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Wesley Thevathasan, Elena Moro
Pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an experimental treatment for in Parkinson's disease (PD) which offers a fairly circumscribed benefit for gait freezing and perhaps balance impairment. The benefit on gait freezing is variable and typically incomplete, which may reflect that the clinical application is yet to be optimised or reflect a fundamental limitation of the therapeutic mechanism. Thus, a better understanding of the therapeutic mechanism of PPN DBS may guide the further development of this therapy...
June 19, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
Evan Cesanek, Fulvio Domini
An influential idea in cognitive neuroscience is that perception and action are highly separable brain functions, implemented in distinct neural systems. In particular, this theory predicts that the functional distinction between grasping, a skilled action, and manual estimation, a type of perceptual report, should be mirrored by a split between their respective control systems. This idea has received support from a variety of dissociations, yet many of these findings have been criticized for failing to pinpoint the source of the dissociation...
June 19, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Vernon Lawhern, Amelia Solon, Nicholas Waytowich, Stephen M Gordon, Chou Hung, Brent J Lance
OBJECTIVE: Brain computer interfaces (BCI) enable direct communication with a computer, using neural activity as the control signal. This neural signal is generally chosen from a variety of well-studied electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. For a given BCI paradigm, feature extractors and classifiers are tailored to the distinct characteristics of its expected EEG control signal, limiting its application to that specific signal. Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs), which have been used in computer vision and speech recognition to perform automatic feature extraction and classification, have successfully been applied to EEG-based BCIs; however, they have mainly been applied to single BCI paradigms and thus it remains unclear how these architectures generalize to other paradigms...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
Dana Khaled Almedallah, Dana Yousef Alshamlan, Erum Mubbashir Shariff
Myoclonus is an abnormal involuntary movement that has been previously reported with administration of high doses of opioids for prolonged periods of time. In this case, however, we report an acute myoclonic reaction and review the literature on the possible causative pathophysiology. We report the case of a 24-year-old woman who was admitted for postdated cesarean section. She started to have abnormal involuntary movements after administration of an epidural anesthesia containing 700 μg of fentanyl with 115 mL (0...
May 2018: Case Reports in Neurology
Ron R Neyens, George E Gaskill, Julio A Chalela
OBJECTIVES: Anti-N-methyl-D-asparate receptor encephalitis is considered an immune-mediated form of encephalitis with paraneoplastic and nonparaneoplastic forms. Delay in recognition is common and patients typically present to the ICU without a diagnosis or with complications following a delayed diagnosis. The aim of this review is to provide a focused overview for the ICU clinician regarding presentation, diagnosis, and critical care management. DATA SOURCES, STUDY SELECTION, AND DATA EXTRACTION: PubMed database search with manual review of articles involving anti-N-methyl-D-asparate receptor encephalitis...
June 20, 2018: Critical Care Medicine
Emily Shepherd, Rehana A Salam, Philippa Middleton, Shanshan Han, Maria Makrides, Sarah McIntyre, Nadia Badawi, Caroline A Crowther
BACKGROUND: Cerebral palsy is an umbrella term that encompasses disorders of movement and posture attributed to non-progressive disturbances occurring in the developing foetal or infant brain. As there are diverse risk factors and aetiologies, no one strategy will prevent cerebral palsy. Therefore, there is a need to systematically consider all potentially relevant interventions for prevention. OBJECTIVES: PrimaryTo summarise the evidence from Cochrane Systematic Reviews regarding effects of neonatal interventions for preventing cerebral palsy (reducing cerebral palsy risk)...
June 20, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Michael L Kuntz, Ryan Vadori, M Ibraheem Khan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Gentle and continuous loads are preferred for optimum orthodontic tooth movement. Nitinol, an alloy of nickel and titanium developed for the aerospace industry, found its first clinical applications in orthodontics because it has ideal load-deflection behavior. The purpose of this review is to elucidate the criteria for effective orthodontic mechanics relative to emerging Nitinol technology. The specialized materials with variable stiffness that were originally developed for orthodontics are increasingly attractive for in the temporomandibular joint, orthognathic surgery, and orthopedics...
