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vestibular neuronitis

Francisco Branoner, Hans Straka
Vestibulo-ocular reflexes (VORs) rely on neuronal computations that transform vestibular sensory signals into spatio-temporally appropriate extraocular motor commands. The motoneuronal discharge for contractions of the superior oblique eye muscle during linear translation derives from a utricular epithelial sector that is spatially aligned with the pulling direction of this muscle. In Xenopus laevis , the alignment is gradually achieved during larval development and requires motion-related semicircular canal afferent activity...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Ruth Anne Eatock
During rapid locomotion, the vestibular inner ear provides head-motion signals that stabilize posture, gaze, and heading. Afferent nerve fibers from central (striolar) and peripheral (extrastriolar) zones of vestibular sensory epithelia use temporal and rate encoding, respectively, to emphasize different aspects of head motion: central- and striolar-zone afferents adapt faster to sustained head position and favor higher stimulus frequencies, reflecting specializations at each stage from motion of the accessory structure to spike propagation to the brain...
June 18, 2018: Integrative and Comparative Biology
Guifen Chen, John Andrew King, Yi Lu, Francesca Cacucci, Neil Burgess
We present a mouse virtual reality (VR) system which restrains head-movements to horizontal rotations, compatible with multi-photon imaging. This system allows expression of the spatial navigation and neuronal firing patterns characteristic of real open arenas (R). Comparing VR to R: place and grid, but not head-direction, cell firing had broader spatial tuning; place, but not grid, cell firing was more directional; theta frequency increased less with running speed; whereas increases in firing rates with running speed and place and grid cells' theta phase precession were similar...
June 18, 2018: ELife
Evangelos Anagnostou, Vasiliki Skarlatou, Thomas Mergner, Dimitri Anastasopoulos
The role of the hippocampus in spatial navigation and the presence of vestibular responsive neurons in limbic areas are well established from animal experiments. However, hippocampal spatial processing in humans is not fully understood. Here we employed real whole body and head-on-trunk rotations to investigate how vestibular signals, either alone or in combination with neck-proprioceptive stimulation, shape the spatial frame of reference in patients with unilateral hippocampal sclerosis (HS). Patients were asked to point in darkness with a light spot, moved on a cylindrical screen by means of a joystick, into their visual straight ahead direction (VSA), to remember this direction in space and to revert back to this point after the rotations...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Aran Yoo, Jonathan Jou, Jeffrey D Klopfenstein, Jorge C Kattah
Background: Infratentorial siderosis (iSS) is a progressive degenerative disorder targeting primarily the cerebellum and cranial nerve eighth; therefore, progressive ataxia and its neuro-otological findings are common. Toxicity from hemosiderin involves selectively vulnerable neurons and glia in these posterior fossa structures. Other neurologic findings may be present, though our focus relates to the cochlea-vestibular cerebellar involvement. Radiographic evidence of siderosis may be the result of recurrent, albeit covert bleeding in the subarachnoid space, or the consequence of an overt post-traumatic or aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH)...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Ian S Curthoys, J Wally Grant, Ann M Burgess, Chris J Pastras, Daniel J Brown, Leonardo Manzari
Air-conducted sound and bone-conduced vibration activate otolithic receptors and afferent neurons in both the utricular and saccular maculae, and trigger small electromyographic (EMG) responses [called vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs)] in various muscle groups throughout the body. The use of these VEMPs for clinical assessment of human otolithic function is built on the following logical steps: (1) that high-frequency sound and vibration at clinically effective stimulus levels activate otolithic receptors and afferents, rather than semicircular canal afferents, (2) that there is differential anatomical projection of otolith afferents to eye muscles and neck muscles, and (3) that isolated stimulation of the utricular macula induces short latency responses in eye muscles, and that isolated stimulation of the saccular macula induces short latency responses in neck motoneurons...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Thomas van den Boogert, Marc van Hoof, Stephan Handschuh, Rudolf Glueckert, Nils Guinand, Jean-Philippe Guyot, Herman Kingma, Angelica Perez-Fornos, Bart Seppen, Lejo Johnson Chacko, Anneliese Schrott-Fischer, Raymond van de Berg
