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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631688/-benign-paroxysmal-positional-vertigo-modern-concepts-of-its-etiology-and-pathogenesis
#1
N L Kunel'skaya, N G Mokrysheva, A L Guseva, E V Baibakova, E A Manaenkova
The objective of the present review of the literature is the analysis of the currently available data concerning etiology and pathogenesis of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). The special emphasis is placed on the modern hypotheses of BPPV formation that collectively account for not more than 15% of all known cases of this condition. The best explored are the following causes of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo: vestibular neuronitis, head injuries, and disorders in the middle ear. During the recent years, much attention has been given to the role of disturbances of calcium metabolism and osteoporosis in etiology of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo...
2017: Vestnik Otorinolaringologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618821/low-intensity-ultrasound-activates-vestibular-otolith-organs-through-acoustic-radiation-force
#2
M M Iversen, D A Christensen, D L Parker, H A Holman, J Chen, M J Frerck, R D Rabbitt
The present study examined the efficacy of 5 MHz low-intensity focused ultrasound (LiFU) as a stimulus to remotely activate inner ear vestibular otolith organs. The otolith organs are the primary sensory apparati responsible for detecting orientation of the head relative to gravity and linear acceleration in three-dimensional space. These organs also respond to loud sounds and vibration of the temporal bone. The oyster toadfish, Opsanus tau, was used to facilitate unobstructed acoustic access to the otolith organs in vivo...
June 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608779/cerebellar-re-encoding-of-self-generated-head-movements
#3
Guillaume P Dugué, Matthieu Tihy, Boris Gourévitch, Clément Léna
Head movements are primarily sensed in a reference frame tied to the head, yet they are used to calculate self-orientation relative to the world. This requires to re-encode head kinematic signals into a reference frame anchored to earth-centered landmarks such as gravity, through computations whose neuronal substrate remains to be determined. Here, we studied the encoding of self-generated head movements in the rat caudal cerebellar vermis, an area essential for graviceptive functions. We found that, contrarily to peripheral vestibular inputs, most Purkinje cells exhibited a mixed sensitivity to head rotational and gravitational information and were differentially modulated by active and passive movements...
June 13, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603711/autophagy-in-the-vertebrate-inner-ear
#4
REVIEW
Marta Magariños, Sara Pulido, María R Aburto, Rocío de Iriarte Rodríguez, Isabel Varela-Nieto
Autophagy is a conserved catabolic process that results in the lysosomal degradation of cell components. During development, autophagy is associated with tissue and organ remodeling, and under physiological conditions it is tightly regulated as it plays a housekeeping role in removing misfolded proteins and damaged organelles. The vertebrate inner ear is a complex sensory organ responsible for the perception of sound and for balance. Cell survival, death and proliferation, as well as cell fate specification and differentiation, are processes that are strictly coordinated during the development of the inner ear in order to generate the more than a dozen specialized cell types that constitute this structure...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586131/mechanisms-underlying-vestibulo-cerebellar-motor-learning-in-mice-depend-on-movement-direction
#5
Kai Voges, Bin Wu, Laura Post, Martijn Schonewille, Chris I De Zeeuw
Compensatory eye movements elicited by head rotation, also known as vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR), can be adapted with the use of visual feedback. The cerebellum is essential for this type of movement adaptation, but its neuronal correlates remain to be elucidated. Here we show that the direction of vestibular input determines the magnitude of eye movement adaptation induced by mismatched visual input in mice, with larger changes during contraversive head rotation. Moreover, the location of the neural correlate of this changed behaviour depends on the type of paradigm...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584970/morphometric-evaluation-of-facial-and-vestibulocochlear-nerves-using-magnetic-resonance-imaging-comparison-of-meni%C3%A3-re-s-disease-ears-with-normal-hearing-ears
#6
Annika Henneberger, Birgit Ertl-Wagner, Maximilian Reiser, Robert Gürkov, Wilhelm Flatz
Loss of neural structures (such as hair cells or neurones within the spiral ganglion) has been proposed to be involved in Menière's disease (MD) (Spoendlin et al. Acta oto-laryngologica Supplementum 499:1-21, 1; Merchant et al. Eur Arch Oto-Rhino-Laryngol Off J Eur Feder Oto-Rhino-Laryngol Soc (EUFOS) Affil German Soc Oto-Rhino-Laryngol Head Neck Surg 252(2):63-75, 2; Tsuji et al. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol Suppl 81:26-31, 3; Kariya, Otol Neurotol Off Publ Am Otol Soc Am Neurotol Soc Eur Acad Otol Neurotol 28(8):1063-1068, 4; Megerian Laryngoscope 115(9):1525-1535, 5) but this has yet to be confirmed...
