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Fat talk

Janet A Lydecker, Kristen E Riley, Carlos M Grilo
OBJECTIVE: Fat talk, negative communication about weight, is common in the media, peer groups, and families. Little is known about parental fat talk directed at oneself or others. This study examined associations between different forms of parental fat talk and child disordered eating behaviors and weight, and differences by child sex and age. METHOD: Parents of preadolescents or adolescents (n = 581) reported fat talk about themselves (self-fat talk), others (obesity-fat talk), and their child (child-fat talk)...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Eating Disorders
Wolfgang Kemmler, Matthias Kohl, Ellen Freiberger, Cornel Sieber, Simon von Stengel
BACKGROUND: Sarcopenic Obesity (SO) is characterized by low lean and high fat mass; i.e. from a functional aspect a disproportion between engine (muscle) and mass to be moved (fat). At present, most research focuses on the engine, but the close "cross talk" between age-associated adipose and skeletal muscle tissue inflammation calls for comprehensive interventions that affect both components alike. Protein and exercise are likely candidates, however with respect to the latter, the enthusiasm for intense and frequent exercise is rather low, especially in functionally limited older people...
March 9, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
Aaron M Magnuson, Josephine K Fouts, Daniel P Regan, Andrea D Booth, Steve W Dow, Michelle T Foster
Obesity-related adverse health consequences occur predominately in individuals with upper body fat distribution commonly associated with increased central adiposity. Visceral adipose tissue accumulation is described to be the greatest driver of obesity-induced inflammation, however evidence also supports that the intestines fundamentally contribute to the development of obesity-induced metabolic disease. The visceral adipose depot shares the same vasculature and lymph drainage as the small intestine. We hypothesize that the visceral lymph node, which drains adipose tissue and the gastrointestinal tract, is central to the exacerbation of systemic pro-inflammation...
March 1, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Patricia Thille
In many wealthy countries, fatness is stigmatized as a sign of personal failure. Health care interactions can enact fat-related stigmatization, which can worsen health outcomes. The present analysis highlights how stigmatizing discourses about fat bodies emerge in primary care appointments, and examines immediate conversational effects. METHODS: Observational study in three primary care clinics in Canada, using conversation and discourse analytic methods on transcripts of 29 audio-recorded appointments with adults...
February 21, 2018: Health Communication
L A Consitt, B C Clark
The age-related loss of skeletal muscle (sarcopenia) is a major health concern as it is associated with physical disability, metabolic impairments, and increased mortality. The coexistence of sarcopenia with obesity, termed 'sarcopenic obesity', contributes to skeletal muscle insulin resistance and the development of type 2 diabetes, a disease prevalent with advancing age. Despite this knowledge, the mechanisms contributing to sarcopenic obesity remain poorly understood, preventing the development of targeted therapeutics...
2018: Journal of Frailty & Aging
Magdalene K Montgomery, Ruzaidi Mokhtar, Jacqueline Bayliss, Helena C Parkington, Victor M Suturin, Clinton R Bruce, Matthew J Watt
Lipid droplets are critical for the regulation of lipid metabolism, and dysregulated lipid metabolism contributes to the pathogenesis of several diseases including type 2 diabetes. We generated mice with muscle-specific deletion of the lipid droplet-associated protein, perilipin 5 (PLIN5, Plin5MKO ), and investigated PLIN5's role in regulating skeletal muscle lipid metabolism, intracellular signalling and whole-body metabolic homeostasis. High-fat feeding induced changes in muscle lipid metabolism of Plin5MKO mice, which included increased fatty acid oxidation and oxidative stress, but surprisingly, a reduction in inflammation and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress...
January 29, 2018: Diabetes
Elizabeth A Claydon, Keith J Zullig, Christa L Lilly, Stephanie C Zerwas, Danielle M Davidov, Lesley Cottrell, Marney A White
PURPOSE: There is a paucity of research exploring individuals' memories of parental dieting behavior, engagement in "fat talk", or criticism of weight or eating behavior in childhood. This exploratory study utilized a community sample to further characterize the retrospective report of parenting dieting behavior. METHODS: A total of 507 participants (78.1% females; 20.7% males; and 1.2% transgender) were recruited to participate in an online, self-administered survey...
