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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435105/organ-specific-proteomics-of-soybean-seedlings-under-flooding-and-drought-stresses
#1
Xin Wang, Ehsaneh Khodadadi, Baratali Fakheri, Setsuko Komatsu
Organ-specific analyses enrich the understanding of plant growth and development under abiotic stresses. To elucidate the cellular responses in soybean seedlings exposed to flooding and drought stresses, organ-specific analysis was performed using a gel-free/label-free proteomic technique. Physiological analysis indicated that enzyme activities of alcohol dehydrogenase and delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase were markedly increased in leaf and root of plants treated with 6days of flooding and drought stresses, respectively...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434155/nitrogen-fertility-and-abiotic-stresses-management-in-cotton-crop-a-review
#2
Aziz Khan, Daniel Kean Yuen Tan, Muhammad Zahir Afridi, Honghai Luo, Shahbaz Atta Tung, Mir Ajab, Shah Fahad
This review outlines nitrogen (N) responses in crop production and potential management decisions to ameliorate abiotic stresses for better crop production. N is a primary constituent of the nucleotides and proteins that are essential for life. Production and application of N fertilizers consume huge amounts of energy, and excess is detrimental to the environment. Therefore, increasing plant N use efficiency (NUE) is important for the development of sustainable agriculture. NUE has a key role in crop yield and can be enhanced by controlling loss of fertilizers by application of humic acid and natural polymers (hydrogels), having high water-holding capacity which can improve plant performance under field conditions...
April 22, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432768/the-fate-of-recently-fixed-carbon-after-drought-release-towards-unravelling-c-storage-regulation-in-tilia-platyphyllos-and-pinus-sylvestris
#3
Lucía Galiano Pérez, Galina Timofeeva, Matthias Saurer, Rolf Siegwolf, Jordi Martínez-Vilalta, Robert Hommel, Arthur Gessler
Carbon reserves are important for maintaining tree function during and after stress. Increasing tree mortality driven by drought globally has renewed the interest in how plants regulate allocation of recently fixed C to reserve formation. Three year-old seedlings of two species (Tilia platyphyllos, Pinus sylvestris) were exposed to two intensities of experimental drought during ~ 10 weeks and (13) C pulse labelling was subsequently applied with rewetting. Tracking the (13) C-label across different organs and C compounds (soluble sugars, starch, myo-inositol, lipids and cellulose), together with the monitoring of gas exchange and C mass balances over time, allowed for the identification of variations in C allocation priorities and tree C balances that are associated to drought effects and subsequent drought release...
April 22, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432151/dehydration-enhances-multiple-physiological-defense-mechanisms-in-a-desert-lizard-heloderma-suspectum
#4
Karla T Moeller, Guillaume Demare, Scott Davies, Dale F DeNardo
The physiological challenges associated with dehydration can induce an increase in plasma glucocorticoid concentrations, a response thought to provide the mechanism for dehydration suppressing immune function. However, a comprehensive examination of the interrelationship of dehydration, stress, and immune function has not been conducted within a single species. We previously demonstrated that Gila monsters (Heloderma suspectum), which inhabit a xeric environment with a predictable seasonal drought, have enhanced measures of innate immunity when dehydrated...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430898/plant-water-stress-affects-interactions-between-an-invasive-and-a-naturalized-aphid-species-on-cereal-crops
#5
N E Foote, T S Davis, D W Crowder, N A Bosque-Pérez, S D Eigenbrode
In cereal cropping systems of the Pacific Northwestern United States (PNW), climate change is projected to increase the frequency of drought during summer months, which could increase water stress for crop plants. Yet, it remains uncertain how interactions between herbivore species are affected by drought stress. Here, interactions between two cereal aphids present in PNW cereal systems, Metopolophium festucae (Theobald) subsp. cerealium (a newly invasive species) and Rhopalosiphum padi L. (a naturalized species), were tested relative to wheat water stress...
