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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881973/livestock-associated-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-la-mrsa-clonal-complex-cc-398-isolated-from-uk-animals-belong-to-european-lineages
#1
Meenaxi Sharma, Javier Nunez-Garcia, Angela M Kearns, Michel Doumith, Patrick R Butaye, M Angeles Argudín, Angela Lahuerta-Marin, Bruno Pichon, Manal AbuOun, Jon Rogers, Richard J Ellis, Christopher Teale, Muna F Anjum
In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of livestock-associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) clonal complex (CC) 398 recovered from S. aureus isolated animals in the UK. To determine possible origins of 12 LA-MRSA CC398 isolates collected after screening more than a thousand S. aureus animal isolates from the UK between 2013 and 2015, whole genome sequences (WGS) of CC398 European, including UK, and non-European isolates from diverse animal hosts were compared. Phylogenetic reconstruction applied to WGS data to assess genetic relatedness of all 89 isolates, clustered the 12 UK CC398 LA-MRSA within the European sub-lineages, although on different nodes; implicating multiple independent incursions into the UK, as opposed to a single introduction followed by clonal expansion...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865763/screening-biological-methods-for-laboratory-scale-stabilization-of-fine-fraction-from-landfill-mining
#2
Tiina J Mönkäre, Marja R T Palmroth, Jukka A Rintala
Increasing interest for the landfill mining and the amount of fine fraction (FF) in landfills (40-70% (w/w) of landfill content) mean that sustainable treatment and utilization methods for FF are needed. For this study FF (<20mm) was mined from a municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill operated from 1967 to 1989. FF, which resembles soil, was stabilized in laboratory scale reactors in two phases: first, anaerobically for 101days and second, for 72days using four different methods: anaerobic with the addition of moisture (water) or inoculum (sewage sludge) and aerobic with continuous water washing, with, or without, bulking material...
November 16, 2016: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832436/screening-of-heavy-metal-containing-waste-types-for-use-as-raw-material-in-arctic-clay-based-bricks
#3
Louise Josefine Belmonte, Lisbeth M Ottosen, Gunvor Marie Kirkelund, Pernille Erland Jensen, Andreas Peter Vestbø
In the vulnerable Arctic environment, the impact of especially hazardous wastes can have severe consequences and the reduction and safe handling of these waste types are therefore an important issue. In this study, two groups of heavy metal containing particulate waste materials, municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly and bottom ashes and mine tailings (i.e., residues from the mineral resource industry) from Greenland were screened in order to determine their suitability as secondary resources in clay-based brick production...
November 10, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825829/metagenomics-probing-pollutant-fate-in-natural-and-engineered-ecosystems
#4
REVIEW
Emna Bouhajja, Spiros N Agathos, Isabelle F George
Polluted environments are a reservoir of microbial species able to degrade or to convert pollutants to harmless compounds. The proper management of microbial resources requires a comprehensive characterization of their genetic pool to assess the fate of contaminants and increase the efficiency of bioremediation processes. Metagenomics offers appropriate tools to describe microbial communities in their whole complexity without lab-based cultivation of individual strains. After a decade of use of metagenomics to study microbiomes, the scientific community has made significant progress in this field...
November 5, 2016: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822243/screening-the-partial-coding-region-of-metallothionein-isoform-2-gene-in-zebu-cattle
#5
P N Gholap, D S Kale, K Krishnamurthi, A R Sirothia, M D Kothekar
Metallothionein (MT) is important because it binds tightly to heavy metals to decrease their toxicity. DNA was isolated from 30 toxic metal exposed and 30 toxic metal unexposed Zebu cows. The amplified metallothionein isoform-2 (MT-2) PCR product (489 bp) was further used for PCR-RFLP and DNA sequencing. MT-2 TaqI PCR-RFLP revealed homozygous genotype (AA) except for the E23 animal (AB). The genotype frequency of AA and AB (E23) genotypes in the exposed groups was 0.967 and 0.033 respectively. DNA sequencing was carried out for the toxic metal exposed sample (E23) and the control group sample (C13)...
