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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191635/the-role-of-epicardial-adipose-tissue-in-cardiac-biology-classic-concepts-and-emerging-roles
#1
Alexios S Antonopoulos, Charalambos Antoniades
Classic concepts about the role of epicardial adipose tissue (EpAT) in heart physiology include its role in cardiac metabolism, the mechanical protection of coronaries, the innervation and possibly cryoprotection of the heart too. Nevertheless, recent evidence has revealed that epicardial adipose tissue regulates multiple aspects of cardiac biology including myocardial redox state, intracellular Ca(2+) cycling, the electrophysiological (EP) and contractile properties of cardiomyocytes, cardiac fibrosis as well as coronary atherosclerosis progression...
February 12, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161660/everyone-else-is-doing-it-i-think-the-power-of-perception-in-fat-talk
#2
Courtney B Rogers, Denise M Martz, Rose Mary Webb, Amy T Galloway
Fat talk (FT) involves critiquing one's own appearance in social conversations. Although peers are known to prompt FT behavior, there has been little exploration of the influence of mothers and research has not distinguished between self-reported FT and perceptions of FT. This study addresses this research gap by investigating the relationships between participants' FT and corresponding FT of both self-reported and perceived FT of their mothers and friends. A sample of 120 undergraduate women, along with their mothers and friends, reported their FT behavior...
February 2, 2017: Body Image
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148268/mesenchymal-stem-cells-key-players-in-cancer-progression
#3
REVIEW
Sarah M Ridge, Francis J Sullivan, Sharon A Glynn
Tumour progression is dependent on the interaction between tumour cells and cells of the surrounding microenvironment. The tumour is a dynamic milieu consisting of various cell types such as endothelial cells, fibroblasts, cells of the immune system and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). MSCs are multipotent stromal cells that are known to reside in various areas such as the bone marrow, fat and dental pulp. MSCs have been found to migrate towards inflammatory sites and studies have shown that they also migrate towards and incorporate into the tumour...
February 1, 2017: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096344/atrial-natriuretic-peptide-regulates-adipose-tissue-accumulation-in-adult-atria
#4
Nadine Suffee, Thomas Moore-Morris, Patrick Farahmand, Catherine Rücker-Martin, Gilles Dilanian, Magali Fradet, Daigo Sawaki, Geneviève Derumeaux, Pascal LePrince, Karine Clément, Isabelle Dugail, Michel Puceat, Stéphane N Hatem
The abundance of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is associated with atrial fibrillation (AF), the most frequent cardiac arrhythmia. However, both the origin and the factors involved in EAT expansion are unknown. Here, we found that adult human atrial epicardial cells were highly adipogenic through an epithelial-mesenchymal transition both in vitro and in vivo. In a genetic lineage tracing the WT1(CreERT2+/-)Rosa(tdT+/-) mouse model subjected to a high-fat diet, adipocytes of atrial EAT derived from a subset of epicardial progenitors...
January 31, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869572/is-listening-to-fat-talk-the-same-as-participating-in-fat-talk
#5
Linda Lin, Meghann Soby
Our study examined whether verbally participating in fat talk conversations had a different effect on women's body image perception than merely listening to friends engage in fat talk conversations. Participants were 321 women who completed measures of listening to and participating in fat talk conversations, drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction, and dietary restraint. Results indicated that verbally participating in fat talk was a much stronger predictor of women's drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction, and dietary restraint than merely listening to friends engage in fat talk conversations...
November 21, 2016: Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845859/cross-talk-between-muscle-and-bone-in-postmenopausal-women-with-hypovitaminosis-d
#6
M Vuksanovic, G Mihajlovic, T Beljic Zivkovic, A Gavrilovic, B Arsenovic, J Zvekic Svorcan, M Marjanovic Petkovic, S Vujovic
OBJECTIVES: Visceral fat is more harmful than subcutaneous fat. Women with high amounts of visceral fat have an increased risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS), insulin resistance and low level of serum vitamin D. METHODS: This was a prospective, randomized and controlled study. Postmenopausal women (n = 101) aged 45-70 years were included. The assessed parameters were: body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) status, serum insulin and HOMA-IR, bone mineral density, total fat mass, fat mass index (FMI) measured by DXA, and muscle strength...
February 2017: Climacteric: the Journal of the International Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833747/microbiota-host-interplay-at-the-gut-epithelial-level-health-and-nutrition
#7
REVIEW
Jean-Paul Lallès
Growing evidence suggests the implication of the gut microbiota in various facets of health and disease. In this review, the focus is put on microbiota-host molecular cross-talk at the gut epithelial level with special emphasis on two defense systems: intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) and inducible heat shock proteins (iHSPs). Both IAP and iHSPs are induced by various microbial structural components (e.g. lipopolysaccharide, flagellin, CpG DNA motifs), metabolites (e.g. n-butyrate) or secreted signal molecules (e...