June 5, 2017: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567027/transient-vestibulopathy-in-wallenberg-s-syndrome-pathologic-analysis
#7
Jorge C Kattah, Ali S Saber Tehrani, Sigrun Roeber, Meena Gujrati, Sarah E Bach, David E Newman Toker, Ari M Blitz, Anja K E Horn
OBJECTIVE: To report an unusual lateral medullary stroke (LMS) associated with transient unidirectional horizontal, nystagmus, and decreased horizontal vestibulo-ocular reflex (h-VOR) gain that mimicked a peripheral vestibulopathy. MRI suggested involvement of caudal medial vestibular nucleus (MVN); however, the rapid resolution of the nystagmus and improved h-VOR gain favored transient ischemia without infarction. Decreased h-VOR gain is expected with peripheral vestibular lesions within the labyrinth or superior vestibular nerve; less frequently lateral pontine strokes involving the vestibular root entry, the vestibular fascicle, or neurons within the MVN may be responsible...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546313/enlargement-of-ribbons-in-zebrafish-hair-cells-increases-calcium-currents-but-disrupts-afferent-spontaneous-activity-and-timing-of-stimulus-onset
#8
Lavinia Sheets, Xinyi J He, Jennifer Olt, Mary Schreck, Ronald S Petralia, Ya-Xian Wang, Qiuxiang Zhang, Alisha Beirl, Teresa Nicolson, Walter Marcotti, Josef G Trapani, Katie S Kindt
In sensory hair cells of auditory and vestibular organs, the ribbon synapse is required for the precise encoding of a wide range of complex stimuli. Hair cells have a unique presynaptic structure-the synaptic ribbon-that organizes both synaptic vesicles and calcium channels at the active zone. Previous work has shown that hair-cell ribbon size is correlated with differences in postsynaptic activity. However, additional variability in postsynapse size presents a challenge to determining the specific role of ribbon size in sensory encoding...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536922/head-shaking-tilt-suppression-a-clinical-test-to-discern-central-from-peripheral-causes-of-vertigo
#9
F C Zuma E Maia, Renato Cal, Ricardo D'Albora, Sergio Carmona, Michael C Schubert
Tilt suppression refers to both tilting the head away from an Earth vertical axis and a reduction of an induced horizontal nystagmus. This phenomenon of reducing an induced horizontal nystagmus involves a circuitry of neurons within the vestibular nuclei and the cerebellum (collectively referred to as velocity storage) and signals from the otolith end organs. Lesions involving this circuitry can disrupt tilt suppression of induced horizontal nystagmus. We investigated the clinical value of combining the horizontal head-shaking nystagmus test with tilt suppression in 28 patients with unilateral peripheral vestibular hypofunction and 11 patients with lesions affecting the central nervous system...
June 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505527/amino-acid-and-acetylcholine-chemistry-in-the-central-auditory-system-of-young-middle-aged-and-old-rats
#10
Donald A Godfrey, Kejian Chen, Thomas R O'Toole, Abdurrahman I A A Mustapha
Older adults generally experience difficulties with hearing. Age-related changes in the chemistry of central auditory regions, especially the chemistry underlying synaptic transmission between neurons, may be of particular relevance for hearing changes. In this study, we used quantitative microchemical methods to map concentrations of amino acids, including the major neurotransmitters of the brain, in all the major central auditory structures of young (6 months), middle-aged (22 months), and old (33 months old) Fischer 344 x Brown Norway rats...
