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Functional traits

Dániel G Knapp, Julianna B Németh, Kerrie Barry, Matthieu Hainaut, Bernard Henrissat, Jenifer Johnson, Alan Kuo, Joanne Hui Ping Lim, Anna Lipzen, Matt Nolan, Robin A Ohm, László Tamás, Igor V Grigoriev, Joseph W Spatafora, László G Nagy, Gábor M Kovács
Dark septate endophytes (DSE) are a form-group of root endophytic fungi with elusive functions. Here, the genomes of two common DSE of semiarid areas, Cadophora sp. and Periconia macrospinosa were sequenced and analyzed with another 32 ascomycetes of different lifestyles. Cadophora sp. (Helotiales) and P. macrospinosa (Pleosporales) have genomes of 70.46 Mb and 54.99 Mb with 22,766 and 18,750 gene models, respectively. The majority of DSE-specific protein clusters lack functional annotation with no similarity to characterized proteins, implying that they have evolved unique genetic innovations...
April 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Young Cheol Kim, Anne J Anderson
Many root-colonizing microbes are multifaceted in traits that improve plant health. Although isolates designated as biological control agents directly reduce pathogen growth, many exert additional beneficial features that parallel changes induced in animal and other hosts by health-promoting microbes termed probiotics. Both animal and plant probiotics cause direct antagonism of pathogens and induce systemic immunity in the host to pathogens and other stresses. They also alter host development, and improve host nutrition...
April 20, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Joseph T Hefner
The development of identification standards in forensic anthropology requires large and appropriate reference samples comprising individuals with modern birth years. Recent advances in macromorphoscopic trait data collection and analysis have created a need for reference data for classification models and biological distance analyses. The Macromorphoscopic Databank (N ∼ 7,397) serves that function, making publicly available trait scores for a large sample (n = 2,363) of modern American populations and world-wide groups of various geographic origins (n = 1,790)...
April 20, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Udita Basu, Deepak Bajaj, Akash Sharma, Naveen Malik, Anurag Daware, Laxmi Narnoliya, Virevol Thakro, Hari D Upadhyaya, Rajendra Kumar, Shailesh Tripathi, Chellapilla Bharadwaj, Akhilesh K Tyagi, Swarup K Parida
Understanding the genetic basis of photosynthetic efficiency (PE) contributing to enhanced seed yield per plant (SYP) is vital for genomics-assisted crop improvement of chickpea. The current study employed an integrated genomic strategy involving photosynthesis pathway gene-based association mapping, genome-wide association study, QTL mapping and expression profiling. This identified 16 potential SNP loci linked to major QTLs underlying 16 candidate genes significantly associated with PE and SYP traits in chickpea...
April 20, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Elizabeth Psomas, Sholto Holdsworth, Paul Eggleton
Pselaphinae is a species-rich beetle subfamily found globally, with many exhibiting myrmecophily-a symbiotic association with ants. Pselaphine-ant associations vary from facultative to obligate, but direct behavioral observations still remain scarce. Pselaphines are speciose and ecologically abundant within tropical leaf litter invertebrate communities where ants dominate, implying a potentially important ecological role that may be affected by habitat disturbances that impact ants. In this study, we measured and analyzed putative functional traits of leaf litter pselaphines associated with myrmecophily through morphometric analysis...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Morphology
Lan Qi, Yingbin Ding, Xiaoming Zheng, Rui Xu, Lizhen Zhang, Yanyan Wang, Xiaoning Wang, Lifang Zhang, Yunlian Cheng, Weihua Qiao, Qingwen Yang
A wild rice QTL qGL12.2 for grain length was fine mapped to an 82-kb interval in chromosome 12 containing six candidate genes and none was reported previously. Grain length is an important trait for yield and commercial value in rice. Wild rice seeds have a very slender shape and have many desirable genes that have been lost in cultivated rice during domestication. In this study, we identified a quantitative trait locus, qGL12.2, which controls grain length in wild rice. First, a wild rice chromosome segment substitution line, CSSL41, was selected that has longer glume and grains than does the Oryza sativa indica cultivar, 9311...
