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Heavy metal screen

Lin Teng, Xian Wang, Xiaojun Wang, Honglei Gou, Lihui Ren, Tingting Wang, Yun Wang, Yuetong Ji, Wei E Huang, Jian Xu
Rapid profiling of stress-response at single-cell resolution yet in a label-free, non-disruptive and mechanism-specific manner can lead to many new applications. We propose a single-cell-level biochemical fingerprinting approach named "ramanome", which is the collection of Single-cell Raman Spectra (SCRS) from a number of cells randomly selected from an isogenic population at a given time and condition, to rapidly and quantitatively detect and characterize stress responses of cellular population. SCRS of Escherichia coli cells are sensitive to both exposure time (eight time points) and dosage (six doses) of ethanol, with detection time as early as 5 min and discrimination rate of either factor over 80%...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
Mitchell K Monninger, Chrystal A Nguessan, Candace D Blancett, Kathleen A Kuehl, Cynthia A Rossi, Scott P Olschner, Priscilla L Williams, Steven L Goodman, Mei G Sun
Transmission electron microscopy can be used to observe the ultrastructure of viruses and other microbial pathogens with nanometer resolution. In a transmission electron microscope (TEM), the image is created by passing an electron beam through a specimen with contrast generated by electron scattering from dense elements in the specimen. Viruses do not normally contain dense elements, so a negative stain that places dense heavy metal salts around the sample is added to create a dark border. To prepare a virus sample for a negative stain transmission electron microscopy, a virus suspension is applied to a TEM grid specimen support, which is a 3mm diameter fragile specimen screen coated with a few nanometers of plastic film...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Virological Methods
Yutong Shi, Chengqian Pan, Bibi Nazia Auckloo, Xuegang Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur Chen, Kuiwu Wang, Xiaodan Wu, Ying Ye, Bin Wu
Marine hydrothermal microorganisms respond rapidly to the changes in the concentrations and availability of metals within hydrothermal vent microbial habitats which are strongly influenced by elevated levels of heavy metals. Most hydrothermal vent actinomycetes possess a remarkable capability for the synthesis of a broad variety of biologically active secondary metabolites. Major challenges in the screening of these microorganisms are to activate the expression of cryptic biosynthetic gene clusters and the development of technologies for efficient dereplication of known compounds...
October 11, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Lewis O J Killin, John M Starr, Ivy J Shiue, Tom C Russ
BACKGROUND: Dementia risk reduction is a major and growing public health priority. While certain modifiable risk factors for dementia have been identified, there remains a substantial proportion of unexplained risk. There is evidence that environmental risk factors may explain some of this risk. Thus, we present the first comprehensive systematic review of environmental risk factors for dementia. METHODS: We searched the PubMed and Web of Science databases from their inception to January 2016, bibliographies of review articles, and articles related to publically available environmental data...
October 12, 2016: BMC Geriatrics
Dorota Korsak, Magdalena Szuplewska
A total of 127 Listeria isolates from food and food processing environments, including 75 L. innocua, 49 L. welshimeri, 2 L. seeligeri and 1L. grayi were tested for susceptibility to eight antimicrobials, benzalkonium chloride (BC), cadmium and arsenic. The isolates were also screened for the presence of extrachromosomal genetic elements - plasmids, and their restriction pattern types were determined. All strains were susceptible to ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, gentamicin, rifampicin, trimethoprim and vancomycin...
December 5, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Jianfeng Zhang, Hongyan Hou, Guang Chen, Shusheng Wang, Jiejing Zhang
The straw can be degraded efficiently into humus by powerful enzymes from microorganisms, resulting in the accelerated circulation of N,P,K and other effective elements in ecological system. We isolated a strain through screening the straw degradation strains from natural humic straw in the low temperature area in northeast of china, which can produce cellulase efficiently. The strain was identified as Pseudomonas mendocina by using morphological, physiological, biochemical test, and molecular biological test, with the functional clarification on producing cellulase for Pseudomonas mendocina for the first time...
September 2, 2016: Bioengineered
Xiangheng Niu, Hongwei Zhang, Meihua Yu, Hongli Zhao, Minbo Lan, Chengzhong Yu
Here, the combination of Nafion with microporous hollow carbon spheres (MHCS) is first proposed to fabricate a disposable metal-free electrode for heavy metal stripping sensing. The MHCS-Nafion composite film electrode is prepared by drop-casting a mixture of MHCS and Nafion onto the lab-made screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE(*)). Results demonstrate that the interfusion of MHCS into Nafion offers enhanced performance for the electro-enrichment and stripping of lead and cadmium over the only Nafion film: 1) abundant MHCS immobilized on the electrode surface serve as effective nucleation sites for metal ion reduction; 2) the mixing of MHCS into Nafion enlarges the active surface of negative-charged Nafion for the electrostatic adsorption of metal cations...