May 4, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483393/activation-of-5-ht7-receptors-reverses-nmda-r-dependent-ltd-by-activating-pka-in-medial-vestibular-neurons
#11
Yan-Hai Li, Lei Han, Kenneth Lap-Kei Wu, Ying-Shing Chan
The medial vestibular nucleus (MVN) is a major output station for neurons that project to the vestibulo-spinal pathway. MVN neurons show capacity for long-term depression (LTD) during the juvenile period. We investigated LTD of MVN neurons using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings. High frequency stimulation (HFS) robustly induced LTD in 90% of type B neurons in the MVN, while only 10% of type A neurons were responsive, indicating that type B neurons are the major contributors to LTD in the MVN. The neuromodulator serotonin (5-HT) is known to modulate LTD in neural circuits of the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus...
May 5, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470551/nuclear-derivatives-and-axonal-projections-originating-from-rhombomere-4-in-the-mouse-hindbrain
#12
Maria Di Bonito, Michèle Studer, Luis Puelles
The r4-derived territory is located in the pontine region of the brainstem, forming a wedge-shaped slice that broadens from the choroidal roof to the ventral midline. R4-derived neuronal populations migrate radially inside and tangentially outside this rhombomere, forming nuclei of the sensorimotor auditory, vestibular, trigeminal and reticular systems. R4-derived fibre tracts contribute to the lateral lemniscus, the trigeminothalamic tracts, the medial tegmental tract and the medial forebrain bundle, which variously project to the midbrain, thalamus, hypothalamus and telencephalon...
May 3, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450830/spiral-ganglion-neuron-projection-development-to-the-hindbrain-in-mice-lacking-peripheral-and-or-central-target-differentiation
#13
Karen L Elliott, Jennifer Kersigo, Ning Pan, Israt Jahan, Bernd Fritzsch
We investigate the importance of the degree of peripheral or central target differentiation for mouse auditory afferent navigation to the organ of Corti and auditory nuclei in three different mouse models: first, a mouse in which the differentiation of hair cells, but not central auditory nuclei neurons is compromised (Atoh1-cre; Atoh1(f/f) ); second, a mouse in which hair cell defects are combined with a delayed defect in central auditory nuclei neurons (Pax2-cre; Atoh1(f/f) ), and third, a mouse in which both hair cells and central auditory nuclei are absent (Atoh1(-/-))...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446678/differential-involvement-during-latent-hsv-1-infection-of-the-superior-and-inferior-divisions-of-the-vestibular-ganglia-implications-for-vestibular-neuritis
#14
Susanne Himmelein, Anja Lindemann, Inga Sinicina, Anja K E Horn, Thomas Brandt, Michael Strupp, Katharina Hüfner
Controversy still surrounds both the etiology and pathophysiology of vestibular neuritis (VN). Especially uncertain is why the superior vestibular nerve (SVN) is more frequently affected than the inferior part (IVN), which is partially or totally spared. To address this question we developed an improved method for preparing human vestibular ganglia (VG) and nerve. Subsequently macro- and micro-anatomical as well as PCR studies were performed on 38 human ganglia from 38 individuals. The SVN was 2.4 mm longer than the IVN, and in 65% of the cases the IVN ran in two separate bony canals, which was not the case for the SVN...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446587/temporal-integration-and-1-f-power-scaling-in-a-circuit-model-of-cerebellar-interneurons
#15
Reinoud Maex, Boris Samuel Gutkin
Inhibitory interneurons interconnected via electrical and chemical (GABAA receptor) synapses form extensive circuits in several brain regions. They are thought to be involved in timing and synchronization through fast feed-forward control of principal neurons. Theoretical studies have shown, however, that whereas self-inhibition does indeed reduce response duration, lateral inhibition, in contrast, may generate slow response components through a process of gradual disinhibition. Here we simulated a circuit of interneurons (stellate and basket cells) of the molecular layer of the cerebellar cortex, and observed circuit time-constants that could rise, depending on the parameter values, to more than one second...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424655/sustained-and-transient-vestibular-systems-a-physiological-basis-for-interpreting-vestibular-function