April 19, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Laura Carelli, Federica Solca, Andrea Faini, Fabiana Madotto, Annalisa Lafronza, Alessia Monti, Stefano Zago, Alberto Doretti, Andrea Ciammola, Nicola Ticozzi, Vincenzo Silani, Barbara Poletti
Introduction: The observed association between depressive symptoms and cognitive performances has not been previously clarified in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (pALS). In fact, the use of cognitive measures often not accommodating for motor disability has led to heterogeneous and not conclusive findings about this issue. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between cognitive and depressive/anxiety symptoms by means of the recently developed Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioral ALS Screen (ECAS), a brief assessment specifically designed for pALS...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Stephanie E A Burnell, Samantha Spencer-Harty, Suzie Howarth, Owen Bodger, Howard Kynaston, Claire Morgan, Shareen H Doak
Six-transmembrane epithelial antigen of the prostate-2 (STEAP2) expression is increased in prostate cancer when compared to normal prostate, suggesting STEAP2 may drive prostate cancer progression. This study aimed to establish the functional role of STEAP2 in prostate tumourigenesis and evaluate if its knockdown resulted in reduced invasive potential of prostate cancer cells. PC3 and LNCaP cells were transfected with STEAP2 siRNA and proliferation, migration, invasion and gene expression analyses were performed...
April 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Behdokht Fathi Dizaji
Metabolic syndrome is the aggregation of cardiovascular risk factors that increases the risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Family and twin studies, heritability spectrum for its components and different prevalence among ethnicities, have provided genetic susceptibility to the metabolic syndrome. The investigations of genetic base for the disorder have recognized numerous chromosomes, various DNA polymorphisms in candidate genes and many gene variants, that are associated with metabolic syndrome as an entity or its traits, which mostly are related to lipid metabolism...
April 11, 2018: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
Yuqing Chong, Huarong Huang, Guiqiong Liu, Xunping Jiang, Weiheng Rong
Zona pellucida 3 (ZP3) is a primary sperm receptor and acrosome reaction inducer. As a candidate gene, the ZP3 gene has been widely studied since it has great influence on reproductive traits in farm animals. However, little is known about the association between polymorphisms of the coding region of the ZP3 gene and the first parity litter size in Hu sheep. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the ZP3 gene associated with the first parity litter size in Hu sheep...
March 31, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
Typhanie Dumontet, Isabelle Sahut-Barnola, Amandine Septier, Nathanaëlle Montanier, Ingrid Plotton, Florence Roucher-Boulez, Véronique Ducros, Anne-Marie Lefrançois-Martinez, Jean-Christophe Pointud, Mohamad Zubair, Ken-Ichirou Morohashi, David T Breault, Pierre Val, Antoine Martinez
The adrenocortical gland undergoes structural and functional remodelling in the fetal and postnatal periods. After birth, the fetal zone of the gland undergoes rapid involution in favor of the definitive cortex, which reaches maturity with the emergence of the zona reticularis(zR) at the adrenarche. The mechanisms underlying the adrenarche, the process leading to pre-puberty elevation of plasma androgens in higher primates, remain unknown, largely due to lack of any experimental model. By following up fetal and definitive cortex cell lines in mice, we showed that activation of protein kinase A (PKA) signaling mainly impacts the adult cortex by stimulating centripetal regeneration, with differentiation and then conversion of the zona fasciculata into a functional zR...
April 16, 2018: Annales D'endocrinologie
Evgeny V Esin, Grigorii N Markevich, Michail Yu Pichugin
Identifying the mechanisms initiating sympatric diversification in vertebrates has remained a conceptual challenge. Here we analyze an assemblage of sympatric charr (Salvelinus malma) morphs from landlocked Lake Kronotskoe basin as a model to uncover the divergence pathways in freshwater fishes during the early life history stages. All morphs have distinct developmental biology, but a similar developmental rate retardation compared to the ancestor. Our study reveals that adult morphological differences, which acquire functionality at maturation, originate in the early juvenile stages due to heterochrony in skeletogenesis and allometric changes triggered by variation in metabolic activity...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
David L P Correia, Frédéric Raulier, Mathieu Bouchard, Élise Filotas
The development of efficient ecosystem resilience indicators was identified as one of the key research priorities in the improvement of existing sustainable forest management frameworks. Two indicators of tree diversity associated with ecosystem functioning have recently received particular attention in the literature: functional redundancy (FR) and response diversity (RD). We examined how these indicators could be used to predict post{\hyphen}logging productivity in forests of Québec, Canada. We analysed the relationships between pre{\hyphen}logging FR and RD, as measured with sample plots, and post{\hyphen}logging productivity, measured as seasonal variation in Enhanced Vegetation Index obtained from MODIS satellite imagery...
