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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749029/rac1-muscle-knockout-exacerbates-the-detrimental-effect-of-high-fat-diet-on-insulin-stimulated-muscle-glucose-uptake-independently-of-akt
#1
Steffen H Raun, Mona Ali, Rasmus Kjøbsted, Lisbeth L V Møller, Morten A Federspiel, Erik A Richter, Thomas E Jensen, Lykke Sylow
KEY POINTS: The actin cytoskeleton regulating GTPase, Rac1, is a novel player in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in muscle in vivo. High-fat diet (HFD) exacerbates muscle insulin resistance in Rac1 muscle knockout (mKO) mice. Muscle Rac1 KO protects against HFD-induced insulin resistance in fat tissue indicating tissue cross-talk. A fatty diet markedly reduces insulin clearance in mice. ABSTRACT: Insulin resistance and perturbations in glucose metabolism underpin common lifestyle diseases such as type 2 diabetes and obesity...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744298/the-involvement-of-4-1bb-4-1bbl-signaling-in-glial-cell-mediated-hypothalamic-inflammation-in-obesity
#2
Jiye Kim, Yoon-Hee Kwon, Chu-Sook Kim, Thai H Tu, Byung-Sam Kim, Yeonsoo Joe, Hun T Chung, Tsuyoshi Goto, Teruo Kawada, Taesun Park, Myung-Sook Choi, Min-Seon Kim, Rina Yu
Obesity-induced inflammation occurs not only in peripheral tissues but also in areas of the central nervous system. Glial cells such as astrocytes and microglia play crucial roles in obesity-related hypothalamic inflammation, leading to the derangement of energy metabolism and neurodegenerative pathologies. Here, we show that the interaction of 4-1BB/4-1BBL between lipid-laden astrocytes/microglia promotes hypothalamic inflammation in obesity. Stimulation of 4-1BB, a member of the TNF receptor superfamily, and/or its ligand 4-1BBL on astrocytes and/or microglia with a specific agonist resulted in activation of the inflammatory signaling pathway and enhanced production of inflammatory mediators...
May 2018: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720948/the-oxygen-consumption-and-metabolic-cost-of-walking-and-running-in-adults-with-achondroplasia
#3
David T Sims, Gladys L Onambélé-Pearson, Adrian Burden, Carl Payton, Christopher I Morse
The disproportionate body mass and leg length of Achondroplasic individuals may affect their net oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]O2 ) and metabolic cost (C) when walking at running compared to those of average stature (controls). The aim of this study was to measure submaximal [Formula: see text]O2 and C during a range of set walking speeds (SWS; 0.56 - 1.94 m⋅s-1 , increment 0.28 m⋅s-1 ), set running speeds (SRS; 1.67 - 3.33 m⋅s-1 , increment 0.28 m⋅s-1 ) and a self-selected walking speed (SSW)...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695257/comparative-omics-and-feeding-manipulations-in-chicken-indicate-a-shift-of-the-endocrine-role-of-visceral-fat-towards-reproduction
#4
Susanne Bornelöv, Eyal Seroussi, Sara Yosefi, Sharon Benjamini, Shoval Miyara, Mark Ruzal, Manfred Grabherr, Nima Rafati, Anna-Maja Molin, Ken Pendavis, Shane C Burgess, Leif Andersson, Miriam Friedman-Einat
BACKGROUND: The mammalian adipose tissue plays a central role in energy-balance control, whereas the avian visceral fat hardly expresses leptin, the key adipokine in mammals. Therefore, to assess the endocrine role of adipose tissue in birds, we compared the transcriptome and proteome between two metabolically different types of chickens, broilers and layers, bred towards efficient meat and egg production, respectively. RESULTS: Broilers and layer hens, grown up to sexual maturation under free-feeding conditions, differed 4...
