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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124679/fear-of-fat-and-restrained-eating-negative-body-talk-between-female-friends-as-a-moderator
#1
Chong Man Chow, Holly Ruhl, Cin Cin Tan, Lilian Ellis
PURPOSE: This study examined whether engagement in negative body talk would moderate the association between fear of fat and restrained eating among female friend dyads. METHODS: Female friends (N pairs = 130) were recruited from a Midwestern university in the United States. The dyadic data were examined with an Actor-Partner Interdependence Model (APIM). RESULTS: Results showed that women's fear of fat was significantly related to their own restrained eating behaviors...
November 9, 2017: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113558/neuronal-control-of-bone-remodeling
#2
Alexander Corr, James Smith, Paul Baldock
Although the brain is well established as a master regulator of homeostasis in peripheral tissues, central regulation of bone mass represents a novel and rapidly expanding field of study. This review examines the current understanding of central regulation of the skeleton, exploring several of the key pathways connecting brain to bone and their implications both in mice and the clinical setting. Our understanding of central bone regulation has largely progressed through examination of skeletal responses downstream of nutrient regulatory pathways in the hypothalamus...
January 1, 2017: Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080342/cross-talk-between-bile-acids-and-gastro-intestinal-and-thermogenic-clues-from-bariatric-surgery
#3
Gabriella Garruti, Agostino Di Ciaula, Helen H Wang, David Q-H Wang, Piero Portincasa
Obesity is rapidly increasing and has reached epidemic features worldwide. It´s linked to insulin resistance, systemic low-grade inflammation and common pathogenic pathways with a number of comorbidities (including cancer), leading to high mortality rates. Besides change of lifestyles (diet and physical exercise) and pharmacological therapy, bariatric surgery is able to rapidly improve several metabolic and morphologic features associated with excessive fat storage, and currently represents an in vivo model to study the pathogenic mechanisms underlying obesity and obesity-related complications...
October 28, 2017: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074090/the-role-of-a-single-gene-encoding-the-single-von-willebrand-factor-c-domain-protein-svc-in-bumblebee-immunity-extends-beyond-antiviral-defense
#4
Haidong Wang, Guy Smagghe, Ivan Meeus
The Single von Willebrand factor C-domain proteins (SVCs) are a group of short proteins mainly found in arthropods. They are proposed to be responsive in relation to environmental challenges including the nutritional status, bacterial and viral infections. The SVC protein Vago acts as a cross-talk molecule between the small interfering RNA (siRNA) pathway and the Jak/STAT pathway upon viral infection in Drosophila melanogaster and Culex mosquito cells. Unlike flies and mosquitoes that possess diverse SVCs, most bee species only have one of which the function remains unclear...
October 23, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067668/advanced-methods-to-study-the-cross-talk-between-fibro-adipogenic-progenitors-and-muscle-stem-cells
#5
Luca Tucciarone, Usue Etxaniz, Martina Sandoná, Silvia Consalvi, Pier Lorenzo Puri, Valentina Saccone
Functional interactions between muscle (satellite) stem cells-MuSCs-and other cellular components of their niche (the fibro-adipogenic progenitors-FAPs) coordinate regeneration of injured as well as diseased skeletal muscles. These interactions are largely mediated by secretory networks, whose integrity is critical to determine whether repair occurs by compensatory regeneration leading to formation of new contractile fibers, or by maladaptive formation of fibrotic scars and fat infiltration. Here we provide the description of methods for isolation of FAPs and MuSCs from muscles of wild type and dystrophic mice, and protocols of cocultures as well as MuSC's exposure to FAP- derived exosomes...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040966/natural-product-celastrol-suppressed-macrophage-m1-polarization-against-inflammation-in-diet-induced-obese-mice-via-regulating-nrf2-ho-1-map-kinase-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathways
#6
Dan Luo, Yumeng Guo, Yuanyuan Cheng, Jia Zhao, Yu Wang, Jianhui Rong
Macrophage polarization is implicated in the inflammation in obesity. The aim of the present study was to examine the anti-inflammatory activities of botanical triterpene celastrol against diet-induced obesity. We treated diet-induced obese C57BL/6N male mice with celastrol (5, 7.5 mg/kg/d) for 3 weeks, and investigated macrophage M1/M2 polarization in adipose and hepatic tissues. Celastrol reduced fat accumulation and ameliorated glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Celastrol down-regulated the mRNA levels of macrophage M1 biomarkers (e...