2016: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821368/preferred-descriptions-for-loss-of-control-while-eating-and-weight-among-patients-with-binge-eating-disorder
#8
Christina A Roberto, Katharine Galbraith, Janet A Lydecker, Valentina Ivezaj, Rachel D Barnes, Marney A White, Carlos M Grilo
Patients with binge eating disorder (BED) typically also have excess weight, making them vulnerable to stigmatizing attitudes about mental illness and obesity. Further, one of the diagnostic features of BED is experiencing a loss of control during binge eating episodes. It is possible that patients feel negatively judged when clinicians assess for loss of control as it may activate stereotypes of patients with obesity lacking willpower. We developed a questionnaire to assess preferences for common loss of control descriptions and gathered data on preferences for weight-related terms among 46 patients with BED...
December 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818678/transcriptome-wide-analysis-reveals-the-role-of-ppar%C3%AE-controlling-the-lipid-metabolism-in-goat-mammary-epithelial-cells
#9
Hengbo Shi, Wangsheng Zhao, Changhui Zhang, Khuram Shahzad, Jun Luo, Juan J Loor
To explore the large-scale effect of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARG) in goat mammary epithelial cells (GMEC), an oligonucleotide microarray platform was used for transcriptome profiling in cells overexpressing PPARG and incubated with or without rosiglitazone (ROSI, a PPARγ agonist). A total of 1143 differentially expressed genes (DEG) due to treatment were detected. The Dynamic Impact Approach (DIA) analysis uncovered the most impacted and induced pathways "fatty acid elongation in mitochondria," "glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis-keratan sulfate," and "pentose phosphate pathway...
2016: PPAR Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813208/an-interactive-training-programme-to-treat-body-image-disturbance
#10
Lucinda J Gledhill, Katri K Cornelissen, Piers L Cornelissen, Ian S Penton-Voak, Marcus R Munafò, Martin J Tovée
OBJECTIVES: Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a life-threatening mental health condition. A core feature is a disturbance of body image, such that sufferers see themselves as fatter than they actually are. DESIGN: We tested the effectiveness of a novel training programme to recalibrate our participants' perception of body size. METHODS: In a novel adaptation of a cognitive bias training programme, participants judged the body size of a series of female bodies and were given feedback to improve their accuracy over four daily training sessions...
February 2017: British Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699898/adipose-tissue-regulates-insulin-sensitivity-role-of-adipogenesis-de-novo-lipogenesis-and-novel-lipids
#11
U Smith, B B Kahn
Obesity, the major cause of the current global epidemic of type 2 diabetes (T2D), induces insulin resistance in peripheral insulin target tissues. Several mechanisms have been identified related to cross-talk between adipose tissue, skeletal muscle and liver. These mechanisms involve both increased free fatty acid release and altered secretion of adipokines from adipose tissue. A major determinant of metabolic health is the ability of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) to store excess fat rather than allowing it to accumulate in ectopic depots including liver (i...
November 2016: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27665505/is-fat-talk-more-believable-than-self-affirming-body-talk
#12
Alexandra F Corning, Michaela M Bucchianeri
Two experiments tested the extent to which the believability of women's body statements (fat talk or self-affirming) depends on their body type (thin or overweight). Experiment 1 (N=130) revealed fat talk was more believable than self-affirming talk regardless of body type. Experiment 2's (N=125) results showed, as hypothesized, that overweight women's fat talk was significantly more believable than fat talk by thin women and self-affirming talk by either thin or overweight women. Consistent with Experiment 1, there was a trend in Experiment 2 toward thin women's fat talk being more believable than their self-affirming talk...
December 2016: Body Image
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27547850/functional-and-molecular-adaptations-of-enteroendocrine-l-cells-in-male-obese-mice-are-associated-with-preservation-of-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-function-and-prevention-of-hyperglycemia
#13
Rodolphe Dusaulcy, Sandra Handgraaf, Svetlana Skarupelova, Florian Visentin, Christian Vesin, Mounia Heddad-Masson, Frank Reimann, Fiona Gribble, Jacques Philippe, Yvan Gosmain
Glucose homeostasis depends on the coordinated secretion of glucagon, insulin, and Glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 by pancreas and intestine. Obesity, which is associated with an increased risk of developing insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, affects the function of these organs. Here, we investigate the functional and molecular adaptations of proglucagon-producing cells in obese mice to better define their involvement in type 2 diabetes development. We used GLU-Venus transgenic male mice specifically expressing Venus fluorochrome in proglucagon-producing cells...
October 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27522322/bmp4-cross-talks-with-estrogen-er%C3%AE-signaling-to-regulate-adiposity-and-glucose-metabolism-in-females
#14
Shu-Wen Qian, Yan Liu, Jue Wang, Ji-Chan Nie, Meng-Yuan Wu, Yan Tang, Ya-Xin Zhao, Xi Li, Hai-Yan Huang, Liang Guo, Xi-Shi Liu, Cong-Jian Xu, Qi-Qun Tang
Similar to estrogens, bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) promotes the accumulation of more metabolically active subcutaneous fat and reduction of visceral fat. However, whether there is a cross-talk between BMP4 and estrogen signaling remained unknown. Herein, we found that BMP4 deficiency in white adipose tissue (WAT) increased the estrogen receptor α (ERα) level and its signaling, which prevented adult female mice from developing high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and insulin resistance; estrogens depletion up regulated BMP4 expression to overcome overt adiposity and impaired insulin sensitivity with aging, and failure of BMP4 regulation due to genetic knockout led to more fat gain in aged female mice...
