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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330167/genetic-characterization-of-moroccan-and-the-exotic-bread-wheat-cultivars-using-functional-and-random-dna-markers-linked-to-the-agronomic-traits-for-genomics-assisted-improvement
#1
Fatima Henkrar, Jamal El-Haddoury, Hassan Ouabbou, Najib Bendaou, Sripada M Udupa
Genetic characterization, diversity analysis and estimate of the genetic relationship among varieties using functional and random DNA markers linked to agronomic traits can provide relevant guidelines in selecting parents and designing new breeding strategies for marker-assisted wheat cultivar improvement. Here, we characterize 20 Moroccan and 19 exotic bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars using 47 functional and 7 linked random DNA markers associated with 21 loci of the most important traits for wheat breeding...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329217/genomewide-association-scan-of-a-mortality-associated-endophenotype-for-a-long-and-healthy-life-in-the-long-life-family-study
#2
Jatinder Singh, Ryan L Minster, Nicole Schupf, Aldi Kraja, YongMei Liu, Kaare Christensen, Anne B Newman, Candace M Kammerer
Background: Identification of genes or fundamental biological pathways that regulate aging phenotypes and longevity could lead to possible interventions to increase healthy longevity. Methods: Using data from the Long Life Family Study, we performed genomewide association analyses on an endophenotype construct, LF1, comprising a linear combination of traits across health domains. LF1 primarily reflected traits from the pulmonary and physical activity domains. Results: We detected a significant association between LF1 and a locus on chromosome 10p15 (p-value = 4...
February 18, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326544/personalized-genetics-of-the-cholinergic-blockade-of-neuroinflammation
#3
REVIEW
Alon Simchovitz, Michael T Heneka, Hermona Soreq
Acetylcholine signaling is essential for cognitive functioning and blocks inflammation. To maintain homeostasis, cholinergic signaling is subjected to multi-leveled and bidirectional regulation by both proteins and non-coding microRNAs ('CholinomiRs'). CholinomiRs coordinate the cognitive and inflammatory aspects of cholinergic signaling by targeting major cholinergic transcripts including the acetylcholine hydrolyzing enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Notably, AChE inhibitors are the only currently approved line of treatment for Alzheimer's disease patients...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323836/single-nucleotide-variants-and-indels-identified-from-whole-genome-re-sequencing-of-guzerat-gyr-girolando-and-holstein-cattle-breeds
#4
Nedenia Bonvino Stafuzza, Adhemar Zerlotini, Francisco Pereira Lobo, Michel Eduardo Beleza Yamagishi, Tatiane Cristina Seleguim Chud, Alexandre Rodrigues Caetano, Danísio Prado Munari, Dorian J Garrick, Marco Antonio Machado, Marta Fonseca Martins, Maria Raquel Carvalho, John Bruce Cole, Marcos Vinicius Gualberto Barbosa da Silva
Whole-genome re-sequencing, alignment and annotation analyses were undertaken for 12 sires representing four important cattle breeds in Brazil: Guzerat (multi-purpose), Gyr, Girolando and Holstein (dairy production). A total of approximately 4.3 billion reads from an Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencer generated for each animal 10.7 to 16.4-fold genome coverage. A total of 27,441,279 single nucleotide variations (SNVs) and 3,828,041 insertions/deletions (InDels) were detected in the samples, of which 2,557,670 SNVs and 883,219 InDels were novel...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323578/anxiety-and-its-correlates-among-young-adults-with-a-history-of-parental-cancer
#5
Christina A Metcalf, Joanna J Arch, Joseph A Greer
PURPOSE: We assessed whether experiencing parental cancer during childhood was associated with anxiety levels during young adulthood-and whether parental survival status moderated anxiety or related psychosocial outcomes. METHODS: Young adults who experienced parental cancer during their childhood (n = 68) and those who did not (n = 298) completed measures of current anxiety and family functioning. The parental cancer group completed measures of social support and life changes during the parental cancer and posttraumatic growth...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Psychosocial Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323435/quantifying-selection-pressure
#6
Evert Haasdijk, Jacqueline Heinerman
Selection is an essential component of any evolutionary systemand analysing this fundamental force in evolution can provide relevant insights into the evolutionary development of a population. The 1990s and early 2000s saw a substantial number of publications that investigated selection pressure through methods such as takeover time and Markov chain analysis. Over the last decade, however, interest in the analysis of selection in evolutionary computing has waned. The established methods for analysis of selection pressure provide little insight when selection is based in more than comparison of fitness values...
March 21, 2017: Evolutionary Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323282/an-autism-associated-serotonin-transporter-variant-disrupts-multisensory-processing
#7
J K Siemann, C L Muller, C G Forsberg, R D Blakely, J Veenstra-VanderWeele, M T Wallace
Altered sensory processing is observed in many children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), with growing evidence that these impairments extend to the integration of information across the different senses (that is, multisensory function). The serotonin system has an important role in sensory development and function, and alterations of serotonergic signaling have been suggested to have a role in ASD. A gain-of-function coding variant in the serotonin transporter (SERT) associates with sensory aversion in humans, and when expressed in mice produces traits associated with ASD, including disruptions in social and communicative function and repetitive behaviors...
