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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143595/why-nature-prevails-over-nurture-in-the-making-of-the-elite-athlete
#1
Evelina Georgiades, Vassilis Klissouras, Jamie Baulch, Guan Wang, Yannis Pitsiladis
While the influence of nature (genes) and nurture (environment) on elite sporting performance remains difficult to precisely determine, the dismissal of either as a contributing factor to performance is unwarranted. It is accepted that a complex interaction of a combination of innumerable factors may mold a talented athlete into a champion. The prevailing view today is that understanding elite human performance will require the deciphering of two major sources of individual differences, genes and the environment...
November 14, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135675/novel-strategies-to-improve-resident-selection-by-improving-cultural-fit-aoa-critical-issues
#2
Scott E Porter, Afshin E Razi, T Bennett Ramsey
Residency selection is a perennial multifactorial process that differs considerably from the recruitment processes that other professional occupations enjoy. The 2016 meeting of the American Orthopaedic Association's Council of Orthopaedic Residency Directors highlighted a series of symposia that sought to present a novel manner of resident selection. Specifically, the presenters for each symposium were asked to do the following: present some general recruitment best practices in industries outside of medicine, present how branding of a program may translate into a better interview season, investigate evidence that the applicant pool to orthopaedic surgery may have changed and that residency program brands may have to reflect this, and assess our current evaluation techniques for talent identification and resident selection with respect to a specific department's appearance or brand...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123555/meritocracy-ask-yourself
#3
EDITORIAL
Massimiliano Polastri, Maria Cristina Truisi
Meritocracy refers to a governmental or other administrative system wherein appointments and responsibilities are assigned to individuals based on their merits, which are determined through objective evaluations or examinations. Merit can be earned by either intellectual or manual labour, as each person has his or her own talents. Nevertheless, there is no absolute definition of merit because both intelligence and skill are relative. In our current society, individuals can, theoretically, reach any goal in a meritocratic system...
November 2017: J Intensive Care Soc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121199/the-next-19-years-of-the-american-head-and-neck-society
#4
Jeffrey N Myers
Jeffrey N. Myers, MD, PhD, president of the American Head and Neck Society (AHNS) for 2016 to 2017, offered his perspectives on the AHNS's history, present-day activities, and future plans at this year's annual meeting of the society. The society was created from the 1998 merger of 2 societies, the Society for Head and Neck Surgeons (SHNS), founded in 1954, and the American Society for Head and Neck Surgery (ASHNS), founded in 1959, to become the largest organization in North America for the advancement of research and education in head and neck oncology...
November 9, 2017: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119872/adapting-operational-research-training-to-the-rwandan-context-the-intermediate-operational-research-training-programme
#5
Jackline Odhiambo, Cheryl L Amoroso, Peter Barebwanuwe, Christine Warugaba, Bethany L Hedt-Gauthier
BACKGROUND: Promoting national health research agendas in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) requires adequate numbers of individuals with skills to initiate and conduct research. Recently, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have joined research capacity building efforts to increase research leadership by LMIC nationals. Partners In Health, an international NGO operating in Rwanda, implemented its first Intermediate Operational Research Training (IORT) course to cultivate Rwandan research talent and generate evidence to improve health care delivery...
2017: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118171/total-laboratory-automation-and-maldi-tof-improve-turnaround-times-in-the-clinical-microbiology-laboratory-a-retrospective-analysis
#6
Talent Theparee, Sanchita Das, Richard B Thomson
Technological advances have changed the practice of clinical microbiology. We implemented Bruker MALDI-TOF and BD Kiestra Total Laboratory Automation (TLA) three and four years ago, respectively. To assess the impact of these new technologies, we compared turnaround times (TAT) for positive and negative urine cultures before and after implementation. Comparison I: TATs for 61,157 urine cultures were extracted for two periods corresponding to pre-TLA and post-TLA, both using MALDI-TOF for organism identification...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117452/influence-of-population-size-density-and-proximity-to-talent-clubs-on-the-likelihood-of-becoming-elite-youth-athlete
#7
Niels N Rossing, Diana Stentoft, Alexander Flattum, Jean Côté, Dan S Karbing
Previous studies have found significant differences in the likelihood of becoming an elite athlete depending on community population sizes and densities, an effect known as the place of early development, or birthplace effect. However, the results have not been consistent between sports or European countries. Since both professional and voluntary clubs are vital to the talent development systems in Europe, the proximity of an athlete's place of early development to the location of talent clubs may be an important predictor of the likelihood of becoming an elite athlete...
