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vestibular neuronitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660368/flow-cytometry-for-receptor-analysis-from-ex-vivo-brain-tissue-in-adult-rat
#1
A Benoit, M Guillamin, P Aitken, P F Smith, B Philoxene, B Sola, L Poulain, A Coquerel, S Besnard
BACKGROUND: Flow cytometry allows single-cell analysis of peripheral biological samples and is useful in many fields of research and clinical applications, mainly in hematology, immunology, and oncology. In the neurosciences, the flow cytometry separation method was first applied to stem cell extraction from healthy or cerebral tumour tissue and was more recently tested in order to phenotype brain cells, hippocampal neurogenesis, and to detect prion proteins. However, it remains sparsely applied in quantifying membrane receptors in relation to synaptic plasticity...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659185/the-cochlear-spiral-ganglion-neurons-the-auditory-portion-of-the-viii-nerve
#2
Francisco Carricondo, Bárbara Romero-Gómez
The VIII nerve is formed by sensory neurons that innervate the inner ear, i.e. the vestibular and the auditory receptors. Neurons of the auditory portion, the cochlear afferent fibers that innervate the sensory hair cells of the organ of Corti, have their somas in the cochlear spiral ganglion where two types of neurons can be distinguished. Afferent type-I neurons are the 95% of the total population. Bipolar and myelinated fibers, each one innervates only one cochlear inner hair cell (IHC). In contrast, afferent type-II neurons are only the 5% of the spiral ganglion population...
April 16, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657118/functional-maps-of-mechanosensory-features-in-the-drosophila-brain
#3
Paola Patella, Rachel I Wilson
Johnston's organ is the largest mechanosensory organ in Drosophila. It contributes to hearing, touch, vestibular sensing, proprioception, and wind sensing. In this study, we used in vivo 2-photon calcium imaging and unsupervised image segmentation to map the tuning properties of Johnston's organ neurons (JONs) at the site where their axons enter the brain. We then applied the same methodology to study two key brain regions that process signals from JONs: the antennal mechanosensory and motor center (AMMC) and the wedge, which is downstream of the AMMC...
April 9, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649050/temporal-bone-histopathology-in-cockayne-syndrome
#4
Ophir Handzel, Joseph B Nadol
: Cockayne syndrome (CS) is a rare autosomal recessive syndrome resulting in defective DNA repair. Its features include cachectic dwarfism, hearing loss, skin hypersensitivity to sunlight, premature aging, and dementia. Presented is a right temporal bone of a patient who died at the age of 29 years. The clinical course was compatible with type 1 CS, the classical form. Homozygous missense variant in the ERCC6 gene (Excision Repair Cross-Complementation group 6) was found, compatible with CS complementation group B...
April 11, 2018: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595192/blockade-of-the-swelling-induced-chloride-current-attenuates-the-mouse-neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury-in-vivo
#5
Raymond Wong, Ahmed Abussaud, Joseph Wh Leung, Bao-Feng Xu, Fei-Ya Li, Sammen Huang, Nai-Hong Chen, Guan-Lei Wang, Zhong-Ping Feng, Hong-Shuo Sun
Activation of swelling-induced Cl- current (ICl,swell ) during neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI) may induce brain damage. Hypoxic-ischemic brain injury causes chronic neurological morbidity in neonates as well as acute mortality. In this study, we investigated the role of ICl,swell in hypoxic-ischemic brain injury using a selective blocker, 4-(2-butyl-6,7-dichloro-2-cyclopentylindan-1-on-5-yl) oxybutyric acid (DCPIB). In primary cultured cortical neurons perfusion of a 30% hypotonic solution activated ICl,swell , which was completely blocked by the application of DCPIB (10 μmol/L)...
March 29, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593640/vestibular-dysfunction-in-wernicke-s-encephalopathy-predominant-impairment-of-the-horizontal-semicircular-canals
#6
Seung-Han Lee, Sang-Hoon Kim, Ji-Min Kim, Alexander Andrea Tarnutzer
Background: Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE), a metabolic disorder due to thiamine deficiency, manifests with various neurological symptoms and signs. It has been known as a cause of vestibular dysfunction. Preliminary reports have proposed predominant involvement of the horizontal semicircular canals (HSCs). Objective: To better characterize the pattern of vestibular impairment in patients with WE using quantitative video head-impulse testing and to review the literature regarding this topic...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590114/mutations-in-diphosphoinositol-pentakisphosphate-kinase-ppip5k2-are-associated-with-hearing-loss-in-human-and-mouse
#7
Rizwan Yousaf, Chunfang Gu, Zubair M Ahmed, Shaheen N Khan, Thomas B Friedman, Sheikh Riazuddin, Stephen B Shears, Saima Riazuddin
Autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss is a genetically heterogeneous disorder. Here, we report a severe-to-profound sensorineural hearing loss locus, DFNB100 on chromosome 5q13.2-q23.2. Exome enrichment followed by massive parallel sequencing revealed a c.2510G>A transition variant in PPIP5K2 that segregated with DFNB100-associated hearing loss in two large apparently unrelated Pakistani families. PPIP5Ks enzymes interconvert 5-IP7 and IP8, two key members of the inositol pyrophosphate (PP-IP) cell-signaling family...