2016: Iranian journal of veterinary research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816583/magneto-controlled-aptasensor-for-simultaneous-electrochemical-detection-of-dual-mycotoxins-in-maize-using-metal-sulfide-quantum-dots-coated-silica-as-labels
#6
Chengquan Wang, Jing Qian, Keqi An, Xingyi Huang, Lufang Zhao, Qian Liu, Nan Hao, Kun Wang
Currently there is an urgent need for multi-mycotoxin detection methods due to the co-occurrence of multiple mycotoxins in food raw materials and their augmented toxicity. Herein, a magneto-controlled aptasensor has been developed for simultaneous electrochemical detection of ochratoxin A (OTA) and fumonisin B1 (FB1), two typical mycotoxins found in food crops world-wide. This aptasensor was designed using the high specificity between the target and aptamer with heavy CdTe or PbS quantum dots (QDs) coated silica as labels and the complementary DNA functionalized magnetic beads as capture probes...
October 4, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793829/overexpression-of-ole1-enhances-cytoplasmic-membrane-stability-and-confers-resistance-to-cadmium-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#7
Zhijia Fang, Zhongxiang Chen, Song Wang, Ping Shi, Yuhu Shen, Youshang Zhang, Junhua Xiao, Zhiwei Huang
: Heavy metal cadmium is widely used and released into the environment, posing a severe threat to crops and humans. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is one of the most commonly used organisms in the investigation of environmental metal toxicity. We investigated cadmium stress and the adaptive mechanisms of yeast by screening a genome-wide essential genes overexpression library. A candidate gene, OLE1, encodes a delta-9 desaturase and was associated with high anti-cadmium activity. The results demonstrate that the expression of OLE1 is positively correlated with cadmium stress tolerance and induction was Mga2p and Spt23p (important regulatory factors of OLE1) independent...
October 28, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774412/100%C3%A2-hz-neutron-radiography-at-the-boa-beamline-using-a-parabolic-focussing-guide
#8
Pavel Trtik, Manuel Morgano, Roman Bentz, Eberhard Lehmann
The recent developments in scientific complementary metal oxide semiconductor (sCMOS) detector technology allow for imaging of relevant processes with very high temporal resolution with practically negligible readout time. However, it is neutron intensity that limits the high temporal resolution neutron imaging. In order to partially overcome the neutron intensity problem for the high temporal resolution imaging, a parabolic neutron focussing guide was utilized in the test arrangement and placed upstream the detector in such a manner that the focal point of the guide was positioned slightly behind the scintillator screen...
2016: MethodsX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770327/efficacy-of-indigenous-probiotic-lactobacillus-strains-to-reduce-cadmium-bioaccessibility%C3%A2-an-in-vitro-digestion-model
#9
Narendra Kumar, Vijay Kumar, Rohit Panwar, Chand Ram
The toxic heavy metal cadmium (Cd) appears as one of the major global threats to human and animal health. Human being and aquatic life are exposed to Cd by breathing, eating, or drinking when industrial effluents released into environment. The study was aimed to identify cadmium-binding Lactobacillus strain to reduce its bioaccessibility in in vitro digestion model. In this context, forty-eight lactobacilli strains isolated and characterized from fermented dairy products and human origin were screened for their Cd biosorption potential using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (FAAS)...
