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Muscle hypertrophy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451471/calf-muscle-hypertrophy-following-s1-radiculopathy-a-stress-disorder-caused-by-hyperactivity-with-variable-response-to-treatmen
#1
Nila Volpi, Federica Ginanneschi, Alfonso Cerase, Salvatore Francesco Carbone, Margherita Aglianò, Paola Lorenzoni, Matteo Bellini, Sabina Bartalini, Giovanni Di Pietro, Alessandro Rossi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 16, 2018: Clinical Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450729/physical-activity-and-mediterranean-diet-based-on-olive-tree-phenolic-compounds-from-two-different-geographical-areas-have-protective-effects-on-early-osteoarthritis-muscle-atrophy-and-hepatic-steatosis
#2
Marta Anna Szychlinska, Paola Castrogiovanni, Francesca Maria Trovato, Houda Nsir, Mokhtar Zarrouk, Debora Lo Furno, Michelino Di Rosa, Rosa Imbesi, Giuseppe Musumeci
PURPOSE: Osteoarthitis (OA) leads to progressive loss of articular cartilage, pain and joint disability. An acute injury constitutes an important risk factor for early OA, determining an inflammatory process responsible of cartilage degeneration and muscle atrophy, due to the joint pain and immobility. The study aims to assess the effects of conjugation of physical activity and diet enriched by olive tree compounds [extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and olive leaf extract (OLE)], on the musculoskeletal system in OA rat model...
February 15, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447936/inducing-hypertrophic-effects-of-type-i-skeletal-muscle-fibers-a-hypothetical-role-of-time-under-load-in-resistance-training-aimed-at-muscular-hypertrophy
#3
Jozo Grgic, Jan Homolak, Pavle Mikulic, Javier Botella, Brad J Schoenfeld
An emerging body of evidence is starting to suggest that the hypertrophy of skeletal muscle fibers might be load specific. In other words, it may be that resistance training with high loads (i.e., ≥60% of 1 repetition maximum [RM]) emphasizes a greater growth of type II muscle fibers, while resistance training with low loads (i.e., <60% of 1RM) might primarily augment hypertrophy of type I muscle fibers. Type I and type II muscle fibers possess certain distinct characteristics, with type II muscle fibers having faster calcium kinetics, faster shortening velocities, and ability to generate more power than type I muscle fibers...
March 2018: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443878/skeletal-muscle-pathophysiology-the-emerging-role-of-spermine-oxidase-and-spermidine
#4
REVIEW
Manuela Cervelli, Alessia Leonetti, Guglielmo Duranti, Stefania Sabatini, Roberta Ceci, Paolo Mariottini
Skeletal muscle comprises approximately 40% of the total body mass. Preserving muscle health and function is essential for the entire body in order to counteract chronic diseases such as type II diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. Prolonged physical inactivity, particularly among the elderly, causes muscle atrophy, a pathological state with adverse outcomes such as poor quality of life, physical disability, and high mortality. In murine skeletal muscle C2C12 cells, increased expression of the spermine oxidase (SMOX) enzyme has been found during cell differentiation...
February 14, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443546/akt1-deficiency-diminishes-skeletal-muscle-hypertrophy-by-reducing-satellite-cell-proliferation
#5
Nobuki Moriya, Mitsunori Miyazaki
Skeletal muscle mass is determined by the net dynamic balance between protein synthesis and degradation. Although the Akt/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR)-dependent pathway plays an important role in promoting protein synthesis and subsequent skeletal muscle hypertrophy, the precise molecular regulation of mTOR activity by the upstream protein kinase Akt is largely unknown. In addition, the activation of satellite cells has been indicated as a key regulator of muscle mass. However, the requirement of satellite cells for load-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy is still under intense debate...
February 14, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436684/lactoferrin-promotes-murine-c2c12-myoblast-proliferation-and-differentiation-and-myotube-hypertrophy
#6
Tomoya Kitakaze, Meiku Oshimo, Yasuyuki Kobayashi, Mizuyuki Ryu, Yasushi A Suzuki, Hiroshi Inui, Naoki Harada, Ryoichi Yamaji
Lactoferrin (Lf) is a multifunctional glycoprotein, which promotes the proliferation of murine C2C12 myoblasts. In the present study, it was investigated how Lf promotes myoblast proliferation and whether Lf promotes myoblast differentiation or induces myotube hypertrophy. Lf promoted the proliferation of myoblasts in a dose‑dependent manner. Myoblast proliferation increased on day 3 when myoblasts were cultured in the presence of Lf for three days and also when myoblasts were cultured in the presence of Lf for the first day and in the absence of Lf for the subsequent two days...
