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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224117/heated-communities-large-inter-and-intraspecific-variation-in-heat-tolerance-across-trophic-levels-of-a-soil-arthropod-community
#1
Oscar Franken, Milou Huizinga, Jacintha Ellers, Matty P Berg
Temperature extremes are predicted to increase in frequency, intensity and duration under global warming and are believed to significantly affect community composition and functioning. However, the effect of extreme climatic events on communities remains difficult to predict, especially because species can show dissimilar responses to abiotic changes, which may affect the outcome of species interactions. To anticipate community responses we need knowledge on within and among species variation in stress tolerance...
December 9, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223923/plant-defenses-against-herbivory-closing-the-fitness-gap
#2
REVIEW
Matthias Erb
Many morphological and chemical features of plants are classified as plant defenses against herbivores. By definition, plant defenses should increase a plant's fitness (i.e., its contribution to the gene pool of the next generation) as a function of herbivory. Over the past years, substantial progress has been made in understanding and manipulating the mechanistic basis of many putative plant defense traits. However, most plant defenses are still characterized by proximate variables such as herbivore performance or plant damage rather than actual fitness...
December 6, 2017: Trends in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222686/eeg-source-imaging-indices-of-cognitive-control-show-associations-with-dopamine-system-genes
#3
G McLoughlin, J Palmer, S Makeig, N Bigdely-Shamlo, T Banaschewski, M Laucht, D Brandeis
Cognitive or executive control is a critical mental ability, an important marker of mental illness, and among the most heritable of neurocognitive traits. Two candidate genes, catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and DRD4, which both have a roles in the regulation of cortical dopamine, have been consistently associated with cognitive control. Here, we predicted that individuals with the COMT Met/Met allele would show improved response execution and inhibition as indexed by event-related potentials in a Go/NoGo task, while individuals with the DRD4 7-repeat allele would show impaired brain activity...
December 8, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222633/characterising-youth-with-callous-unemotional-traits-and-concurrent-anxiety-evidence-for-a-high-risk-clinical-group
#4
Charlotte A M Cecil, Eamon J McCrory, Edward D Barker, Jo Guiney, Essi Viding
Growing evidence supports the existence of two variants of youth with high callous-unemotional (CU) traits who present with markedly different risk profiles and outcomes, with potential implications for risk assessment and treatment formulation. So far, studies have identified variants of CU youth mainly using data-driven cluster approaches based on levels of CU traits and co-occurring anxiety. Yet, the extent to which this knowledge may be translated into clinical practice is unclear. To this end, the present study employed a severity-based, cut-off approach to systematically characterise CU groups across a range of clinically informative domains, including trauma history, psychiatric symptomatology, affective functioning, attachment style and behavioural risk...
December 8, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222529/prediction-of-cassava-protein-interactome-based-on-interolog-method
#5
Ratana Thanasomboon, Saowalak Kalapanulak, Supatcharee Netrphan, Treenut Saithong
Cassava is a starchy root crop whose role in food security becomes more significant nowadays. Together with the industrial uses for versatile purposes, demand for cassava starch is continuously growing. However, in-depth study to uncover the mystery of cellular regulation, especially the interaction between proteins, is lacking. To reduce the knowledge gap in protein-protein interaction (PPI), genome-scale PPI network of cassava was constructed using interolog-based method (MePPI-In, available at http://bml...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222496/genome-wide-and-gene-based-association-mapping-for-rice-eating-and-cooking-characteristics-and-protein-content
#6
Xiaoqian Wang, Yunlong Pang, Jian Zhang, Zhichao Wu, Kai Chen, Jauhar Ali, Guoyou Ye, Jianlong Xu, Zhikang Li
Rice eating and cooking quality and protein content (PC) are important properties affecting consumers' preferences, nutrition and health. Linkage QTL mapping and association studies are usually applied to genetically dissect related traits, which could be further facilitated by high density SNP markers and gene annotation based on reference genome to rapid identify candidate genes associated with interested traits. Here, we carried out an association study for apparent amylose content (AC), gel consistency (GC), gelatinization temperature (GT) and PC evaluated in two environments using a diverse panel of 258 accessions from 3 K Rice Genome Project...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222461/tree-co-occurrence-and-transcriptomic-response-to-drought
#7
Nathan G Swenson, Yoshiko Iida, Robert Howe, Amy Wolf, María Natalia Umaña, Krittika Petprakob, Benjamin L Turner, Keping Ma
The distribution and co-occurrence of species are partly the outcome of their interactions with environmental drivers. Drought is a key driver related to the distribution of plant species. Drought events continue to increase in frequency and severity and identifying those aspects of plant function that are related to drought is critical. Here, we perform a community-level analysis of gene expression in relation to experimental drought and relate the similarity in gene set enrichment across species to their natural co-occurrence...
