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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244957/hypercementosis-associated-with-enpp1-mutations-and-gaci
#1
V Thumbigere-Math, A Alqadi, N I Chalmers, M B Chavez, E Y Chu, M T Collins, C R Ferreira, K FitzGerald, R I Gafni, W A Gahl, K S Hsu, M S Ramnitz, M J Somerman, S G Ziegler, B L Foster
Mineralization of bones and teeth is tightly regulated by levels of extracellular inorganic phosphate (Pi) and pyrophosphate (PPi). Three regulators that control pericellular concentrations of Pi and PPi include tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP), progressive ankylosis protein (ANK), and ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 (ENPP1). Inactivation of these factors results in mineralization disorders affecting teeth and their supporting structures. This study for the first time analyzed the effect of decreased PPi on dental development in individuals with generalized arterial calcification of infancy (GACI) due to loss-of-function mutations in the ENPP1 gene...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244805/tongue-driven-sonar-beam-steering-by-a-lingual-echolocating-fruit-bat
#2
Wu-Jung Lee, Benjamin Falk, Chen Chiu, Anand Krishnan, Jessica H Arbour, Cynthia F Moss
Animals enhance sensory acquisition from a specific direction by movements of head, ears or eyes. As active sensing animals, echolocating bats also aim their directional sonar beam to selectively "illuminate" a confined volume of space, facilitating efficient information processing by reducing echo interference and clutter. Such sonar beam control is generally achieved by head movements or shape changes of the sound-emitting mouth or nose. However, lingual-echolocating Egyptian fruit bats, Rousettus aegyptiacus, which produce sound by clicking their tongue, can dramatically change beam direction at very short temporal intervals without visible morphological changes...
December 15, 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243326/three-dimensional-ultrasound-cranial-imaging-and-early-neurodevelopment-in-preterm-growth-restricted-infants
#3
Glenda McLean, Catherine Hough, Arvind Sehgal, Michael Ditchfield, Graeme R Polglase, Suzanne L Miller
AIM: Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is associated with increased perinatal morbidity, mortality and long-term neurodevelopmental sequelae. The objective of this study was to examine whether information about early neurodevelopmental deficits was evident using three-dimensional head ultrasound and developmental assessments in preterm infants with FGR, compared with appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants in the early post-natal period. METHODS: Twenty preterm FGR infants weighing <10th centile and born between 28 and 32 weeks were compared with age-matched AGA infants...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243250/a-camera-based-method-for-estimating-absolute-density-in-animals-displaying-home-range-behaviour
#4
Andrea Campos-Candela, Miquel Palmer, Salvador Balle, Josep Alós
1.The measurement of animal density may take advantage of recent technological achievements in wildlife video recording. Fostering the theoretical links between the patterns depicted by cameras and absolute density is required to exploit this potential. 2.We explore the applicability of the Hutchinson-Waser's postulate (i.e., when animal density is stationary at a given temporal and spatial scale, the absolute density is given by the average number of animals counted per frame), which is a counter-intuitive statement for most ecologists and managers who are concerned with counting the same individual more than once...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242798/anterior-elbow-pain-caused-by-compression-of-the-lateral-antebrachial-cutaneous-nerve
#5
Sean M Booth, Abdulbaset Abosala, Chris Peach
Introduction: The complex anatomy and biomechanics of the elbow joint can lead to diagnostic uncertainty when a clinician is determining the cause of a patient's anterior elbow pain. We present a case of anterior elbow pain with an uncommon and often overlooked etiology. Elbow pain due to compression of the lateral antebrachial nerve (LACN) has an unknown incidence or prevalence. Case Report: A 27-year-old left-hand dominant male presented to our orthopedic elbow clinic complaining of bilateral elbow clicking and discomfort which had been present for several years...
September 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241404/in-vivo-measurement-of-surface-pressures-and-retraction-distances-applied-on-abdominal-organs-during-surgery
#6
Dignesh Shah, Andrew Alderson, James Corden, Thomas Satyadas, Titus Augustine
This study undertook the in vivo measurement of surface pressures applied by the fingers of the surgeon during typical representative retraction movements of key human abdominal organs during both open and hand-assisted laparoscopic surgery. Surface pressures were measured using a flexible thin-film pressure sensor for 35 typical liver retractions to access the gall bladder, 36 bowel retractions, 9 kidney retractions, 8 stomach retractions, and 5 spleen retractions across 12 patients undergoing open and laparoscopic abdominal surgery...
December 1, 2017: Surgical Innovation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241398/effects-of-exposure-and-vowel-space-distribution-on-phonetic-drift-evidence-from-american-english-learners-of-french
#7
Benjamin Lang, Lisa Davidson
Recent work by Chang has shown that even at the very earliest stages of second language (L2) acquisition, the phonetic implementation of speakers' native English phoneme categories is slightly modified by contact with L2 Korean, which is referred to as "phonetic drift." This study investigates whether rapid phonetic drift generalizes to another pairing of languages. We examined naïve American English learners of French, who were recorded producing both American English and French vowels after one and six weeks of a study abroad program in Paris...
