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Fat talk

U Smith, B B Kahn
Obesity, the major cause of the current global epidemic of type 2 diabetes (T2D), induces insulin resistance in peripheral insulin target tissues. Several mechanisms have been identified related to cross-talk between adipose tissue, skeletal muscle and liver. These mechanisms involve both increased free fatty acid release and altered secretion of adipokines from adipose tissue. A major determinant of metabolic health is the ability of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) to store excess fat rather than allowing it to accumulate in ectopic depots including liver (i...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Internal Medicine
Alexandra F Corning, Michaela M Bucchianeri
Two experiments tested the extent to which the believability of women's body statements (fat talk or self-affirming) depends on their body type (thin or overweight). Experiment 1 (N=130) revealed fat talk was more believable than self-affirming talk regardless of body type. Experiment 2's (N=125) results showed, as hypothesized, that overweight women's fat talk was significantly more believable than fat talk by thin women and self-affirming talk by either thin or overweight women. Consistent with Experiment 1, there was a trend in Experiment 2 toward thin women's fat talk being more believable than their self-affirming talk...
September 22, 2016: Body Image
Rodolphe Dusaulcy, Sandra Handgraaf, Svetlana Skarupelova, Florian Visentin, Christian Vesin, Mounia Heddad-Masson, Frank Reimann, Fiona Gribble, Jacques Philippe, Yvan Gosmain
Glucose homeostasis depends on the coordinated secretion of glucagon, insulin, and Glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 by pancreas and intestine. Obesity, which is associated with an increased risk of developing insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, affects the function of these organs. Here, we investigate the functional and molecular adaptations of proglucagon-producing cells in obese mice to better define their involvement in type 2 diabetes development. We used GLU-Venus transgenic male mice specifically expressing Venus fluorochrome in proglucagon-producing cells...
October 2016: Endocrinology
Shu-Wen Qian, Yan Liu, Jue Wang, Ji-Chan Nie, Meng-Yuan Wu, Yan Tang, Ya-Xin Zhao, Xi Li, Hai-Yan Huang, Liang Guo, Xi-Shi Liu, Cong-Jian Xu, Qi-Qun Tang
Similar to estrogens, bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) promotes the accumulation of more metabolically active subcutaneous fat and reduction of visceral fat. However, whether there is a cross-talk between BMP4 and estrogen signaling remained unknown. Herein, we found that BMP4 deficiency in white adipose tissue (WAT) increased the estrogen receptor α (ERα) level and its signaling, which prevented adult female mice from developing high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and insulin resistance; estrogens depletion up regulated BMP4 expression to overcome overt adiposity and impaired insulin sensitivity with aging, and failure of BMP4 regulation due to genetic knockout led to more fat gain in aged female mice...
September 2016: EBioMedicine
Kelvin H M Kwok, Kenneth K Y Cheng, Ruby L C Hoo, Dewei Ye, Aimin Xu, Karen S L Lam
Both atherosclerosis and obesity, an independent atherosclerotic risk factor, are associated with enhanced systemic inflammation. Obesity is also characterized by increased adipose tissue inflammation. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the accelerated atherosclerosis in obesity remains unclear. In obesity, activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) contributes to adipose tissue inflammation. The present study investigated whether the suppression of fat inflammation through adipose-specific JNK inactivation could protect against atherosclerosis in mice...
November 1, 2016: Clinical Science (1979-)
Jesper Lundbom, Alessandra Bierwagen, Kálmán Bodis, Julia Szendrödi, Jaakko Kaprio, Aila Rissanen, Nina Lundbom, Michael Roden, Kirsi H Pietiläinen
BACKGROUND: Obese twins have lower saturated and higher long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (FA) in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) compared to their lean monozygotic (MZ) co-twin. Whether this holds for metabolically distinct deep (DSAT) and superficial (SSAT) depots is unknown. Here we use non-invasive magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to measure the FA unsaturation in body mass index (BMI) discordant MZ twins in DSAT and SSAT and their relationship to ectopic fat content and body fat distribution...
