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vestibular neuronitis

Bao-Hua Liu, Andrew D Huberman, Massimo Scanziani
The mammalian visual cortex massively innervates the brainstem, a phylogenetically older structure, via cortico-fugal axonal projections. Many cortico-fugal projections target brainstem nuclei that mediate innate motor behaviours, but the function of these projections remains poorly understood. A prime example of such behaviours is the optokinetic reflex (OKR), an innate eye movement mediated by the brainstem accessory optic system, that stabilizes images on the retina as the animal moves through the environment and is thus crucial for vision...
October 12, 2016: Nature
Masato Yamauchi, Masahito Yamamoto, Kei Kitamura, Masaaki Kasahara, Satoru Matsunaga, Gen Murakami, Shin-Ichi Abe
The vestibular and geniculate ganglia of the ear in experimental animals carry both of the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive sympathetic neurons and the neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-positive parasympathetic neurons. With an aid of immunohistochemistry, we examined these ganglia as well as the horizontal part of the facial nerve using specimens from 10 formalin-fixed elderly cadavers. The submandibular ganglion from the same cadavers was used for the positive control for both markers. Although there was a nonspecific reaction in nuclei for the present antibody of nNOS, these ganglia were unlikely to contain either nNOS- or TH-positive neurons...
2016: Okajimas Folia Anatomica Japonica
Hitomi Matsuno, Moeko Kudoh, Akiya Watakabe, Tetsuo Yamamori, Ryuichi Shigemoto, Soichi Nagao
Adaptations of vestibulo-ocular and optokinetic response eye movements have been studied as an experimental model of cerebellum-dependent motor learning. Several previous physiological and pharmacological studies have consistently suggested that the cerebellar flocculus (FL) Purkinje cells (P-cells) and the medial vestibular nucleus (MVN) neurons targeted by FL (FL-targeted MVN neurons) may respectively maintain the memory traces of short- and long-term adaptation. To study the basic structures of the FL-MVN synapses by light microscopy (LM) and electron microscopy (EM), we injected green florescence protein (GFP)-expressing lentivirus into FL to anterogradely label the FL P-cell axons in C57BL/6J mice...
2016: PloS One
Takefumi Kamakura, Makoto Kondo, Yoshihisa Koyama, Yukiko Hanada, Yusuke Ishida, Yukiko Nakamura, Takahiro Yamada, Yasumitsu Takimoto, Tadashi Kitahara, Yoshiyuki Ozono, Arata Horii, Takao Imai, Hidenori Inohara, Shoichi Shimada
Transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) 4 is a nonselective cation channel expressed in sensory neurons such as those in the dorsal root and trigeminal ganglia, kidney, and inner ear. TRPV4 is activated by mechanical stress, heat, low osmotic pressure, low pH, and phorbol derivatives such as 4α-phorbol 12,13-didecanoate (4α-PDD). We investigated the expression of TRPV4 in rat vestibular ganglion (VG) neurons. The TRPV4 gene was successfully amplified from VG neuron mRNA using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction...
October 6, 2016: Audiology & Neuro-otology
Masao Horie, Kazuyuki Mekada, Hiromi Sano, Yoshiaki Kikkawa, Satomi Chiken, Takuro Someya, Keisuke Saito, M Ibrahim Hossain, Masaaki Nameta, Kuniya Abe, Kenji Sakimura, Katsuhiko Ono, Atsushi Nambu, Atsushi Yoshiki, Hirohide Takebayashi
We identified a novel spontaneous mutant mouse showing motor symptoms that are similar to those of the dystonia musculorum (dt) mouse. The observations suggested that the mutant mice inherited the mild dt phenotype as an autosomal recessive trait. Linkage analysis showed that the causative gene was located near D1Mit373 and D1Mit410 microsatellite markers on chromosome 1, which are close to the dystonin (Dst) gene locus. To investigate whether Dst is the causative gene of the novel mutant phenotype, we crossed the mutant with Dst gene trap (Dst(Gt)) mice...
