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Cervical artery dysfunction

Scott Seaman, Paul Nelson, Jacob Alexander, Andrew Swift, James Fick
The authors present the case of a 53-year-old man who was referred with disabling retching provoked by left arm abduction. At the time of his initial evaluation, a cervical MRI study was available for review and revealed an anatomical variation of the ipsilateral juxtamedullary vertebrobasilar junction. After brain imaging revealed contact of the medulla by a dolichoectatic vertebral artery at the dorsal root entry zone of the glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves, the patient was successfully treated by microvascular decompression of the brainstem and cranial nerves...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
Joohyun Kim, Jang-Bo Lee, Tai-Hyoung Cho, Junseok W Hur
PURPOSE: Onyx embolization is one of the standard treatments for brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) and is a promising method for spinal AVMs as well. Its advantages have been emphasized, and few complications have been reported with Onyx embolization in spinal AVMs. Here, we report an incidental anterior spinal artery (ASA) occlusion due to Onyx reflux during embolization of a spinal type II AVM. METHODS: A 15-year-old boy presented with weakness in both upper and lower extremities...
September 26, 2016: European Spine Journal
V Balaya, C Ngo, L Rossi, C Cornou, C Bensaid, R Douard, A S Bats, F Lecuru
Radical hysterectomy (RH) is an effective treatment for early-stage cervical cancer IA2 to IIA1 but RH is often associated with several significant complications such as urinary, anorectal and sexual dysfunction due to pelvic nerve injuries. Pelvic autonomic nerves including the superior hypogastric plexus (SHP), hypogastric nerves (HN), pelvic splanchnic nerves (PSN), sacral splanchnic nerves (SSN), inferior hypogastric plexus (IHP) and efferent branches of the IHP. We aimed to precise the neuroanatomy of the female pelvis in order to provide key-points of surgical anatomy to improve NSRH for cervical cancer...
September 2016: Gynécologie, Obstétrique & Fertilité
Jacob M Pogson, Rachael L Taylor, Allison S Young, Leigh A McGarvie, Sean Flanagan, G Michael Halmagyi, Miriam S Welgampola
Acute vertigo with sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) is a rare clinical emergency. Here, we report the audio-vestibular test profiles of 27 subjects who presented with these symptoms. The vestibular test battery consisted of a three-dimensional video head impulse test (vHIT) of semicircular canal function and recording ocular and cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (oVEMP, cVEMP) to test otolith dysfunction. Unlike vestibular neuritis, where the horizontal and anterior canals with utricular function are more frequently impaired, 74 % of subjects with vertigo and SSNHL demonstrated impairment of the posterior canal gain (0...
October 2016: Journal of Neurology
Ajay R Vellore, Christopher B Robards, Steven R Clendenen
Spinal stenosis is a potentially serious condition that can lead to myelopathies and autonomic instability, both of which, as a result, may complicate anesthetic management. Additionally, neuraxial anesthesia appears to increase the risk of worsened neurological outcomes in this population. A 56-year-old female with spinal stenosis, autonomic dysfunction, and known difficult airway who required anesthesia for repair of a femur fracture is presented. After pre-operative arterial line and femoral block placement, an ultrasound guided subarachnoid block was safely placed...
February 2016: Middle East Journal of Anesthesiology
Leonardo Augusto Robert Moreira, Eduardo Nani Silva, Mario Luiz Ribeiro, Wolney de Andrade Martins
The incidence of cancer (CA) has increased globally and radiotherapy (RT) is a vital component in its treatment. Cardiovascular injuries induced by RT in the treatment of thoracic and cervical CA have been causing problems in clinical practice for decades, and are among the most serious adverse effects of radiation experienced by the growing number of cancer survivors. This article presentes a review on the Lilacs, Scielo and Pubmed databases of the main cardiovascular injuries, their mechanisms, clinical presentations, treatments and prevention proposals...
April 2016: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
Bonnie E Legg Ditterline, Sevda C Aslan, David C Randall, Susan J Harkema, Alexander V Ovechkin
Pulmonary and cardiovascular dysfunctions are leading causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic Spinal Cord Injury (SCI). Impaired respiratory motor function and decreased Baroreflex Sensitivity (BS) are predictors for the development of cardiopulmonary disease. This observational case-controlled clinical study was undertaken to investigate if respiratory motor control deficits in individuals with SCI affect their ability to perform the Valsalva maneuver, and to determine if a sustained Maximum Expiratory Pressure (MEP) effort can serve as an acceptable maneuver for determination of the BS in the event that the Valsalva maneuver cannot be performed...