December 8, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222010/a-novel-nr2f2-loss-of-function-mutation-predisposes-to-congenital-heart-defect
#8
Xiao-Hui Qiao, Qian Wang, Juan Wang, Xing-Yuan Liu, Ying-Jia Xu, Ri-Tai Huang, Song Xue, Yan-Jie Li, Min Zhang, Xin-Kai Qu, Ruo-Gu Li, Xing-Biao Qiu, Yi-Qing Yang
Congenital heart defect (CHD) is the most common type of birth defect in humans and a leading cause of infant morbidity and mortality. Previous studies have demonstrated that genetic defects play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of CHD. However, the genetic basis of CHD remains poorly understood due to substantial genetic heterogeneity. In this study, the coding exons and splicing boundaries of the NR2F2 gene, which encodes a pleiotropic transcription factor required for normal cardiovascular development, were sequenced in 168 unrelated patients with CHD, and a novel mutation (c...
December 5, 2017: European Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221570/neohormones-in-milk
#9
REVIEW
Richard Ivell, Ravinder Anand-Ivell
Neohormone systems evolved specifically to regulate those mammalian traits, such as internal fertilization, pregnancy and lactation, which have proved to be central to the success, environmental independence, and adaptability of mammals as a vertebrate group. Neohormones such as oxytocin or relaxin are not only involved in the regulation of mammary gland development and function, but are also significant components of milk itself. Particularly for the latter hormone, it has been shown for the pig that relaxin in the first milk is taken up by the gastrointestinal tract of the offspring, enters the neonatal circulation and can have specific physiological and epigenetic effects on target organs such as the female reproductive system...
August 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220694/impulsive-responding-in-threat-and-reward-contexts-as-a-function-of-ptsd-symptoms-and-trait-disinhibition
#10
Naomi Sadeh, Jeffrey M Spielberg, Jasmeet P Hayes
We examined current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, trait disinhibition, and affective context as contributors to impulsive and self-destructive behavior in 94 trauma-exposed Veterans. Participants completed an affective Go/No-Go task (GNG) with different emotional contexts (threat, reward, and a multidimensional threat/reward condition) and current PTSD, trait disinhibition, and risky/self-destructive behavior measures. PTSD interacted with trait disinhibition to explain recent engagement in risky/self-destructive behavior, with Veterans scoring high on trait disinhibition and current PTSD symptoms reporting the highest levels of these behaviors...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220677/a-powerful-approach-to-estimating-annotation-stratified-genetic-covariance-via-gwas-summary-statistics
#11
Qiongshi Lu, Boyang Li, Derek Ou, Margret Erlendsdottir, Ryan L Powles, Tony Jiang, Yiming Hu, David Chang, Chentian Jin, Wei Dai, Qidu He, Zefeng Liu, Shubhabrata Mukherjee, Paul K Crane, Hongyu Zhao
Despite the success of large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWASs) on complex traits, our understanding of their genetic architecture is far from complete. Jointly modeling multiple traits' genetic profiles has provided insights into the shared genetic basis of many complex traits. However, large-scale inference sets a high bar for both statistical power and biological interpretability. Here we introduce a principled framework to estimate annotation-stratified genetic covariance between traits using GWAS summary statistics...
December 7, 2017: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220541/yoga-for-stroke-rehabilitation
#12
REVIEW
Maggie Lawrence, Francisco T Celestino Junior, Hemilianna Hs Matozinho, Lindsay Govan, Jo Booth, Jane Beecher
BACKGROUND: Stroke is a major health issue and cause of long-term disability and has a major emotional and socioeconomic impact. There is a need to explore options for long-term sustainable interventions that support stroke survivors to engage in meaningful activities to address life challenges after stroke. Rehabilitation focuses on recovery of function and cognition to the maximum level achievable, and may include a wide range of complementary strategies including yoga.Yoga is a mind-body practice that originated in India, and which has become increasingly widespread in the Western world...
December 8, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220485/funricegenes-dataset-for-comprehensive-understanding-and-application-of-rice-functional-genes
#13
Wen Yao, Guangwei Li, Yiming Yu, Yidan Ouyang
Background: As a main staple food, rice is also a model plant for functional genomic studies of monocots. Decoding of every DNA element of the rice genome is essential for genetic improvement to address increasing food demands. The past 15 years have witnessed extraordinary advances in rice functional genomics. Systematic characterization and proper deposition of every rice gene are vital for both functional studies and crop genetic improvement. Findings: We built a comprehensive and accurate dataset of ∼2,800 functionally characterized rice genes and ∼5,000 members of different gene families, by integrating data from available databases and reviewing of every publication on rice functional genomic studies...
December 4, 2017: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218904/evaluation-of-predixcan-for-prioritizing-gwas-associations-and-predicting-gene-expression
#14
Binglan Li, Shefali S Verma, Yogasudha C Veturi, Anurag Verma, Yuki Bradford, David W Haas, Marylyn D Ritchie
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been successful in facilitating the understanding of genetic architecture behind human diseases, but this approach faces many challenges. To identify disease-related loci with modest to weak effect size, GWAS requires very large sample sizes, which can be computational burdensome. In addition, the interpretation of discovered associations remains difficult. PrediXcan was developed to help address these issues. With built in SNP-expression models, PrediXcan is able to predict the expression of genes that are regulated by putative expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs), and these predicted expression levels can then be used to perform gene-based association studies...
