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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452418/phf20-collaborates-with-parp1-to-promote-stemness-and-aggressiveness-of-neuroblastoma-cells-through-activation-of-sox2-and-oct4
#1
Wenyong Long, Wei Zhao, Bo Ning, Jing Huang, Junjun Chu, Linfeng Li, Qianquan Ma, Changsheng Xing, Helen Y Wang, Qing Liu, Rong-Fu Wang
The differentiation status of neuroblastoma (NB) strongly correlates with its clinical outcomes; however, the molecular mechanisms driving maintenance of stemness and differentiation remain poorly understood. Here, we show that plant homeodomain finger-containing protein 20 (PHF20) functions as a critical epigenetic regulator in sustaining stem cell-like phenotype of NB by using CRISPR/Cas9-based targeted knockout (KO) for high-throughput screening of gene function in NB cell differentiation. Expression of PHF20 in NB was significantly associated with high aggressiveness of the tumor and poor outcomes for NB patients...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452355/culture-facilitated-comparative-genomics-of-the-facultative-symbiont-hamiltonella-defensa
#2
Germain Chevignon, Bret M Boyd, Jayce W Brandt, Kerry M Oliver, Michael R Strand
Many insects host facultative, bacterial symbionts that confer conditional fitness benefits to their hosts. Hamiltonella defensa is a common facultative symbiont of aphids that provides protection against parasitoid wasps. Protection levels vary among strains of H. defensa that are also differentially infected by bacteriophages named APSEs. However, little is known about trait variation among strains because only one isolate has been fully sequenced. Generating complete genomes for facultative symbionts is hindered by relatively large genome sizes but low abundances in hosts like aphids that are very small...
February 14, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452350/extra-virgin-olive-oil-contains-a-metabolo-epigenetic-inhibitor-of-cancer-stem-cells
#3
Bruna Corominas-Faja, Elisabet Cuyàs, Jesús Lozano-Sánchez, Sílvia Cufí, Sara Verdura, Salvador Fernández-Arroyo, Isabel Borrás-Linares, Begoña Martin-Castillo, Ángel G Martin, Ruth Lupu, Alfons Nonell-Canals, Melchor Sanchez-Martinez, Vicente Micol, Jorge Joven, Antonio Segura-Carretero, Javier A Menendez
Targeting tumor-initiating, drug-resistant populations of cancer stem cells (CSC) with phytochemicals is a novel paradigm for cancer prevention and treatment. We herein employed a phenotypic drug discovery approach coupled to mechanism-of-action profiling and target deconvolution to identify phenolic components of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) capable of suppressing the functional traits of CSC in breast cancer (BC). In vitro screening revealed that the secoiridoid decarboxymethyl oleuropein aglycone (DOA) could selectively target sub-populations of epithelial-like, aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH)-positive and mesenchymal-like, CD44+CD24-/low CSC...
February 14, 2018: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452074/differential-control-of-appetitive-and-consummatory-sexual-behavior-by-neuroestrogens-in-male-quail
#4
REVIEW
Charlotte A Cornil, Gregory F Ball, Jacques Balthazart
Estrogens exert pleiotropic effects on multiple physiological and behavioral traits including sexual behavior. These effects are classically mediated via binding to nuclear receptors and subsequent regulation of target gene transcription. Estrogens also affect neuronal activity and cell-signaling pathways via faster, membrane-initiated events. Although the distinction between appetitive and consummatory aspects of sexual behavior has been criticized, this distinction remains valuable in that it facilitates the causal analysis of certain behavioral systems...