November 8, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107620/lacking-quality-in-research-is-behavioral-neuroscience-affected-more-than-other-areas-of-biomedical-science
#8
Anton Bespalov, Thomas Steckler
There are many reasons why novel therapeutics fail in clinical trials but these failures are often attributed to lacking quality of preclinical data. These problems are not limited to any specific therapeutic area, academic or industrial research and are due in large part to several generic factors influencing research quality (e.g., related to definition of pre-specified endpoints, principles of study design and analysis, biased reporting, and lack of proper training). Yet, Neuroscience drug discovery is often said to be affected more than the other fields...
October 28, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104704/biomedical-big-data-training-collaborative-bbdtc-an-effort-to-bridge-the-talent-gap-in-biomedical-science-and-research
#9
Shweta Purawat, Charles Cowart, Rommie E Amaro, Ilkay Altintas
The BBDTC (https://biobigdata.ucsd.edu) is a community-oriented platform to encourage high-quality knowledge dissemination with the aim of growing a well-informed biomedical big data community through collaborative efforts on training and education. The BBDTC is an e-learning platform that empowers the biomedical community to develop, launch and share open training materials. It deploys hands-on software training toolboxes through virtualization technologies such as Amazon EC2 and Virtualbox. The BBDTC facilitates migration of courses across other course management platforms...
May 2017: Journal of Computational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103407/musical-interests-and-talent-twin-jazz-musicians-and-twin-studies-twin-research-loss-of-a-preterm-multiple-conjoined-twin-conception-depression-in-fathers-of-twins-twin-to-twin-transfusion-syndrome-twin-news-high-achieving-twins-twin-children-of-a-tennis-star
#10
Nancy L Segal
Findings from twin studies of musical interests and talent are reviewed as a backdrop to the lives and careers of twin jazz musicians, Peter and Will Anderson. The Anderson twins exemplify many aspects of twin research, namely their matched musical abilities, shared musical interests, and common career. This overview is followed by reviews of studies and case reports of bereavement in families who have lost a preterm multiple birth infant, the conception of conjoined twins following in vitro fertilization (IVF), depression in fathers of twins, and twin-to-twin transfusion incidence in monochorionic-diamniotic IVF twin pairs...
November 6, 2017: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094958/minimizing-cross-cultural-maladaptation-how-minority-status-facilitates-change-in-international-acculturation
#11
Sabrina D Volpone, Dennis J Marquardt, Wendy J Casper, Derek R Avery
Culturally savvy organizations recognize that selecting and developing people who can be effective in a global workforce is important in today's business environment. Nevertheless, many companies struggle to identify and develop talent who are happy and successful working and living outside their home country. We examine 1 factor that may foster success in a host country-minority status in 1's home country-as a predictor of change in acculturation over time. Specifically, we draw on the conservation of resources model to suggest that international students who have been a member of more minority groups in their home country have unique experiences working with dissimilar others that offer advantages when acculturating to new cultures and novel situations...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082464/tanner-whitehouse-skeletal-ages-in-male-youth-soccer-players-tw2-or-tw3
#12
Robert M Malina, Manuel J Coelho-E-Silva, António J Figueiredo, Renaat M Philippaerts, Norikazu Hirose, Maria Eugenia Peña Reyes, Giulio Gilli, Andrea Benso, Roel Vaeyens, Dieter Deprez, Luiz F Guglielmo, Rojapon Buranarugsa
BACKGROUND: The Tanner-Whitehouse radius-ulna-short bone protocol (TW2 RUS) for the assessment of skeletal age (SA) is widely used to estimate the biological (skeletal) maturity status of children and adolescents. The scale for converting TW RUS ratings to an SA has been revised (TW3 RUS) and has implications for studies of youth athletes in age-group sports. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare TW2 and TW3 RUS SAs in an international sample of male youth soccer players and to compare distributions of players by maturity status defined by each SA protocol...
October 29, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082463/talent-identification-in-sport-a-systematic-review
#13
REVIEW
Kathryn Johnston, Nick Wattie, Jörg Schorer, Joseph Baker
BACKGROUND: Talent identification (TID) programs are an integral part of the selection process for elite-level athletes. While many sport organizations utilize TID programs, there does not seem to be a clear set of variables that consistently predict future success. OBJECTIVE: This review aims to synthesize longitudinal and retrospective studies examining differences between performance variables in highly skilled and less-skilled athletes in elite-level sport. METHODS: The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were used to identify relevant studies (N = 20)...
