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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036751/-diagnosis-and-management-of-vestibular-schwannomas-an-interdisciplinary-challenge
#1
Steffen Rosahl, Christopher Bohr, Michael Lell, Klaus Hamm, Heinrich Iro
Vestibular schwannomas expand slowly in the internal auditory canal, in the cerebellopontine angle, inside the cochlear and the labyrinth. Larger tumors can displace and compress the brainstem. With an annual incidence of 1:100 000 vestibular schwannoma represent 6-7% of all intracranial tumors. In the cerebellopontine angle they are by far the most neoplasm with 90% of all lesions located in this region. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), audiometry, and vestibular diagnostics are the mainstays of the clinical workup for patients harboring tumors...
April 2017: Laryngo- Rhino- Otologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030435/dissociation-of-self-motion-and-object-motion-by-linear-population-decoding-that-approximates-marginalization
#2
Ryo Sasaki, Dora E Angelaki, Gregory C DeAngelis
We use visual image motion to judge the movement of objects, as well as our own movements through the environment. Generally, image motion components caused by object motion and self-motion are confounded in the retinal image. Thus, to estimate heading, the brain would ideally marginalize out the effects of object motion (or vice-versa), but little is known about how this is accomplished neurally. Behavioral studies suggest that vestibular signals play a role in dissociating object motion and self-motion, and recent computational work suggests that a linear decoder can approximate marginalization by taking advantage of diverse multisensory representations...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988233/sensing-external-and-self-motion-with-hair-cells-a-comparison-of-the-lateral-line-and-vestibular-systems-from-a-developmental-and-evolutionary-perspective
#3
Boris P Chagnaud, Jacob Engelmann, Bernd Fritzsch, Joel C Glover, Hans Straka
Detection of motion is a feature essential to any living animal. In vertebrates, mechanosensory hair cells organized into the lateral line and vestibular systems are used to detect external water or head/body motion, respectively. While the neuronal components to detect these physical attributes are similar between the two sensory systems, the organizational pattern of the receptors in the periphery and the distribution of hindbrain afferent and efferent projections are adapted to the specific functions of the respective system...
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984808/cochlear-dysfunction-is-not-common-in-human-meningioma-of-the-internal-auditory-canal
#4
Lukas D Landegger, Jong D Lee, Fred H Linthicum, Konstantina M Stankovic
HYPOTHESIS: Cochlear dysfunction is not common in human meningioma of the internal auditory canal. BACKGROUND: Meningiomas arising from the cerebellopontine angle and internal auditory canal typically cause hearing loss. Cochlear dysfunction is known to contribute to sensorineural hearing loss induced by vestibular schwannoma, the most common tumor of the internal auditory canal. Detailed cochlear histopathology in meningioma has not been reported. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of cochlear histopathology in five unoperated and five operated meningiomas of the internal auditory canal identified after screening human temporal bone collections from three academic medical centers...
October 4, 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981226/-balance-disorders
#5
C Van Nechel
Balance disorders may result from an impairment of one of the sensorial modalities involved in the perception of the self-location in space: vestibular, proprioception and vision, a deficit of the neuronal multisensorial integration, a less effective motor or loco-motor system, the medication side effects or psychological interferences. The basic examination of a dizzy patient implies the assessment of these different aspects. The balance is not restricted to à set of reflexes. It is a distinctive expression of the sixth sense : the sense of orientation...
2017: Revue Médicale de Bruxelles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978765/convergence-of-linear-acceleration-and-yaw-rotation-signals-on-non-eye-movement-neurons-in-the-vestibular-nucleus-of-macaques
#6
Shawn D Newlands, Ben Abbatematteo, Min Wei, Laurel H Carney, Hongge Luan
Roughly half of all vestibular nucleus neurons without eye movement sensitivity respond to both angular rotation and linear acceleration. Linear acceleration signals arise from otolith organs and rotation signals arise from semicircular canals. In the vestibular nerve, these signals are carried by different afferents. Vestibular nucleus neurons represent the first point of convergence for these distinct sensory signals. This study systematically evaluated how rotational and translational signals interact in single neurons in the vestibular nuclei: multisensory integration at the first opportunity for convergence between these two independent vestibular sensory signals...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972121/gaze-stabilizing-central-vestibular-neurons-project-asymmetrically-to-extraocular-motoneuron-pools
#7
David Schoppik, Isaac H Bianco, David A Prober, Adam D Douglass, Drew N Robson, Jennifer M B Li, Joel S F Greenwood, Edward Soucy, Florian Engert, Alexander F Schier
Within reflex circuits, specific anatomical projections allow central neurons to relay sensations to effectors that generate movements. A major challenge is to relate anatomical features of central neural populations -- such as asymmetric connectivity -- to the computations the populations perform. To address this problem, we mapped the anatomy, modeled the function, and discovered a new behavioral role for a genetically-defined population of central vestibular neurons in rhombomeres 5-7 of larval zebrafish...
