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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886394/challenging-fat-talk-an-experimental-investigation-of-reactions-to-body-disparaging-conversations
#1
Suman Ambwani, Megan Baumgardner, Cai Guo, Lea Simms, Emily Abromowitz
Although "fat talk" is associated with increased eating disorder risk, the predictors of fat talk engagement and viable alternatives to these pervasive conversations remain unclear. The current experiment examined responses to fat talk versus feminist-oriented challenging fat talk scenarios. Undergraduate women (N=283) completed baseline questionnaires assessing body dissatisfaction, fat talk engagement, and positive impression management. One week later, they were randomized to view one of the two scenarios, followed by assessment of mood, fat talk engagement, social acceptability, and social likeability...
September 5, 2017: Body Image
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871526/feasibility-and-acceptability-of-a-prevention-program-for-eating-disorders-me-you-and-us-adapted-for-young-adolescents-in-korea
#2
Gi Young Lee, Eun Jin Park, Youl-Ri Kim, Kyung Hwa Kwag, Jin Hong Park, So Hyun An, Ji Hyun Lee, Jeong Hun Sim, Janet Treasure
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess the adaptability and acceptability of a prevention program. METHODS: A total of 169 Korean students (83 boys and 86 girls) with a mean age of 12.3 years from a 6th grade class at an elementary school participated in the study. Mental health social workers delivered Me, You and Us, a school-based body image intervention program originally developed in the UK, through a set of six sessions. The participants were assessed in terms of their body satisfaction and self-esteem before the program, after the program, and at 1-month follow-up...
September 4, 2017: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866834/insulin-and-osteocalcin-further-evidence-for-a-mutual-cross-talk
#3
Francesco L Bilotta, Biagio Arcidiacono, Sebastiano Messineo, Marta Greco, Eusebio Chiefari, Domenico Britti, Tomoko Nakanishi, Daniela P Foti, Antonio Brunetti
PURPOSE: In the last few years, bone has been recognized as an endocrine organ that modulates glucose metabolism by secretion of osteocalcin, an osteoblast-specific hormone, that influences fat deposition and blood sugar levels. To date, however, very few in vitro models have been developed to investigate, at the molecular levels, the relationship between glucose, insulin and osteocalcin. This study aims at covering this gap. METHODS: We studied osteogenic differentiation, osteocalcin gene expression, and osteblast-mediated insulin secretion, using cultured MG-63 human osteoblast-like cells that underwent glucotoxicity and insulin resistance...
September 2, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801668/exercise-leads-to-unfavourable-cardiac-remodelling-and-enhanced-metabolic-homeostasis-in-obese-mice-with-cardiac-and-skeletal-muscle-autophagy-deficiency
#4
Zhen Yan, Ana Kronemberger, Jay Blomme, Jarrod A Call, Hannah M Caster, Renata O Pereira, Henan Zhao, Vitor U de Melo, Rhianna C Laker, Mei Zhang, Vitor A Lira
Autophagy is stimulated by exercise in several tissues; yet the role of skeletal and cardiac muscle-specific autophagy on the benefits of exercise training remains incompletely understood. Here, we determined the metabolic impact of exercise training in obese mice with cardiac and skeletal muscle disruption of the Autophagy related 7 gene (Atg7(h&mKO)). Muscle autophagy deficiency did not affect glucose clearance and exercise capacity in lean adult mice. High-fat diet in sedentary mice led to endoplasmic reticulum stress and aberrant mitochondrial protein expression in autophagy-deficient skeletal and cardiac muscles...
August 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726981/triennial-growth-and-development-symposium-factors-influencing-bovine-intramuscular-adipose-tissue-development-and-cellularity
#5
E Albrecht, L Schering, Y Liu, K Komolka, C Kühn, K Wimmers, T Gotoh, S Maak
Appearance, distribution, and amount of intramuscular fat (IMF), often referred to as marbling, are highly variable and depend on environmental and genetic factors. On the molecular level, the concerted action of several drivers, including hormones, receptors, transcription factors, etc., determines where clusters of adipocytes arise. Therefore, the aim of future studies remains to identify such factors as biological markers of IMF to increase the ability to identify animals that deposit IMF early in age to increase efficiency of high-quality meat production...