October 29, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079035/a-study-of-the-chemical-diversity-of-macroalgae-from-south-eastern-australia
#14
Daniel Vuong, Matvi Kaplan, Heather J Lacey, Andrew Crombie, Ernest Lacey, Andrew M Piggott
Macroalgae are a rich source of biologically active chemical diversity for pharmaceutical and agrichemical discovery. However, the ability to understand the complexities of their chemical diversity will dictate whether these natural products have a place in modern discovery paradigms. In this study, we examined the relationship between secondary metabolite production and biological activity for a cohort of 127 macroalgae samples collected from various locations across South Eastern Australia. Approximately 20% of the macroalgae samples showed high levels of chemical diversity and productivity, which also correlated strongly with bioactivity...
October 24, 2017: Fitoterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078594/challenges-in-complex-video-assisted-thoracoscopic-surgery-and-spontaneous-respiration-video-assisted-thoracoscopic-surgery-procedures
#15
REVIEW
Jingpei Li, Hui Liu, Jun Liu, Xusen Zou, Lili Mo, Hui Pan, Guilin Peng, Wenlong Shao, Lindsey Hamblin, Lixia Liang, Qinglong Dong, Jianxing He
The push for minimally invasive techniques had led to the development of many surgical tools and the innovation and completion of ever more complex operations. To achieve faster postoperative recovery of patients, we have been dedicated to the development of surgical skills that have allowed us to successfully complete many procedures under video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) that are complex even with open approach. Specifically, sleeve, trachea, and carina resections and reconstructions using either general or spontaneous respiration anesthesia (SRA) techniques...
2017: J Vis Surg
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076994/using-the-d-danp-mv-model-to-explore-the-continuous-system-improvement-strategy-for-sustainable-development-of-creative-communities
#16
Lei Xiong, Cheng-Lein Teng, Bo-Wei Zhu, Gwo-Hshiung Tzeng, Shan-Lin Huang
With globalization, the notion of "creative city" has become a core concept of many cities in the world development policies, with real properties being upgraded or used to change, renewal is being conducted, and creative industries are emerging. This trend has reached its peak in the past decade, with different forms and scales gathering global development momentum among the creative communities to promote the development of creative economies. In recent years, however, there was still skepticism about the sustainability of the current creative communities...
October 27, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076244/intersecting-disadvantage-unpacking-poor-outcomes-within-early-intervention-in-psychosis-services
#17
Nev Jones, Julia Godzikovskaya, Zhen Zhao, Anthony Vasquez, Al Gilbert, Larry Davidson
AIM: In order to strengthen specialized early intervention in psychosis (EIP) services, a contextually nuanced understanding of psychosocial forces driving suboptimal treatment response is critical. This study sought to examine factors driving poor outcomes through a systematic emic coding of psychosocial assessments for discharged EIP clients categorized as leaving with all treatment goals met (AG) or no treatment goals met (NG). METHODS: Psychosocial assessments at baseline, 1 year, 2 years and discharge were extracted from an EIP research registry and systematically coded...
October 27, 2017: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074344/a-comparison-of-game-play-characteristics-between-elite-youth-and-senior-australian-national-rugby-league-competitions
#18
Carl T Woods, Sam Robertson, Wade H Sinclair, Kevin Till, Leesa Pearce, Anthony S Leicht
OBJECTIVES: To compare game-play characteristics between elite youth and senior Australian National Rugby League (NRL) competitions. DESIGN: Longitudinal observational. METHODS: The dataset consisted of 12 team performance indicators (e.g., 'all runs', 'offloads' and 'tackles') extracted from all 2016 national under 20 (U20) competition (elite youth; n=372 observations) and National Rugby League (NRL) (elite senior; n=378 observations) matches...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074113/prospective-cohort-20%C3%A2-years-after-endovascular-treatment-for-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm
#19
Gaudencio Espinosa, Giovanni di Luccio, Marcia Ribeiro Alves, Bianca Gutfilen, Ronir Raggio, Pedro Saad, Lukasz Dzieciuchowicz, Carlos Magliano
OBJECTIVE: To describe the factors associated with survival 20 years after endovascular treatment of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) in a single center. METHODS: Prospective cohort of asymptomatic patients with an infrarenal aortic aneurysm treated with a bifurcated endovascular graft (Talent) between June 1997 and August 2008. Cox proportional hazard multivariable regression was used for analysis of independent risk factors for survival. Kaplan-Meier curves were done with the long-rank test...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057109/prof-zhehai-wang-medicine-requires-great-talent-and-high-moral-standards
#20
Monica L Liu, Yating Kong
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
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