June 20, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Jean-Christophe Corvol, Fanny Artaud, Florence Cormier-Dequaire, Olivier Rascol, Franck Durif, Pascal Derkinderen, Ana-Raquel Marques, Frédéric Bourdain, Jean-Philippe Brandel, Fernando Pico, Lucette Lacomblez, Cecilia Bonnet, Christine Brefel-Courbon, Fabienne Ory-Magne, David Grabli, Stephan Klebe, Graziella Mangone, Hana You, Valérie Mesnage, Pei-Chen Lee, Alexis Brice, Marie Vidailhet, Alexis Elbaz
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the longitudinal dose-effect relationship between dopamine replacement therapy and impulse control disorders (ICDs) in Parkinson disease (PD). METHODS: We used data from a multicenter longitudinal cohort of consecutive patients with PD with ≤5 years' disease duration at baseline followed up annually up to 5 years. ICDs were evaluated during face-to-face semistructured interviews with movement disorder specialists. Generalized estimating equations and Poisson models with robust variance were used to study the association between several time-dependent definitions of dopamine agonist (DA) use, taking dose and duration of treatment into account, and ICDs at each visit...
June 20, 2018: Neurology
Luke Browne, Kym Ottewell, Victoria L Sork, Jordan Karubian
Seed and pollen dispersal shape patterns of gene flow and genetic diversity in plants. Pollen is generally thought to travel longer distances than seeds, but seeds determine the ultimate location of gametes. Resolving how interactions between these two dispersal processes shape micro-evolutionary processes is a long-standing research priority. We unambiguously isolated the separate and combined contributions of these two dispersal processes in seedlings of the animal-dispersed palm Oenocarpus bataua to address two questions...
June 20, 2018: Molecular Ecology
Madhur Mangalam
How patterns of covariance in motor output and neural activity emerge over the course of learning is a topic of ongoing investigation. Vaidya et al. (J Neurophysiol 119: 1291-1304, 2018) investigate the emergence of patterns of covariance in the motor output and neural activity in chronically amputated macaques learning reach-to-grasp movements with a brain-machine interface. The authors' findings have implications for uncovering general principles of how neural coordination unfolds while learning a different motor behavior...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Darius K L Aw, Hao-Yun Yap, Luke H T Tay, Kiang-Hiong Tay, Tze-Tec Chong
Introduction: In general, arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are extremely rare, with an incidence of only 1 in 100,000. They are rarer still in the hands and present variably with bleeding, heaviness, a pulsatile mass, pain, ulceration, or necrosis. Report: The case of a 25 year old man with a rapidly bleeding right thumb AVM is presented. Bleeding was torrential and life threatening within a matter of seconds. He had previously undergone surgical ligation and embolisation twice at another centre, without success...
2018: EJVES Short Reports
Antonio Madrid, Elena Madinabeitia-Mancebo, Javier Cudeiro, Pablo Arias
The central drive to the muscle reduces when muscle force wanes during sustained MVC, and this is generally considered the neurophysiological footprint of central fatigue. The question is if force loss and the failure of central drive to the muscle are responsible mechanisms of fatigue induced by un-resisted repetitive movements. In various experimental blocks, we validated a 3D-printed hand-fixation system permitting the execution of finger-tapping and maximal voluntary contractions (MVC). Subsequently, we checked the suitability of the system to test the level of central drive to the muscle and developed an algorithm to test it at the MVC force plateau...
June 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Pierrette Menanteau, Florent Kempf, Jerome Trotereau, Isabelle Virlogeux-Payant, Edouard Gitton, Julie Dalifard, Irene Gabriel, Ivan Rychlik, Philippe Velge
Carriage of Salmonella is often associated with a high level of bacterial excretion and generally occurs after a short systemic infection. However, we do not know whether this systemic infection is required or whether the carrier-state corresponds to continuous reinfection or real persistence in caecal tissue. The use of a Salmonella Enteritidis bamB mutant demonstrated that a carrier-state could be obtained in chicken in the absence of systemic infection. The development of a new infection model in isolator showed that a marked decrease in animal reinfection and host-to-host transmission between chicks led to a heterogeneity of S...
