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Blood tests for heavy metal screens

Donna Green, Marianne Sullivan, Nathan Cooper, Annika Dean, Cielo Marquez
Mount Isa, Queensland, is one of three Australian cities with significant lead emissions due to nonferrous mining and smelting. Unlike the two other cities with lead mines or smelters, Mount Isa currently has no system of annual, systematic, community-wide blood lead level testing; and testing rates among Indigenous children are low. In previous screenings, this group of children has been shown to have higher average blood lead levels than non-Indigenous children. The first aim of this study was to assess whether parents and children would participate in less invasive, rapid point-of-care capillary testing...
December 13, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Samira Alinejad, Jan Aaseth, Mohammad Abdollahi, Hossein Hassanian-Moghaddam, Omid Mehrpour
Adulteration of drugs with poisonous substances during production or consumption has caused numerous health problems. Among contaminants that have the potential of producing poisonous effects are the heavy metals lead, arsenic and thallium that make up an important group of toxic substances. The emergence of these new health problems related to opioid abuse has precipitated this MiniReview on the status of the most hazardous and common opioid adulterants. In fact, adulterated opium is a major public health problem and can threaten the health of users...
January 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
Shimaa M Motawei, Hossam E Gouda
Heavy metals toxicity is a prevalent health problem particularly in developing countries. Mercury and cadmium are toxic elements that have no physiologic functions in human body. They should not be present in the human body by any concentration. Copper, on the other hand, is one of the elements that are essential for normal cell functions and a deficiency as well as an excess of which can cause adverse health effects. To test blood levels of mercury, cadmium, and copper in pregnant women in Dakahlia, Egypt...
June 2016: Biological Trace Element Research
Ghan-Shyam Lohiya, Sapna Lohiya, Sunita Lohiya, Vijay Krishna
Background. Scombrotoxinism is an acute toxin-induced illness caused primarily by bacterial synthesis of histamine in decomposed fish. Case Report. Immediately after taking 2-3 bites of cooked salmon, a clerical worker developed oral burning, urticaria, and asthma. In the emergency department, she was diagnosed with "allergies"; scombrotoxinism was never considered. She then developed wide-ranging symptoms (e.g., chronic fatigue, asthma, anxiety, multiple chemical sensitivity, and paresthesiae) and saw many specialists (in pulmonology, otorhinolaryngology, allergy, toxicology, neurology, psychology, and immunology)...
2015: Case Reports in Emergency Medicine
John J Devlin, Adam C Pomerleau, Jeffrey Brent, Brent W Morgan, Scott Deitchman, Michael Schwartz
Safety concerns regarding cobalt-containing metal alloy hip prosthetics (Co-HP) have resulted in product recalls, a medical device alert, and issuance of guidance for clinicians. Recently, cases of suspected prosthetic hip-associated cobalt toxicity (PHACT) from Co-HP have been reported. Although little is known about suspected PHACT, these patients may be referred to medical toxicologists for evaluation and management recommendations. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and unpublished abstracts from toxicology scientific meetings for references relevant to PHACT...
December 2013: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
William E Funk, John K McGee, Andrew F Olshan, Andrew J Ghio
Exposures to heavy metals during fetal and perinatal development are of particular concern. Yet, the health impacts of exposures to toxic metals during these early stages of human development are not well understood due to the paucity of in vivo human data. Dried blood spots (DBS), collected by public health departments to screen for inherited metabolic errors and other disorders, are routinely archived and can be used for exposure assessment. Here we report an improved method for quantifying arsenic, lead, mercury and cadmium in newborn DBS to facilitate epidemiologic research on the health effects of early exposures to toxic metals...
March 2013: Biomarkers: Biochemical Indicators of Exposure, Response, and Susceptibility to Chemicals
Jorge Martínez, Donald L Montgomery, Francisco A Uzal
Vascular mineralization (siderocalcinosis) in the brain of horses has been usually assumed to be an incidental age-related finding with no clinic significance. In the present study, eight 15-32-year-old horses of different breeds with cerebral siderocalcinosis were studied. Four of these horses had acute and severe central nervous system clinical signs of unknown etiology, 2 horses had neurological signs of known cause, and 2 horses did not have neurological signs. Gross examination of the brains in 4 animals revealed symmetrical foci of malacia in the cerebellar white matter...
May 2012: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Rosanna Squitti, G Gorgone, V Panetta, R Lucchini, S Bucossi, E Albini, L Alessio, A Alberici, J M Melgari, L Benussi, G Binetti, P M Rossini, F Draicchio
Valcamonica is an Italian valley where ferro-manganese industries have been active for a century and where an increased prevalence of parkinsonism was observed. A group of 93 patients (65 from Valcamonica, 28 from the reference area of Brescia city) and 76 controls (52 from Valcamonica, 24 from Brescia) were screened for serum Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn in blood (MnB) and urine (MnU), transferrin, peroxides, alanine (ALT) and aspartate (AST) transaminases and direct bilirubin. Test results were compared among groups according to the residential area and related to the disease severity...