2016: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
Bo Li, Yanhong Wang, Yong Jiang, Guochen Li, Jiehua Cui, Ying Wang, Hong Zhang, Shicheng Wang, Sheng Xu, Ruzhen Wang
Mining and smelting activities engender soil contamination by metals severely. A field survey was conducted to investigate the present situation and health risk of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Cr, As, and Hg) in soils and vegetables in the surrounding area of an 80-year-old zinc smelter in northeastern China. Soil pH, organic matter (SOM), and cation exchange capacity (CEC) were determined, and their relations with heavy metal contents in edible parts of vegetables were analyzed. Results showed that the smelting had led to the significant contamination of the local soils by Cd and Zn, with average concentrations of 3...
September 28, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Barbara Leśniewska, Marta Krymska, Ewelina Świerad, Józefa Wiater, Beata Godlewska-Żyłkiewicz
A fast ultrasound-assisted sequential extraction (UASE) procedure for the determination of cadmium, lead and nickel fractions in soil was developed and fully validated. The working parameters of an ultrasound probe were optimized by comparing the content of metals in soil extracts obtained by the UASE procedure with that obtained by the conventional (with the aid of a vertical rotor) modified Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) procedure. The content of metals in soil fractions was determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry...
September 27, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Chinnannan Karthik, Mohammad Oves, R Thangabalu, Ranandkumar Sharma, S B Santhosh, P Indra Arulselvi
Contamination of agriculture land by heavy metals is a worldwide risk that has sped up noticeably since the beginning of the industrial revolution. Hence, there arise the demands of heavy metal tolerant plant growth promoting bacterial strains for specific metal contaminated agricultural sites restoration. In this study, 36 bacterial isolates were screened out from the rhizospheric soil of Phaseolus vulgaris. Among these, two bacterial strains AR6 and AR8 were selected based on their higher Cr(VI) tolerance (1200 and 1100 μg/mL, respectively) and the maximum production of plant growth promoting substances...
November 2016: Journal of Advanced Research
Kizhakkepowathial Nair Unni, Prakasan Priji, Sreedharan Sajith, Panichikkal Abdul Faisal, Karippayi Mattil Shainy, Abraham Joseph, Moolath Girish Babu, Sailas Benjamin
Employing fluorescent quenching mechanism, type 2 pyoverdine (PVD) purified from Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain BUP2 (new strain isolated from the rumen of Malabari goat) was used as a simple, convenient and inexpensive tool for the rapid detection of Fe and Cu ions in contaminated drinking water samples. The fluorescence emitted at λ460 by PVD (in sterile water), mounted on a glass slide was efficiently quenched by the ions of heavy metals like Fe and Cu. The fluorescence quenching effect of PVD was monitored using UV trans-illuminator, and subsequently quantified and confirmed by spectrofluorimetry...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Stefan Monecke, Lutz Jatzwauk, Elke Müller, Hedda Nitschke, Katharina Pfohl, Peter Slickers, Annett Reissig, Antje Ruppelt-Lorz, Ralf Ehricht
SCCmec elements are very important mobile genetic elements in Staphylococci that carry beta-lactam resistance genes mecA/mecC, recombinase genes and a variety of accessory genes. Twelve main types and a couple of variants have yet been described. In addition, there are also other SCC elements harbouring other markers. In order to subtype strains of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) based on variations within their SCCmec elements, 86 markers were selected from published SCC sequences for an assay based on multiplexed primer extension reactions followed by hybridisation to the specific probes...
2016: PloS One
Joshua T Gamse, Daniel A Gorelick
For more than 60 years, zebrafish have been used in toxicological studies. Due to their transparency, genetic tractability, and compatibility with high-throughput screens, zebrafish embryos are uniquely suited to study the effects of pharmaceuticals and environmental insults on embryonic development, organ formation and function, and reproductive success. This special issue of Zebrafish highlights the ways zebrafish are used to investigate the toxic effects of endocrine disruptors, pesticides, and heavy metals...
October 2016: Zebrafish
Keith E Levine, Jennifer Hoponick Redmon, Myles F Elledge, Kamani P Wanigasuriya, Kristin Smith, Breda Munoz, Vajira A Waduge, Roshini J Periris-John, Nalini Sathiakumar, James M Harrington, Donna S Womack, Rajitha Wickremasinghe
The emergence of a new form of chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) in Sri Lanka's North Central Province (NCP) has become a catastrophic health crisis. CKDu is characterized as slowly progressing, irreversible, and asymptomatic until late stages and, importantly, not attributed to diabetes, hypertension, or other known risk factors. It is postulated that the etiology of CKDu is multifactorial, involving genetic predisposition, nutritional and dehydration status, exposure to one or more environmental nephrotoxins, and lifestyle factors...