March 21, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323280/defining-the-functional-traits-that-drive-bacterial-decomposer-community-productivity
#8
Rachael Evans, Anna M Alessi, Susannah Bird, Simon J McQueen-Mason, Neil C Bruce, Michael A Brockhurst
Microbial communities are essential to a wide range of ecologically and industrially important processes. To control or predict how these communities function, we require a better understanding of the factors which influence microbial community productivity. Here, we combine functional resource use assays with a biodiversity-ecosystem functioning (BEF) experiment to determine whether the functional traits of constituent species can be used to predict community productivity. We quantified the abilities of 12 bacterial species to metabolise components of lignocellulose and then assembled these species into communities of varying diversity and composition to measure their productivity growing on lignocellulose, a complex natural substrate...
March 21, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322352/gene-based-genome-wide-association-study-identified-19p13-3-for-lean-body-mass
#9
Shu Ran, Lei Zhang, Lu Liu, An-Ping Feng, Yu-Fang Pei, Lei Zhang, Ying-Ying Han, Yong Lin, Xiao Li, Wei-Wen Kong, Xin-Yi You, Wen Zhao, Qing Tian, Hui Shen, Yong-Hong Zhang, Hong-Wen Deng
Lean body mass (LBM) is a complex trait for human health. To identify genomic loci underlying LBM, we performed a gene-based genome-wide association study of lean mass index (LMI) in 1000 unrelated Caucasian subjects, and replicated in 2283 unrelated Caucasians subjects. Gene-based association analyses highlighted the significant associations of three genes UQCR, TCF3 and MBD3 in one single locus 19p13.3 (discovery p = 6.10 × 10(-5), 1.65 × 10(-4) and 1.10 × 10(-4); replication p = 2...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322319/functional-confirmation-of-plag1-as-the-candidate-causative-gene-underlying-major-pleiotropic-effects-on-body-weight-and-milk-characteristics
#10
Tania Fink, Kathryn Tiplady, Thomas Lopdell, Thomas Johnson, Russell G Snell, Richard J Spelman, Stephen R Davis, Mathew D Littlejohn
A major pleiotropic quantitative trait locus (QTL) located at ~25 Mbp on bovine chromosome 14 affects a myriad of growth and developmental traits in Bos taurus and indicus breeds. These QTL have been attributed to two functional variants in the bidirectional promoter of PLAG1 and CHCHD7. Although PLAG1 is a good candidate for mediating these effects, its role remains uncertain given that these variants are also associated with expression of five additional genes at the broader locus. In the current study, we conducted expression QTL (eQTL) mapping of this region using a large, high depth mammary RNAseq dataset representing 375 lactating cows...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322089/biological-changes-of-green-pea-pisum-sativum-l-by-selenium-enrichment
#11
Farzaneh Garousi, Béla Kovács, Éva Domokos-Szabolcsy, Szilvia Veres
Supplement of common fertilizers with selenium (Se) for crop production will be an effective way to produce selenium-rich food and feed. The value of green pea seeds and forages as alternative protein source can be improved by using agronomic biofortification. Therefore, biological changes of green pea (Pisum sativum L.) and influences of inorganic forms of Se (sodium selenite and sodium selenate) at different concentrations on the accumulation of magnesium (Mg) and phosphorus (P) were investigated in greenhouse experiment...
March 2017: Acta Biologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321907/systematical-analyses-of-variants-in%C3%A2-dnase-i-hypersensitive-sites-identified-two-novel-hepatocellular-carcinoma-susceptibility-loci-among-chinese-population
#12
Tao Jiang, Fangzhi Du, Na Qin, Qun Lu, Juncheng Dai, Hongbing Shen, Zhibin Hu
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Although several variants located at coding and non-coding regions were evaluated by previous studies, the evidence for associations between variants located in DNase I-hypersensitive sites (DHSs) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk was still limited. Recent advances using ENCODE data indicated that genetic variants in DHSs played an important role in carcinogenesis. Therefore, systematically investigate the associations between regulatory variants in DHSs and HCC risk should be put on the agenda...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321883/higher-photosynthesis-nutrient-and-energy-use-efficiencies-contribute-to-invasiveness-of-exotic-plants-in-a-nutrient-poor-habitat-in-northeast-china
#13
Ming-Chao Liu, De-Liang Kong, Xiu-Rong Lu, Kai Huang, Shuo Wang, Wei-Bin Wang, Bo Qu, Yu-Long Feng
The roles of photosynthesis-related traits in invasiveness of introduced plant species are still not well elucidated, especially in nutrient-poor habitats. In addition, little effort has been made to determine the physiological causes and consequences of the difference in these traits between invasive and native plants. To address these problems, we compared the differences in 16 leaf functional traits related to light-saturated photosynthetic rate (Pmax ) between 22 invasive and native plants in a nutrient-poor habitat in northeast China...