September 2016: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Manuela Del Cornò, Massimo D'Archivio, Lucia Conti, Beatrice Scazzocchio, Rosaria Varì, Gloria Donninelli, Barbara Varano, Stefania Giammarioli, Simone De Meo, Gianfranco Silecchia, Francesco Pennestrì, Roberto Persiani, Roberta Masella, Sandra Gessani
Obesity is a low-grade chronic inflammatory state representing an important risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC). Adipocytes strongly contribute to inflammation by producing inflammatory mediators. In this study we investigated the role of human visceral fat adipocytes in regulating the functions of innate immunity cells. Adipocyte-conditioned media (ACM) from obese (n = 14) and CRC (lean, n = 14; obese, n = 13) subjects released higher levels of pro-inflammatory/immunoregulatory factors as compared to ACM from healthy lean subjects (n = 13)...
August 1, 2016: Oncotarget
Sebastiano Messineo, Anna Elisa Laria, Biagio Arcidiacono, Eusebio Chiefari, Raúl M Luque Huertas, Daniela P Foti, Antonio Brunetti
The architectural transcription factor high-mobility group AT-hook 1 (HMGA1) is a chromatin regulator with implications in several biological processes, including tumorigenesis, inflammation, and metabolism. Previous studies have indicated a role for this factor in promoting the early stages of adipogenesis, while inhibiting adipocyte terminal differentiation, and decreasing fat mass. It has been demonstrated that hypoxia - through the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) - plays a major role in triggering changes in the adipose tissue of the obese, leading to inhibition of adipocyte differentiation, adipose cell dysfunction, inflammation, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Yvonne Pasing, Sayda Colnoe, Terkel Hansen
In a comparative study we investigated the influence of nine sample preparation workflows and seven different lysis buffers for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the human adipose tissue proteome. Adipose tissue is not just a fat depot but also an endocrine organ, which cross-talks with other tissue types and organs throughout the body, like liver, muscle, pancreas and brain. Its secreted molecules have an influence on the nervous, immune and vascular system, thus adipose tissue plays an important role in the regulation of whole-body homeostasis...
July 14, 2016: Proteomics
H C Koo, B K Poh, Abd Talib Ruzita
BACKGROUND: The rapid increase in childhood obesity is a serious public health problem, and has led to the development of many interventions. However, no intervention has emphasized whole grains as a strategy to manage childhood obesity. Therefore, this article describes the protocol of a 12-week multi-component, family-based intervention on whole grain, using a healthy balanced diet for managing childhood obesity. METHODS: The GReat-Child trial utilize a quasi-experimental method in which two schools in Kuala Lumpur are assigned to intervention and control groups...
2016: SpringerPlus
Analisa Arroyo, Chris Segrin, Jake Harwood, Joseph A Bonito
Grounded in confirmation theory, the current research sought to explore the relationship between co-rumination of fat talk and weight control practices (i.e., binging and purging, exercising, and healthy eating behaviors), with a particular interest in whether perceptions of friends' responses during these interactions exacerbate or mitigate this relationship. Female friendship dyads completed online questionnaires at three time points across 2 weeks. Multilevel modeling analyses revealed that (a) co-rumination was positively associated with binging and purging and exercising, (b) women who perceived their friends as accepting reported less binging and purging, more exercising, and more healthy eating behaviors,...
June 17, 2016: Health Communication
Jacqueline Mills, Matthew Fuller-Tyszkiewicz
Although past studies have highlighted fat talk as relevant to body image disturbance, the majority of these have only investigated the link between fat talk and body esteem, to the exclusion of other body image constructs. One hundred and ninety-nine women completed an online survey measuring levels of appearance-based comparisons, body surveillance, thin ideal internalization, body esteem, and fat talk (FT-body concerns and FT-body comparisons). Results showed that fat talk made a significant contribution in explaining additional variance in body esteem above the other three body image factors, with FT-body concerns in particular making the highest unique contribution...
September 2016: Body Image
Jennifer B Webb, Mallory F Fiery, Nadia Jafari
The present investigation provided a theoretically-driven analysis testing whether body shame helped account for the predicted positive associations between explicit weight bias in the form of possessing anti-fat attitudes (i.e., dislike, fear of fat, and willpower beliefs) and engaging in fat talk among 309 weight-diverse college women. We also evaluated whether self-compassion served as a protective factor in these relationships. Robust non-parametric bootstrap resampling procedures adjusted for body mass index (BMI) revealed stronger indirect and conditional indirect effects for dislike and fear of fat attitudes and weaker, marginal effects for the models inclusive of willpower beliefs...