September 29, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965517/not-a-one-trick-pony-diverse-connectivity-and-functions-of-the-rodent-lateral-geniculate-complex
#8
Aboozar Monavarfeshani, Ubadah Sabbagh, Michael A Fox
Often mislabeled as a simple relay of sensory information, the thalamus is a complicated structure with diverse functions. This diversity is exemplified by roles visual thalamus plays in processing and transmitting light-derived stimuli. Such light-derived signals are transmitted to the thalamus by retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), the sole projection neurons of the retina. Axons from RGCs innervate more than ten distinct nuclei within thalamus, including those of the lateral geniculate complex. Nuclei within the lateral geniculate complex of nocturnal rodents, which include the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN), ventral lateral geniculate nucleus (vLGN), and intergeniculate leaflet (IGL), are each densely innervated by retinal projections, yet, exhibit distinct cytoarchitecture and connectivity...
January 2017: Visual Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944469/probing-early-motion-processing-with-eye-movements-differences-of-vestibular-migraine-migraine-with-and-without-aura-in-the-attack-free-interval
#9
S Rogalinski, H A Rambold
BACKGROUND: Migraineurs, in between headache attacks, have a different sensitivity to sensory motion stimuli compared to non-migraineurs. METHODS: This cross-sectional laboratory study examines the motion processing in migraineurs using ocular following responses (OFR) elicited by large field random dot patterns and open-loop smooth pursuit eye movements (PS) elicited by a single target moving on a homogenous background. Eye movements were recorded with a video-oculographic system (EyeSeeTec(®) ) and stimuli presented on a CRT at 100 Hz repetition rate to horizontal stimuli of a velocity of 2...
September 25, 2017: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931463/severe-streptomycin-ototoxicity-in-the-mouse-utricle-leads-to-a-flat-epithelium-but-the-peripheral-neural-degeneration-is-delayed
#10
Guo-Peng Wang, Ishani Basu, Lisa A Beyer, Hiu Tung Wong, Donald L Swiderski, Shu-Sheng Gong, Yehoash Raphael
The damaged vestibular sensory epithelium of mammals has a limited capacity for spontaneous hair cell regeneration, which largely depends on the transdifferentiation of surviving supporting cells. Little is known about the response of vestibular supporting cells to a severe insult. In the present study, we evaluated the impact of a severe ototoxic insult on the histology of utricular supporting cells and the changes in innervation that ensued. We infused a high dose of streptomycin into the mouse posterior semicircular canal to induce a severe lesion in the utricle...
September 11, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929183/altered-neurofilament-protein-expression-in-the-lateral-vestibular-nucleus-in-parkinson-s-disease
#11
Thomas P Wellings, Alan M Brichta, Rebecca Lim
A major cause of morbidity in Parkinson's disease (PD) is postural instability. The neuropathology underlying postural instability is unknown. Postural control is mediated by Deiters' neurons of the lateral vestibular nucleus (LVN), which are the brainstem origin of descending vestibulospinal reflexes. Deiters' neurons express the cytostructural protein, non-phosphorylated neurofilament protein (NPNFP). In PD, reduced expression of NPNFP in substantia nigra (SN) neurons is believed to contribute to dysfunction...
September 19, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928022/the-role-of-jab1-a-putative-downstream-effector-of-the-neurotrophic-cytokine-macrophage-migration-inhibitory-factor-mif-in-zebrafish-inner-ear-hair-cell-development
#12
Loren J Weber, Hannah K Marcy, Yu-Chi Shen, Sarah E Tomkovich, Kristina M Brooks, Kelly E Hilk, Kate F Barald
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a neurotrophic cytokine essential for inner ear hair cell (HC) development and statoacoustic ganglion (SAG) neurite outgrowth, and SAG survival in mouse, chick and zebrafish. Another neurotrophic cytokine, Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP1) is known to synergize with MIF; but MCP1 alone is insufficient to support mouse/chick SAG neurite outgrowth or neuronal survival. Because of the relatively short time over which the zebrafish inner ear develops (~30hpf), the living zebrafish embryo is an ideal system to examine mif and mcp1 cytokine pathways and interactions...
September 18, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925723/expression-patterns-of-members-of-the-isocitrate-dehydrogenase-gene-family-in-murine-inner-ear
#13
Y-R Kim, K-H Kim, S Lee, S-K Oh, J-W Park, K-Y Lee, J-I Baek, U-K Kim
Age-related hearing loss (ARHL) is characterized by an age-dependent decline of auditory function characterized by with loss of sensory hair cells, spiral ganglion neurons, and stria vascularis (SV) cells in the cochlea of the inner ear. Aging and age-related diseases result from accumulated oxidative damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by mitochondria. The isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) family includes three enzymes in human cells: IDH1, IDH2, and IDH3. Although all three enzymes catalyze the same enzymatic reaction, that is, oxidative decarboxylation of isocitrate to produce α-ketoglutarate, each IDH enzyme has unique features...