May 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685613/highlights-of-the-san-antonio-breast-cancer-symposium-2016-part-2
#6
John R Benson, Ismail Jatoi
The 39th annual San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium (SABCS) was convened in San Antonio, Texas, on 9-13 December 2016. More than 7000 clinicians and scientists from around the world participated in the symposium which featured a range of presentations and keynote talks pertaining to breast cancer screening, prevention, locoregional and systemic therapies. This two-part report highlights a selection of important studies presented at this premier breast cancer event with Part 1 focusing onmetastatic breast cancer, extended endocrine therapy and the prognostic significance of BRCA1/2 gene mutations...
July 2017: Future Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664417/epicardial-adipose-tissue-at-the-heart-of-the-obesity-complications
#7
Valeria Guglielmi, Paolo Sbraccia
In recent years, the anatomic and functional contiguity of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) to myocardium and coronary arteries has gained increasing interest for its potential pathogenetic role in obesity-related cardiac diseases. Besides its known and attributed biochemical cardioprotective properties, it is becoming evident that, in metabolic disease states, EAT-secreted bioactive molecules may play an important role in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease and cardiac arrhythmias. EAT-derived inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxidative species may, indeed, play a part in the development of a local proatherogenic milieu by paracrine and vasocrine mechanisms of interaction...
June 29, 2017: Acta Diabetologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650276/highlights-of-the-san-antonio-breast-cancer-symposium-2016
#8
John R Benson, Ismail Jatoi
The 39th annual San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium (SABCS) was convened in San Antonio, Texas, on 9-13 December 2016. More than 7000 clinicians and scientists from around the world participated in the symposium which featured a range of presentations and keynote talks pertaining to breast cancer screening, prevention, locoregional and systemic therapies. This two-part report highlights a selection of important studies presented at this premier breast cancer event with Part 1 focusing onmetastatic breast cancer, extended endocrine therapy and the prognostic significance of BRCA1/2 gene mutations...
June 2017: Future Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598954/role-of-the-sympathetic-nervous-system-in-regulation-of-the-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2
#9
Vance B Matthews, Rosemary H Elliot, Caroline Rudnicka, Jana Hricova, Lakshini Herat, Markus P Schlaich
BACKGROUND: The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) regulates glucose metabolism in various organs including the kidneys. The sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) mediates glucose reabsorption in renal proximal tubules and its inhibition has been shown to improve glucose control, cardiovascular and renal outcomes. We hypothesized that SNS-induced alterations of glucose metabolism may be mediated via regulation of SGLT2. METHOD: We used human renal proximal tubule cells to investigate the effects of noradrenaline on SGLT2 regulation...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572512/deletion-of-interleukin-1-receptor-associated-kinase-1-irak1-improves-glucose-tolerance-primarily-by-increasing-insulin-sensitivity-in-skeletal-muscle
#10
Xiao-Jian Sun, Soohyun Park Kim, Dongming Zhang, Helen Sun, Qi Cao, Xin Lu, Zhekang Ying, Liwu Li, Robert R Henry, Theodore P Ciaraldi, Simeon I Taylor, Michael J Quon
Chronic inflammation may contribute to insulin resistance via molecular cross-talk between pathways for pro-inflammatory and insulin signaling. Interleukin 1 receptor-associated kinase 1 (IRAK-1) mediates pro-inflammatory signaling via IL-1 receptor/Toll-like receptors, which may contribute to insulin resistance, but this hypothesis is untested. Here, we used male Irak1 null (k/o) mice to investigate the metabolic role of IRAK-1. C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) and k/o mice had comparable body weights on low-fat and high-fat diets (LFD and HFD, respectively)...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566533/brown-adipose-tissue-is-associated-with-systemic-concentrations-of-peptides-secreted-from-the-gastrointestinal-system-and-involved-in-appetite-regulation
#11
Maria Chondronikola, Craig Porter, Ioannis Malagaris, Aikaterini A Nella, Labros S Sidossis
OBJECTIVE: Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has been proposed as a potential therapeutic target against obesity and its related metabolic conditions. Data from studies in rodents support a cross talk between BAT and other distal tissues. The relation between BAT and peptide hormones secreted from the gastrointestinal system (GI) and involved in appetite regulation is not known in humans. DESIGN: We studied 18 men during thermoneutral conditions and mild non-shivering cold exposure (CE)...