December 1, 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241077/pectoral-nerve-blocks-to-improve-analgesia-after-breast-cancer-surgery-a-prospective-randomized-and-controlled-trial
#8
Neethu M, Ravinder Kumar Pandey, Ankur Sharma, Vanlalnghaka Darlong, Jyotsna Punj, Renu Sinha, Preet Mohinder Singh, Nandini Hamshi, Rakesh Garg, Chandralekha Chandralekha, Anurag Srivastava
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the analgesic efficacy of ultrasound guided combined pectoral nerve blocks I and II in patients scheduled for surgery for breast cancer. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, control trial. SETTING: Operating rooms in a tertiary care hospital of Northern India. PATIENTS: Sixty American Society of Anesthesiologists status I to II adult women, aged 18-70years were enrolled in this study. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were randomized into two groups (30 patients in each group), PECS (P) group and control (C) group...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238900/forecasting-the-2001-foot-and-mouth-disease-epidemic-in-the-uk
#9
David W Shanafelt, Glyn Jones, Mauricio Lima, Charles Perrings, Gerardo Chowell
Near real-time epidemic forecasting approaches are needed to respond to the increasing number of infectious disease outbreaks. In this paper, we retrospectively assess the performance of simple phenomenological models that incorporate early sub-exponential growth dynamics to generate short-term forecasts of the 2001 foot-and-mouth disease epidemic in the UK. For this purpose, we employed the generalized-growth model (GGM) for pre-peak predictions and the generalized-Richards model (GRM) for post-peak predictions...
December 13, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238108/medical-facility-statistics-in-japan
#10
REVIEW
Nobuyuki Hamajima, Takuya Sugimoto, Ryo Hasebe, Su Myat Cho, Moe Khaing, Tetsuyoshi Kariya, Yu Mon Saw, Eiko Yamamoto
Medical facility statistics provide essential information to policymakers, administrators, academics, and practitioners in the field of health services. In Japan, the Health Statistics Office of the Director-General for Statistics and Information Policy at the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare is generating these statistics. Although the statistics are widely available in both Japanese and English, the methodology described in the technical reports are primarily in Japanese, and are not fully described in English...
November 2017: Nagoya Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237535/-application-of-movement-recognition-technology-in-assessing-spontaneous-general-movements-in-preterm-infants
#11
Hong-Hua Li, Ling Shan, Bing Wang, Fei-Yong Jia
Preterm birth is a major factor which induces neurological and motor impairments, particularly cerebral palsy, in high-risk infants. Early identification of potential neurodevelopmental impairments provides the opportunity to improve neurodevelopmental outcomes in preterm infants through early rehabilitation interventions. Clinically, the general movement assessment is a pivotal tool to predict neurodevelopmental outcomes, especially motor developmental outcomes, in high-risk infants. Movement recognition can continuously capture relevant limb movements and perform objective and quantitative assessment using computerized approaches...
December 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236942/anaesthetics-stop-diverse-plant-organ-movements-affect-endocytic-vesicle-recycling-and-ros-homeostasis-and-block-action-potentials-in-venus-flytraps
#12
K Yokawa, T Kagenishi, A Pavlovic, S Gall, M Weiland, S Mancuso, F Baluška
Background and Aims: Anaesthesia for medical purposes was introduced in the 19th century. However, the physiological mode of anaesthetic drug actions on the nervous system remains unclear. One of the remaining questions is how these different compounds, with no structural similarities and even chemically inert elements such as the noble gas xenon, act as anaesthetic agents inducing loss of consciousness. The main goal here was to determine if anaesthetics affect the same or similar processes in plants as in animals and humans...
December 11, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236883/violence-in-public-transportation-an-approach-based-on-spatial-analysis
#13
Daiane Castro Bittencourt de Sousa, Cira Souza Pitombo, Samille Santos Rocha, Ana Rita Salgueiro, Juan Pedro Moreno Delgado
OBJECTIVE: To carry out a spatial analysis of the occurrence of acts of violence (specifically robberies) in public transportation, identifying the regions of greater incidence, using geostatistics, and possible causes with the aid of a multicriteria analysis in the Geographic Information System. METHODS: The unit of analysis is the traffic analysis zone of the survey named Origem-Destino, carried out in Salvador, state of Bahia, in 2013. The robberies recorded by the Department of Public Security of Bahia in 2013 were located and made compatible with the limits of the traffic analysis zones and, later, associated with the respective centroids...
December 11, 2017: Revista de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236691/activation-mechanism-of-the-calcium-activated-chloride-channel-tmem16a-revealed-by-cryo-em
#14
Cristina Paulino, Valeria Kalienkova, Andy K M Lam, Yvonne Neldner, Raimund Dutzler
The calcium-activated chloride channel TMEM16A is a ligand-gated anion channel that opens in response to an increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration. The protein is broadly expressed and contributes to diverse physiological processes, including transepithelial chloride transport and the control of electrical signalling in smooth muscles and certain neurons. As a member of the TMEM16 (or anoctamin) family of membrane proteins, TMEM16A is closely related to paralogues that function as scramblases, which facilitate the bidirectional movement of lipids across membranes...