September 2016: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27512097/adipose-specific-inactivation-of-jnk-alleviates-atherosclerosis-in-apoe-deficient-mice
#15
Kelvin H M Kwok, Kenneth K Y Cheng, Ruby L C Hoo, Dewei Ye, Aimin Xu, Karen S L Lam
Both atherosclerosis and obesity, an independent atherosclerotic risk factor, are associated with enhanced systemic inflammation. Obesity is also characterized by increased adipose tissue inflammation. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the accelerated atherosclerosis in obesity remains unclear. In obesity, activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) contributes to adipose tissue inflammation. The present study investigated whether the suppression of fat inflammation through adipose-specific JNK inactivation could protect against atherosclerosis in mice...
November 1, 2016: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27506730/deep-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-lipid-unsaturation-associates-with-intramyocellular-lipid-content
#16
Jesper Lundbom, Alessandra Bierwagen, Kálmán Bodis, Julia Szendrödi, Jaakko Kaprio, Aila Rissanen, Nina Lundbom, Michael Roden, Kirsi H Pietiläinen
BACKGROUND: Obese twins have lower saturated and higher long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (FA) in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) compared to their lean monozygotic (MZ) co-twin. Whether this holds for metabolically distinct deep (DSAT) and superficial (SSAT) depots is unknown. Here we use non-invasive magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to measure the FA unsaturation in body mass index (BMI) discordant MZ twins in DSAT and SSAT and their relationship to ectopic fat content and body fat distribution...
September 2016: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27494857/visceral-fat-adipocytes-from-obese-and-colorectal-cancer-subjects-exhibit-distinct-secretory-and-%C3%AF-6-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-profiles-and-deliver-immunosuppressive-signals-to-innate-immunity-cells
#17
Manuela Del Cornò, Massimo D'Archivio, Lucia Conti, Beatrice Scazzocchio, Rosaria Varì, Gloria Donninelli, Barbara Varano, Stefania Giammarioli, Simone De Meo, Gianfranco Silecchia, Francesco Pennestrì, Roberto Persiani, Roberta Masella, Sandra Gessani
Obesity is a low-grade chronic inflammatory state representing an important risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC). Adipocytes strongly contribute to inflammation by producing inflammatory mediators. In this study we investigated the role of human visceral fat adipocytes in regulating the functions of innate immunity cells. Adipocyte-conditioned media (ACM) from obese (n = 14) and CRC (lean, n = 14; obese, n = 13) subjects released higher levels of pro-inflammatory/immunoregulatory factors as compared to ACM from healthy lean subjects (n = 13)...
September 27, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27445976/cooperation-between-hmga1-and-hif-1-contributes-to-hypoxia-induced-vegf-and-visfatin-gene-expression-in-3t3-l1-adipocytes
#18
Sebastiano Messineo, Anna Elisa Laria, Biagio Arcidiacono, Eusebio Chiefari, Raúl M Luque Huertas, Daniela P Foti, Antonio Brunetti
The architectural transcription factor high-mobility group AT-hook 1 (HMGA1) is a chromatin regulator with implications in several biological processes, including tumorigenesis, inflammation, and metabolism. Previous studies have indicated a role for this factor in promoting the early stages of adipogenesis, while inhibiting adipocyte terminal differentiation, and decreasing fat mass. It has been demonstrated that hypoxia - through the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) - plays a major role in triggering changes in the adipose tissue of the obese, leading to inhibition of adipocyte differentiation, adipose cell dysfunction, inflammation, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27412720/proteomics-of-hydrophobic-samples-fast-robust-and-low-cost-workflows-for-clinical-approaches
#19
Yvonne Pasing, Sayda Colnoe, Terkel Hansen
In a comparative study we investigated the influence of nine sample preparation workflows and seven different lysis buffers for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the human adipose tissue proteome. Adipose tissue is not just a fat depot but also an endocrine organ, which cross-talks with other tissue types and organs throughout the body, like liver, muscle, pancreas and brain. Its secreted molecules have an influence on the nervous, immune and vascular system, thus adipose tissue plays an important role in the regulation of whole-body homeostasis...
July 14, 2016: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27386289/intervention-on-whole-grain-with-healthy-balanced-diet-to-manage-childhood-obesity-great-child%C3%A2-trial-study-protocol-for-a-quasi-experimental-trial
#20
H C Koo, B K Poh, Abd Talib Ruzita
BACKGROUND: The rapid increase in childhood obesity is a serious public health problem, and has led to the development of many interventions. However, no intervention has emphasized whole grains as a strategy to manage childhood obesity. Therefore, this article describes the protocol of a 12-week multi-component, family-based intervention on whole grain, using a healthy balanced diet for managing childhood obesity. METHODS: The GReat-Child trial utilize a quasi-experimental method in which two schools in Kuala Lumpur are assigned to intervention and control groups...
2016: SpringerPlus
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