October 2009: Journal of Neural Transmission
F Mouchet, L Gauthier, C Mailhes, M J Jourdain, V Ferrier, A Devaux
Management of contaminated dredged sediments is a matter of great human concern. The present investigation evaluates the genotoxic potential of aqueous extracts of five sediments from French channels (draining water from dredged sediments), using larvae of the frog Xenopus laevis. Two genotoxic endpoints were analyzed in larvae: clastogenic and/or aneugenic effects (micronucleus induction after 12 d of exposure) and DNA-strand breaking potency (comet assay after 1 and 12 d of exposure) in the circulating blood...
May 28, 2005: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Tolga Cavas, Natasha N Garanko, Victor V Arkhipchuk
Common carp (Cyprinus carpio), Prussian carp (Carassius gibelio) and Peppered cory (Corydoras paleatus) were evaluated as target species to perform genotoxicity tests for heavy metals. Fishes were exposed to different doses of cadmium (0.005-0.1 mg/L) and copper (0.01-0.25 mg/L) for 21 days. Hexavalent chromium at a single dose of 5 mg/L was used as a positive control. Frequencies of micronuclei and binuclei were evaluated comparatively in peripheral blood erythrocytes, gill epithelial cells and liver cells...
April 2005: Food and Chemical Toxicology
O Mameli, M A Caria, F Melis, A Solinas, C Tavera, A Ibba, M Tocco, C Flore, F Sanna Randaccio
The effects of lead exposure at low concentrations were evaluated by studying the post-rotatory nystagmus (PRN) in two groups of rats exposed for 3 months to 50 parts per million (ppm) of sodium acetate and 50 ppm of lead acetate, respectively, in the drinking water. Only animals treated with lead acetate showed changes of the PRN parameters which were significantly related to the concentration of lead in the blood and in brain structures. The patterns of PRN responses were characterized and classified into four types: progressively inhibitory (40%), prematurely inhibitory (25%), late inhibitory (25%), and excitatory-inhibitory (10%)...
May 15, 2001: Brain Research Bulletin
J S Grewal, R P Tiwari
Milk samples and milk products (69 in toto) were screened for the presence of Klebsiella pneumoniae (52%), and maximum isolations (77%) were from ice cream samples (13). The isolates were hydrophobic, non-haemolytic and possessed both mannose resistant (MR) and mannose sensitive (MS) pili or only MR pili when tested with human or sheep blood, respectively. All isolates were resistant to one metal at least whereas about 98% exhibited resistance to two or more metal ions. The resistance frequency of 93%, 90% and 66...
1999: Cytobios
J Accomando, A D'Agostino, H M Adelman
MEDICAL HISTORY: Type 2 diabetes mellitus for five years; unexplained 35-lb weight loss three years ago; Bell's palsy on right side many years ago. MEDICATIONS: Glipizide, 10 mg/day. FAMILY HISTORY: Father died of leukemia at age 65; mother has kidney stones; no diabetes or neuromuscular disease. SOCIAL HISTORY: Insurance salesman; heterosexual, promiscuous, uses condoms; smokes (25 pack years); does not drink. PHYSICAL EXAMINATION: Well-nourished, well developed, not in acute distress; had difficulty rising from a sitting position because of right lower extremity weakness...
May 15, 1999: Hospital Practice (Minneapolis)
W G Bithoney
Every child with failure to thrive has at least one organic medical disease: malnutrition. It is well documented that lead and other heavy metals are absorbed more readily in the presence of both malnutrition and iron deficiency anemia. Malnutrition and lead exposure tend to be found in the same population groups. Furthermore, lead poisoning is correlated with many of the identical intellectual and behavioral deficits demonstrated in children suffering from nonorganic failure to thrive. Because of these facts, whole blood lead levels were determined for 45 children with nonorganic failure to thrive and 45 age-, race-, and socioeconomically matched comparison subjects...
November 1986: Pediatrics
W F Finn
Several characteristics of normal renal function increase the risk to the kidney of damage by environmental toxins. Due to the magnitude of renal blood flow the total amount of noxious substance delivered may be disproportionately high. Furthermore, the capacity to concentrate substances within the kidney by processes of filtration, reabsorption and secretion has the potential to increase the toxicity of agents which would otherwise not lead to tissue injury. Unfortunately, there are few tests of renal function which are able to detect early functional abnormalities and which, at the same time, are suited for screening purposes by virtue of their simplicity, cost and safety...
October 1977: Environmental Health Perspectives
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