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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536194/wild-tobacco-genomes-reveal-the-evolution-of-nicotine-biosynthesis
#1
Shuqing Xu, Thomas Brockmöller, Aura Navarro-Quezada, Heiner Kuhl, Klaus Gase, Zhihao Ling, Wenwu Zhou, Christoph Kreitzer, Mario Stanke, Haibao Tang, Eric Lyons, Priyanka Pandey, Shree P Pandey, Bernd Timmermann, Emmanuel Gaquerel, Ian T Baldwin
Nicotine, the signature alkaloid of Nicotiana species responsible for the addictive properties of human tobacco smoking, functions as a defensive neurotoxin against attacking herbivores. However, the evolution of the genetic features that contributed to the assembly of the nicotine biosynthetic pathway remains unknown. We sequenced and assembled genomes of two wild tobaccos, Nicotiana attenuata (2.5 Gb) and Nicotiana obtusifolia (1.5 Gb), two ecological models for investigating adaptive traits in nature. We show that after the Solanaceae whole-genome triplication event, a repertoire of rapidly expanding transposable elements (TEs) bloated these Nicotiana genomes, promoted expression divergences among duplicated genes, and contributed to the evolution of herbivory-induced signaling and defenses, including nicotine biosynthesis...
May 23, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535580/gastroparesis-updates-on-pathogenesis-and-management
#2
REVIEW
Nanlong Liu, Thomas Abell
Gastroparesis (Gp) is a chronic disease that presents with clinical symptoms of early satiety, bloating, nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. Along with these symptoms, an objective finding of delayed gastric emptying, along with a documented absence of gastric outlet obstruction, are required for diagnosis. This article focuses on updates in the pathogenesis and management of Gp. Recent studies on full thickness biopsies of Gp patients have shed light on the complex interactions of the central, autonomic, and enteric nervous systems, which all play key roles in maintaining normal gut motility...
May 25, 2017: Gut and Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528364/a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial-of-a-multi-strain-probiotic-in-treatment-of-symptomatic-uncomplicated-diverticular-disease
#3
Charlotte L Kvasnovsky, Ingvar Bjarnason, Ana Nora Donaldson, Roy A Sherwood, Savvas Papagrigoriadis
BACKGROUND: Diverticular disease is a significant burden on healthcare systems that is managed, surgically or medically, mainly as an emergency or acute condition. There are no standardized treatment recommendations for symptomatic uncomplicated disease. We hypothesized that a probiotic would reduce abdominal pain in such patients. METHODS: We conducted a single-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of probiotic treatment (Symprove) in adult patients with moderate-to-severe chronic, non-acute symptomatic diverticular disease...
May 20, 2017: Inflammopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527363/postmortem-microbial-communities-in-burial-soil-layers-of-skeletonized-humans
#4
Torri B Thomas, Sheree J Finley, Jeremy E Wilkinson, Daniel J Wescott, Azriel Gorski, Gulnaz T Javan
Microorganisms are major ecological participants in the successional decomposition of vertebrates. The relative abundance, or the scarcity, of certain microbial taxa in gravesoil has the potential to determine the ecological status of skeletons. However, there are substantial knowledge gaps that warrant consideration in the context of the surrounding terrestrial ecosystem. In the current study, we hypothesized that i.) soil microbial diversity is disparate in the latter stage of decomposition (skeletonization) compared to the earlier stages (fresh, bloat, active and advanced decay), and ii...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525543/fermentable-carbohydrates-fodmaps-exacerbate-functional-gastrointestinal-symptoms-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-a-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-cross-over-re-challenge-trial
#5
Selina R Cox, Alexis C Prince, Clio E Myers, Peter M Irving, James O Lindsay, Miranda C Lomer, Kevin Whelan
Background and Aims: Preliminary evidence suggests fermentable carbohydrate restriction might ameliorate functional gastrointestinal symptoms (FGS) in quiescent inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Our aim was to determine whether fermentable carbohydrates exacerbate FGS in quiescent IBD using a randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, cross-over, re-challenge trial. Methods: Patients with quiescent IBD and FGS responsive to a low FODMAP diet were allocated to a series of 3-day fermentable carbohydrate challenges in random order (fructan, 12 g/d; galacto-oligosaccharides, GOS, 6 g/d; sorbitol, 6 g/d; and glucose placebo, 12 g/d), each separated by a standardised washout period...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521679/diet-after-cholecystectomy
#6
Donato F Altomare, Maria T Rotelli, Nicola Palasciano
Patients with gallstones are often affected by alimentary disorders contributing to the onset of gallstones disease. Cholecystectomy can have nutritional and metabolic consequences in the short-term (diarrhea, abdominal pain and bloating) and in the long-term (increased Body Mass Index with metabolic syndrome, gastritis, liposoluble vitamin deficiency). Pathogenic mechanisms behind these disturbances are reviewed and the need for an early post-operative nutritional intervention based on low-lipid, high-fibers diet, is highlighted...