February 13, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451808/implications-of-recent-research-on-microstructure-modifications-through-heat-related-processing-and-trait-alteration-to-bio-functions-molecular-thermal-stability-and-mobility-metabolic-characteristics-and-nutrition-in-cool-climate-cereal-grains-and-other-types
#5
Yuguang Ying, Huihua Zhang, Peiqiang Yu
The cutting-edge synchrotron radiation based and globar-sourced vibrational infrared microspectroscopy have recently been developed. These novel techniques are able to reveal structure features at cellular and molecular levels with the tested tissues being intact. However, to date, the advanced techniques are unfamiliar or unknown to food and feed scientists and have not been used to study the molecular structure changes in cool-climate cereal grain seeds and other types of bio-oil and bioenergy seeds. This article aims to provide some recent research in cool-climate cereal grains and other types of seeds on molecular structures and metabolic characteristics of carbohydrate and protein, and implication of microstructure modification through heat-related processing and trait alteration to bio-functions, molecular thermal stability and mobility, and nutrition with advanced molecular techniques- synchrotron radiation based and globar-sourced vibrational infrared microspectroscopy in the areas of (1) Inherent microstructure of cereal grain seeds; (2) The nutritional values of cereal grains; (3) Impact and modification of heat-related processing to cereal grain; (4) Conventional nutrition evaluation methodology; (5) Synchrotron radiation-based and globar-sourced vibrational (micro)-spectroscopy for molecular structure study and molecular thermal stability and mobility, and (6) Recent molecular spectroscopic technique applications in research on raw, traits altered and processed cool-climate cereal grains and other types of seeds...
February 16, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451491/the-relationship-between-spatial-configuration-and-functional-connectivity-of-brain-regions
#6
Janine Diane Bijsterbosch, Mark W Woolrich, Matthew F Glasser, Emma C Robinson, Christian F Beckmann, David C Van Essen, Samuel J Harrison, Stephen M Smith
Brain connectivity is often considered in terms of the communication between functionally distinct brain regions. Many studies have investigated the extent to which patterns of coupling strength between multiple neural populations relates to behaviour. For example, studies have used 'functional connectivity fingerprints' to characterise individuals' brain activity. Here, we investigate the extent to which the exact spatial arrangement of cortical regions interacts with measures of brain connectivity. We find that the shape and exact location of brain regions interact strongly with the modelling of brain connectivity, and present evidence that the spatial arrangement of functional regions is strongly predictive of non-imaging measures of behaviour and lifestyle...
February 16, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450960/effect-of-flower-orientation-on-the-male-and-female-traits-of-myrtillocactus-geometrizans-cactaceae
#7
Sandra A Aguilar-García, Dulce M Figueroa-Castro, Pedro L Valverde, F Vite
1.Intra-individual variation in the production and size of reproductive traits has been documented in columnar cacti, being higher in Equator-facing flowers. Such variation is attributed to the high amount of photosynthetic active radiation intercepted by stems oriented towards the Equator. Most studies focused on this phenomenon have documented the existence of intra-individual variation on traits associated with the female function; however, its impact on traits associated with the male function has been neglected...
February 16, 2018: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450572/plant-genetics-and-molecular-biology-an-introduction
#8
Rajeev K Varshney, Manish K Pandey, Annapurna Chitikineni
The rapidly evolving technologies can serve as a potential growth engine in agriculture as many of these technologies have revolutionized several industries in the recent past. The tremendous advancements in biotechnology methods, cost-effective sequencing technology, refinement of genomic tools, and standardization of modern genomics-assisted breeding methods hold great promise in taking the global agriculture to the next level through development of improved climate-smart seeds. These technologies can dramatically increase our capacity to understand the molecular basis of traits and utilize the available resources for accelerated development of stable high-yielding, nutritious, input-use efficient, and climate-smart crop varieties...