March 20, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321642/circadian-rhythm-dysregulation-in-bipolar-spectrum-disorders
#14
REVIEW
Lauren B Alloy, Tommy H Ng, Madison K Titone, Elaine M Boland
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review recent evidence for circadian rhythm dysregulation in bipolar spectrum disorders (BSDs). We examine evidence for endogenous abnormalities in the biological clock and disruptions in the external entrainment of circadian rhythms in BSDs. We also address whether circadian dysregulation provides vulnerability to onset of BSD and evidence for a new integration of reward and circadian dysregulation in BSD. RECENT FINDINGS: Relative circadian phase delay (e...
April 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321286/crispr-cas9-mediated-heterozygous-knockout-of-the-autism-gene-chd8-and-characterization-of-its-transcriptional-networks-in-cerebral-organoids-derived-from-ips-cells
#15
Ping Wang, Ryan Mokhtari, Erika Pedrosa, Michael Kirschenbaum, Can Bayrak, Deyou Zheng, Herbert M Lachman
BACKGROUND: CHD8 (chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein 8), which codes for a member of the CHD family of ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling factors, is one of the most commonly mutated genes in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) identified in exome-sequencing studies. Loss of function mutations in the gene have also been found in schizophrenia (SZ) and intellectual disabilities and influence cancer cell proliferation. We previously reported an RNA-seq analysis carried out on neural progenitor cells (NPCs) and monolayer neurons derived from induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells that were heterozygous for CHD8 knockout (KO) alleles generated using CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing...
2017: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320913/relationship-between-cd4-regulatory-t-cells-and-anergy-in-vivo
#16
REVIEW
Lokesh A Kalekar, Daniel L Mueller
Selective suppression of effector CD4(+) T cell functions is necessary to prevent immune cell-mediated damage to healthy tissues. This appears especially true during pregnancy or in individuals predisposed to autoimmunity. Foxp3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells and induction of anergy, an acquired state of T cell functional unresponsiveness in Foxp3(-) cells, have both been implicated as mechanisms to suppress dangerous immune responses to tissue-restricted self-Ags. Anergic CD4(+) T cells and Treg cells share a number of phenotypic and mechanistic traits-including the expression of CD73 and folate receptor 4, and the epigenetic modification of Treg cell signature genes-and an interesting relationship between these two subsets has recently emerged...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320418/ovarian-cancer-stem-cells-still-an-elusive-entity
#17
REVIEW
Michela Lupia, Ugo Cavallaro
The cancer stem cell (CSC) model proposes that tumor development and progression are fueled and sustained by undifferentiated cancer cells, endowed with self-renewal and tumor-initiating capacity. Ovarian carcinoma, based on its biological features and clinical evolution, appears as a prototypical example of CSC-driven disease. Indeed, ovarian cancer stem cells (OCSC) would account not only for the primary tumor growth, the peritoneal spread and the relapse, but also for the development of chemoresistance, thus having profound implication for the treatment of this deadly disease...
March 20, 2017: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319155/relationships-between-abiotic-environment-plant-functional-traits-and-animal-body-size-at-mount-kilimanjaro-tanzania
#18
David Schellenberger Costa, Alice Classen, Stefan Ferger, Maria Helbig-Bonitz, Marcell Peters, Katrin Böhning-Gaese, Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter, Michael Kleyer
The effect-response framework states that plant functional traits link the abiotic environment to ecosystem functioning. One ecosystem property is the body size of the animals living in the system, which is assumed to depend on temperature or resource availability, among others. For primary consumers, resource availability may directly be related to plant traits, while for secondary consumers the relationship is indirect. We used plant traits to describe resource availability along an elevational gradient on Mount Kilimanjaro, Tanzania...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319149/walking-and-talking-the-tree-of-life-why-and-how-to-teach-about-biodiversity
#19
Cissy J Ballen, Harry W Greene
Taxonomic details of diversity are an essential scaffolding for biology education, yet outdated methods for teaching the tree of life (TOL), as implied by textbook content and usage, are still commonly employed. Here, we show that the traditional approach only vaguely represents evolutionary relationships, fails to denote major events in the history of life, and relies heavily on memorizing near-meaningless taxonomic ranks. Conversely, a clade-based strategy-focused on common ancestry, monophyletic groups, and derived functional traits-is explicitly based on Darwin's "descent with modification," provides students with a rational system for organizing the details of biodiversity, and readily lends itself to active learning techniques...
March 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318770/expression-of-cathepsin-s-in-bcg-converts-it-into-a-pro-apoptotic-and-highly-immunogenic-strain
#20
Alice Lau, Vijender Singh, Hafid Soualhine, Zakaria Hmama
BACKGROUND: BCG vaccine, introduced almost 100years ago, is the only option to prevent TB disease. It effectively protects newborns from meningeal TB but fails to prevent adult pulmonary TB. TB kills 1.3million people annually in areas where BCG vaccination is widely practiced. Thus, more effective TB vaccines are urgently needed. Others and we have shown that BCG mimics features of virulent M. tuberculosis, in particular attenuation of essential macrophage functions such as phagosome maturation and antigen presentation...
March 16, 2017: Vaccine
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