#16
REVIEW
Ian S Curthoys, Hamish G MacDougall, Pierre-Paul Vidal, Catherine de Waele
Otolithic afferents with regular resting discharge respond to gravity or low-frequency linear accelerations, and we term these the static or sustained otolithic system. However, in the otolithic sense organs, there is anatomical differentiation across the maculae and corresponding physiological differentiation. A specialized band of receptors called the striola consists of mainly type I receptors whose hair bundles are weakly tethered to the overlying otolithic membrane. The afferent neurons, which form calyx synapses on type I striolar receptors, have irregular resting discharge and have low thresholds to high frequency (e...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414692/neuronal-fibers-and-neurotransmitter-receptor-expression-in-the-human-endolymphatic-sac
#17
Martin Nue Møller, Svend Kirkeby, Jonas Vikeså, Finn Cilius Nielsen, Per Cayé-Thomasen
INTRODUCTION: Recent studies suggest that the human endolymphatic sac (ES) may have multiple functions, including an ion-transport capacity comparable to the kidney, an immunological capacity and a possible natriuretic capacity. Further, there have been speculations of a yet undefined role in intracranial pressure homeostasis. The anatomical location towards the sigmoid sinus would suggest a possible endo- and/or paracrine signaling. However, neuronal connections may also apply, but it remains very scarcely explored in the human ES...
June 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405011/plasticity-within-excitatory-and-inhibitory-pathways-of-the-vestibulo-spinal-circuitry-guides-changes-in-motor-performance
#18
Diana E Mitchell, Charles C Della Santina, Kathleen E Cullen
Investigations of behaviors with well-characterized circuitry are required to understand how the brain learns new motor skills and ensures existing behaviors remain appropriately calibrated over time. Accordingly, here we recorded from neurons within different sites of the vestibulo-spinal circuitry of behaving macaque monkeys during temporally precise activation of vestibular afferents. Behaviorally relevant patterns of vestibular nerve activation generated a rapid and substantial decrease in the monosynaptic responses recorded at the first central stage of processing from neurons receiving direct input from vestibular afferents within minutes, as well as a decrease in the compensatory reflex response that lasted up to 8 hours...
April 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396651/descending-influences-on-vestibulospinal-and-vestibulosympathetic-reflexes
#19
REVIEW
Andrew A McCall, Derek M Miller, Bill J Yates
This review considers the integration of vestibular and other signals by the central nervous system pathways that participate in balance control and blood pressure regulation, with an emphasis on how this integration may modify posture-related responses in accordance with behavioral context. Two pathways convey vestibular signals to limb motoneurons: the lateral vestibulospinal tract and reticulospinal projections. Both pathways receive direct inputs from the cerebral cortex and cerebellum, and also integrate vestibular, spinal, and other inputs...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387217/defective-gpsm2-g%C3%AE-i3-signalling-disrupts-stereocilia-development-and-growth-cone-actin-dynamics-in-chudley-mccullough-syndrome
#20
Stephanie A Mauriac, Yeri E Hien, Jonathan E Bird, Steve Dos-Santos Carvalho, Ronan Peyroutou, Sze Chim Lee, Maite M Moreau, Jean-Michel Blanc, Aysegul Geyser, Chantal Medina, Olivier Thoumine, Sandra Beer-Hammer, Thomas B Friedman, Lukas Rüttiger, Andrew Forge, Bernd Nürnberg, Nathalie Sans, Mireille Montcouquiol
Mutations in GPSM2 cause Chudley-McCullough syndrome (CMCS), an autosomal recessive neurological disorder characterized by early-onset sensorineural deafness and brain anomalies. Here, we show that mutation of the mouse orthologue of GPSM2 affects actin-rich stereocilia elongation in auditory and vestibular hair cells, causing deafness and balance defects. The G-protein subunit Gαi3, a well-documented partner of Gpsm2, participates in the elongation process, and its absence also causes hearing deficits. We show that Gpsm2 defines an ∼200 nm nanodomain at the tips of stereocilia and this localization requires the presence of Gαi3, myosin 15 and whirlin...
April 7, 2017: Nature Communications
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