July 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468951/insulin-resistance-promotes-lysyl-oxidase-like-2-induction-and-fibrosis-accumulation-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#12
Paola Dongiovanni, Marica Meroni, Guido Alessandro Baselli, Giulia Alessandra Bassani, Raffaela Rametta, Alessandro Pietrelli, Marco Maggioni, Federica Facciotti, Valentina Trunzo, Sara Badiali, Silvia Fargion, Stefano Gatti, Luca Valenti
In patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), insulin resistance (IR) associates with fibrosis progression independently of the hepatic inflammation, but the mechanisms are still unclear. We modeled the independent contribution of inflammation (non-alcoholic steatohepatitis: NASH) by exploiting the methionine-choline deficient (MCD) diet, and that of IR by insulin receptor (InsR) haploinsufficiency (InsR+/-) in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis in C57BL/6 mice. We confirmed the study findings in 96 patients with NAFLD...
June 1, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396530/downregulation-of-plzf-gene-ameliorates-metabolic-and-cardiac-traits-in-the-spontaneously-hypertensive-rat
#13
František Liška, Vladimír Landa, Václav Zídek, Petr Mlejnek, Jan Šilhavý, Miroslava Šimáková, Hynek Strnad, Jaroslava Trnovská, Vojtěch Škop, Ludmila Kazdová, Colby G Starker, Daniel F Voytas, Zsuzsanna Izsvák, Massimiliano Mancini, Ondřej Šeda, Vladimír Křen, Michal Pravenec
The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), one of the most widely used model of essential hypertension, is predisposed to left ventricular hypertrophy, myocardial fibrosis, and metabolic disturbances. Recently, quantitative trait loci influencing blood pressure, left ventricular mass, and heart interstitial fibrosis were genetically isolated within a minimal congenic subline that contains only 7 genes, including mutant Plzf (promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger) candidate gene. To identify Plzf as a quantitative trait gene, we targeted Plzf in the SHR using the transcription activator-like effector nuclease technique and obtained SHR line harboring targeted Plzf gene with a premature stop codon...
June 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362001/cross-talk-among-metabolic-parameters-esophageal-microbiota-and-host-gene-expression-following-chronic-exposure-to-an-obesogenic-diet
#14
Nadeem O Kaakoush, Virginie Lecomte, Christopher A Maloney, Margaret J Morris
Unhealthy diets, and ensuing weight gain, predispose individuals to the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma. We examined the effect of chronic high fat diet (HFD) on the esophageal microbiota of Sprague Dawley rats using Illumina MiSeq amplicon sequencing (V4, 515 F/806 R) and on esophageal expression of IL18, PTGS2, PPARA, FFAR3, and CRAT. The relationships among metabolic parameters, esophageal microbiota, and host gene expression were determined. We observed a significant difference between the upper and lower esophageal microbiota in control fed rats, emphasized by enrichment of Lactobacillus species in the lower esophagus...
March 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289278/cafeteria-diet-and-probiotic-therapy-cross-talk-among-memory-neuroplasticity-serotonin-receptors-and-gut-microbiota-in-the-rat
#15
J E Beilharz, N O Kaakoush, J Maniam, M J Morris
The western diet is known to have detrimental effects on cognition and the gut microbiota, but few studies have investigated how these may be related. Here, we examined whether a probiotic could prevent diet-induced memory deficits. Rats were pre-exposed to vehicle, low or high doses of VSL#3 for 2 weeks before half were switched from chow to a cafeteria diet (Caf) for 25 days; VSL#3 treatment continued until death. High-dose VSL#3 prevented the diet-induced memory deficits on the hippocampal-dependent place task, but the probiotic caused deficits on the perirhinal-dependent object task, irrespective of diet or dose...