April 18, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428808/reference-genes-for-normalization-of-qpcr-assays-in-sugarcane-plants-under-water-deficit
#6
Larissa Mara de Andrade, Michael Dos Santos Brito, Rafael Fávero Peixoto Junior, Paulo Eduardo Ribeiro Marchiori, Paula Macedo Nóbile, Alexandre Palma Boer Martins, Rafael Vasconcelos Ribeiro, Silvana Creste
BACKGROUND: Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is the main raw material for sugar and ethanol production. Among the abiotic stress, drought is the main one that negatively impact sugarcane yield. Although gene expression analysis through quantitative PCR (qPCR) has increased our knowledge about biological processes related to drought, gene network that mediates sugarcane responses to water deficit remains elusive. In such scenario, validation of reference gene is a major requirement for successful analyzes involving qPCR...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428798/plastic-film-mulching-for-enhanced-water-use-efficiency-and-economic-returns-from-maize-fields-in-semiarid-china
#7
Peng Zhang, Ting Wei, Tie Cai, Shahzad Ali, Qingfang Han, Xiaolong Ren, Zhikuan Jia
Film mulch has gradually been popularized to increase water availability to crops for improving and stabilizing agricultural production in the semiarid areas of Northwest China. To find more sustainable and economic film mulch methods for alleviating drought stress in semiarid region, it is necessary to test optimum planting methods in same cultivation conditions. A field experiment was conducted during 2013 and 2014 to evaluate the effects of different plastic film mulch methods on soil water, soil temperature, water use efficiency (WUE), yield and revenue...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428797/silicon-regulates-antioxidant-activities-of-crop-plants-under-abiotic-induced-oxidative-stress-a-review
#8
REVIEW
Yoon-Ha Kim, Abdul L Khan, Muhammad Waqas, In-Jung Lee
Silicon (Si) is the second most abundant element in soil, where its availability to plants can exhilarate to 10% of total dry weight of the plant. Si accumulation/transport occurs in the upward direction, and has been identified in several crop plants. Si application has been known to ameliorate plant growth and development during normal and stressful conditions over past two-decades. During abiotic (salinity, drought, thermal, and heavy metal etc) stress, one of the immediate responses by plant is the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as singlet oxygen ((1)O2), superoxide ([Formula: see text]), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and hydroxyl radicals (OH), which cause severe damage to the cell structure, organelles, and functions...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428141/temporal-impact-of-the-vascular-wilt-pathogen-verticillium-dahliae-on-tomato-root-proteome
#9
Katja Witzel, Anja Buhtz, Rita Grosch
The soil-borne fungus Verticillium dahliae is the causal agent of wilting disease and affects a wide range of plant species worldwide. Here, we report on the time-resolved analysis of the tomato root proteome in response to fungal colonization. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Hildares) was inoculated with V. dahliae at the two-leaf stage and roots were harvested at 7, 14 and 21 days post inoculation (dpi). In order to identify proteins related to the fungal spread at the different time points, a subsequent proteome analysis by two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) was conducted on samples from three independent experiments...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425127/manipulation-of-glyoxalase-pathway-confers-tolerance-to-multiple-stresses-in-rice
#10
Brijesh K Gupta, Khirod K Sahoo, Ajit Ghosh, Amit K Tripathi, Khalid Anwar, Priyanka Das, Anil K Singh, Ashwani Pareek, Sudhir K Sopory, Sneh L Singla-Pareek
Crop plants face a multitude of diverse abiotic and biotic stresses in the farmers' fields. Although there now exists a considerable knowledge of the underlying mechanisms of response to individual stresses, the cross-talk between response pathways to various abiotic and biotic stresses remains enigmatic. Here, we investigated if the cytotoxic metabolite methylglyoxal (MG), excess of which is generated as a common consequence of many abiotic and biotic stresses, may serve as a key molecule linking responses to diverse stresses...