December 13, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235990/the-fokker-planck-equation-for-coupled-brown-neel-rotation
#15
Juergen Weizenecker
Calculating the dynamic properties of magnetization of single-domain particles is of great importance for the tomographic imaging modality known as magnetic particle imaging (MPI). Although the assumption of instantaneous thermodynamic equilibrium (Langevin function) after application of time-dependent magnetic fields is sufficient for understanding the fundamental behavior, it is essential to consider the finite response times of magnetic particles for optimizing or analyzing various aspects, e.g., interpreting spectra, optimizing MPI sequences, developing new contrasts, and evaluating simplified models...
December 13, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235521/infrared-actuation-induced-simultaneous-reconfiguration-of-surface-color-and-morphology-for-soft-robotics
#16
Seyedali Banisadr, Jian Chen
Cephalopods, such as cuttlefish, demonstrate remarkable adaptability to the coloration and texture of their surroundings by modulating their skin color and surface morphology simultaneously, for the purpose of adaptive camouflage and signal communication. Inspired by this unique feature of cuttlefish skins, we present a general approach to remote-controlled, smart films that undergo simultaneous changes of surface color and morphology upon infrared (IR) actuation. The smart film has a reconfigurable laminated structure that comprises an IR-responsive nanocomposite actuator layer and a mechanochromic elastomeric photonic crystal layer...
December 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235424/fundamental-movement-skills-of-children-living-in-england-the-role-of-ethnicity-and-native-english-language
#17
Emma L J Eyre, Leanne Jaye Walker, Michael J Duncan
The development of fundamental movement skills (FMS) has been associated with children's general health, and, while there is evidence to suggest that age, gender, physical activity, and socioeconomic status relate to FMS, the relationship of ethnicity and language barriers to FMS competence has been underexplored. These factors may be of particular interest for South Asian (SA) children who have lower physical activity and increased risk of metabolic disease. This cross-sectional study examined ethnic and language differences in FMS among 218 ethnically diverse five-year-old children (61 White ethnic background, 91 SA, 29 Black ethnic background, and 37 other), some with English as a native language ( n = 90) and some with English as an additional language ( n = 75), all recruited from within central England...
January 1, 2017: Perceptual and Motor Skills
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229398/can-an-aversive-extinction-resistant-memory-trigger-impairments-in-walking-adaptability-an-experimental-study-using-adult-rats
#18
Filipe Mello Medeiros, Jociane de Carvalho Myskiw, Pedro Porto Alegre Baptista, Laura Tartari Neves, Lucas Athaydes Martins, Cristiane Regina Guerino Furini, Iván Izquierdo, Léder Leal Xavier, Kristen Hollands, Régis Gemerasca Mestriner
Cognitive demands can influence the adaptation of walking, a crucial skill to maintain body stability and prevent falls. Whilst previous research has shown emotional load tunes goal-directed movements, little attention has been given to this finding. This study sought to assess the effects of suffering an extinction-resistant memory on skilled walking performance in adult rats, as an indicator of walking adaptability. Thus, 36 Wistar rats were divided in a two-part experiment. In the first part (n=16), the aversive, extinction-resistance memory paradigm was established using a fear-conditioning chamber...
December 8, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228877/homogenization-techniques-for-population-dynamics-in-strongly-heterogeneous-landscapes
#19
Brian P Yurk, Christina A Cobbold
An important problem in spatial ecology is to understand how population-scale patterns emerge from individual-level birth, death, and movement processes. These processes, which depend on local landscape characteristics, vary spatially and may exhibit sharp transitions through behavioural responses to habitat edges, leading to discontinuous population densities. Such systems can be modelled using reaction-diffusion equations with interface conditions that capture local behaviour at patch boundaries. In this work we develop a novel homogenization technique to approximate the large-scale dynamics of the system...
December 2018: Journal of Biological Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226463/which-limb-is-it-responses-to-vibrotactile-stimulation-in-early-infancy
#20
Eszter Somogyi, Lisa Jacquey, Tobias Heed, Matej Hoffmann, Jeffrey J Lockman, Lionel Granjon, Jacqueline Fagard, J Kevin O'Regan
This study focuses on how the body schema develops during the first months of life, by investigating infants' motor responses to localized vibrotactile stimulation on their limbs. Vibrotactile stimulation was provided by small buzzers that were attached to the infants' four limbs one at a time. Four age groups were compared cross-sectionally (3-, 4-, 5-, and 6-month-olds). We show that before they actually reach for the buzzer, which, according to previous studies, occurs around 7-8 months of age, infants demonstrate emerging knowledge about their body's configuration by producing specific movement patterns associated with the stimulated body area...
December 11, 2017: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
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