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Seed dispersal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549216/agglomeration-determines-effects-of-carbonaceous-nanomaterials-on-soybean-nodulation-dinitrogen-fixation-potential-and-growth-in-soil
#1
Ying Wang, Chong Hyun Chang, Zhaoxia Ji, Dermont C Bouchard, Roger M Nisbet, Joshua P Schimel, Jorge L Gardea-Torresdey, Patricia A Holden
The potential effects of carbonaceous nanomaterials (CNMs) on agricultural plants are of concern. However, little research has been performed using plants cultivated to maturity in soils contaminated with various CNMs at different concentrations. Here, we grew soybean for 39 days to seed production in soil amended with 0.1, 100, or 1000 mg kg-1 of either multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs), or carbon black (CB), and studied plant growth, nodulation, and dinitrogen (N2) fixation potential...
May 26, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543965/joint-evolution-of-differential-seed-dispersal-and-self-fertilization
#2
Ryosuke Iritani, Pierre-Olivier Cheptou
Differential seed dispersal, in which selfed and outcrossed seeds possess different dispersal propensities, represents a potentially important individual-level association. A variety of traits can mediate differential seed dispersal, including inflorescence and seed size variation. However, how natural selection shapes such associations is poorly known. Here, we developed theoretical models for the evolution of mating system and differential seed dispersal in metapopulations, incorporating heterogeneous pollination, dispersal cost, cost of outcrossing, and environment-dependent inbreeding depression...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543273/differential-dispersal-and-the-allee-effect-create-power-law-behavior-distribution-of-spot-infestations-during-mountain-pine-beetle-outbreaks
#3
James A Powell, Martha J Garlick, Barbara J Bentz, Nicholas Friedenberg
Mountain pine beetles (MPB, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) are aggressive insects attacking Pinus host trees. Pines use defensive resin to overwhelm attackers, creating an Allee effect requiring beetles to attack en masse to successfully reproduce. MPB kill hosts, leaving observable, dying trees with red needles. Landscape patterns of infestation depend on MPB dispersal, which decreases with host density. Away from contiguously impacted patches (low beetle densities), infestations are characterized by apparently random spots (of 1-10 trees)...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533969/ranking-of-critical-species-to-preserve-the-functionality-of-mutualistic-networks-using-the-k-core-decomposition
#4
Javier García-Algarra, Juan Manuel Pastor, José María Iriondo, Javier Galeano
BACKGROUND: Network analysis has become a relevant approach to analyze cascading species extinctions resulting from perturbations on mutualistic interactions as a result of environmental change. In this context, it is essential to be able to point out key species, whose stability would prevent cascading extinctions, and the consequent loss of ecosystem function. In this study, we aim to explain how the k-core decomposition sheds light on the understanding the robustness of bipartite mutualistic networks...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533554/facile-synthesis-and-characterization-of-zno-nanoparticles-grown-on-halloysite-nanotubes-for-enhanced-photocatalytic-properties
#5
Hongxia Peng, Xiaohe Liu, Wei Tang, Renzhi Ma
We demonstrated herein that ZnO nanoparticle with sizes in the range of 3-5 nm grown on the surface of halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) could be facile prepared in large quantities through the seed-mediated growth process using ZnAc2·2H2O as the zinc source. Compared with the individually dispersed ZnO nanoparticles, the as-prepared HNTs@ZnO nanocomposites showed a smaller band gap energy and relatively strong light absorption. Therefore, HNTs@ZnO nanocomposites possessed higher photocatalytic activity than individually dispersed ZnO nanoparticles, exhibiting the HNTs@ZnO nanocomposites could be used as highly efficient photocatalysts...