April 26, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692363/jak-tgf%C3%AE-cross-talk-links-transient-adipose-tissue-inflammation-to-beige-adipogenesis
#5
Rohollah Babaei, Maximilian Schuster, Irina Meln, Sarah Lerch, Rayane A Ghandour, Didier F Pisani, Irem Bayindir-Buchhalter, Julia Marx, Shuang Wu, Gabriele Schoiswohl, Adrian T Billeter, Damir Krunic, Jan Mauer, Yun-Hee Lee, James G Granneman, Lars Fischer, Beat P Müller-Stich, Ez-Zoubir Amri, Erin E Kershaw, Mathias Heikenwälder, Stephan Herzig, Alexandros Vegiopoulos
The transient activation of inflammatory networks is required for adipose tissue remodeling including the "browning" of white fat in response to stimuli such as β3-adrenergic receptor activation. In this process, white adipose tissue acquires thermogenic characteristics through the recruitment of so-called beige adipocytes. We investigated the downstream signaling pathways impinging on adipocyte progenitors that promote de novo formation of adipocytes. We showed that the Jak family of kinases controlled TGFβ signaling in the adipose tissue microenvironment through Stat3 and thereby adipogenic commitment, a function that was required for beige adipocyte differentiation of murine and human progenitors...
April 24, 2018: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675684/the-role-of-epicardial-fat-in-pericardial-diseases
#6
REVIEW
George Lazaros, Alexios Antonopoulos, Charalambos Antoniades, Dimitris Tousoulis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite the recent advancements in diagnostic modalities and therapeutic options available, the pathophysiology of pericardial syndromes remains poorly understood. In this review article, we explore the possible links between cardiac adiposity and pericardial syndromes. RECENT FINDINGS: Over the last years, the notion of cardiac adipose tissue has radically changed, and its pivotal role in myocardial diseases has been acknowledged. Recent evidence suggests a cross-talk between epicardial fat and the heart...
April 19, 2018: Current Cardiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667441/long-term-consumption-of-western-diet-contributes-to-endothelial-dysfunction-and-aortic-remodeling-in-rats-implication-of-rho-kinase-signaling
#7
Rania A Elrashidy, Jing Zhang, Guiming Liu
Western diet (WD), rich in saturated fat and sugars, has become a risk factor for obesity and metabolic syndrome, however, its effect on endothelial function and vascular remodeling is not fully elucidated. Recent evidence suggests cross-talk between Rho kinase (ROCK) pathway and cardiovascular system. We aimed to investigate the effect of WD on aortic remodeling and the contribution of ROCK signaling. Eight week old male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either standard chow diet (SD) or high fructose/ high-fat diet, typically as in WD...
April 18, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649516/-mom-quit-fat-talking-i-m-trying-to-eat-mindfully-here-evaluating-a-sociocultural-model-of-family-fat-talk-positive-body-image-and-mindful-eating-in-college-women
#8
Jennifer B Webb, Courtney B Rogers, Lena Etzel, Meagan P Padro
A growing evidence base confirms sociocultural theory's predictions regarding the influence of direct exposure to family factors (e.g., parental commentary) in promoting disordered eating behavior as mediated by negative body image. Nevertheless, this model has not been specifically applied to investigating indirect or vicarious exposure to family communications (e.g., negative body talk) in estimating mindful eating behavior via positive body image intervening variables. Therefore, to address this gap the present study provided a preliminary evaluation of the indirect effects of overhearing family fat talk through both body appreciation and functional body appreciation in predicting mindful eating among undergraduate females...
April 9, 2018: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622163/chlamydia-and-lipids-engage-a-common-signaling-pathway-that-promotes-atherogenesis
#9
Shuang Chen, Kenichi Shimada, Timothy R Crother, Ebru Erbay, Prediman K Shah, Moshe Arditi
BACKGROUND: Recent studies indicate that Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) signaling promote the development of high fat diet-induced atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic mice. OBJECTIVES: The authors investigated the role of TLR4/MyD88 signaling in hematopoietic and stromal cells in the development and infection-mediated acceleration of atherosclerosis. METHODS: The authors generated bone marrow chimeras between wild-type and Tlr4-/- mice, as well as wild-type and Myd88-/- mice...