2018: Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218884/how-powerful-are-summary-based-methods-for-identifying-expression-trait-associations-under-different-genetic-architectures
#15
Yogasudha Veturi, Marylyn D Ritchie
Transcriptome-wide association studies (TWAS) have recently been employed as an approach that can draw upon the advantages of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and gene expression studies to identify genes associated with complex traits. Unlike standard GWAS, summary level data suffices for TWAS and offers improved statistical power. Two popular TWAS methods include either (a) imputing the cis genetic component of gene expression from smaller sized studies (using multi-SNP prediction or MP) into much larger effective sample sizes afforded by GWAS - TWAS-MP or (b) using summary-based Mendelian randomization - TWAS-SMR...
2018: Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218571/culturable-endophytic-bacteria-of-ginger-rhizome%C3%A2-and-their-remarkable-multi-trait-plant-growth-promoting-features
#16
Sabu Rohini, R Aswani, M Kannan, V P Sylas, E K Radhakrishnan
Functional contribution of endophytic bacteria towards plant growth is highly impressive due to their species diversity and array of probiotic mechanisms. In the study, 96 endophytic bacteria isolated from rhizome of ginger (Zingiber officinale) were screened for phosphate solubilisation, 1-amino cyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase activity, nitrogen fixation, ammonia and IAA production. Among these, sixteen endophytes with multiple plant growth-promoting activities were identified by 16S rDNA sequencing and all of them showed growth enhancement in Vigna unguiculata var Lola which make the study remarkably significant...
December 7, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218376/genetic-dissection-and-validation-of-candidate-genes-for-flag-leaf-size-in-rice-oryza-sativa-l
#17
Xinxin Tang, Rong Gong, Wenqiang Sun, Chaopu Zhang, Sibin Yu
Two major loci with functional candidate genes were identified and validated affecting flag leaf size, which offer desirable genes to improve leaf architecture and photosynthetic capacity in rice. Leaf size is a major determinant of plant architecture and yield potential in crops. However, the genetic and molecular mechanisms regulating leaf size remain largely elusive. In this study, quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for flag leaf length and flag leaf width in rice were detected with high-density single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping of a chromosomal segment substitution line (CSSL) population, in which each line carries one or a few chromosomal segments from the japonica cultivar Nipponbare in a common background of the indica variety Zhenshan 97...
December 7, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217450/cadm2-regulates-body-weight-and-energy-homeostasis-in-mice
#18
Xin Yan, Zhen Wang, Vanessa Schmidt, Anton Gauert, Thomas E Willnow, Matthias Heinig, Matthew N Poy
OBJECTIVE: Obesity is strongly linked to genes regulating neuronal signaling and function, implicating the central nervous system in the maintenance of body weight and energy metabolism. Genome-wide association studies identified significant associations between body mass index (BMI) and multiple loci near Cell adhesion molecule2 (CADM2), which encodes a mediator of synaptic signaling enriched in the brain. Here we sought to further understand the role of Cadm2 in the pathogenesis of hyperglycemia and weight gain...
November 22, 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216784/evaluation-of-peripheral-serotonin-content-and-%C3%AE-2-adrenergic-receptor-function-as-potential-markers-for-life-long-recurrent-depressive-disorder-by-using-methodological-improvements
#19
Boris Aleksovski, Antoni Novotni, Viktorija Vujović, Vladimir Rendevski, Nensi Manusheva, Violeta Neceva, Ana Filipce, Aleksandar Risteski, Vasko Aleksovski, Icko Gjorgoski
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the role and the relations between peripheral platelet serotonin content, blood plasma serotonin concentration and the function of platelet α2-adrenergic receptors (α2-AR) as potential state or trait biomarkers for recurrent depressive disorder (RDD). METHODS: 26 drug-free patients with life-long RDD and 31 healthy controls were included in the study. Several methodological improvements in blood collection and platelet isolation were implemented following the present standards in Haematology and Light transmission aggregometry...
December 7, 2017: International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216416/illuminating-the-role-of-the-g%C3%AE-heterotrimeric-g-protein-subunit-rga1-in-regulating-photoprotection-and-photovoidance-in-rice
#20
Ángel Ferrero-Serrano, Zhao Su, Sarah M Assmann
We studied physiological mechanisms of photoavoidance and photoprotection of a dwarf rice mutant with erect leaves, d1, in which the RGA1 gene, which encodes the Gα subunit of the heterotrimeric G protein, is non-functional. d1 leaves exhibit lower leaf temperature and higher Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI) relative to wild-type (WT), indicative of increased photoavoidance and more efficient light harvesting. RNA-seq analysis of flag leaves revealed that mRNA levels of genes encoding HSPs, enzymes associated with chlorophyll breakdown, and ROS scavengers were down-regulated in d1...
December 7, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
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