June 19, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Helen Richmond, Clare Lait, Cynthia Srikesavan, Esther Williamson, Jane Moser, Meredith Newman, Lauren Betteley, Beth Fordham, Sophie Rees, Sarah E Lamb, Julie Bruce
BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal shoulder problems are common after breast cancer treatment. There is some evidence to suggest that early postoperative exercise is safe and may improve shoulder function. We describe the development and delivery of a complex intervention for evaluation within a randomised controlled trial (RCT), designed to target prevention of musculoskeletal shoulder problems after breast cancer surgery (The Prevention of Shoulder Problems Trial; PROSPER). METHODS: A pragmatic, multicentre RCT to compare the clinical and cost-effectiveness of best practice usual care versus a physiotherapy-led exercise and behavioural support intervention in women at high risk of shoulder problems after breast cancer treatment...
June 18, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Samantha J Prosser, Adrian G Barnett, Yvette D Miller
BACKGROUND: In response to rising rates of medical intervention in birth, there has been increased international interest in promoting normal birth (without induction of labour, epidural/spinal/general anaesthesia, episiotomy, forceps/vacuum, or caesarean section). However, there is limited evidence for how best to achieve increased rates of normal birth. In this study we examined the role of modifiable and non-modifiable factors in experiencing a normal birth using retrospective, self-reported data...
June 18, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Heli Aho, Timo Kauppila, Maija Haanpää
Background and aims As far as we know, the range of issues particular to social work, when working with clients at a pain clinic has not been previously researched. Methods A retrospective study of referrals at the multidisciplinary Pain Clinic of Helsinki University Central Hospital was conducted based on medical records, focusing on pain conditions, treatments and patient flow. Variables used were age, gender, pain conditions, treatment interventions, pain duration and intensity, disruption in everyday life due to pain, psychiatric co-morbidities, referrals, outside care providers, post-treatment care and health habits...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Harald Breivik, Tone Marte Ljosaa, Kristian Stengaard-Pedersen, Jan Persson, Hannu Aro, John Villumsen, Dorthe Tvinnemose
Objective Patients with osteoarthritis (OA) pain often have insufficient pain relief from non-opioid analgesics. The aim of this trial was to study efficacy and tolerability of a low dose 7-day buprenorphine transdermal delivery system, added to a NSAID or coxib regimen, in opioid-naïve patients with moderate to severe OA pain. Methods A 6 months randomised, double-blind, parallel-group study at 19 centres in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden, in which OA patients (>40 years) with at least moderate radiographic OA changes and at least moderate pain in a hip and/or knee while on a NSAID or a coxib were randomised to a 7-day buprenorphine patch (n = 100) or an identical placebo patch (n = 99)...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Gro Killi Haugstad, Unni Kirste, Siv Leganger, Elin Haakonsen, Tor S Haugstad
Introduction We have developed somatocognitive therapy as a hybrid of Mensendieck physiotherapy and cognitive psychotherapy. Womenwith chronic pelvic pain (CPP) and vulvodynia (chronic pain of the vulvae and vestibulum, VD) were recruited into two separate treatment protocols as described. Methods 60 patients with CPP were recruited from the Department of Gynaecology at the Oslo University Hospital into a randomized, controlled intervention study. The patients were randomized into three treatment groups, receiving (1) treatment as usual, (2) somatocognitive therapy, and (3) in addition receiving cognitive therapy...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Gro Killi Haugstad, Unni Kirste, Siv Leganger, Elin Haakonsen, Tor S Haugstad
Historic background and development of our somatocognitive approach Mensendieck physiotherapy of the Oslo School is a tradition of physiotherapy founded by the American physician Bess Mensendieck, a contemporary and fellow student of Sigmund Freud at the Paris School of Neurology. It builds on the principles of functional anatomy and the theories of motor learning. We have further developed the theory and practice from this physiotherapy tradition, challenged by the enormous load of patients with longstanding, incapacitating pain on western health care systems, by seeking to incorporate inspirational ideas from body oriented dynamic psychotherapy and cognitive psychotherapy...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Gerhard H H Müller-Schwefe, Michael A Überall
Background and purpose Botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) has antinociceptive and muscle-relaxant properties. The objectives of this study were to investigate the efficacy and safety of a single BoNT-A (Dysport®) treatment in myofascial back pain. Methods In this randomized, open-label, multicenter study, adults with myofascial lower back pain received Dysport® injections at four trigger points (60,80 or 120 units per injection point). Patients were followed for 12 weeks. The a priori primary endpoint was a pooled evaluation, at Week 6, of seven measures of efficacy, including pain intensity (patient diary), modified Pain Disability Index (PDI) score, use of interfering concomitant analgesics, and patient-rated global efficacy...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
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