April 10, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606304/fibroblast-growth-factor-23-is-associated-with-adiposity-in-patients-receiving-hemodialysis-possible-cross-talk-between-bone-and-adipose-tissue
#10
Janet M Chiang, George A Kaysen, Anne L Schafer, Cynthia Delgado, Kirsten L Johansen
OBJECTIVE: Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) may be involved in signaling between bone and adipose tissue in dialysis patients, but its role is uncertain. We sought to examine the association between FGF-23 and adiposity and whether this association is mediated in part by leptin. DESIGN/SETTING: We performed univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses using data from 611 participants in a cohort of prevalent hemodialysis patients recruited from dialysis centers in Atlanta, GA and San Francisco, CA from 2009 to 2011...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Renal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581366/cardiovascular-and-metabolic-heterogeneity-of-obesity-clinical-challenges-and-implications-for-management
#11
REVIEW
Ian J Neeland, Paul Poirier, Jean-Pierre Després
The prevalence of obesity has increased globally over the last 2 decades. Although the body mass index has been a convenient and simple index of obesity at the population level, studies have shown that obesity defined by body mass index alone is a remarkably heterogeneous condition with varying cardiovascular and metabolic manifestations across individuals. Adipose tissue is an exquisitely active metabolic organ engaged in cross-talk between various systems; perturbation of adipose tissue results in a pathological response to positive caloric balance in susceptible individuals that directly and indirectly contributes to cardiovascular and metabolic disease...
March 27, 2018: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559925/agouti-signaling-protein-and-its-receptors-as-potential-molecular-markers-for-intramuscular-and-body-fat-deposition-in-cattle
#12
Yinuo Liu, Elke Albrecht, Lisa Schering, Christa Kuehn, Runjun Yang, Zhihui Zhao, Steffen Maak
Transcriptome analyses of bovine muscle tissue differing in intramuscular fat (IMF) content identified agouti signaling protein (ASIP) as a promising candidate gene for fat deposition. The protein is secreted from adipocytes and may serve as a signaling molecule in cross-talk between adipocytes and muscle fibers or other cells. Known receptors for ASIP are the melanocortin receptors (e.g., MC4R) and attractin (ATRN). The present study was conducted to determine relationships between the expression of ASIP and its receptors in different bovine tissues with fat deposition...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29542177/associations-of-parents-self-child-and-other-fat-talk-with-child-eating-behaviors-and-weight
#13
Janet A Lydecker, Kristen E Riley, Carlos M Grilo
OBJECTIVE: Fat talk, negative communication about weight, is common in the media, peer groups, and families. Little is known about parental fat talk directed at oneself or others. This study examined associations between different forms of parental fat talk and child disordered eating behaviors and weight, and differences by child sex and age. METHOD: Parents of preadolescents or adolescents (n = 581) reported fat talk about themselves (self-fat talk), others (obesity-fat talk), and their child (child-fat talk)...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523089/effect-of-whole-body-electromyostimulation-and-or-protein-supplementation-on-obesity-and-cardiometabolic-risk-in-older-men-with-sarcopenic-obesity-the-randomized-controlled-franso-trial
#14
Wolfgang Kemmler, Matthias Kohl, Ellen Freiberger, Cornel Sieber, Simon von Stengel
BACKGROUND: Sarcopenic Obesity (SO) is characterized by low lean and high fat mass; i.e. from a functional aspect a disproportion between engine (muscle) and mass to be moved (fat). At present, most research focuses on the engine, but the close "cross talk" between age-associated adipose and skeletal muscle tissue inflammation calls for comprehensive interventions that affect both components alike. Protein and exercise are likely candidates, however with respect to the latter, the enthusiasm for intense and frequent exercise is rather low, especially in functionally limited older people...
March 9, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501838/adipose-tissue-extrinsic-factor-obesity-induced-inflammation-and-the-role-of-the-visceral-lymph-node
#15
REVIEW
Aaron M Magnuson, Josephine K Fouts, Daniel P Regan, Andrea D Booth, Steve W Dow, Michelle T Foster
Obesity-related adverse health consequences occur predominately in individuals with upper body fat distribution commonly associated with increased central adiposity. Visceral adipose tissue accumulation is described to be the greatest driver of obesity-induced inflammation, however evidence also supports that the intestines fundamentally contribute to the development of obesity-induced metabolic disease. The visceral adipose depot shares the same vasculature and lymph drainage as the small intestine. We hypothesize that the visceral lymph node, which drains adipose tissue and the gastrointestinal tract, is central to the exacerbation of systemic pro-inflammation...