February 13, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436580/iron-limitation-promotes-the-atrophy-of-skeletal-myocytes-whereas-iron-supplementation-prevents-this-process-in-the-hypoxic-conditions
#7
Kamil Kobak, Monika Kasztura, Magdalena Dziegala, Jacek Bania, Violetta Kapuśniak, Waldemar Banasiak, Piotr Ponikowski, Ewa A Jankowska
There is clinical evidence that patients with heart failure and concomitant iron deficiency have increased skeletal muscle fatigability and impaired exercise tolerance. It was expected that a skeletal muscle cell line subjected to different degrees of iron availability and/or concomitant hypoxia would demonstrate changes in cell morphology and in the expression of atrophy markers. L6G8C5 rat skeletal myocytes were cultured in normoxia or hypoxia at optimal, reduced or increased iron concentrations. Experiments were performed to evaluate the iron content in cells, cell morphology, and the expression of muscle specific atrophy markers [Atrogin1 and muscle‑specific RING‑finger 1 (MuRF1)], a gene associated with the atrophy/hypertrophy balance [mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 4 (SMAD4)] and a muscle class‑III intermediate filament protein (Desmin) at the mRNA and protein level...
February 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431597/effect-of-movement-velocity-during-resistance-training-on-muscle-specific-hypertrophy-a-systematic-review
#8
Daniel A Hackett, Timothy B Davies, Rhonda Orr, Kenny Kuang, Mark Halaki
Currently, it is unclear whether manipulation of movement velocity during resistance exercise has an effect on hypertrophy of specific muscles. The purpose of this systematic review of literature was to investigate the effect of movement velocity during resistance training on muscle hypertrophy. Five electronic databases were searched using terms related to movement velocity and resistance training. Inclusion criteria were randomised and non-randomised comparative studies; published in English; included healthy adults; used dynamic resistance exercise interventions directly comparing fast training to slower movement velocity training; matched in prescribed intensity and volume; duration ≥4 weeks; and measured muscle hypertrophy...
February 12, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429571/ndufb8-mutations-cause-mitochondrial-complex-i-deficiency-in-individuals-with-leigh-like-encephalomyopathy
#9
Dorota Piekutowska-Abramczuk, Zahra Assouline, Lavinija Mataković, René G Feichtinger, Eliška Koňařiková, Elżbieta Jurkiewicz, Piotr Stawiński, Mirjana Gusic, Andreas Koller, Agnieszka Pollak, Piotr Gasperowicz, Joanna Trubicka, Elżbieta Ciara, Katarzyna Iwanicka-Pronicka, Dariusz Rokicki, Sylvain Hanein, Saskia B Wortmann, Wolfgang Sperl, Agnès Rötig, Holger Prokisch, Ewa Pronicka, Rafał Płoski, Giulia Barcia, Johannes A Mayr
Respiratory chain complex I deficiency is the most frequently identified biochemical defect in childhood mitochondrial diseases. Clinical symptoms range from fatal infantile lactic acidosis to Leigh syndrome and other encephalomyopathies or cardiomyopathies. To date, disease-causing variants in genes coding for 27 complex I subunits, including 7 mitochondrial DNA genes, and in 11 genes encoding complex I assembly factors have been reported. Here, we describe rare biallelic variants in NDUFB8 encoding a complex I accessory subunit revealed by whole-exome sequencing in two individuals from two families...
February 1, 2018: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426944/incorporation-of-a-skeletal-muscle-specific-enhancer-in-the-regulatory-region-of-igf1-upregulates-igf1-expression-and-induces-skeletal-muscle-hypertrophy
#10
Yunlong Zou, Yanjun Dong, Qingyong Meng, Yaofeng Zhao, Ning Li
In this study, we upregulated insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1) expression specifically in skeletal muscle by engineering an enhancer into its non-coding regions and verified the expected phenotype in a mouse model. To select an appropriate site for introducing a skeletal muscle-specific myosin light chain (MLC) enhancer, three candidate sites that exhibited the least evolutionary conservation were chosen and validated in C2C12 single-cell colonies harbouring the MLC enhancer at each site. IGF1 was dramatically upregulated in only the site 2 single-cell colony series, and it exhibited functional activity leading to the formation of extra myotubes...