October 2015: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Mei Zhang, Hui Mo, Wen Sun, Yan Guo, Jing Li
Heavy metal pollution is a major limiting factor that severely affects plant growth worldwide, and the accumulation of heavy metal in the plant may be hazardous to human health. To identify the processes involved in cadmium detoxification, we constructed a cDNA library of tobacco roots acclimated to cadmium (Cd) stress. According to the results of functional screening cDNA library with a yeast Cd-sensitive mutant, ycf1Δ, we obtained a series of candidate genes that were involved in Cd response. Sequence analysis and yeast functional complementation of 24 positive cDNA clones revealed that, in addition to antioxidant genes, genes implicated in abiotic and biotic stress defenses, cellular metabolism, and signal transduction showed Cd detoxification effects in yeast...
2016: PloS One
Lan Guo, Abantika Ganguly, Lingling Sun, Fang Suo, Li-Lin Du, Paul Russell
Heavy metals and metalloids such as cadmium [Cd(II)] and arsenic [As(III)] are widespread environmental toxicants responsible for multiple adverse health effects in humans. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying metal-induced cytotoxicity and carcinogenesis, as well as the detoxification and tolerance pathways, are incompletely understood. Here, we use global fitness profiling by barcode sequencing to quantitatively survey the Schizosaccharomyces pombe haploid deletome for genes that confer tolerance of cadmium or arsenic...
October 13, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Laila Midhat, Naaila Ouazzani, Mouhsine Esshaimi, Ahmed Ouhammou, Laila Mandi
The present paper aims to perform a screening of native plants growing in Kettara mine-Marrakech (Southern Morocco) for its phytoremediation. Plants and soil samples were collected and analyzed for Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd concentrations at several sites in the mine. The results showed that the soil in the vicinity of Kettara mine is deficient in major elements and contain toxic levels of metals. Spontaneously growing native plants were botanically identified then classified into 21 species and 14 families. Significant difference was observed among the average concentrations of four heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd) in plants (P ≤ 0...
August 23, 2016: International Journal of Phytoremediation
Jiangang He, Maximilian Amsler, Yi Xia, S Shahab Naghavi, Vinay I Hegde, Shiqiang Hao, Stefan Goedecker, Vidvuds Ozoliņš, Chris Wolverton
Semiconducting half and, to a lesser extent, full Heusler compounds are promising thermoelectric materials due to their compelling electronic properties with large power factors. However, intrinsically high thermal conductivity resulting in a limited thermoelectric efficiency has so far impeded their widespread use in practical applications. Here, we report the computational discovery of a class of hitherto unknown stable semiconducting full Heusler compounds with ten valence electrons (X_{2}YZ, X=Ca, Sr, and Ba; Y=Au and Hg; Z=Sn, Pb, As, Sb, and Bi) through high-throughput ab initio screening...
July 22, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Anna Ciok, Marcin Adamczuk, Dariusz Bartosik, Lukasz Dziewit
Pseudomonas strains isolated from the heavily-contaminated Lubin copper mine and Zelazny Most post-flotation waste reservoir in Poland were screened for the presence of integrons. This analysis revealed that two strains carried homologous DNA regions composed of a gene encoding a DNA_BRE_C domain-containing tyrosine recombinase (with no significant sequence similarity to other integrases of integrons) plus a three-component array of putative integron gene cassettes. The predicted gene cassettes encode three putative polypeptides with homology to (i) transmembrane proteins, (ii) GCN5 family acetyltransferases and (iii) hypothetical proteins of unknown function (homologous proteins are encoded by the gene cassettes of several class 1 integrons)...
July 27, 2016: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Mingying Liu, Wenming Qiu, Xuelian He, Liu Zheng, Xixi Song, Xiaojiao Han, Jing Jiang, Guirong Qiao, Jian Sang, Mingqing Liu, Renying Zhuo
Cadmium is a major toxic heavy-metal pollutant considering their bioaccumulation potential and persistence in the environment. The hyperaccumulating ecotype of Sedum alfredii Hance is a Zn/Cd co-hyperaccumulator inhabiting in a region of China with soils rich in Pb/Zn. Investigations into the underlying molecular regulatory mechanisms of Cd tolerance are of substantial interest. Here, library screening for genes related to cadmium tolerance identified a gene resembling the rubber elongation factor gene designated as SaREFl...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
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