October 21, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769905/improved-method-for-effective-screening-of-acc-1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate-deaminase-producing-microorganisms
#10
Chandrashekhar Patil, Rahul Suryawanshi, Sunil Koli, Satish Patil
Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase (ACCD) producing microorganisms support plant growth under a variety of biotic and abiotic stress conditions such as drought, soil salinity, flooding, heavy metal pollution and phyto-pathogen attack. Available screening methods for ACCD give idea only about its primary microbial ACCD activity than the actual potential. In the present investigation, we have simply improved screening method by incorporating pH indicator dyes (phenol red and bromothymol blue) in ACC containing medium...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756907/label-free-rapid-and-quantitative-phenotyping-of-stress-response-in-e-coli-via-ramanome
#11
Lin Teng, Xian Wang, Xiaojun Wang, Honglei Gou, Lihui Ren, Tingting Wang, Yun Wang, Yuetong Ji, Wei E Huang, Jian Xu
Rapid profiling of stress-response at single-cell resolution yet in a label-free, non-disruptive and mechanism-specific manner can lead to many new applications. We propose a single-cell-level biochemical fingerprinting approach named "ramanome", which is the collection of Single-cell Raman Spectra (SCRS) from a number of cells randomly selected from an isogenic population at a given time and condition, to rapidly and quantitatively detect and characterize stress responses of cellular population. SCRS of Escherichia coli cells are sensitive to both exposure time (eight time points) and dosage (six doses) of ethanol, with detection time as early as 5 min and discrimination rate of either factor over 80%...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751950/preparation-of-viral-samples-within-biocontainment-for-ultrastructural-analysis-utilization-of-an-innovative-processing-capsule-for-negative-staining
#12
Mitchell K Monninger, Chrystal A Nguessan, Candace D Blancett, Kathleen A Kuehl, Cynthia A Rossi, Scott P Olschner, Priscilla L Williams, Steven L Goodman, Mei G Sun
Transmission electron microscopy can be used to observe the ultrastructure of viruses and other microbial pathogens with nanometer resolution. In a transmission electron microscope (TEM), the image is created by passing an electron beam through a specimen with contrast generated by electron scattering from dense elements in the specimen. Viruses do not normally contain dense elements, so a negative stain that places dense heavy metal salts around the sample is added to create a dark border. To prepare a virus sample for a negative stain transmission electron microscopy, a virus suspension is applied to a TEM grid specimen support, which is a 3mm diameter fragile specimen screen coated with a few nanometers of plastic film...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730337/stress-driven-discovery-of-a-cryptic-antibiotic-produced-by-streptomyces-sp-wu20-from-kueishantao-hydrothermal-vent-with-an-integrated-metabolomics-strategy
#13
Yutong Shi, Chengqian Pan, Bibi Nazia Auckloo, Xuegang Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur Chen, Kuiwu Wang, Xiaodan Wu, Ying Ye, Bin Wu
Marine hydrothermal microorganisms respond rapidly to the changes in the concentrations and availability of metals within hydrothermal vent microbial habitats which are strongly influenced by elevated levels of heavy metals. Most hydrothermal vent actinomycetes possess a remarkable capability for the synthesis of a broad variety of biologically active secondary metabolites. Major challenges in the screening of these microorganisms are to activate the expression of cryptic biosynthetic gene clusters and the development of technologies for efficient dereplication of known compounds...
October 11, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729011/environmental-risk-factors-for-dementia-a-systematic-review
#14
Lewis O J Killin, John M Starr, Ivy J Shiue, Tom C Russ
BACKGROUND: Dementia risk reduction is a major and growing public health priority. While certain modifiable risk factors for dementia have been identified, there remains a substantial proportion of unexplained risk. There is evidence that environmental risk factors may explain some of this risk. Thus, we present the first comprehensive systematic review of environmental risk factors for dementia. METHODS: We searched the PubMed and Web of Science databases from their inception to January 2016, bibliographies of review articles, and articles related to publically available environmental data...
October 12, 2016: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716469/characterization-of-nonpathogenic-listeria-species-isolated-from-food-and-food-processing-environment
#15
Dorota Korsak, Magdalena Szuplewska
A total of 127 Listeria isolates from food and food processing environments, including 75 L. innocua, 49 L. welshimeri, 2 L. seeligeri and 1L. grayi were tested for susceptibility to eight antimicrobials, benzalkonium chloride (BC), cadmium and arsenic. The isolates were also screened for the presence of extrachromosomal genetic elements - plasmids, and their restriction pattern types were determined. All strains were susceptible to ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, gentamicin, rifampicin, trimethoprim and vancomycin...