Introduction: Knowledge of the neuro-anatomical architecture of the inner ear contributes to the improvement and development of cochlear and vestibular implants. The present knowledge is mainly based on two-dimensional images (histology) or derived models that simplify the complexity of this architecture. This study investigated the feasibility of visualizing relevant neuro-anatomical structures of the inner ear in a dynamic three-dimensional reproduction, using a combination of staining, micro-CT imaging and an image processing algorithm...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Takashi Ogawa, Yuji Ueno, Hikaru Kamo, Nobukazu Miyamoto, Kazuo Yamashiro, Ryota Tanaka, Yasushi Shimo, Nobutaka Hattori
Conjugate eye deviation (CED) is defined as a sustained shift in horizontal gaze toward 1 side, together with gaze failure to the other side, caused by lesions in the brainstem, basal ganglia, or cortical frontal eye fields. To date, very few reports have described CED in patients with medullary infarction. A 76-year-old woman presented with sudden onset of vertigo and right hemiparesis, accompanied by CED to the right with gaze palsy to the left. Her brain magnetic resonance imaging showed left upper medial medullary infarction involving the left nucleus prepositus hypoglossi (NPH) and adjacent to the left inferior olivary nucleus (ION)...
May 31, 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
S Glasauer, M Dieterich, T Brandt
Acute unilateral lesions of vestibular graviceptive pathways from the otolith organs and semicircular canals via vestibular nuclei and the thalamus to the parieto-insular vestibular cortex regularly cause deviations of perceived verticality in the frontal roll plane. These tilts are ipsilateral in peripheral and in ponto-medullary lesions and contralateral in ponto-mesencephalic lesions. Unilateral lesions of the vestibular thalamus or cortex cause smaller tilts of the perceived vertical, which may be either ipsilateral or contralateral...
May 29, 2018: Journal of Neurology
Macym T Rizvi, Lauren Cameron, Camilla Kilbane, Aasef G Shaikh
Seesaw nystagmus is characterized by the rhythmic combination of vertical and torsional dysconjugate oscillations where one eye moves up and inward while the other moves down and outward. Common association of seesaw nystagmus with accessory optic track lesions lead to traditional hypothesis that it is due to the mismatch in the vision and vestibular systems. Here we propose a novel mechanism for seesaw nystagmus. We hypothesize that reverberations due to abnormal increases in the excitability of the reciprocally innervating circuit of excitatory burst neuron in the midbrain interstitial nucleus of Cajal causes the seesaw nystagmus...
July 15, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Qianru Wu, Yibo Zhang, Chunfu Dai, Yu Kong, Lijun Pan
Intratympanic gentamicin (ITG) has been used to treat refractory Ménière's disease. Disequilibrium after ITG was still a challenge for some patients, and the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Our previous study demonstrated that gentamicin distributed in the bilateral vestibular efferent neurons (VEN) after ITG; however, does it lead to VEN damage and cause further disequilibrium in patients following ITG? In this study, we observed severe damaged gentamicin-positive neurons of VEN and severe fractured myelin layer plates around neural fibers when viewed under transmission electron microscopy at day 3 after ITG...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
Israt Jahan, Karen L Elliott, Bernd Fritzsch
The mammalian hearing organ is a stereotyped cellular assembly with orderly innervation: two types of spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) innervate two types of differentially distributed hair cells (HCs). HCs and SGNs evolved from single neurosensory cells through gene multiplication and diversification. Independent regulation of HCs and neuronal differentiation through expression of basic Helix-loop-Helix transcription factors (bHLH TFs: Atoh1, Neurog1, Neurod1) led to the evolution of vestibular HC assembly and their unique type of innervation...
April 26, 2018: Integrative and Comparative Biology
Wei Chen, Qing-Qing Hao, Li-Li Ren, Wei Ren, Hui-Sang Lin, Wei-Wei Guo, Shi-Ming Yang
BACKGROUND: Auditory function and cochlear morphology have previously been described in a porcine model with spontaneous WS2-like phenotype. In the present study, cochlear histopathology was further investigated in the inner ear of the developing spontaneous deafness pig. RESULTS: We found that the stria vascularis transformed into a complex tri-laminar tissue at embryonic 85 days (E85) in normal pigs, but not in the MITF-/- pigs. As the neural crest (NC) of cochlea was derived by melanocytes...