April 19, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Q Wang, J Pi, J Shen, A Pan, L Qu
Rumplessness in Hongshan chickens has been reported as a novel sex-linked characteristic. Re-sequencing data suggest that a pseudogene on the Z chromosome, LOC431648, is affiliated with this phenotype. In this study, we chose 23 rumpless and 25 normal Hongshan chickens to localize the potential variation by means of a genome-wide association study using a high density microarray. A region on the Z chromosome was found to be closely associated with rumplessness in Hongshan chickens. The region, located in gene LINGO2, was approximately 3 Mb away from pseudogene LOC431648...
April 19, 2018: Animal Genetics
Pierre-Marc Brousseau, Dominique Gravel, I Tanya Handa
1.The characterization of ecological communities with functional traits allows to consider simultaneously the ability of a species to survive and reproduce in an environment, its interactions with other species, and its effects on the ecosystem. 2.Functional traits have been studied mainly by plant ecologists, but are increasingly common in the study of other taxa including arthropods. Arthropods represent a group for which a functional trait approach could be highly profitable because of their high diversity, abundance, ubiquity and role in many important ecological processes...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Animal Ecology
Manuel Delgado-Baquerizo, Ellen L Fry, David J Eldridge, Franciska T de Vries, Peter Manning, Kelly Hamonts, Jens Kattge, Gerhard Boenisch, Brajesh K Singh, Richard D Bardgett
We lack strong empirical evidence for links between plant attributes (plant community attributes and functional traits) and the distribution of soil microbial communities at large spatial scales. Using datasets from two contrasting regions and ecosystem types in Australia and England, we report that aboveground plant community attributes, such as diversity (species richness) and cover, and functional traits can predict a unique portion of the variation in the diversity (number of phylotypes) and community composition of soil bacteria and fungi that cannot be explained by soil abiotic properties and climate...
April 19, 2018: New Phytologist
Nelly Alia-Klein, Rebecca N Preston-Campbell, Scott J Moeller, Muhammad A Parvaz, Keren Bachi, Gabriela Gan, Anna Zilverstand, Anna B Konova, Rita Z Goldstein
Anger is considered a unique high-arousal and approach-related negative emotion. The influence of individual differences in trait anger on the processing of visual stimuli is relevant to questions about emotional processing and remains to be explored. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we explored the neural responses to standardized images, selected based on valence and arousal ratings in a group of men with high trait anger compared to those with normative to low anger scores (controls). Results show increased activation in the left-lateralized ventral fronto-parietal attention network to unpleasant images by individuals with high trait anger...
2018: PloS One
Mthokozisi K Zuma, Unathi Kolanisi, Albert T Modi
Biofortification interventions have the potential to combat malnutrition. This review explored the use of provitamin A-biofortified maize (PVABM) as a vitamin A deficiency (VAD) reduction agricultural-based strategy. Maize has been identified as one of the key staple crops for biofortification to reduce hidden hunger in Africa. Most nutrition interventions have not been successful in reducing hunger because rural communities, who mainly rely on agriculture, have been indirectly excluded. The biofortification intervention proposed here aims to be an inclusive strategy, based on smallholder farming systems...
April 19, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Ruken Ağaçhanlı, İzgi Alnıak, Cuneyt Evren
BACKGROUND: Studies on sexual functioning of populations with substance use disorders (SUDs) are mostly conducted with male substance users. We have very limited information about the sexuality and related factors in women with opioid use disorder (OUD). OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate the relationship between childhood traumatic experiences (CTEs) and sexual dysfunctions (SDs) of women with OUD and to compare it with a sample of women who do not have SUD. METHODS: Participants included 51 outpatient women with OUD who were on opioid maintenance treatment (OMT) with Buprenorphine/Naloxone and 48 women without SUD...
April 19, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
Marta De Biaggi, Dario Donno, Maria Gabriella Mellano, Isidoro Riondato, Ernest N Rakotoniaina, Gabriele L Beccaro
Interest in new sources of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant compounds has recently become a major research issue, with the cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.) receiving particular attention for its significant amounts of phenolic compounds and vitamins, which exhibit a wide range of biological and pharmacological properties. This study was aimed at increasing knowledge regarding the cornelian cherry in Italy through the analysis of biologically active substances in the locally available genotype "Chieri"...
April 19, 2018: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
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