September 28, 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
J F Golding
Over 2000 years ago the Greek physician Hippocrates wrote, "sailing on the sea proves that motion disorders the body." Indeed, the word "nausea" derives from the Greek root word naus, hence "nautical," meaning a ship. The primary signs and symptoms of motion sickness are nausea and vomiting. Motion sickness can be provoked by a wide variety of transport environments, including land, sea, air, and space. The recent introduction of new visual technologies may expose more of the population to visually induced motion sickness...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
M Fetter
Sudden unilateral loss of vestibular function is the most severe condition that can occur in the vestibular system. The clinical syndrome is caused by the physiologic properties of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) arc. In the normal situation, the two peripheral vestibular end organs are connected to a functional unit in coplanar pairs of semicircular canals working in a push-pull mode. "Push-pull" mode means that, when one side is excited, the other side is inhibited, and vice versa due to two mechanisms...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
C D Balaban
Neuronal networks that are linked to the peripheral vestibular system contribute to gravitoinertial sensation, balance control, eye movement control, and autonomic function. Ascending connections to the limbic system and cerebral cortex are also important for motion perception and threat recognition, and play a role in comorbid balance and anxiety disorders. The vestibular system also shows remarkable plasticity, termed vestibular compensation. Activity in these networks is regulated by an interaction between: (1) intrinsic neurotransmitters of the inner ear, vestibular nerve, and vestibular nuclei; (2) neurotransmitters associated with thalamocortical and limbic pathways that receive projections originating in the vestibular nuclei; and (3) locus coeruleus and raphe (serotonergic and nonserotonergic) projections that influence the latter components...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
K E Cullen
The relative simplicity of the neural circuits that mediate vestibular reflexes is well suited for linking systems and cellular levels of analyses. Notably, a distinctive feature of the vestibular system is that neurons at the first central stage of sensory processing in the vestibular nuclei are premotor neurons; the same neurons that receive vestibular-nerve input also send direct projections to motor pathways. For example, the simplicity of the three-neuron pathway that mediates the vestibulo-ocular reflex leads to the generation of compensatory eye movements within ~5ms of a head movement...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Donatella Contini, Steven D Price, Jonathan J Art
Fast neurotransmitters act in conjunction with slower modulatory effectors that accumulate in restricted synaptic spaces found at giant synapses such as the calyceal endings in the auditory and vestibular systems. Here, we use dual patch-clamp recordings from turtle vestibular hair cells and their afferent neurons to show that potassium ions accumulating in the synaptic cleft modulate membrane potentials and extend the range of information transfer. High-fidelity synaptic transmission is possible due to large conductances that minimize hair cell and afferent time constants in the presence of significant membrane capacitance...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Holly A Holman, Vy M Tran, Mausam Kalita, Lynn N Nguyen, Sailaja Arungundram, Balagurunathan Kuberan, Richard D Rabbitt
We report on a new xyloside conjugated to BODIPY, BX and its utility to prime fluorescent glycosaminoglycans (BX-GAGs) within the inner ear in vivo. When BX is administered directly into the endolymphatic space of the oyster toadfish (Opsanus tau) inner ear, fluorescent BX-GAGs are primed and become visible in the sensory epithelia of the semicircular canals, utricle, and saccule. Confocal and 2-photon microscopy of vestibular organs fixed 4 h following BX treatment, reveal BX-GAGs constituting glycocalyces that envelop hair cell kinocilium, nerve fibers, and capillaries...
September 12, 2016: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
Chong Guo, Laurens Witter, Stephanie Rudolph, Hunter L Elliott, Katelin A Ennis, Wade G Regehr
Inhibition of granule cells plays a key role in gating the flow of signals into the cerebellum, and it is thought that Golgi cells are the only interneurons that inhibit granule cells. Here we show that Purkinje cells, the sole output neurons of the cerebellar cortex, also directly inhibit granule cells via their axon collaterals. Anatomical and optogenetic studies indicate that this non-canonical feedback is region specific: it is most prominent in lobules that regulate eye movement and process vestibular information...
September 21, 2016: Neuron
Kathrin D Gensberger, Anna-Kristin Kaufmann, Haike Dietrich, Francisco Branoner, Roberto Banchi, Boris P Chagnaud, Hans Straka
UNLABELLED: Galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) uses modulated currents to evoke neuronal activity in vestibular endorgans in the absence of head motion. GVS is typically used for a characterization of vestibular pathologies; for studies on the vestibular influence of gaze, posture, and locomotion; and for deciphering the sensory-motor transformation underlying these behaviors. At variance with the widespread use of this method, basic aspects such as the activated cellular substrate at the sensory periphery or the comparability to motion-induced neuronal activity patterns are still disputed...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
C Grasso, G Li Volsi, E Cataldo, D Manzoni, M Barresi
Limb somatosensory signals modify the discharge of vestibular neurons and elicit postural reflexes, which stabilize the body position. The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of the γ-amino-butyric-acid (GABA) to the responsiveness of vestibular neurons to somatosensory inputs. The activity of 128 vestibular units was recorded in anesthetized rats in resting conditions and during sinusoidal foreleg rotation around the elbow or shoulder joints (0.026-0.625Hz, 45° peak amplitude). None of the recorded units was influenced by elbow rotation, while 40% of them responded to shoulder rotation...