January 16, 2018: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
Zdenek Matloch, Anna Cinkajzlova, Milos Mraze, Martin Haluzik
Epicardial adipose tissue is not only a specific adipose tissue depot but also an active endocrine organ producing numerous substances with an important role in the development of obesity-related heart diseases. It is located between myocardium and visceral pericardium and consists predominantly of adipocytes, immunocompetent cells, ganglia and interconnecting nerve branches. Several studies documented a positive correlation between pericardial and epicardial fat and left ventricular hypertrophy and septal thickening, leading to diastolic dysfunction, electrocardiographic abnormalities and facilitating cardiac failure...
January 9, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Xiaojiao Zheng, Fengjie Huang, Aihua Zhao, Sha Lei, Yunjing Zhang, Guoxiang Xie, Tianlu Chen, Chun Qu, Cynthia Rajani, Bing Dong, Defa Li, Wei Jia
BACKGROUND: Intestinal bacteria are known to regulate bile acid (BA) homeostasis via intestinal biotransformation of BAs and stimulation of the expression of fibroblast growth factor 19 through intestinal nuclear farnesoid X receptor (FXR). On the other hand, BAs directly regulate the gut microbiota with their strong antimicrobial activities. It remains unclear, however, how mammalian BAs cross-talk with gut microbiome and shape microbial composition in a dynamic and interactive way. RESULTS: We quantitatively profiled small molecule metabolites derived from host-microbial co-metabolism in mice, demonstrating that BAs were the most significant factor correlated with microbial alterations among all types of endogenous metabolites...
December 14, 2017: BMC Biology
Yonggyun Kim, Shabbir Ahmed, David Stanley, Chunju An
Eicosanoid is a collective term for oxygenated metabolites of C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids. As seen in mammals, eicosanoids play crucial roles in mediating various physiological processes, including immune responses, in insects. Upon microbial pathogen infection, non-self recognition signals are propagated to nearly immune effectors such as hemocytes and fat body using various immune mediators, in which eicosanoid signals act as the ultimate downstream mediator. The chemical diversity of eicosanoids may operate to mediate various immune responses...
December 7, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Matteo Spinelli, Salvatore Fusco, Marco Mainardi, Federico Scala, Francesca Natale, Rosita Lapenta, Andrea Mattera, Marco Rinaudo, Domenica Donatella Li Puma, Cristian Ripoli, Alfonso Grassi, Marcello D'Ascenzo, Claudio Grassi
High-fat diet (HFD) and metabolic diseases cause detrimental effects on hippocampal synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory through molecular mechanisms still poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that HFD increases palmitic acid deposition in the hippocampus and induces hippocampal insulin resistance leading to FoxO3a-mediated overexpression of the palmitoyltransferase zDHHC3. The excess of palmitic acid along with higher zDHHC3 levels causes hyper-palmitoylation of AMPA glutamate receptor subunit GluA1, hindering its activity-dependent trafficking to the plasma membrane...
December 8, 2017: Nature Communications
Manju Kumari, Joerg Heeren, Ludger Scheja
Adipose tissue has emerged as a major player in driving obesity-related inflammatory response. In obesity, chronic infiltration of macrophages in adipose tissue mediates local and systemic inflammation and acts as a key contributor to insulin resistance. In the past few years, adipose tissue plasticity and remodeling capacity has been studied extensively to develop therapeutic targets to combat obesity and related metabolic dysfunction. Progress in understanding the potential of adipocytes and contribution of macrophages and other immune cells to control immunometabolism in disease state has provided us new potential intervention targets to explore such as the formation of heat-producing beige adipocytes in white adipose tissue and the polarization of macrophages from an inflammatory toward an anti-inflammatory phenotype...
February 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
Elena Dozio, Elena Passeri, Rosanna Cardani, Stefano Benedini, Carmen Aresta, Rea Valaperta, Massimiliano Corsi Romanelli, Giovanni Meola, Valeria Sansone, Sabrina Corbetta
Context: Myotonic dystrophies (DM) are dominantly inherited muscle disorders characterized by myotonia, muscle weakness, and wasting. The reasons for sarcopenia in DMs are uncleared and multiple factors are involved. Irisin, a positive hormone regulator of muscle growth and bone, may play a role. Objectives: To investigate (1) circulating irisin in a series of DM1 and DM2 male patients compared with healthy controls and (2) the relationships between irisin and anthropometric, metabolic and hormonal parameters...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Yves Deugnier, Édouard Bardou-Jacquet, Fabrice Lainé
Dysmetabolic iron overload syndrome (DIOS) corresponds to mild increase in both liver and body iron stores associated with various components of metabolic syndrome in the absence of any identifiable cause of iron excess. It is characterized by hyperferritinemia with normal or moderately increased transferrin saturation, one or several metabolic abnormalities (increased body mass index with android distribution of fat, elevated blood pressure, dyslipidaemia, abnormal glucose metabolism, steatohepatitis), and mild hepatic iron excess at magnetic resonance imaging or liver biopsy...
