria Franco Moreno
BACKGROUND: (1) To compare nutrition and hydration status between a group of children/adolescents with cystic fibrosis (CFG; n = 46; median age, 8.5 years) and a control group without cystic fibrosis (CG). (2) To examine the association of nutrition and hydration status with lung function in the CFG. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study. Nutrition screening, anthropometric parameters, and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) were assessed. The z scores for body mass index for age, height for age, mid upper arm circumference, triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness, mid upper arm muscle area, resistance/height, and reactance/height were calculated...
June 2016: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
Martin Aedma, Saima Timpmann, Evelin Lätt, Vahur Ööpik
BACKGROUND: Creatine (CR) is considered an effective nutritional supplement having ergogenic effects, which appears more pronounced in upper-body compared to lower-body exercise. Nevertheless, results regarding the impact of CR loading on repeated high-intensity arm-cranking exercise are scarce and in some cases conflicting. Interestingly, few of the conducted studies have structured their research designs to mimic real world sporting events. Therefore, our purpose was to address the hypothesis that CR ingestion would increase anaerobic power output in consecutive upper-body intermittent sprint performance (UBISP) tests designed to simulate wrestling matches on a competition-day...
2015: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
Daniel A Baur, Christopher W Bach, William J Hyder, Michael J Ormsbee
PURPOSE: The primary purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of participation in a 3-day multistage ultraendurance triathlon (stage 1 = 10 km swim, 144.8 km bike; stage 2 = 275.4 km bike; stage 3 = 84.4 km run) on body mass and composition, hydration status, hormones, muscle damage, and blood glucose. METHODS: Eighteen triathletes (mean ± SD; age 41 ± 7.5 years; height 175 ± 9 cm; weight 73.5 ± 9.8 kg; male n = 14, female n = 4) were assessed before and after each stage of the race...
March 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Aritz Urdampilleta, Juan Mielgo-Ayuso, Jara Valtueña, Francis Holway, Alfredo Cordova
INTRODUCTION: there is hardly any reference in scientific literature regarding anthropometric characteristics, body composition and somatotype of hand Basque pelota players (pelotaris). OBJECTIVES: the aim of this research was to analyze and compare the anthropometry features and body composition of professional pelotaris and under-23 (U23) pelotaris, to create an anthropometric profile of this sport. METHODS: the participants were ten U23 pelotaris, and eight professional pelotaris...
November 1, 2015: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
Damien Vitiello, Francis Degache, Jonas J Saugy, Nicolas Place, Federico Schena, Grégoire P Millet
BACKGROUND: Studies have recently focused on the effect of running a mountain ultra-marathon (MUM) and their results show muscular inflammation, damage and force loss. However, the link between peripheral oedema and muscle force loss is not really established. We tested the hypothesis that, after a MUM, lower leg muscles' swelling could be associated with muscle force loss. The knee extensor (KE) and the plantar flexor (PF) muscles' contractile function was measured by supramaximal electrical stimulations, potentiated low- and high-frequency doublets (PS10 and PS100) of the KE and the PF were measured by transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and bioimpedance was used to assess body composition in the runners (n = 11) before (Pre) and after (Post) the MUM and compared with the controls (n = 8)...
2015: Extreme Physiology & Medicine
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