July 15, 2016: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Elizabeth Braunlin, Raymond Wang
The growing availability of innovative treatments for rare genetic diseases with a cardiac component-such as the mucopolysaccharidoses (MPSs)-has changed these syndromes from 'back of the textbook' curiosities of childhood to chronic, but rare, adult cardiac conditions that require both centres of expertise and knowledgeable subspecialists. The MPSs are inherited progressive lysosomal storage diseases, occurring in about 1:25 000 births and resulting from absence of functional hydrolases responsible for the degradation of glycosaminoglycans, naturally occurring complex sugars ubiquitous throughout the body...
August 15, 2016: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
Elizabeth Partida, Eugene Mironets, Shaoping Hou, Veronica J Tom
Both sensorimotor and autonomic dysfunctions often occur after spinal cord injury (SCI). Particularly, a high thoracic or cervical SCI interrupts supraspinal vasomotor pathways and results in disordered hemodynamics due to deregulated sympathetic outflow. As a result of the reduced sympathetic activity, patients with SCI may experience hypotension, cardiac dysrhythmias, and hypothermia post-injury. In the chronic phase, changes within the CNS and blood vessels lead to orthostatic hypotension and life-threatening autonomic dysreflexia (AD)...
February 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
Kenichi Suga, Miki Inoue, Akemi Ono, Tomomasa Terada, Masami Kawahito, Kazuhiro Mori
Severe-type Kawasaki disease (KD) complicated by serious myocarditis and encephalopathy can be successfully treated without abnormality of the coronary arteries by steroid pulse treatment and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg). A 4-year-old Japanese girl was diagnosed with KD due to a 6-day history of fever, rash, flushed lips, conjunctival hyperemia, palmar edema, and cervical lymphadenopathy. The day after initiation of IVIg and aspirin, cardiac gallop rhythm was identified. Cardiac ultrasonography revealed severe left ventricular dysfunction...
2016: Journal of Medical Investigation: JMI
Alexander E Ropper, Xiang Zeng, Hariprakash Haragopal, Jamie E Anderson, Zaid Aljuboori, Inbo Han, Muhammad Abd-El-Barr, Hong Jun Lee, Richard L Sidman, Evan Y Snyder, Mariano S Viapiano, Seung U Kim, John H Chi, Yang D Teng
BACKGROUND: There are currently no satisfactory treatments or experimental models showing autonomic dysfunction for intramedullary spinal cord gliomas (ISCG). OBJECTIVE: To develop a rat model of ISCG and investigate whether genetically engineered human neural stem cells (F3.hNSCs) could be developed into effective therapies for ISCG. METHODS: Immunodeficient/Rowett Nude rats received C6 implantation of G55 human glioblastoma cells (10K/each)...
September 2016: Neurosurgery
R Grant
There has been substantial additional research into the effects of cervical movements on vertebral artery blood flow since 1988, when the APA first formalised a Protocol for Pre-Manipulative Testing of the Cervical Spine and recommended its use in patients with upper quarter dysfunction. The development of duplex Doppler ultrasound equipment with colour enhancement, which allows measurements of velocity and flow rate of vertebral artery blood flow, has resulted in a burgeoning of in-vivo blood flow studies.
2001: Australian Journal of Physiotherapy
Eric Beaumont, Elizabeth M Southerland, Jean C Hardwick, Gary L Wright, Shannon Ryan, Ying Li, Bruce H KenKnight, J Andrew Armour, Jeffrey L Ardell
This paper aims to determine whether chronic vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) mitigates myocardial infarction (MI)-induced remodeling of the intrinsic cardiac nervous system (ICNS), along with the cardiac tissue it regulates. Guinea pigs underwent VNS implantation on the right cervical vagus. Two weeks later, MI was produced by ligating the ventral descending coronary artery. VNS stimulation started 7 days post-MI (20 Hz, 0.9 ± 0.2 mA, 14 s on, 48 s off; VNS-MI, n = 7) and was compared with time-matched MI animals with sham VNS (MI n = 7) vs...