December 2017: La Presse Médicale
Valeria Guglielmi, Alfonso Bellia, Paolo Gentileschi, Mauro Lombardo, Monica D'Adamo, Davide Lauro, Paolo Sbraccia
PURPOSE: Increased parathyroid hormone (PTH) is commonly associated with obesity, and its role in the pathogenesis of obesity-related glucometabolic abnormalities is uncertain. We aimed to explore the relationships of PTH with glucose/insulin homeostasis parameters before and after bariatric surgery-induced weight loss, and whether they depend or not on 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) status. METHODS: We included 42 subjects (27 women, aged 40 ± 5 years, BMI 48...
November 22, 2017: Endocrine
Chong Man Chow, Holly Ruhl, Cin Cin Tan, Lilian Ellis
PURPOSE: This study examined whether engagement in negative body talk would moderate the association between fear of fat and restrained eating among female friend dyads. METHODS: Female friends (N pairs = 130) were recruited from a Midwestern university in the United States. The dyadic data were examined with an Actor-Partner Interdependence Model (APIM). RESULTS: Results showed that women's fear of fat was significantly related to their own restrained eating behaviors...
November 9, 2017: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
Alexander Corr, James Smith, Paul Baldock
Although the brain is well established as a master regulator of homeostasis in peripheral tissues, central regulation of bone mass represents a novel and rapidly expanding field of study. This review examines the current understanding of central regulation of the skeleton, exploring several of the key pathways connecting brain to bone and their implications both in mice and the clinical setting. Our understanding of central bone regulation has largely progressed through examination of skeletal responses downstream of nutrient regulatory pathways in the hypothalamus...
January 1, 2017: Toxicologic Pathology
Gabriella Garruti, Agostino Di Ciaula, Helen H Wang, David Q-H Wang, Piero Portincasa
Obesity is rapidly increasing and has reached epidemic features worldwide. It´s linked to insulin resistance, systemic low-grade inflammation and common pathogenic pathways with a number of comorbidities (including cancer), leading to high mortality rates. Besides change of lifestyles (diet and physical exercise) and pharmacological therapy, bariatric surgery is able to rapidly improve several metabolic and morphologic features associated with excessive fat storage, and currently represents an in vivo model to study the pathogenic mechanisms underlying obesity and obesity-related complications...
October 28, 2017: Annals of Hepatology
Haidong Wang, Guy Smagghe, Ivan Meeus
The Single von Willebrand factor C-domain proteins (SVCs) are a group of short proteins mainly found in arthropods. They are proposed to be responsive in relation to environmental challenges including the nutritional status, bacterial and viral infections. The SVC protein Vago acts as a cross-talk molecule between the small interfering RNA (siRNA) pathway and the Jak/STAT pathway upon viral infection in Drosophila melanogaster and Culex mosquito cells. Unlike flies and mosquitoes that possess diverse SVCs, most bee species only have one of which the function remains unclear...
October 23, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Luca Tucciarone, Usue Etxaniz, Martina Sandoná, Silvia Consalvi, Pier Lorenzo Puri, Valentina Saccone
Functional interactions between muscle (satellite) stem cells-MuSCs-and other cellular components of their niche (the fibro-adipogenic progenitors-FAPs) coordinate regeneration of injured as well as diseased skeletal muscles. These interactions are largely mediated by secretory networks, whose integrity is critical to determine whether repair occurs by compensatory regeneration leading to formation of new contractile fibers, or by maladaptive formation of fibrotic scars and fat infiltration. Here we provide the description of methods for isolation of FAPs and MuSCs from muscles of wild type and dystrophic mice, and protocols of cocultures as well as MuSC's exposure to FAP- derived exosomes...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
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