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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728396/characterization-and-functional-inferences-of-a-genome-wide-dna-methylation-profile-in-the-loin-longissimus-dorsi-muscle-of-swine
#1
Woonsu Kim, Hyesun Park, Kang-Seok Seo, Seongwon Seo
Objective: DNA methylation plays a major role in regulating the expression of genes related to traits of economic interest (e.g., weight gain) in livestock animals. This study characterized and investigated the functional inferences of genome-wide DNA methylome in the loin (longissimus dorsi) muscle (LDM) of swine. Methods: A total of 8.99 Gb methylated DNA immunoprecipitation sequence data were obtained from LDM samples of eight Duroc pigs (four pairs of littermates)...
May 14, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728383/potential-influence-of-csn3-and-lgb-genes-in-genetic-association-studies-of-milk-quality-traits
#2
José Luis Zepeda-Batista, Luis Antonio Saavedra-Jiménez, Agustín Ruíz-Flores, Rafael Núñez-Domínguez, Rodolfo Ramírez-Valverde
Objective: From a review of published information on genetic association studies, a meta-analysis was conducted to determine the influence of the genes CSN3 (κ-casein) and LGB (β-lactoglobulin) on milk yield traits in Holstein, Jersey, Brown Swiss, and Fleckvieh. Methods: The GLIMMIX procedure was used to analyze milk production and percentage of milk protein and fat by trait. Models included the main effects and all their possible two-way interactions; not estimable effects and non-significant (p>0...
June 26, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728287/-analysis-of-structure-and-function-of-meibomian-glands-in-healthy-population-at-different-ages
#3
J Hong, H Q Qu
Objective: To observe the structure and function of meibomian glands in normal population at different ages. Methods: From October 2011 to August 2012, meibomian gland information was collected in healthy volunteers without any symptoms of ocular discomfort, aged more than 5 years. The people were grouped by every 10 years of age. The meibomian gland opening, secretion state and characteristics and Max's line were observed by slit lamp microscopic examination, and the meibomian gland dropouts were examined by noncontact infrared meibomian gland microscopy...
July 11, 2017: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727905/species-richness-and-traits-predict-overyielding-in-stem-growth-in-an-early-successional-tree-diversity-experiment
#4
Jake J Grossman, Jeannine Cavender-Bares, Sarah E Hobbie, Peter B Reich, Rebecca A Montgomery
Over the last two decades, empirical work has established that higher biodiversity can lead to greater primary productivity; however, the importance of different aspects of biodiversity in contributing to such relationships is rarely elucidated. We assessed the relative importance of species richness, phylogenetic diversity, functional diversity, and identity of neighbors for stem growth three years after seedling establishment in a tree diversity experiment in eastern Minnesota. Generally, we found that community-weighted means of key functional traits (including mycorrhizal association, leaf nitrogen and calcium, and waterlogging tolerance) as well as species richness were strong, independent predictors of stem biomass growth...
July 20, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727278/phylogeny-determines-flower-size-dependent-sex-allocation-at-flowering-in-a-hermaphroditic-family
#5
A L Teixido, B Guzmán, V G Staggemeier, F Valladares
1.In animal-pollinated hermaphroditic plants, optimal floral allocation determines relative investment into sexes, which is ultimately dependent on flower size. Larger flowers disproportionally increase maleness whereas smaller and less rewarding flowers favor female function. Although floral traits are thought to be strongly conserved, phylogenetic relationships in the interspecific patterns of resource allocation to floral sex remain overlooked. We investigated these patterns in Cistaceae, a hermaphroditic family...
July 20, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727214/what-plant-functional-traits-can-reduce-nitrous-oxide-emissions-from-intensively-managed-grasslands
#6
Diego Abalos, Jan Willem van Groenigen, Gerlinde B De Deyn
Plant species exert a dominant control over the nitrogen (N) cycle of natural and managed grasslands. Although in intensively managed systems that receive large external N inputs the emission of the potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2 O) is a crucial component of this cycle, a mechanistic relationship between plant species and N2 O emissions has not yet been established. Here we use a plant functional trait approach to study the relation between plant species strategies and N2 O emissions from soils. Compared to species with conservative strategies, species with acquisitive strategies have higher N uptake when there is ample N in the soil, but also trigger N mineralization when soil N is limiting...
July 20, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727210/thermal-affinity-as-the-dominant-factor-changing-mediterranean-fish-abundances
#7
Or Givan, Dor Edelist, Oren Sonin, Jonathan Belmaker
Recent decades have seen profound changes in species abundance and community composition. In the marine environment, the major anthropogenic drivers of change comprise exploitation, invasion by non-indigenous species, and climate change. However, the magnitude of these stressors has been widely debated and we lack empirical estimates of their relative importance. In this study, we focused on Eastern Mediterranean, a region exposed to an invasion of species of Red Sea origin, extreme climate change, and high fishing pressure...