May 17, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514243/celiac-disease-symptom-resolution-effectiveness-of-the-gluten-free-diet
#7
Naire Sansotta, Stefano Guandalini, Karine Amirikian, Hilary Jericho
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of the gluten free diet (GFD) on gastrointestinal and extra-intestinal symptom resolution and identify predictors for persistence of symptoms in all celiac patients at the University of Chicago. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart review from 2002 to 2015. Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms included: abdominal pain, bloating, constipation, diarrhea, failure to thrive/weight loss, nausea, reflux and vomiting. Extra-intestinal (EI) symptoms included: abnormal liver enzymes, arthralgia/arthritis, dermatitis herpetiformis, alopecia, fatigue, headache, anemia, stomatitis, myalgia, psychiatric disorders, rashes, seizures, neuropathy, short stature, delayed puberty, osteoporosis, and infertility...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511161/-the-diagnostics-and-clinical-pattern-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-patients-with-pre-diabetes-and-type-2-diabetes-and-obesity
#8
Ксенія І Чубірко
INTRODUCTION: The data of epidemiological researches confirm the tendency in increasing of non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in patients with insulin resistance which occurs because of obesity, diabetes type 2 and metabolic syndrome. AIM: Optimization of diagnostic and treatment efficacy in patients with non alcoholic steatosis and steatohepatitis on the background of obesity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: General clinical examination of patients, laboratory and instrumental methods ( fatty liver index, non invasive assessment of liver, morphology, electrocardiography, treadmillergometry, ultrasound examination of abdominal organs, liver elastography,CT,MRI, methods of statistical analysis...
2017: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508867/bloating-and-abdominal-distension-old-misconceptions-and-current-knowledge
#9
REVIEW
Juan R Malagelada, Anna Accarino, Fernando Azpiroz
Bloating, as a symptom and abdominal distension, as a sign, are both common functional-type complaints and challenging to manage effectively. Individual patients may weight differently the impact of bloating and distension on their well-being. Complaints may range from chronic highly distressing pain to simply annoying and unfashionable protrusion of the abdomen. To avoid mishaps, organic bloating, and distension should always be considered first and appropriated assessed. Functional bloating and distension often present in association with other manifestations of irritable bowel syndrome or functional dyspepsia and in that context patients tend to regard them as most troublesome...
May 16, 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502964/primary-volvulus-of-the-small-intestine-exhibiting-chylous-ascites-a-case-report
#10
Tamuro Hayama, Takeshi Shioya, Meishi Hankyo, Takao Shimizu, Hajime Shibuya, Osamu Komine, Yoshimasa Watanabe, Kotaro Nanbu, Taro Yamada
BACKGROUND: Primary volvulus of the small intestine associated with chylous ascites is very rare, with only four reported cases. In this paper, we report a new case of primary volvulus associated with chylous ascites. CASE PRESENTATION: The patient was a 70-year-old man. After experiencing bloating and abdominal pain for several hours, he called an ambulance and underwent an emergency examination at our hospital. Abdominal distension, pressure pain, and rebound tenderness were observed throughout his entire abdomen...