December 5, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27710430/the-isolation-and-functional-identification-on-producing-cellulase-of-pseudomonas-mendocina
#16
Jianfeng Zhang, Hongyan Hou, Guang Chen, Shusheng Wang, Jiejing Zhang
The straw can be degraded efficiently into humus by powerful enzymes from microorganisms, resulting in the accelerated circulation of N,P,K and other effective elements in ecological system. We isolated a strain through screening the straw degradation strains from natural humic straw in the low temperature area in northeast of china, which can produce cellulase efficiently. The strain was identified as Pseudomonas mendocina by using morphological, physiological, biochemical test, and molecular biological test, with the functional clarification on producing cellulase for Pseudomonas mendocina for the first time...
September 2, 2016: Bioengineered
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27682398/combination-of-microporous-hollow-carbon-spheres-and-nafion-for-the-individual-metal-free-stripping-detection-of-pb-2-and-cd-2
#17
Xiangheng Niu, Hongwei Zhang, Meihua Yu, Hongli Zhao, Minbo Lan, Chengzhong Yu
Here, the combination of Nafion with microporous hollow carbon spheres (MHCS) is first proposed to fabricate a disposable metal-free electrode for heavy metal stripping sensing. The MHCS-Nafion composite film electrode is prepared by drop-casting a mixture of MHCS and Nafion onto the lab-made screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE(*)). Results demonstrate that the interfusion of MHCS into Nafion offers enhanced performance for the electro-enrichment and stripping of lead and cadmium over the only Nafion film: 1) abundant MHCS immobilized on the electrode surface serve as effective nucleation sites for metal ion reduction; 2) the mixing of MHCS into Nafion enlarges the active surface of negative-charged Nafion for the electrostatic adsorption of metal cations...
2016: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679998/the-accumulation-and-health-risk-of-heavy-metals-in-vegetables-around-a-zinc-smelter-in-northeastern-china
#18
Bo Li, Yanhong Wang, Yong Jiang, Guochen Li, Jiehua Cui, Ying Wang, Hong Zhang, Shicheng Wang, Sheng Xu, Ruzhen Wang
Mining and smelting activities engender soil contamination by metals severely. A field survey was conducted to investigate the present situation and health risk of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Cr, As, and Hg) in soils and vegetables in the surrounding area of an 80-year-old zinc smelter in northeastern China. Soil pH, organic matter (SOM), and cation exchange capacity (CEC) were determined, and their relations with heavy metal contents in edible parts of vegetables were analyzed. Results showed that the smelting had led to the significant contamination of the local soils by Cd and Zn, with average concentrations of 3...
September 28, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677998/an-ultrasound-assisted-procedure-for-fast-screening-of-mobile-fractions-of-cd-pb-and-ni-in-soil-insight-into-method-optimization-and-validation
#19
Barbara Leśniewska, Marta Krymska, Ewelina Świerad, Józefa Wiater, Beata Godlewska-Żyłkiewicz
A fast ultrasound-assisted sequential extraction (UASE) procedure for the determination of cadmium, lead and nickel fractions in soil was developed and fully validated. The working parameters of an ultrasound probe were optimized by comparing the content of metals in soil extracts obtained by the UASE procedure with that obtained by the conventional (with the aid of a vertical rotor) modified Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) procedure. The content of metals in soil fractions was determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry...
September 27, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27668092/cellulosimicrobium-funkei-like-enhances-the-growth-of-phaseolus-vulgaris-by-modulating-oxidative-damage-under-chromium-vi-toxicity
#20
Chinnannan Karthik, Mohammad Oves, R Thangabalu, Ranandkumar Sharma, S B Santhosh, P Indra Arulselvi
Contamination of agriculture land by heavy metals is a worldwide risk that has sped up noticeably since the beginning of the industrial revolution. Hence, there arise the demands of heavy metal tolerant plant growth promoting bacterial strains for specific metal contaminated agricultural sites restoration. In this study, 36 bacterial isolates were screened out from the rhizospheric soil of Phaseolus vulgaris. Among these, two bacterial strains AR6 and AR8 were selected based on their higher Cr(VI) tolerance (1200 and 1100 μg/mL, respectively) and the maximum production of plant growth promoting substances...
November 2016: Journal of Advanced Research
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