February 16, 2018: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449880/characterization-and-engineering-of-a-dual-function-diacylglycerol-acyltransferase-in-the-oleaginous-marine-diatom-phaeodactylum-tricornutum
#9
Yulin Cui, Jialin Zhao, Yinchu Wang, Song Qin, Yandu Lu
Background: Photosynthetic oleaginous microalgae are promising feedstocks for biofuels. Acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGATs) represent rich sources for engineering microalgal lipid production. The principal activity of DGATs has been defined as a single-function enzyme catalyzing the esterification of diacylglycerol with acyl-CoA. Results: A dual-function PtWS/DGAT associated with diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum is discovered in the current study. Distinctive to documented microalgal DGAT types, PtWS/DGAT exhibits activities of both a wax ester synthase (WS) and a DGAT...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449377/haploid-embryonic-stem-cells-can-be-enriched-and-maintained-by-simple-filtration
#10
Chao Qu, Meng Yan, Suming Yang, Lingbo Wang, Qi Yin, Yuan Liu, Yeguang Chen, Jinsong Li
Haploid mammalian embryonic stem cells (haESCs) serve as a powerful tool for genetic analyses at both cellular and organismal levels. However, spontaneous diploidization of haESCs limits their use in these analyses. Addition of small molecules to culture medium to control the cell cycle can slow down diploidization, but cell-sorting methods such as FACS are still required to enrich haploid cells for long-term maintenance in vitro. Here, acting on our observation that haploid and diploidized cells differ in diameter, we developed a simplified filtration method to enrich haploid cells from cultured haESCs...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449071/do-the-morphological-and-functional-traits-of-free-living-marine-nematodes-mirror-taxonomical-diversity
#11
F Semprucci, L Cesaroni, L Guidi, M Balsamo
The taxonomical structure and diversity of nematode assemblages are the main attributes analyzed in ecology, but nematode adaptations to their habitats are still understudied. Accordingly, a survey on some known and other newly proposed morpho-functional traits was carried out in order to: determine if the morpho-functional diversity of nematodes mirrors their taxonomical diversity; and assess potential nematode adaptations to sediment type and hydrodynamic stress. Morpho-functional traits were investigated both singularly and together and showed significant differences related to these environmental factors...
February 7, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448958/antigenic-and-functional-profiles-of-a-lawsonia-intracellularis-protein-that-shows-a-flagellin-like-trait-and-its-immuno-stimulatory-assessment
#12
Gayeon Won, John Hwa Lee
The obligate intracellular Lawsonia intracellularis (LI), the etiological agent of proliferative enteropathy (PE), is an economically important disease in the swine industry. Due to extreme difficulty of in vitro culture of the pathogen, molecular characterization of protein components of LI that are targets of the immune system, is difficult; thus, the scientific evidence to drive the development of preventive measures is lacking. In this work, we investigated the antigenic and functional characteristics of a putative flagellar-associated protein, LI0570, using in silico computational approaches for epitope prediction and an in vitro protein-based molecular assay...
February 15, 2018: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447753/kinematics-of-the-anthropoid-os-centrale-and-the-functional-consequences-of-scaphoid-centrale-fusion-in-african-apes-and-hominins
#13
Caley M Orr
In most primates, the os centrale is interposed between the scaphoid, trapezoid, trapezium, and head of the capitate, thus constituting a component of the wrist's midcarpal complex. Scaphoid-centrale fusion is among the clearest morphological synapomorphies of African apes and hominins. Although it might facilitate knuckle-walking by increasing the rigidity and stability of the radial side of the wrist, the exact functional significance of scaphoid-centrale fusion is unclear. If fusion acts to produce a more rigid radial wrist that stabilizes the hand and limits shearing stresses, then in taxa with a free centrale, it should anchor ligaments that check extension and radial deviation, but exhibit motion independent of the scaphoid...
January 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447619/autism-spectrum-disorder-traits-in-typically-developing-emerging-adults-and-associated-parenting-a-person-centered-approach
#14
Cliff McKinney, Daniel L Gadke, Mallory L Malkin
Research on parenting children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) indicates these children receive parenting tailored to their condition. However, little is known about ASD in adulthood, especially in emerging adults at college, and how they are parented. The current study examined how emerging adults in a non-clinical typically-developing sample differed in their current perceptions of parenting as a function of ASD traits. Participants completed questionnaires about their current perceptions of parenting and self-reported ASD traits...
February 15, 2018: Journal of American College Health: J of ACH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447377/behavioral-and-neural-indices-of-affective-coloring-for-neutral-social-stimuli
#15
Daniel W Grupe, Stacey M Schaefer, Regina C Lapate, Andrew J Schoen, Lauren K Gresham, Jeanette A Mumford, Richard J Davidson
Emotional processing often continues beyond the presentation of emotionally evocative stimuli, which can result in affective biasing or coloring of subsequently encountered events. Here, we describe neural correlates of affective coloring and examine how individual differences in affective style impact the magnitude of affective coloring. We conducted functional magnetic resonance imaging in 117 adults who passively viewed negative, neutral, and positive pictures presented 2s prior to neutral faces. Brain responses to neutral faces were modulated by the valence of preceding pictures, with greater activation for faces following negative (vs...