April 20, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424769/folates-in-plants-research-advances-and-progress-in-crop-biofortification
#11
REVIEW
Vera Gorelova, Lars Ambach, Fabrice Rébeillé, Christophe Stove, Dominique Van Der Straeten
Folates, also known as B9 vitamins, serve as donors and acceptors in one-carbon (C1) transfer reactions. The latter are involved in synthesis of many important biomolecules, such as amino acids, nucleic acids and vitamin B5. Folates also play a central role in the methyl cycle that provides one-carbon groups for methylation reactions. The important functions fulfilled by folates make them essential in all living organisms. Plants, being able to synthesize folates de novo, serve as an excellent dietary source of folates for animals that lack the respective biosynthetic pathway...
2017: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424720/arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungus-rhizophagus-irregularis-increased-potassium-content-and-expression-of-genes-encoding-potassium-channels-in-lycium-barbarum
#12
Haoqiang Zhang, Suzhen Wei, Wentao Hu, Longmin Xiao, Ming Tang
Potassium in plants accounts for up to 10% dry weight, and participates in different physiological processes. Under drought stress, plant requires more potassium but potassium availability in soil solutes is lowered by decreased soil water content. Forming symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi not only enlarges exploration range of plant for mineral nutrients and water in soil, but also improves plant drought tolerance. However, the regulation of AM fungi on plant root potassium uptake and translocation from root to shoot was less reported...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424713/comprehensive-genomic-identification-and-expression-analysis-of-the-phosphate-transporter-pht-gene-family-in-apple
#13
Tingting Sun, Mingjun Li, Yun Shao, Lingyan Yu, Fengwang Ma
Elemental phosphorus (Pi) is essential to plant growth and development. The family of phosphate transporters (PHTs) mediates the uptake and translocation of Pi inside the plants. Members include five sub-cellular phosphate transporters that play different roles in Pi uptake and transport. We searched the Genome Database for Rosaceae and identified five clusters of phosphate transporters in apple (Malus domestica), including 37 putative genes. The MdPHT1 family contains 14 genes while MdPHT2 has two, MdPHT3 has seven, MdPHT4 has 11, and MdPHT5 has three...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424706/evaluation-of-yield-and-drought-using-active-and-passive-spectral-sensing-systems-at-the-reproductive-stage-in-wheat
#14
Elisabeth Becker, Urs Schmidhalter
Active and passive sensors are available for ground-based, high-throughput phenotyping in the field. However, these sensor systems have seldom been compared with respect to their determination of plant water status and water use efficiency related parameters under drought conditions. In this study, five passive and active reflectance sensors, including a hyperspectral passive sensor, an active flash sensor (AFS), the Crop Circle, and the GreenSeeker, were evaluated to assess drought-related destructive and non-destructive morphophysiological parameters (ground cover, relative leaf water content, leaf temperature, and carbon isotope discrimination of leaves and grain) and grain yield of twenty wheat (Triticum aestivum L...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424372/effects-of-drought-stress-on-global-gene-expression-profile-in-leaf-and-root-samples-of-dongxiang-wild-rice-oryza-rufipogon
#15
Fantao Zhang, Yi Zhou, Meng Zhang, Xiangdong Luo, Jiankun Xie
Drought is a serious constraint to rice production throughout the world, and although Dongxiang wild rice ( Oryza rufipogon , DXWR) possesses a high degree of drought resistance, the underlying mechanisms of this trait remains unclear. In the present study, cDNA libraries were constructed from the leaf and root tissues of drought-stressed and untreated DXWR seedlings, and transcriptome sequencing was performed with the goal of elucidating the molecular mechanisms involved in drought stress response. The results indicated that 11,231 transcripts were differentially expressed in the leaves (4,040 up-regulated and 7,191 down-regulated) and 7,025 transcripts were differentially expressed in the roots (3,097 up-regulated and 3,928 down-regulated)...