2017: Journal of Nippon Medical School, Nippon Ika Daigaku Zasshi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500589/prospective-analysis-of-minor-adverse-events-after-colon-polypectomy
#11
Soo-Kyung Park, Min-Gu Lee, Seok Hyeon Jeong, Hyo-Joon Yang, Yoon Suk Jung, Kyu Yong Choi, Hungdai Kim, Hyung Ook Kim, Kyung Uk Jeong, Ho-Kyung Chun, Dong Il Park
BACKGROUND: The risks of minor adverse events (MAEs) such as abdominal pain and bloating after colon polypectomy (CP) are less clearly documented than major adverse events. However, these complications may cause significant discomfort during the performance of normal activities. We aimed to estimate the incidence of MAE, associated risk factors, and healthcare resource utilization after CP. METHODS: Patients who underwent CP were prospectively enrolled in this study...
May 12, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493170/eluxadoline-a-review-in-diarrhoea-predominant-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#12
Gillian M Keating
Eluxadoline (Truberzi(®)) is an orally administered, minimally absorbed agent that acts locally in the gastrointestinal tract as a mixed µ-opioid receptor agonist and δ-opioid receptor antagonist. The randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multinational, phase 3 IBS-3001 and IBS-3002 trials examined the efficacy of eluxadoline in patients with diarrhoea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D). The composite response rate (i.e. the proportion of patients with improvement in both worst abdominal pain and stool consistency on ≥50% of days; primary endpoint), was significantly higher in patients receiving eluxadoline 100 mg twice daily than in those receiving placebo after 12 and 26 weeks' therapy...
June 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489765/anesthetic-management-of-cesarean-delivery-in-parturients-with-ruptured-sinus-of-valsalva-aneurysm-care-compliant-2-case-reports-and-literature-review
#13
Gang Fang, Man Li, Jian Li, Li Lin, Wei Mei
RATIONALE: Ruptured sinus of Valsalva aneurysm is rare and dangerous in parturients. Few cases of ruptured SVA in pregnancy are reported, and the anesthetic management for cesarean delivery has scarcely been described. PATIENT CONCERNS: A parturient at 37-week gestation complained of a sore throat and cough that started 3 days before admission, followed 1 day later by fever, dizziness, breathlessness, and palpitation on exertion. Case two at 36-week gestation complained of a 1-day history of bloating in the lower abdomen...
May 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480785/decomposition-patterns-of-buried-remains-at-different-intervals-in-the-central-highveld-region-of-south-africa
#14
A Marais-Werner, J Myburgh, A Meyer, W C Nienaber, M Steyn
Burial of remains is an important factor when one attempts to establish the post-mortem interval as it reduces, and in extreme cases, excludes oviposition by Diptera species. This in turn leads to modification of the decomposition process. The aim of this study was to record decomposition patterns of buried remains using a pig model. The pattern of decomposition was evaluated at different intervals and recorded according to existing guidelines. In order to contribute to our knowledge on decomposition in different settings, a quantifiable approach was followed...
January 1, 2017: Medicine, Science, and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476717/review-ulcerative-colitis-and-probiotics-an-overview
#15
Irfan Ahmad Rather, Rajib Majumder, Fanar Hamad Alshammari, Jae Gyu Park, Vivek Kumar Bajpai
Ulcerative colitis is an inflammatory disease of the large intestine whose effects are bloody diarrhea, cramping and bloating. The disease is usually relapsing and remitting. However, the cause of ulcerative colitis is not yet known. Due to this reason, finding an effective treatment has been a great challenge. The suggested medical treatment is usually composed of two portions; keeping the flare up from happening and treating the flare up when it has happened. Active flare ups are treated with corticosteroids...