May 2, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
Carmen Díaz, Luis Puelles
Use of a segmental approach in the study of vestibular centers in the hindbrain improves morphological and functional understanding of this region controlled by Hox genes, among other molecular determinants. Here, we review accrued data about segmental organization of vestibular afferents and efferents. Inner ear-originated vestibular fibers enter the hindbrain, together with auditory ones, through the alar plate of rhombomere 4, then branch into descending and ascending branches to reach appropriate vestibular nuclei along the vestibular column...
April 26, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Yong Gu
The vestibular peripheral organs in our inner ears detect transient motion of the head in everyday life. This information is sent to the central nervous system for automatic processes such as vestibulo-ocular reflexes, balance and postural control, and higher cognitive functions including perception of self-motion and spatial orientation. Recent neurophysiological studies have discovered a prominent vestibular network in the primate cerebral cortex. Many of the areas involved are multisensory: their neurons are modulated by both vestibular signals and visual optic flow, potentially facilitating more robust heading estimation through cue integration...
April 21, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Martin Hitier, Go Sato, Yan-Feng Zhang, Stephane Besnard, Paul F Smith
Several studies have demonstrated that electrical activation of the peripheral vestibular system can evoke field potential, multi-unit neuronal activity and acetylcholine release in the hippocampus (HPC). However, no study to date has employed the immediate early gene protein, c-Fos, to investigate the distribution of activation of cells in the HPC following electrical stimulation of the vestibular system. We found that vestibular stimulation increased the number of animals expressing c-Fos in the dorsal HPC compared to sham control rats (P ≤ 0...
June 11, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
A Benoit, M Guillamin, P Aitken, P F Smith, B Philoxene, B Sola, L Poulain, A Coquerel, S Besnard
BACKGROUND: Flow cytometry allows single-cell analysis of peripheral biological samples and is useful in many fields of research and clinical applications, mainly in hematology, immunology, and oncology. In the neurosciences, the flow cytometry separation method was first applied to stem cell extraction from healthy or cerebral tumour tissue and was more recently tested in order to phenotype brain cells, hippocampal neurogenesis, and to detect prion proteins. However, it remains sparsely applied in quantifying membrane receptors in relation to synaptic plasticity...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Francisco Carricondo, Bárbara Romero-Gómez
The VIII nerve is formed by sensory neurons that innervate the inner ear, i.e., the vestibular and the auditory receptors. Neurons of the auditory portion, the cochlear afferent fibers that innervate the sensory hair cells of the organ of Corti, have their somas in the cochlear spiral ganglion where two types of neurons can be distinguished. Afferent Type-I neurons are the 95% of the total population. Bipolar and myelinated fibers, each one innervates only one cochlear inner hair cell (IHC). In contrast, afferent Type-II neurons are only the 5% of the spiral ganglion population...
April 16, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Paola Patella, Rachel I Wilson
Johnston's organ is the largest mechanosensory organ in Drosophila. It contributes to hearing, touch, vestibular sensing, proprioception, and wind sensing. In this study, we used in vivo 2-photon calcium imaging and unsupervised image segmentation to map the tuning properties of Johnston's organ neurons (JONs) at the site where their axons enter the brain. We then applied the same methodology to study two key brain regions that process signals from JONs: the antennal mechanosensory and motor center (AMMC) and the wedge, which is downstream of the AMMC...
April 23, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Ophir Handzel, Joseph B Nadol
: Cockayne syndrome (CS) is a rare autosomal recessive syndrome resulting in defective DNA repair. Its features include cachectic dwarfism, hearing loss, skin hypersensitivity to sunlight, premature aging, and dementia. Presented is a right temporal bone of a patient who died at the age of 29 years. The clinical course was compatible with type 1 CS, the classical form. Homozygous missense variant in the ERCC6 gene (Excision Repair Cross-Complementation group 6) was found, compatible with CS complementation group B...
June 2018: Otology & Neurotology
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