March 14, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251935/dietary-quality-changes-in-response-to-a-sugar-sweetened-beverage-reduction-intervention-results-from-the-talking-health-randomized-controlled-clinical-trial
#16
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Valisa E Hedrick, Brenda M Davy, Wen You, Kathleen J Porter, Paul A Estabrooks, Jamie M Zoellner
Background: The reduction of sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake may be beneficial for weight management and other related health conditions; however, to our knowledge, no data exist regarding the spontaneous changes in other dietary components or the overall dietary quality after an SSB-reduction intervention.Objectives: We explored longitudinal changes within and between an SSB-reduction intervention (SIPsmartER) and a physical activity intervention (MoveMore) with respect to spontaneous changes in 1) energy intake and macronutrients and micronutrients, 2) dietary quality [Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI)], and 3) beverage categories...
April 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191635/the-role-of-epicardial-adipose-tissue-in-cardiac-biology-classic-concepts-and-emerging-roles
#17
Alexios S Antonopoulos, Charalambos Antoniades
Classic concepts about the role of epicardial adipose tissue (EpAT) in heart physiology include its role in cardiac metabolism, mechanical protection of coronaries, innervation and possibly cryoprotection of the heart too. Nevertheless, recent evidence has revealed that epicardial adipose tissue regulates multiple aspects of cardiac biology including myocardial redox state, intracellular Ca(2+) cycling, the electrophysiological and contractile properties of cardiomyocytes, cardiac fibrosis as well as coronary atherosclerosis progression...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161660/everyone-else-is-doing-it-i-think-the-power-of-perception-in-fat-talk
#18
Courtney B Rogers, Denise M Martz, Rose Mary Webb, Amy T Galloway
Fat talk (FT) involves critiquing one's own appearance in social conversations. Although peers are known to prompt FT behavior, there has been little exploration of the influence of mothers and research has not distinguished between self-reported FT and perceptions of FT. This study addresses this research gap by investigating the relationships between participants' FT and corresponding FT of both self-reported and perceived FT of their mothers and friends. A sample of 120 undergraduate women, along with their mothers and friends, reported their FT behavior...
March 2017: Body Image
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148268/mesenchymal-stem-cells-key-players-in-cancer-progression
#19
REVIEW
Sarah M Ridge, Francis J Sullivan, Sharon A Glynn
Tumour progression is dependent on the interaction between tumour cells and cells of the surrounding microenvironment. The tumour is a dynamic milieu consisting of various cell types such as endothelial cells, fibroblasts, cells of the immune system and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). MSCs are multipotent stromal cells that are known to reside in various areas such as the bone marrow, fat and dental pulp. MSCs have been found to migrate towards inflammatory sites and studies have shown that they also migrate towards and incorporate into the tumour...
February 1, 2017: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096344/atrial-natriuretic-peptide-regulates-adipose-tissue-accumulation-in-adult-atria
#20
Nadine Suffee, Thomas Moore-Morris, Patrick Farahmand, Catherine Rücker-Martin, Gilles Dilanian, Magali Fradet, Daigo Sawaki, Geneviève Derumeaux, Pascal LePrince, Karine Clément, Isabelle Dugail, Michel Puceat, Stéphane N Hatem
The abundance of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is associated with atrial fibrillation (AF), the most frequent cardiac arrhythmia. However, both the origin and the factors involved in EAT expansion are unknown. Here, we found that adult human atrial epicardial cells were highly adipogenic through an epithelial-mesenchymal transition both in vitro and in vivo. In a genetic lineage tracing the WT1(CreERT2+/-)Rosa(tdT+/-) mouse model subjected to a high-fat diet, adipocytes of atrial EAT derived from a subset of epicardial progenitors...
January 31, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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