July 20, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727144/density-mediated-indirect-effects-from-active-predators-and-narrow-habitat-domain-prey
#8
S A Rinehart, S C Schroeter, J D Long
The hunting mode-habitat domain range framework suggests that the mechanism driving trophic cascades [i.e. trait-mediated indirect interactions (TMIIs) versus density-mediated indirect interactions (DMIIs)] should depend upon the functional traits of predators and prey. For example, trophic cascades containing active, broad habitat domain range (BHDR) predators interacting with narrow habitat domain range (NHDR) prey are predicted to arise primarily via TMIIs, because these prey should reduce their conspicuous activity in the presence of these predators...
July 20, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727049/association-of-udder-traits-with-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-in-crossbred-bos-indicus-bos-taurus-cows
#9
M W Tolleson, C A Gill, A D Herring, P K Riggs, J E Sawyer, J O Sanders, D G Riley
The size, support, and health of udders limit the productive life of beef cows, especially those with background, because, in general, such cows have a reputation for problems with udders. Genomic association studies of bovine udder traits have been conducted in dairy cattle and recently in Continental European beef breeds but not in cows with background. The objective of this study was to determine associations of SNP and udder support scores, teat length, and teat diameter in half (Nellore), half (Angus) cows...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727023/rapid-communication-high-resolution-quantitative-trait-loci-analysis-identifies-ltbp2-encoding-latent-transforming-growth-factor-beta-binding-protein-2-associated-with-thoracic-vertebrae-number-in-a-large-f2-intercross-between-landrace-and-korean-native-pigs
#10
H-B Park, S-H Han, J-B Lee, I-C Cho
Number of vertebrae is associated with body size and meat productivity in pigs. The aim of this study was to identify QTL and associated positional candidate genes affecting the number of thoracic vertebrae (THO). A genomewide association study was conducted in a large resource population derived from an F intercross between Landrace and Korean native pigs using the Porcine SNP 60K BeadChip and the genomewide complex trait analysis (GCTA) program based on a linear mixed-effects model. A total of 38,385 SNP markers from 1,105 F progeny were analyzed for the THO trait after filtering for quality control...
May 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727016/genomewide-association-mapping-and-pathway-analysis-of-meat-tenderness-in-polled-nellore-cattle
#11
L M Castro, G J M Rosa, F B Lopes, L C A Regitano, A J M Rosa, C U Magnabosco
Brazil is one of the world's largest beef exporters, although the product has a low price due to quality issues. The meat exported by Brazil is considered medium and low quality by international buyers, mainly due to lack of tenderness. The predominant Zebu breeds (80% Nellore) are known for producing tougher beef than taurine breeds. Nonetheless, some studies have shown that there is substantial genetic variability for tenderness within the Nellore breed, although it is a difficult trait to improve by conventional selection methods...
May 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727005/rapid-communication-generation-of-fgf5-knockout-sheep-via-the-crispr-cas9-system
#12
R Hu, Z Y Fan, B Y Wang, S L Deng, X S Zhang, J L Zhang, H B Han, Z X Lian
Sheep are an important source of fiber production. Fibroblast growth factor 5 (FGF5) is a dominant inhibitor of length of the anagen phase of the hair cycle. Knockout or silencing of the gene results in a wooly coat in mice, donkeys, dogs, and rabbits. In sheep breeding, wool length is one of the most important wool quality traits. However, traditional breeding cannot accurately and efficiently mediate an advanced genotype into the sheep genome. In this study, we generated 3 knockout sheep via the 1-step clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas9 system...
May 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726989/economic-selection-index-development-for-beefmaster-cattle-ii-general-purpose-breeding-objective
#13
K P Ochsner, M D MacNeil, R M Lewis, M L Spangler
An economic selection index was developed for Beefmaster cattle in a general-purpose production system in which bulls are mated to a combination of heifers and mature cows, with resulting progeny retained as replacements or sold at weaning. National average prices from 2010 to 2014 were used to establish income and expenses for the system. Genetic parameters were obtained from the literature. Economic values were estimated by simulating 100,000 animals and approximating the partial derivatives of the profit function by perturbing traits 1 at a time, by 1 unit, while holding the other traits constant at their respective means...
May 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726721/identification-and-validation-of-new-alleles-of-falsiflora-and-compound-inflorescence-genes-controlling-the-number-of-branches-in-tomato-inflorescence
#14
Huan Zheng, Saneyuki Kawabata
The architecture of inflorescences shows extensive diversity in both branching frequency and flower number, which eventually, determines agricultural productivity. In this study, F₂ (second filial) populations derived from a cross between Solanum lycopersicum 10AS111A (highly-branched inflorescence) and the S. pimpinellifolium PI124039 (inflorescence having a single branch) were used to decipher the genetic control of branch number (BN) of inflorescence in plants bearing small-sized tomato fruits. The segregation ratio of single- and moderately-branched types to the highly-branched type was significantly different from 3:1 but not different from 15:1 at p < 0...