September 19, 2017: Biotechnic & Histochemistry: Official Publication of the Biological Stain Commission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924861/role-of-bdnf-and-neurotrophic-receptors-in-human-inner-ear-development
#14
L Johnson Chacko, M J F Blumer, E Pechriggl, H Rask-Andersen, W Dietl, A Haim, H Fritsch, R Glueckert, J Dudas, A Schrott-Fischer
The expression patterns of the neurotrophin, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, BDNF, and the neurotrophic receptors-p75NTR and Trk receptors-in the developing human fetal inner ear between the gestational weeks (GW) 9 to 12 are examined via in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. BDNF mRNA expression was highest in the cochlea at GW 9 but declined in the course of development. In contrast to embryonic murine specimens, a decline in BDNF expression from the apical to the basal turn of the cochlea could not be observed...
September 19, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891509/role-of-the-medullary-lateral-tegmental-field-in-sympathetic-control
#15
Michael George Zaki Ghali
The sympathetic nervous system maintains and regulates arterial pressure and tissue perfusion, via control of cardiac output and vasomotor tone. Sympatho-vascular-mediated increases in blood pressure are effected by arterioloconstriction, which causes an increase in afterload, and/or venoconstriction, which increases venous return, left ventricular preload, and consequently, the force of cardiac contraction via Frank-Starling mechanisms; withdrawal of sympathetic drive elicits reciprocal effects. Spinalization reduces mammalian arterial pressure to 40-50 mm Hg consequent to the elimination of descending medullary pre-sympathetic bulbospinal drive to preganglionic sympathetic fibers in the intermediolateral cell column of the spinal cord...
2017: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877495/wave-mechanics-of-the-vestibular-semicircular-canals
#16
Marta M Iversen, Richard D Rabbitt
The semicircular canals are biomechanical sensors responsible for detecting and encoding angular motion of the head in 3D space. Canal afferent neurons provide essential inputs to neural circuits responsible for representation of self-position/orientation in space, and to compensatory circuits including the vestibulo-ocular and vestibulo-collic reflex arcs. In this work we derive, to our knowledge, a new 1D mathematical model quantifying canal biomechanics based on the morphology, dynamics of the inner ear fluids, and membranous labyrinth deformability...
September 5, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861030/coding-of-velocity-storage-in-the-vestibular-nuclei
#17
Sergei B Yakushin, Theodore Raphan, Bernard Cohen
Semicircular canal afferents sense angular acceleration and output angular velocity with a short time constant of ≈4.5 s. This output is prolonged by a central integrative network, velocity storage that lengthens the time constants of eye velocity. This mechanism utilizes canal, otolith, and visual (optokinetic) information to align the axis of eye velocity toward the spatial vertical when head orientation is off-vertical axis. Previous studies indicated that vestibular-only (VO) and vestibular-pause-saccade (VPS) neurons located in the medial and superior vestibular nucleus could code all aspects of velocity storage...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852025/intravenous-raav2-9-injection-for-murine-cochlear-gene-delivery
#18
Seiji B Shibata, Hidekane Yoshimura, Paul T Ranum, Alexander T Goodwin, Richard J H Smith
Gene therapy for genetic deafness is a promising approach by which to prevent hearing loss or to restore hearing after loss has occurred. Although a variety of direct approaches to introduce viral particles into the inner ear have been described, presumed physiological barriers have heretofore precluded investigation of systemic gene delivery to the cochlea. In this study, we sought to characterize systemic delivery of a rAAV2/9 vector as a non-invasive means of cochlear transduction. In wild-type neonatal mice (postnatal day 0-1), we show that intravenous injection of rAAV2/9 carrying an eGFP-reporter gene results in binaural transduction of inner hair cells, spiral ganglion neurons and vestibular hair cells...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842421/effects-of-selective-deafferentation-on-the-discharge-characteristics-of-medial-rectus-motoneurons
#19
Rosendo G Hernández, Beatriz Benítez-Temiño, Camilo J Morado-Díaz, María América Davis-López de Carrizosa, Rosa R de la Cruz, Angel M Pastor
Medial rectus motoneurons receive two main pontine inputs: abducens internuclear neurons, whose axons course through the medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF), and neurons in the lateral vestibular nucleus, whose axons project through the ascending tract of Deiters (ATD). Abducens internuclear neurons are responsible for conjugate gaze in the horizontal plane, whereas ATD neurons provide medial rectus motoneurons with a vestibular input comprising mainly head velocity. To reveal the relative contribution of each input to the oculomotor physiology, single-unit recordings from medial rectus motoneurons were obtained in the control situation and after selective deafferentation from cats with unilateral transection of either the MLF or the ATD...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819687/central-not-peripheral-vestibular-processing-impairs-gait-coordination
#20
Yoav Gimmon, Jennifer Millar, Rebecca Pak, Elizabeth Liu, Michael C Schubert
Gait coordination is generated by neuronal inter-connections between central pattern generators in the spinal cord governed by cortical areas. Malfunction of central vestibular processing areas generates vestibular symptoms in the absence of an identifiable peripheral vestibular system lesion. Walking in the dark enforces a coordinated afference primarily from the vestibular and somatosensory systems. We hypothesized that patients with aberrant central vestibular processing would demonstrate unique gait characteristics, and have impaired gait coordination compared with those patients with abnormal peripheral vestibular function and healthy controls...
August 17, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
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