April 19, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421106/the-synergistic-responses-of-different-photoprotective-pathways-in-dwarf-bamboo-fargesia-rufa-to-drought-and-subsequent-rewatering
#16
Chenggang Liu, Yanjie Wang, Kaiwen Pan, Qingwei Wang, Jin Liang, Yanqiang Jin, Akash Tariq
Dwarf bamboo-dominated forests are often subjected to temporary periods of drought due to rising air temperature and decreasing rainfall. Nevertheless, the relationship among CO2 assimilation, photoprotective pathways and metabolism of reactive oxygen species (ROS) remains unexplored in bamboo species. Changes in leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, energy partitioning, antioxidative system and compounds related to ROS metabolism in Fargesia rufa plants subjected to drought and subsequent rewatering were analyzed...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421085/expression-of-arabidopsis-shn1-in-indian-mulberry-morus-indica-l-increases-leaf-surface-wax-content-and-reduces-post-harvest-water-loss
#17
R S Sajeevan, Karaba N Nataraja, K S Shivashankara, N Pallavi, D S Gurumurthy, M B Shivanna
Mulberry (Morus species) leaf is the sole food for monophagous silkworms, Bombyx mori L. Abiotic stresses such as drought, salinity, and high temperature, significantly decrease mulberry productivity and post-harvest water loss from leaves influence silkworm growth and cocoon yield. Leaf surface properties regulate direct water loss through the cuticular layer. Leaf surface waxes, contribute for cuticular resistance and protect mesophyll cells from desiccation. In this study we attempted to overexpress AtSHN1, a transcription factor associated with epicuticular wax biosynthesis to increase leaf surface wax load in mulberry...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420201/a-transcriptomic-comparison-of-two-bambara-groundnut-landraces-under-dehydration-stress
#18
Faraz Khan, Hui Hui Chai, Ishan Ajmera, Charlie Hodgman, Sean Mayes, Chungui Lu
The ability to grow crops under low-water conditions is a significant advantage in relation to global food security. Bambara groundnut is an underutilised crop grown by subsistence farmers in Africa and is known to survive in regions of water deficit. This study focuses on the analysis of the transcriptomic changes in two bambara groundnut landraces in response to dehydration stress. A cross-species hybridisation approach based on the Soybean Affymetrix GeneChip array has been employed. The differential gene expression analysis of a water-limited treatment, however, showed that the two landraces responded with almost completely different sets of genes...
April 18, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420173/transcriptome-sequencing-of-dianthus-spiculifolius-and-analysis-of-the-genes-involved-in-responses-to-combined-cold-and-drought-stress
#19
Aimin Zhou, Hongping Ma, Enhui Liu, Tongtong Jiang, Shuang Feng, Shufang Gong, Jingang Wang
Dianthus spiculifolius, a perennial herbaceous flower and a member of the Caryophyllaceae family, has strong resistance to cold and drought stresses. To explore the transcriptional responses of D. spiculifolius to individual and combined stresses, we performed transcriptome sequencing of seedlings under normal conditions or subjected to cold treatment (CT), simulated drought treatment (DT), or their combination (CTDT). After de novo assembly of the obtained reads, 112,015 unigenes were generated. Analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) showed that 2026, 940, and 2346 genes were up-regulated and 1468, 707, and 1759 were down-regulated in CT, DT, and CTDT samples, respectively...
April 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419172/enhanced-disease-resistance-and-drought-tolerance-in-transgenic-rice-plants-overexpressing-protein-elicitors-from-magnaporthe-oryzae
#20
Zhenzhen Wang, Qiang Han, Qian Zi, Shun Lv, Dewen Qiu, Hongmei Zeng
Exogenous application of the protein elicitors MoHrip1 and MoHrip2, which were isolated from the pathogenic fungus Magnaporthe oryzae (M. oryzae), was previously shown to induce a hypersensitive response in tobacco and to enhance resistance to rice blast. In this work, we successfully transformed rice with the mohrip1 and mohrip2 genes separately. The MoHrip1 and MoHrip2 transgenic rice plants displayed higher resistance to rice blast and stronger tolerance to drought stress than wild-type (WT) rice and the vector-control pCXUN rice...
2017: PloS One
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