February 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425714/leucyl-trna-synthetase-is-required-for-the-myogenic-differentiation-of-c2c12-myoblasts-but-not-for-hypertrophy-or-metabolic-alteration-of-myotubes
#11
Yoriko Sato, Yusuke Sato, Reiko Suzuki, Kodwo Obeng, Fumiaki Yoshizawa
Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling controls skeletal muscle cell differentiation, growth, and metabolism by sensing the intracellular energy status and nutrients. Recently, leucyl-tRNA synthetase (Lars) was identified as an intracellular sensor of leucine involved in the activation of mTOR signaling. However, there is still no evidence for the activation of mTOR signaling by Lars and its physiological roles in skeletal muscle cells. In this study, we determined the potential roles of Lars for the activation of mTOR signaling, skeletal muscle cell differentiation, hypertrophy, and metabolism using small interfering (si)-RNA knockdown...
February 6, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425549/low-relative-muscle-mass-and-left-ventricular-diastolic-dysfunction-in-middle-aged-adults
#12
Byung-Joon Ko, Yoosoo Chang, Jeong Gyu Kang, Jimin Kim, Hyun-Suk Jung, Kyung Eun Yun, Chan-Won Kim, Hocheol Shin, Seungho Ryu
OBJECTIVES: The association between low skeletal muscle mass and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD), a predictor of future heart failure, is largely unexplored. We investigated the relationship between relative muscle mass and LVDD. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study in 67,106 Koreans who underwent an echocardiography as part of a comprehensive health examination between January 2012 and December 2014. Skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) [SMI (%)=total skeletal muscle mass (kg)/body weight (kg)×100] was estimated using a bioelectrical impedance analyzer...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424237/greasing-the-wheels-or-a-spanner-in-the-works-regulation-of-the-cardiac-sodium-pump-by-palmitoylation
#13
Jacqueline Howie, Krzysztof J Wypijewski, Fiona Plain, Lindsay B Tulloch, Niall J Fraser, William Fuller
The ubiquitous sodium/potassium ATPase (Na pump) is the most abundant primary active transporter at the cell surface of multiple cell types, including ventricular myocytes in the heart. The activity of the Na pump establishes transmembrane ion gradients that control numerous events at the cell surface, positioning it as a key regulator of the contractile and metabolic state of the myocardium. Defects in Na pump activity and regulation elevate intracellular Na in cardiac muscle, playing a causal role in the development of cardiac hypertrophy, diastolic dysfunction, arrhythmias and heart failure...
February 9, 2018: Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417757/natriuretic-peptide-receptor-c-mediated-attenuation-of-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-hypertrophy-involves-gq%C3%AE-plc%C3%AE-1-proteins-and-ros-associated-signaling
#14
Ashish Jain, Madhu B Anand-Srivastava
Hypertension is associated with vascular remodeling due to hyperproliferation and hypertrophy of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). Recently, we showed the implication of enhanced expression of Gqα and PLCβ1 proteins in hypertrophy of VSMCs from 16-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). The aim of this study was to investigate whether C-ANP4-23 , a natriuretic peptide receptor-C (NPR-C) ligand that was shown to inhibit vasoactive peptide-induced enhanced protein synthesis in A10 VSMC could also attenuate hypertrophy of VSMC isolated from rat model of cardiac hypertrophy and to further explore the possible involvement of Gqα/PLCβ1 proteins and ROS-mediated signaling in this effect...
February 2018: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417026/duchenne-muscular-dystrophy-case-report-and-review
#15
Rupam Sinha, Soumyabrata Sarkar, Tanya Khaitan, Soumyajit Dutta
Muscular dystrophies are a clinically and heterogeneous group of disorders that all share clinical characteristics of progressive muscular weakness. Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most common X-linked disorder muscular dystrophy in children, presenting in early childhood and characterized by proximal muscle weakness and calf hypertrophy in affected boys. There is usually delay in motor development and eventually wheelchair confinement followed by premature death from cardiac or respiratory complications...