September 2016: Body Image
Anna A De Boer, Jennifer M Monk, Danyelle M Liddle, Amber L Hutchinson, Krista A Power, David W L Ma, Lindsay E Robinson
Adipocyte-macrophage cross-talk propagates immune responses in obese adipose tissue (AT). Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) mitigate inflammation, partly through up-regulation of adiponectin; however, specific mechanisms are unclear. We determined if adipocyte-macrophage cross-talk could be mitigated by dietary LC n-3 PUFA and if this was dependent on adiponectin-mediated signaling. We utilized an in vitro co-culture model mimicking the ratio of adipocytes:macrophages in obese AT, whereby 3T3-L1 adipocytes were co-cultured with splenic CD11b(+) macrophages from C57BL/6 mice fed high-fat control (HF-CON; 34% w/w fat) or fish oil diets (HF-FO; 34% w/w fat containing 7...
August 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Pei-Yu Chen, Lingfeng Qin, Guangxin Li, George Tellides, Michael Simons
The conversion of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) from contractile to proliferative phenotype is thought to play an important role in atherosclerosis. However, the contribution of this process to plaque growth has never been fully defined. In this study, we show that activation of SMC TGFβ signaling, achieved by suppression of SMC fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling input, induces their conversion to a contractile phenotype and dramatically reduces atherosclerotic plaque size. The FGF/TGFβ signaling cross talk was observed in vitro and in vivo In vitro, inhibition of FGF signaling increased TGFβ activity, thereby promoting smooth muscle differentiation and decreasing proliferation...
2016: EMBO Molecular Medicine
Xuefang Wu, Maury A Nussbaum, Michael L Madigan
This study investigated the relationship between obesity and executive function, and between executive function and fall risk (as estimated from select gait parameters). Of the 39 young adults (age = 21.3 ± 2.6 years) recruited from the local university population via email announcement, 19 were in the obese group (based upon BMI and body fat percentage) and 20 were in the nonobese comparison group. Executive function was assessed using standardized tests including the Stroop test for selective attention; Trail Making test for divided attention, visuomotor tracking, and cognitive flexibility; the Verbal Fluency test for semantic memory; and the Digit-span test for working memory...
June 2016: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Yi Li, Weiming Zhu, Lugen Zuo, Bo Shen
Crohn's disease (CD) is a complex gastrointestinal disorder involving multiple levels of cross talk between the immunological, neural, vascular, and endocrine systems. The current dominant theory in CD is based on the unidirectional axis of dysbiosis-innate immunity-adaptive immunity-mesentery-body system. Emerging clinical evidence strongly suggests that the axis be bidirectional. The morphologic and/or functional abnormalities in the mesenteric structures likely contribute to the disease progression of CD, to a less extent the disease initiation...
June 2016: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Fei Li, Shao-Zhen Zhao
Angiogenesis is beneficial in the treatment of ischemic heart disease and peripheral artery disease. However, it facilitates inflammatory cell filtration and inflammation cascade that disrupt the immune and angiogenesis privilege of the avascular cornea, resulting in ocular surface diseases and even vision loss. Although great progress has been achieved, healing of severe ocular surface injury and immunosuppression of corneal transplantation are the most difficult and challenging step in the treatment of ocular surface disorders...
2016: Stem Cells International
Amaia Rodríguez, Sara Becerril, Silvia Ezquerro, Leire Méndez-Giménez, Gema Frühbeck
Skeletal muscle is the largest organ determining whole-body insulin sensitivity and metabolic homeostasis. Adaptive changes of skeletal muscle in response to physical activity include adjustments in the production and secretion of muscle-derived bioactive factors, known as myokines, such as myostatin, IL-4, 6, 7 and 15, myonectin, follistatin-like 1 or LIF. These myokines not only act locally in the muscle in an autocrine/paracrine manner, but also are released to the bloodstream as endocrine factors to regulate physiological processes in other tissues...
April 4, 2016: Acta Physiologica
Mallory F Fiery, Denise M Martz, Rose Mary Webb, Lisa Curtin
To compare racial similarities and differences in conversations about body image, this online study surveyed U.S. adult men (n=1928) and women (n=1965) on 1) exposure to and 2) pressure to engage in body talk using vignettes featuring unfavorable body talk (e.g., "fat talk") or favorable self-accepting body talk. Black women reported less unfavorable body talk compared to White, Hispanic, and Asian women. Conversely, Black and Hispanic women reported more experience with favorable body talk compared to White women...
April 2016: Eating Behaviors
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