July 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726307/naturally-occurring-circadian-rhythm-and-sleep-duration-are-related-to-executive-functions-in-early-adulthood
#15
Liisa Kuula, Anu-Katriina Pesonen, Kati Heinonen, Eero Kajantie, Johan Gunnar Eriksson, Sture Andersson, Aulikki Lano, Jari Lahti, Dieter Wolke, Katri Räikkönen
Experimental sleep deprivation studies suggest that insufficient sleep and circadian misalignment associates with poorer executive function. It is not known whether this association translates to naturally occurring sleep patterns. A total of 512 of full-term-born members of the Arvo Ylppö Longitudinal Study [mean age = 25.3, standard deviation (SD) = 0.65] (44.3% men) wore actigraphs to define sleep duration, its irregularity and circadian rhythm (sleep mid-point) during a 1-week period (mean 6.9 nights, SD = 1...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725419/tree-species-diversity-promotes-aboveground-carbon-storage-through-functional-diversity-and-functional-dominance
#16
Sylvanus Mensah, Ruan Veldtman, Achille E Assogbadjo, Romain Glèlè Kakaï, Thomas Seifert
The relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem function has increasingly been debated as the cornerstone of the processes behind ecosystem services delivery. Experimental and natural field-based studies have come up with nonconsistent patterns of biodiversity-ecosystem function, supporting either niche complementarity or selection effects hypothesis. Here, we used aboveground carbon (AGC) storage as proxy for ecosystem function in a South African mistbelt forest, and analyzed its relationship with species diversity, through functional diversity and functional dominance...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725412/corticosterone-a-costly-mediator-of-signal-honesty-in-sand-lizards
#17
Willow R Lindsay, Erik Wapstra, Bengt Silverin, Mats Olsson
The mechanisms underlying honest signal expression remain elusive and may involve the integration of social and physiological costs. Corticosterone is a socially modulated metabolic hormone that mediates energy investment and behavior and may therefore function to deter dishonest signal expression. We examined the relationship between corticosterone and green badge coloration in male sand lizards (Lacerta agilis), hypothesizing that physiological and behavioral costs resulting from elevated baseline glucocorticoids function in maintenance of honest signal expression...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725410/aegean-wall-lizards-switch-foraging-modes-diet-and-morphology-in-a-human-built-environment
#18
Colin M Donihue
Foraging mode is a functional trait with cascading impacts on ecological communities. The foraging syndrome hypothesis posits a suite of concurrent traits that vary with foraging mode; however, comparative studies testing this hypothesis are typically interspecific. While foraging modes are often considered typological for a species when predicting foraging-related traits or mode-specific cascading impacts, intraspecific mode switching has been documented in some lizards. Mode-switching lizards provide an opportunity to test foraging syndromes and explore how intraspecific variability in foraging mode might affect local ecological communities...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725403/potential-and-limitations-of-inferring-ecosystem-photosynthetic-capacity-from-leaf-functional-traits
#19
Talie Musavi, Mirco Migliavacca, Martine Janet van de Weg, Jens Kattge, Georg Wohlfahrt, Peter M van Bodegom, Markus Reichstein, Michael Bahn, Arnaud Carrara, Tomas F Domingues, Michael Gavazzi, Damiano Gianelle, Cristina Gimeno, André Granier, Carsten Gruening, Kateřina Havránková, Mathias Herbst, Charmaine Hrynkiw, Aram Kalhori, Thomas Kaminski, Katja Klumpp, Pasi Kolari, Bernard Longdoz, Stefano Minerbi, Leonardo Montagnani, Eddy Moors, Walter C Oechel, Peter B Reich, Shani Rohatyn, Alessandra Rossi, Eyal Rotenberg, Andrej Varlagin, Matthew Wilkinson, Christian Wirth, Miguel D Mahecha
The aim of this study was to systematically analyze the potential and limitations of using plant functional trait observations from global databases versus in situ data to improve our understanding of vegetation impacts on ecosystem functional properties (EFPs). Using ecosystem photosynthetic capacity as an example, we first provide an objective approach to derive robust EFP estimates from gross primary productivity (GPP) obtained from eddy covariance flux measurements. Second, we investigate the impact of synchronizing EFPs and plant functional traits in time and space to evaluate their relationships, and the extent to which we can benefit from global plant trait databases to explain the variability of ecosystem photosynthetic capacity...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725388/swimming-with-the-giant-coexistence-patterns-of-a-new-redfin-minnow-pseudobarbus-skeltoni-from-a-global-biodiversity-hot-spot
#20
Wilbert T Kadye, Albert Chakona, Martine S Jordaan
Ecological niche theory predicts that coexistence is facilitated by resource partitioning mechanisms that are influenced by abiotic and biotic interactions. Alternative hypotheses suggest that under certain conditions, species may become phenotypically similar and functionally equivalent, which invokes the possibility of other mechanisms, such as habitat filtering processes. To test these hypotheses, we examined the coexistence of the giant redfin Pseudobarbus skeltoni, a newly described freshwater fish, together with its congener Pseudobabus burchelli and an anabantid Sandelia capensis by assessing their scenopoetic and bionomic patterns...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
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