July 2017: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415881/tak1-regulates-skeletal-muscle-mass-and-mitochondrial-function
#16
Sajedah M Hindi, Shuichi Sato, Guangyan Xiong, Kyle R Bohnert, Andrew A Gibb, Yann S Gallot, Joseph D McMillan, Bradford G Hill, Shizuka Uchida, Ashok Kumar
Skeletal muscle mass is regulated by a complex array of signaling pathways. TGF-β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) is an important signaling protein, which regulates context-dependent activation of multiple intracellular pathways. However, the role of TAK1 in the regulation of skeletal muscle mass remains unknown. Here, we report that inducible inactivation of TAK1 causes severe muscle wasting, leading to kyphosis, in both young and adult mice.. Inactivation of TAK1 inhibits protein synthesis and induces proteolysis, potentially through upregulating the activity of the ubiquitin-proteasome system and autophagy...
February 8, 2018: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414855/recent-perspectives-regarding-the-role-of-dietary-protein-for-the-promotion-of-muscle-hypertrophy-with-resistance-exercise-training
#17
REVIEW
Tanner Stokes, Amy J Hector, Robert W Morton, Chris McGlory, Stuart M Phillips
Skeletal muscle supports locomotion and serves as the largest site of postprandial glucose disposal; thus it is a critical organ for physical and metabolic health. Skeletal muscle mass is regulated by the processes of muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and muscle protein breakdown (MPB), both of which are sensitive to external loading and aminoacidemia. Hyperaminoacidemia results in a robust but transient increase in rates of MPS and a mild suppression of MPB. Resistance exercise potentiates the aminoacidemia-induced rise in MPS that, when repeated over time, results in gradual radial growth of skeletal muscle (i...
February 7, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408536/vasoactive-intestinal-peptide-inhibits-airway-smooth-muscle-cell-proliferation-in-a-mouse-model-of-asthma-via-the-erk1-2-signaling-pathway
#18
Juan Wang, Yun-Xiao Shang, Xu-Xu Cai, Li-Yun Liu
Asthma is a heterogeneous clinical syndrome characterized by airway inflammation, hyper-responsiveness and remodeling. Airway remodeling is irreversible by current antiasthmatic drugs, and it is the main cause of severe asthma. Airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) act as the main effector cells for airway remodeling; the proliferation and hypertrophy of which are involved in airway remodeling. Caveolin (Cav)-1 is present on the surface of ASMCs, which is involved in cell cycle and signal transduction regulation, allowing ASMCs to change from proliferation to apoptosis...
February 1, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405809/impairment-based-rehabilitation-increases-lower-leg-muscle-volumes-and-strength-in-chronic-ankle-instability-patients-a-preliminary-study
#19
Mark A Feger, Luke Donovan, C Collin Herb, Geoffrey G Handsfield, Silvia S Blemker, Joseph M Hart, Susan A Saliba, Mark F Abel, Joseph S Park, Jay Hertel
CONTEXT: Chronic ankle instability (CAI) patients have demonstrated atrophy of foot and ankle musculature and deficits in ankle strength. The effect of rehabilitation on muscle morphology and ankle strength has not previously been investigated in CAI patients. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to analyze the effect of impairment-based rehabilitation on intrinsic and extrinsic foot and ankle muscle volumes and strength in CAI patients. DESIGN: Controlled laboratory study...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401264/stretch-induced-compliance-a-novel-adaptive-biological-mechanism-following-acute-cardiac-load
#20
André M Leite-Moreira, João Almeida-Coelho, João S Neves, Ana L Pires, João Ferreira-Martins, Ricardo Castro-Ferreira, Ricardo Ladeiras-Lopes, Glória Conceição, Daniela Miranda-Silva, Patrícia Rodrigues, Nazha Hamdani, Melissa Herwig, Inês Falcão-Pires, Walter J Paulus, Wolfgang A Linke, André P Lourenço, Adelino F Leite-Moreira
Aims: The heart is constantly challenged with acute bouts of stretching or overload. Systolic adaptations to these challenges are known but adaptations in diastolic stiffness remain unknown. We evaluated adaptations in myocardial stiffness due to acute stretching and characterized the underlying mechanisms. Methods and Results: Left ventricles (LV) of intact rat hearts, rabbit papillary muscles and myocardial strips from cardiac surgery patients were stretched. After stretching, there was a sustained >40% decrease in end-diastolic pressure (EDP) or passive tension (PT) for 15 minutes in all species and experimental preparations...
February 1, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
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