October 16, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035888/nitric-oxide-mediates-insect-cellular-immunity-via-phospholipase-a2-activation
#7
Md Sadekuzzaman, David Stanley, Yonggyun Kim
After infection or invasion is recognized, biochemical mediators act in signaling insect immune functions. These include biogenic amines, insect cytokines, eicosanoids, and nitric oxide (NO). Treating insects or isolated hemocyte populations with different mediators often leads to similar results. Separate treatments with an insect cytokine, 2 biogenic amines, and an eicosanoid lead to a single result, hemocyte spreading, understood in terms of intracellular cross-talk among these signaling systems. This study focuses on the cross-talk between NO and eicosanoid signaling in our model insect, Spodoptera exigua...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021781/cross-talk-between-adipose-tissue-and-placenta-in-obese-and-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-pregnancies-via-exosomes
#8
REVIEW
Nanthini Jayabalan, Soumyalekshmi Nair, Zarin Nuzhat, Gregory E Rice, Felipe A Zuñiga, Luis Sobrevia, Andrea Leiva, Carlos Sanhueza, Jaime Agustín Gutiérrez, Martha Lappas, Dilys Jane Freeman, Carlos Salomon
Obesity is an important public health issue worldwide, where it is commonly associated with the development of metabolic disorders, especially insulin resistance (IR). Maternal obesity is associated with an increased risk of pregnancy complications, especially gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Metabolism is a vital process for energy production and the maintenance of essential cellular functions. Excess energy storage is predominantly regulated by the adipose tissue. Primarily made up of adipocytes, adipose tissue acts as the body's major energy reservoir...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988838/staff-food-related-behaviors-and-children-s-tastes-of-food-groups-during-lunch-at-child-care-in-oklahoma
#9
Katherine Anundson, Susan B Sisson, Michael Anderson, Diane Horm, Jill Soto, Leah Hoffman
BACKGROUND: Young children should consume a variety of nutrient-dense foods to support growth, while limiting added fat and sugar. A majority of children between the ages of 3 and 5 years attend child care in the United States, which makes this environment and the child-care staff influential at meals. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to determine the association between best-practice food-related behaviors and young children's tastes of fruit, vegetable, low-fat dairy, and high-fat/high-sugar foods at child care...
October 4, 2017: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928238/talk-1-channels-control-%C3%AE-cell-endoplasmic-reticulum-ca-2-homeostasis
#10
Nicholas C Vierra, Prasanna K Dadi, Sarah C Milian, Matthew T Dickerson, Kelli L Jordan, Patrick Gilon, David A Jacobson
Ca(2+) handling by the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) serves critical roles in controlling pancreatic β cell function and becomes perturbed during the pathogenesis of diabetes. ER Ca(2+) homeostasis is determined by ion movements across the ER membrane, including K(+) flux through K(+) channels. We demonstrated that K(+) flux through ER-localized TALK-1 channels facilitated Ca(2+) release from the ER in mouse and human β cells. We found that β cells from mice lacking TALK-1 exhibited reduced basal cytosolic Ca(2+) and increased ER Ca(2+) concentrations, suggesting reduced ER Ca(2+) leak...
September 19, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886394/challenging-fat-talk-an-experimental-investigation-of-reactions-to-body-disparaging-conversations
#11
Suman Ambwani, Megan Baumgardner, Cai Guo, Lea Simms, Emily Abromowitz
Although "fat talk" is associated with increased eating disorder risk, the predictors of fat talk engagement and viable alternatives to these pervasive conversations remain unclear. The current experiment examined responses to fat talk versus feminist-oriented challenging fat talk scenarios. Undergraduate women (N=283) completed baseline questionnaires assessing body dissatisfaction, fat talk engagement, and positive impression management. One week later, they were randomized to view one of the two scenarios, followed by assessment of mood, fat talk engagement, social acceptability, and social likeability...
September 5, 2017: Body Image
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871526/feasibility-and-acceptability-of-a-prevention-program-for-eating-disorders-me-you-and-us-adapted-for-young-adolescents-in-korea
#12
Gi Young Lee, Eun Jin Park, Youl-Ri Kim, Kyung Hwa Kwag, Jin Hong Park, So Hyun An, Ji Hyun Lee, Jeong Hun Sim, Janet Treasure
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess the adaptability and acceptability of a prevention program. METHODS: A total of 169 Korean students (83 boys and 86 girls) with a mean age of 12.3 years from a 6th grade class at an elementary school participated in the study. Mental health social workers delivered Me, You and Us, a school-based body image intervention program originally developed in the UK, through a set of six sessions. The participants were assessed in terms of their body satisfaction and self-esteem before the program, after the program, and at 1-month follow-up...
September 4, 2017: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866834/insulin-and-osteocalcin-further-evidence-for-a-mutual-cross-talk
#13
Francesco L Bilotta, Biagio Arcidiacono, Sebastiano Messineo, Marta Greco, Eusebio Chiefari, Domenico Britti, Tomoko Nakanishi, Daniela P Foti, Antonio Brunetti
PURPOSE: In the last few years, bone has been recognized as an endocrine organ that modulates glucose metabolism by secretion of osteocalcin, an osteoblast-specific hormone, that influences fat deposition and blood sugar levels. To date, however, very few in vitro models have been developed to investigate, at the molecular levels, the relationship between glucose, insulin and osteocalcin. This study aims at covering this gap. METHODS: We studied osteogenic differentiation, osteocalcin gene expression, and osteblast-mediated insulin secretion, using cultured MG-63 human osteoblast-like cells that underwent glucotoxicity and insulin resistance...