September 2016: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467330/diagnosis-of-symptomatic-uncomplicated-diverticular-disease-and-the-role-of-rifaximin-in-management
#16
Giovanni Maconi
 Patients with diverticulosis who develop persistent abdominal pain, bloating and changes in bowel habits not associated with overt inflammation may have symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease (SUDD). The severity and frequency of SUDD symptoms may have an impact on daily activities and severely affect quality of life. Effective management of SUDD should follow a three part strategy: divert, tackle and maintain. Divert to make the correct diagnosis: several symptoms of SUDD are common to other conditions that require different therapeutic approaches...
April 28, 2017: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466002/efficacy-of-magnetic-sphincter-augmentation-versus-nissen-fundoplication-for-gastroesophageal-reflux-disease-in-short-term-a-meta-analysis
#17
REVIEW
Ming-Yu Chen, Di-Yu Huang, Angela Wu, Yi-Bin Zhu, He-Pan Zhu, Liu-Mei Lin, Xiu-Jun Cai
Background. The efficacy of Magnetic Sphincter Augmentation (MSA) and its outcomes for Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) are uncertain. Therefore, we aimed to summarize and analyze the efficacy of two treatments for GERD. Methods. The meta-analysis search was performed, using four databases. All studies from 2005 to 2016 were included. Pooled effect was calculated using either the fixed or random effects model. Results. A total of 4 trials included 624 patients and aimed to evaluate the differences in proton-pump inhibitor use, complications, and adverse events...
2017: Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465761/autonomic-breathing-abnormalities-in-rett-syndrome-caregiver-perspectives-in-an-international-database-study
#18
Jessica Mackay, Jenny Downs, Kingsley Wong, Jane Heyworth, Amy Epstein, Helen Leonard
BACKGROUND: Rett syndrome is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder associated with mutations in the MECP2 gene. Irregular breathing patterns and abdominal bloating are prominent but poorly understood features. Our aims were to characterize the abnormal breathing patterns and abdominal bloating, investigate the distribution of these by age and mutation type and examine their impact and management from a caregiver perspective. METHODS: We invited previously recruited families from the International Rett Syndrome Study to complete a web-based questionnaire concerning their family member with Rett syndrome aged between 2 and 57 years...
2017: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460968/ultrasound-pre-treatment-enhances-the-carrot-drying-and-rehydration
#19
Cinthia Ricce, Meliza Lindsay Rojas, Alberto Claudio Miano, Raul Siche, Pedro Esteves Duarte Augusto
The present work aimed to describe the mechanisms involved in the enhancement of the drying and rehydration process of carrot slices caused by the pre-treatment using the ultrasound technology. For that, carrot slices of 4mm of thickness were pre-treated for 30 and 60min using an ultrasonic bath (41W/L; 25kHz). The convective drying process was performed at 40 and 60°C with 2.0m/s of air velocity, while the rehydration process was performed at 25°C. The Henderson & Pabis model was used to describe the drying kinetics and the Peleg model to describe the rehydration process of the carrots slices...
November 2016: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429079/the-r2r3-myb-tt2b-and-the-bhlh-tt8-genes-are-the-major-regulators-of-proanthocyanidin-biosynthesis-in-the-leaves-of-lotus-species
#20
Francisco José Escaray, Valentina Passeri, Ana Perea-García, Cristian Javier Antonelli, Francesco Damiani, Oscar Adolfo Ruiz, Francesco Paolocci
By exploiting interspecific hybrids and their progeny, we identified key regulatory and transporter genes intimately related to proanthocyanidin biosynthesis in leaves of Lotus spp. Proanthocyanidins (PAs), known as condensed tannins, are polymeric flavonoids enriching forage legumes of key nutritional value to prevent bloating in ruminant animals. Unfortunately, major forage legumes such as alfalfa and clovers lack PAs in edible tissues. Therefore, engineering the PA trait in herbage of forage legumes is paramount to improve both ecological and economical sustainability of cattle production system...
April 20, 2017: Planta
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