March 28, 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577174/non-associative-learning-processes-in-vestibular-nucleus
#8
Gyutae Kim, Kyu-Sung Kim, Sangmin Lee
Simple non-associative learning processes, habituation and sensitization, are known to be systemically involved in different neurotransmissions, and these processes in the vestibular nucleus (VN) often show opposite responding patterns to repeated stimuli. However, their roles and mechanisms of the reciprocal responses at the cellular level are still elusive. Here, we conducted an electrophysiological experiment to investigate the neuronal responses to repeated stimuli in the VN, characterizing the neuronal responding patterns of habituation and sensitization...
March 26, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571876/normal-tendon-reflexes-despite-absent-sensory-nerve-action-potentials-in-canvas-a-neurophysiological-study
#9
David Burke, G Michael Halmagyi
CANVAS is a recently defined progressive ataxic syndrome with impairment of vestibular, somatosensory and cerebellar function due to atrophic degeneration of dorsal root ganglia and dorsal columns, of cranial nerve somatosensory ganglia, of vestibular ganglia and vestibular nerves and of cerebellar Purkinje cells. While all patients eventually develop sensory impairment in a non-length dependent pattern and lose sensory nerve action potentials, some retain their tendon reflexes. Here we study 5 CANVAS patients with absent sensory nerve action potentials but intact, even brisk Achilles tendon reflexes and, in 4, preserved H reflexes in the upper and lower limbs...
April 15, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560950/-changes-in-walking-in-the-elderly
#10
I V Damulin
The article addresses gait disturbances in the elderly. It emphasizes that the system that maintains the balance in resting conditions and gait is based on the hierarchical principle and its function depends on the maintenance of integration between vestibular, visual and somatosensory information as well as on cognitive functions. Walking depends on the integrity of frontal-subcortical neuronal circles that support regulatory functions. The main pathogenetic mechanisms of age-related disturbances of balance and gait are a decrease in the efficacy of spinal motorneurons activation caused by Ia-afferentation, a decrease in cortical activation and excitability of corticospinal pathways and in the intensity of intracortical inhibition...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557546/whole-brain-mapping-of-direct-inputs-to-and-axonal-projections-from-gabaergic-neurons-in-the-parafacial-zone
#11
Yun-Ting Su, Meng-Yang Gu, Xi Chu, Xiang Feng, Yan-Qin Yu
The GABAergic neurons in the parafacial zone (PZ) play an important role in sleep-wake regulation and have been identified as part of a sleep-promoting center in the brainstem, but the long-range connections mediating this function remain poorly characterized. Here, we performed whole-brain mapping of both the inputs and outputs of the GABAergic neurons in the PZ of the mouse brain. We used the modified rabies virus EnvA-ΔG-DsRed combined with a Cre/loxP gene-expression strategy to map the direct monosynaptic inputs to the GABAergic neurons in the PZ, and found that they receive inputs mainly from the hypothalamic area, zona incerta, and parasubthalamic nucleus in the hypothalamus; the substantia nigra, pars reticulata and deep mesencephalic nucleus in the midbrain; and the intermediate reticular nucleus and medial vestibular nucleus (parvocellular part) in the pons and medulla...
March 20, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556714/pharmacological-profile-of-vestibular-inhibitory-inputs-to-superior-oblique-motoneurons
#12
Parthena Soupiadou, Francisco Branoner, Hans Straka
Vestibulo-ocular reflexes (VOR) are mediated by three-neuronal brainstem pathways that transform semicircular canal and otolith sensory signals into motor commands for the contraction of spatially specific sets of eye muscles. The vestibular excitation and inhibition of extraocular motoneurons underlying this reflex is reciprocally organized and allows coordinated activation of particular eye muscles and concurrent relaxation of their antagonistic counterparts. Here, we demonstrate in isolated preparations of Xenopus laevis tadpoles that the discharge modulation of superior oblique motoneurons during cyclic head motion derives from an alternating excitation and inhibition...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555744/flexible-egocentric-and-allocentric-representations-of-heading-signals-in-parietal-cortex
#13
Xiaodong Chen, Gregory C DeAngelis, Dora E Angelaki
By systematically manipulating head position relative to the body and eye position relative to the head, previous studies have shown that vestibular tuning curves of neurons in the ventral intraparietal (VIP) area remain invariant when expressed in body-/world-centered coordinates. However, body orientation relative to the world was not manipulated; thus, an egocentric, body-centered representation could not be distinguished from an allocentric, world-centered reference frame. We manipulated the orientation of the body relative to the world such that we could distinguish whether vestibular heading signals in VIP are organized in body- or world-centered reference frames...