September 2, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801668/exercise-leads-to-unfavourable-cardiac-remodelling-and-enhanced-metabolic-homeostasis-in-obese-mice-with-cardiac-and-skeletal-muscle-autophagy-deficiency
#14
Zhen Yan, Ana Kronemberger, Jay Blomme, Jarrod A Call, Hannah M Caster, Renata O Pereira, Henan Zhao, Vitor U de Melo, Rhianna C Laker, Mei Zhang, Vitor A Lira
Autophagy is stimulated by exercise in several tissues; yet the role of skeletal and cardiac muscle-specific autophagy on the benefits of exercise training remains incompletely understood. Here, we determined the metabolic impact of exercise training in obese mice with cardiac and skeletal muscle disruption of the Autophagy related 7 gene (Atg7(h&mKO)). Muscle autophagy deficiency did not affect glucose clearance and exercise capacity in lean adult mice. High-fat diet in sedentary mice led to endoplasmic reticulum stress and aberrant mitochondrial protein expression in autophagy-deficient skeletal and cardiac muscles...
August 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726981/triennial-growth-and-development-symposium-factors-influencing-bovine-intramuscular-adipose-tissue-development-and-cellularity
#15
E Albrecht, L Schering, Y Liu, K Komolka, C Kühn, K Wimmers, T Gotoh, S Maak
Appearance, distribution, and amount of intramuscular fat (IMF), often referred to as marbling, are highly variable and depend on environmental and genetic factors. On the molecular level, the concerted action of several drivers, including hormones, receptors, transcription factors, etc., determines where clusters of adipocytes arise. Therefore, the aim of future studies remains to identify such factors as biological markers of IMF to increase the ability to identify animals that deposit IMF early in age to increase efficiency of high-quality meat production...
May 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685613/highlights-of-the-san-antonio-breast-cancer-symposium-2016-part-2
#16
John R Benson, Ismail Jatoi
The 39th annual San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium (SABCS) was convened in San Antonio, Texas, on 9-13 December 2016. More than 7000 clinicians and scientists from around the world participated in the symposium which featured a range of presentations and keynote talks pertaining to breast cancer screening, prevention, locoregional and systemic therapies. This two-part report highlights a selection of important studies presented at this premier breast cancer event with Part 1 focusing onmetastatic breast cancer, extended endocrine therapy and the prognostic significance of BRCA1/2 gene mutations...
July 2017: Future Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664417/epicardial-adipose-tissue-at-the-heart-of-the-obesity-complications
#17
Valeria Guglielmi, Paolo Sbraccia
In recent years, the anatomic and functional contiguity of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) to myocardium and coronary arteries has gained increasing interest for its potential pathogenetic role in obesity-related cardiac diseases. Besides its known and attributed biochemical cardioprotective properties, it is becoming evident that, in metabolic disease states, EAT-secreted bioactive molecules may play an important role in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease and cardiac arrhythmias. EAT-derived inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxidative species may, indeed, play a part in the development of a local proatherogenic milieu by paracrine and vasocrine mechanisms of interaction...
June 29, 2017: Acta Diabetologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650276/highlights-of-the-san-antonio-breast-cancer-symposium-2016
#18
John R Benson, Ismail Jatoi
The 39th annual San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium (SABCS) was convened in San Antonio, Texas, on 9-13 December 2016. More than 7000 clinicians and scientists from around the world participated in the symposium which featured a range of presentations and keynote talks pertaining to breast cancer screening, prevention, locoregional and systemic therapies. This two-part report highlights a selection of important studies presented at this premier breast cancer event with Part 1 focusing onmetastatic breast cancer, extended endocrine therapy and the prognostic significance of BRCA1/2 gene mutations...
June 2017: Future Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598954/role-of-the-sympathetic-nervous-system-in-regulation-of-the-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2
#19
Vance B Matthews, Rosemary H Elliot, Caroline Rudnicka, Jana Hricova, Lakshini Herat, Markus P Schlaich
BACKGROUND: The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) regulates glucose metabolism in various organs including the kidneys. The sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) mediates glucose reabsorption in renal proximal tubules and its inhibition has been shown to improve glucose control, cardiovascular and renal outcomes. We hypothesized that SNS-induced alterations of glucose metabolism may be mediated via regulation of SGLT2. METHOD: We used human renal proximal tubule cells to investigate the effects of noradrenaline on SGLT2 regulation...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572512/deletion-of-interleukin-1-receptor-associated-kinase-1-irak1-improves-glucose-tolerance-primarily-by-increasing-insulin-sensitivity-in-skeletal-muscle
#20
Xiao-Jian Sun, Soohyun Park Kim, Dongming Zhang, Helen Sun, Qi Cao, Xin Lu, Zhekang Ying, Liwu Li, Robert R Henry, Theodore P Ciaraldi, Simeon I Taylor, Michael J Quon
Chronic inflammation may contribute to insulin resistance via molecular cross-talk between pathways for pro-inflammatory and insulin signaling. Interleukin 1 receptor-associated kinase 1 (IRAK-1) mediates pro-inflammatory signaling via IL-1 receptor/Toll-like receptors, which may contribute to insulin resistance, but this hypothesis is untested. Here, we used male Irak1 null (k/o) mice to investigate the metabolic role of IRAK-1. C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) and k/o mice had comparable body weights on low-fat and high-fat diets (LFD and HFD, respectively)...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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