February 13, 2018: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447262/long-term-use-of-cover-crops-and-no-till-shift-soil-microbial-community-life-strategies-in-agricultural-soil
#16
Radomir Schmidt, Kelly Gravuer, Anne V Bossange, Jeffrey Mitchell, Kate Scow
Reducing tillage and growing cover crops, widely recommended practices for boosting soil health, have major impacts on soil communities. Surprisingly little is known about their impacts on soil microbial functional diversity, and especially so in irrigated Mediterranean ecosystems. In long-term experimental plots at the West Side Research and Extension Center in California's Central Valley, we characterized soil microbial communities in the presence or absence of physical disturbance due to tillage, in the presence or absence of cover crops, and at three depths: 0-5, 5-15 and 15-30 cm...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447162/early-experiences-mediate-distinct-adult-gene-expression-and-reproductive-programs-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#17
Maria C Ow, Kirill Borziak, Alexandra M Nichitean, Steve Dorus, Sarah E Hall
Environmental stress during early development in animals can have profound effects on adult phenotypes via programmed changes in gene expression. Using the nematode C. elegans, we demonstrated previously that adults retain a cellular memory of their developmental experience that is manifested by differences in gene expression and life history traits; however, the sophistication of this system in response to different environmental stresses, and how it dictates phenotypic plasticity in adults that contribute to increased fitness in response to distinct environmental challenges, was unknown...
February 15, 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446655/micrornas-as-molecular-targets-of-quercetin-and-its-derivatives-underlying-their-biological-effects-a-preclinical-strategy
#18
Dan Wang, Dongxiao Sun-Waterhouse, Feng Li, Li Xin, Dapeng Li
Quercetin is a well-known flavonoid naturally occurring in most of the plant foods and is often found in the human diet. It can act as a potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent, and plays significant roles in the prevention of various chronic diseases. Recent findings revealed that quercetin could affect metabolic traits by regulating certain transcription factors or key proteins involved in cellular signal pathways and influencing the expression of functional genes along with related regulatory pathway(s), and that microRNAs (miRNAs) circulate in body fluids and are involved in post-transcriptional gene silencing and regulation of gene expression in various biological processes including development, proliferation, metabolism and inflammation...
February 15, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446146/crispr-cas9-mediated-mstn-disruption-and-heritable-mutagenesis-in-goats-causes-increased-body-mass
#19
X Wang, Y Niu, J Zhou, H Zhu, B Ma, H Yu, H Yan, J Hua, X Huang, L Qu, Y Chen
Genetic engineering in livestock has been greatly enhanced through the use of artificial programmed nucleases such as the recently emerged clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated 9 (Cas9) system. We recently reported our successful application of the CRISPR/Cas9 system to engineer the goat genome through micro-injection of Cas9 mRNA and sgRNAs targeting MSTN and FGF5 in goat embryos. The phenotypes induced by edited loss-of-function mutations of MSTN remain to be evaluated extensively...
February 2018: Animal Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445043/vestigial-singing-behaviour-persists-after-the-evolutionary-loss-of-song-in-crickets
#20
Will T Schneider, Christian Rutz, Berthold Hedwig, Nathan W Bailey
The evolutionary loss of sexual traits is widely predicted. Because sexual signals can arise from the coupling of specialized motor activity with morphological structures, disruption to a single component could lead to overall loss of function. Opportunities to observe this process and characterize any remaining signal components are rare, but could provide insight into the mechanisms, indirect costs and evolutionary consequences of signal loss. We investigated the recent evolutionary loss of a long-range acoustic sexual signal in the Hawaiian field cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus Flatwing males carry mutations that remove sound-producing wing structures, eliminating all acoustic signalling and affording protection against an acoustically-orientating parasitoid fly...
February 2018: Biology Letters
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