October 2015: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Lucy C Thomas
INTRODUCTION: Cervical arterial dissection (CAD) is a common cause of stroke in young people under 55 years. It can occur spontaneously or subsequent to minor trauma or infection. The incidence is difficult to determine accurately as not all CAD progress to stroke. CAD is the most catastrophic adverse event associated with cervical manipulative therapy but it is rare. Early features of CAD can mimic a painful musculoskeletal presentation and a patient may present for treatment of neck pain and headache with a dissection in progress...
February 2016: Manual Therapy
Satoru Kyo, Yasunari Mizumoto, Masahiro Takakura, Mitsuhiro Nakamura, Emi Sato, Hiroshi Katagiri, Masako Ishikawa, Kentaro Nakayama, Hiroshi Fujiwara
OBJECTIVES: Nerve-sparing techniques to avoid bladder dysfunction in abdominal radical hysterectomy have been established during the past two decades, and they have been applied to radical trachelectomy. Although trachelectomy retains the uterine corpus, no report mentions the preservation of uterine branches of pelvic nerves. The aim of the present study was to introduce and discuss our unique concept for preserving them. STUDY DESIGN AND RESULTS: Four cases with FIGO stage Ia2-Ib1 cervical cancer, in which preservation of uterine branches of the pelvic nerves was attempted, are presented...
October 2015: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
Aaron Cohen-Gadol
Spinal dural arteriovenous fistula (dAVF) is an acquired abnormal arterial-to-venous connection within the spinal dura with a wide range of clinical presentations and natural history. Spinal dAVF occurs when a radicular artery makes a direct anomalous shunt with a radicular vein within the dura of the nerve root sleeve. Cervical dAVF is a rare entity as the majority of spinal dAVFs present within the thoracolumbar segment with myelopathy. Only a small number of cervical lesions have been described, and only one presented with brainstem dysfunction...
July 2012: Neurosurgical Focus
Tomoko Baba, Kengo Maekawa, Sumi Otomo, Yukiko Tokunaga, Takafumi Oyoshi
Patients referred for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) are older and more likely to have extensive vascular diseases than those referred for such procedures in the past. Undiagnosed cerebral small vessel diseases (SVD), such as lacunar infarctions or white matter lesions, and dementia are common. Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) remains a major concern in these elderly patients. POCD is caused by cerebral emboli, hypoperfusion, and inflammation attributed largely to the use of cardiopulmonary bypass...
November 2014: Masui. the Japanese Journal of Anesthesiology
Wei Xiong, Feng Li, Hanfeng Guan
Cervical spondylosis is degeneration of the cervical spine that occurs during the normal course of aging, and may progress into compression of the spinal cord, or cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM), which can cause neurologic dysfunction. Cervical spondylosis can be identified in the majority of people older than 50 years. Many people with cervical spondylosis or CSM are asymptomatic. However, patients with CSM are at higher risk of spinal cord injury (SCI) following minor injury.A 60-year-old woman with asymptomatic cervical spondylosis underwent an elective subtotal thyroidectomy for thyroid nodules...
February 2015: Medicine (Baltimore)
Tatsuya Sasaki, Hiroaki Manabe, Takao Yasuhara, Yasuyuki Miyoshi, Kenji Sugiu, Isao Date
Spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas(S-dAVFs)are rare vascular malformations of the spine. We experienced a case that presented with rapidly progressive brainstem dysfunction due to venous congestion of cervical dAVFs. A 56-year-old man diagnosed with cervical dAVF four years prior presented with gait disturbance and abnormal thermal nociception on his right side. In addition to the high-intensity lesion from the lower pons to the medulla oblongata on T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging demonstrated cerebral infarction of the left ventrolateral medulla oblongata...
January 2015: No Shinkei Geka. Neurological Surgery
Michael Kogan, Sabareesh K Natarajan, Nina Kim, Robert N Sawyer, Kenneth V Snyder, Adnan H Siddiqui
BACKGROUND: Common causes of oculomotor nerve palsy are diabetes, aneurysmal compression, and uncal herniation. A lesser-known cause of third nerve dysfunction is ischemia, often due to carotid artery dissection. CASE DESCRIPTION: An 80-year-old man presented with an acute ischemic stroke with a National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score of >20 from a high cervical internal carotid artery (ICA) dissection and a tandem ICA terminus embolic occlusion with extension of clot into the adjacent fetal posterior cerebral artery (PCA)...
2014: Surgical Neurology International
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