June 1, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465256/managing-anti-fat-stigma-in-primary-care-an-observational-study
#16
Patricia Thille
In many wealthy countries, fatness is stigmatized as a sign of personal failure. Health care interactions can enact fat-related stigmatization, which can worsen health outcomes. The present analysis highlights how stigmatizing discourses about fat bodies emerge in primary care appointments, and examines immediate conversational effects. METHODS: Observational study in three primary care clinics in Canada, using conversation and discourse analytic methods on transcripts of 29 audio-recorded appointments with adults...
February 21, 2018: Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412438/the-vicious-cycle-of-myostatin-signaling-in-sarcopenic-obesity-myostatin-role-in-skeletal-muscle-growth-insulin-signaling-and-implications-for-clinical-trials
#17
REVIEW
L A Consitt, B C Clark
The age-related loss of skeletal muscle (sarcopenia) is a major health concern as it is associated with physical disability, metabolic impairments, and increased mortality. The coexistence of sarcopenia with obesity, termed 'sarcopenic obesity', contributes to skeletal muscle insulin resistance and the development of type 2 diabetes, a disease prevalent with advancing age. Despite this knowledge, the mechanisms contributing to sarcopenic obesity remain poorly understood, preventing the development of targeted therapeutics...
2018: Journal of Frailty & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378767/perilipin-5-deletion-unmasks-an-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-fibroblast-growth-factor-21-axis-in-skeletal-muscle
#18
Magdalene K Montgomery, Ruzaidi Mokhtar, Jacqueline Bayliss, Helena C Parkington, Victor M Suturin, Clinton R Bruce, Matthew J Watt
Lipid droplets (LDs) are critical for the regulation of lipid metabolism, and dysregulated lipid metabolism contributes to the pathogenesis of several diseases, including type 2 diabetes. We generated mice with muscle-specific deletion of the LD-associated protein perilipin 5 (PLIN5, Plin5MKO ) and investigated PLIN5's role in regulating skeletal muscle lipid metabolism, intracellular signaling, and whole-body metabolic homeostasis. High-fat feeding induced changes in muscle lipid metabolism of Plin5MKO mice, which included increased fatty acid oxidation and oxidative stress but, surprisingly, a reduction in inflammation and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress...
April 2018: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340906/an-exploratory-study-on-the-intergenerational-transmission-of-obesity-and-dieting-proneness
#19
Elizabeth A Claydon, Keith J Zullig, Christa L Lilly, Stephanie C Zerwas, Danielle M Davidov, Lesley Cottrell, Marney A White
PURPOSE: There is a paucity of research exploring individuals' memories of parental dieting behavior, engagement in "fat talk", or criticism of weight or eating behavior in childhood. This exploratory study utilized a community sample to further characterize the retrospective report of parenting dieting behavior. METHODS: A total of 507 participants (78.1% females; 20.7% males; and 1.2% transgender) were recruited to participate in an online, self-administered survey...
January 16, 2018: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318960/the-role-of-inflammation-in-epicardial-adipose-tissue-in-heart-diseases
#20
Zdenek Matloch, Anna Cinkajzlova, Milos Mraze, Martin Haluzik
Epicardial adipose tissue is not only a specific adipose tissue depot but also an active endocrine organ producing numerous substances with an important role in the development of obesity-related heart diseases. It is located between myocardium and visceral pericardium and consists predominantly of adipocytes, immunocompetent cells, ganglia and interconnecting nerve branches. Several studies documented a positive correlation between pericardial and epicardial fat and left ventricular hypertrophy and septal thickening, leading to diastolic dysfunction, electrocardiographic abnormalities and facilitating cardiac failure...
January 9, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
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