October 29, 2016: Neuroscience
Leilei Pan, Ruirui Qi, Junqin Wang, Wei Zhou, Jiluo Liu, Yiling Cai
Vestibular damage can induce locomotor abnormalities in both animals and humans. Rodents with bilateral vestibular loss showed vestibular deficits syndrome such as circling, opisthotonus as well as locomotor and exploratory hyperactivity. Previous studies have investigated the changes in the dopamine system after vestibular loss, but the results are inconsistent and inconclusive. Numerous evidences indicate that the orexin system is implicated in central motor control. We hypothesized that orexin may be potentially involved in vestibular loss-induced motor disorders...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Shawn D Newlands, Min Wei, David Morgan, Hongge Luan
After vestibular labyrinth injury, behavioral measures of vestibular performance recover to variable degrees (vestibular compensation). Central neuronal responses after unilateral labyrinthectomy (UL), which eliminates both afferent resting activity and sensitivity to movement, have been well-studied. However, unilateral semicircular canal plugging (UCP), which attenuates angular-velocity detection while leaving afferent resting activity intact, has not been extensively studied. The current study reports response properties of yaw-sensitive non-eye-movement rhesus macaque vestibular neurons after compensation from UCP...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Alexander Schulz, Robert Büttner, Andrea Toledo, Stephan L Baader, Julia von Maltzahn, Andrey Irintchev, Reinhard Bauer, Helen Morrison
In contrast to axons of the central nervous system (CNS), axons of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) show better, but still incomplete and often slow regeneration following injury. The tumor suppressor protein merlin, mutated in the hereditary tumor syndrome Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2), has recently been shown to have RhoA regulatory functions in PNS neurons-in addition to its well-characterized, growth-inhibitory activity in Schwann cells. Here we report that the conditional knockout of merlin in PNS neurons leads to impaired functional recovery of mice following sciatic nerve crush injury, in a gene-dosage dependent manner...
2016: PloS One
Päivi Tommola, Leila Unkila-Kallio, Anders Paetau, Seppo Meri, Eija Kalso, Jorma Paavonen
BACKGROUND: Provoked vestibulodynia manifests as allodynia of the vulvar vestibular mucosa. The exact mechanisms that result in altered pain sensation are unknown. Recently, we demonstrated the presence of secondary lymphoid tissue, which is the vestibule-associated lymphoid tissue in the vestibular mucosa, and showed that this tissue becomes activated in provoked vestibulodynia. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine whether expression of intraepithelial nerve fibers and nerve growth factor are related to immune activation in provoked vestibulodynia...
July 25, 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Andrew A McCall, Derek M Miller, William M DeMayo, George H Bourdages, Bill J Yates
The limbs constitute the sole interface with the ground during most waking activities in mammalian species; it is therefore expected that somatosensory inputs from the limbs provide important information to the central nervous system for balance control. In the decerebrate cat model, the activity of a subset of neurons in the vestibular nuclei (VN) has been previously shown to be modulated by hindlimb movement. However, decerebration can profoundly alter the effects of sensory inputs on the activity of brain stem neurons, resulting in epiphenomenal responses...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Gemma Huguet, Elisabet Kadar, Yasin Temel, Lee Wei Lim
The electrical stimulation of specific brain targets has been shown to induce striking antidepressant effects. Despite that recent data have indicated that cerebellum is involved in emotional regulation, the mechanisms by which stimulation improved mood-related behaviors in the cerebellum remained largely obscure. Here, we investigated the stimulation effects of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), nucleus accumbens (NAc), and lateral habenular nucleus on the c-Fos neuronal activity in various deep cerebellar and vestibular nuclei using the unpredictable chronic mild stress (CMS) animal model of depression...
July 19, 2016: Cerebellum
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