March 19, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551490/a-circuit-for-integration-of-head-and-visual-motion-signals-in-layer-6-of-mouse-primary-visual-cortex
#14
Mateo Vélez-Fort, Edward F Bracey, Sepiedeh Keshavarzi, Charly V Rousseau, Lee Cossell, Stephen C Lenzi, Molly Strom, Troy W Margrie
To interpret visual-motion events, the underlying computation must involve internal reference to the motion status of the observer's head. We show here that layer 6 (L6) principal neurons in mouse primary visual cortex (V1) receive a diffuse, vestibular-mediated synaptic input that signals the angular velocity of horizontal rotation. Behavioral and theoretical experiments indicate that these inputs, distributed over a network of 100 L6 neurons, provide both a reliable estimate and, therefore, physiological separation of head-velocity signals...
March 8, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29533336/diagnoses-of-dizziness-and-vertigo-related-disorders-in-ent-practices-in-germany
#15
David Ulrich Seidel, Jonas Jae-Hyun Park, Andreas M Sesterhenn, Karel Kostev
AIM: The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence of dizziness- and vertigo-related diagnoses in ear, nose, and throat (ENT) practices in Germany and the associated demographic characteristics based on data from a representative nationwide practice database. METHOD: The study sample included patients from 138 ENT practices in Germany who received dizziness- and vertigorelated diagnoses (ICD-10 code) between January 2012 and December 2015. Collected parameters included age, sex, insurance status, prescribed medication (anatomical therapeutic chemical [ATC] class), and referrals to other specialists and hospitals...
April 2018: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29487123/role-of-rostral-fastigial-neurons-in-encoding-a-body-centered-representation-of-translation-in-three-dimensions
#16
Christophe Z Martin, Jessica X Brooks, Andrea M Green
Many daily behaviors rely critically on estimates of our body motion. Such estimates must be computed by combining neck proprioceptive signals with vestibular signals that have been transformed from a head- to a body-centered reference frame. Recent studies showed that deep cerebellar neurons in the rostral fastigial nucleus (rFN) reflect these computations, but whether they explicitly encode estimates of body motion remains unclear. A key limitation in addressing this question is that to date cell tuning properties have only been characterized for a restricted set of motions across head-re-body orientations in the horizontal plane...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460253/neuronal-apoptosis-in-the-brainstem-medulla-of-sudden-unexpected-death-in-infancy-sudi-and-the-importance-of-standardized-sudi-classification
#17
Natalie Ambrose, Karen A Waters, Michael L Rodriguez, Kendall Bailey, Rita Machaalani
The purpose of this study was to examine the neuronal expression of apoptotic markers in the rostral medulla of a newly characterized dataset of sudden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI), and to determine the impact of diagnostic groupings on these findings and whether they pertain to the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Immunohistochemical staining was quantified to determine the percentage of neurons positive for active caspase-9 (specific to the intrinsic apoptotic pathway), active caspase-3 (common to the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways) and Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick-end labelling (TUNEL) (labels DNA fragmentation) in nine nuclei of the rostral medulla...
February 19, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459843/hypothesis-the-vestibular-and-cerebellar-basis-of-the-mal-de-debarquement-syndrome
#18
Bernard Cohen, Sergei B Yakushin, Catherine Cho
The Mal de Debarquement syndrome (MdDS) generally follows sea voyages, but it can occur after turbulent flights or spontaneously. The primary features are objective or perceived continuous rocking, swaying, and/or bobbing at 0.2 Hz after sea voyages or 0.3 Hz after flights. The oscillations can continue for months or years and are immensely disturbing. Associated symptoms appear to be secondary to the incessant sensation of movement. We previously suggested that the illness can be attributed to maladaptation of the velocity storage integrator in the vestibular system, but the actual neural mechanisms driving the MdDS are unknown...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447907/wilhelm-his-lasting-insights-into-hindbrain-and-cranial-ganglia-development-and-evolution
#19
REVIEW
Joel C Glover, Karen L Elliott, Albert Erives, Victor V Chizhikov, Bernd Fritzsch
Wilhelm His (1831-1904) provided lasting insights into the development of the central and peripheral nervous system using innovative technologies such as the microtome, which he invented. 150 years after his resurrection of the classical germ layer theory of Wolff, von Baer and Remak, his description of the developmental origin of cranial and spinal ganglia from a distinct cell population, now known as the neural crest, has stood the test of time and more recently sparked tremendous advances regarding the molecular development of these important cells...
February 12, 2018: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433062/suppression-of-the-vestibular-short-latency-evoked-potential-by-electrical-stimulation-of-the-central-vestibular-system
#20
Christopher J Pastras, Ian S Curthoys, Ljiljana Sokolic, Daniel J Brown
In an attempt to view the effects of the efferent vestibular system (EVS) on peripheral dynamic vestibular function, we have monitored the Vestibular short-latency Evoked Potential (VsEP) evoked by pulses of bone conducted vibration during electrical stimulation of the EVS neurons near the floor of the fourth ventricle in the brainstem of anesthetized guinea pigs. Given the reported effects of EVS on primary afferent activity, we hypothesized that EVS stimulation would cause a slight reduction in the VsEP amplitude...
February 2, 2018: Hearing Research
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