May 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530181/green-synthesis-of-cuo-nanoparticles-loaded-on-the-seashell-surface-using-rumex-crispus-seeds-extract-and-its-catalytic-applications-for-reduction-of-dyes
#6
Akbar Rostami-Vartooni
In this study, CuO nanoparticles supported on the seashell (CuO NPs/seashell) was prepared using Rumex crispus seeds extract as a chelating and capping agent. The prepared nanocomposite was characterised by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The particle size of CuO NPs on the seashell sheets was in the range of 8-60 nm. Catalytic ability of CuO NPs/seashell was investigated for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) and Congo red (CR)...
June 2017: IET Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528483/fossil-record-of-ephedra-in-the-lower-cretaceous-aptian-argentina
#7
Gabriela G Puebla, Ari Iglesias, María A Gómez, Mercedes B Prámparo
Fossil plants from the Lower Cretaceous (upper Aptian) of the La Cantera Formation, Argentina, are described. The fossils studied represent a leafy shooting system with several orders of articulated and striated axes and attached leaves with unequivocal ephedroid affinity. We also found associated remains of ovulate cones with four whorls of sterile bracts, which contain two female reproductive units (FRU). Ovulate cone characters fit well within the genus Ephedra. Special characters in the ovulate cones including an outer seed envelope with two types of trichomes, allowed us to consider our remains as a new Ephedra species...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520770/life-history-trade-off-moderates-model-predictions-of-diversity-loss-from-climate-change
#8
Helen Moor
Climate change can trigger species range shifts, local extinctions and changes in diversity. Species interactions and dispersal capacity are important mediators of community responses to climate change. The interaction between multispecies competition and variation in dispersal capacity has recently been shown to exacerbate the effects of climate change on diversity and to increase predictions of extinction risk dramatically. Dispersal capacity, however, is part of a species' overall ecological strategy and are likely to trade off with other aspects of its life history that influence population growth and persistence...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520407/controlling-configurational-isomerism-in-three-component-colloidal-hybrid-nanoparticles
#9
James M Hodges, Raymond E Schaak
Colloidal hybrid nanoparticles are solution-dispersible constructs that join together multiple distinct nanoscale materials through direct solid-solid interfaces. Given their multifunctionality and synergistic properties that emerge from interfacial coupling, hybrid nanoparticles are of interest for applications in biomedical imaging, solar energy conversion, heterogeneous catalysis, nanophotonics, and beyond. High-order hybrid nanoparticles, which incorporate three or more nanocrystal domains, offer greater tunability and functional diversity relative to one or two-component nanoparticles...
May 18, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517926/laser-induced-population-inversion-in-rhodamine-6g-for-lysozyme-oligomers-detection
#10
Piotr Hanczyc, Lech Sznitko
Fluorescence spectroscopy is a common method for detecting amyloid fibrils where organic fluorophores are used as markers that exhibit increase of the quantum yield upon binding. However, most of the dyes exhibit enhanced emission only when bound to mature fibrils and significantly weaker signals are obtained in presence of amyloid oligomers. In the concept of population inversion, laser is used as an excitation source in order to keep the major fraction of molecules in the excited state to create the pathways for stimulated emission occurrence...
May 18, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513594/regionally-compartmentalized-resident-memory-t-cells-mediate-naturally-acquired-protection-against-pneumococcal-pneumonia
#11
N Ms Smith, G A Wasserman, F T Coleman, K L Hilliard, K Yamamoto, E Lipsitz, R Malley, H Dooms, M R Jones, L J Quinton, J P Mizgerd
As children age, they become less susceptible to the diverse microbes causing pneumonia. These microbes are pathobionts that infect the respiratory tract multiple times during childhood, generating immunological memory. To elucidate mechanisms of such naturally acquired immune protection against pneumonia, we modeled a relevant immunological history in mice by infecting their airways with mismatched serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus). Previous pneumococcal infections provided protection against a heterotypic, highly virulent pneumococcus, as evidenced by reduced bacterial burdens and long-term sterilizing immunity...
May 17, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512054/synthesis-and-characterization-of-psyllium-seed-mucilage-grafted-with-n-n-methylene-bisacrylamide
#12
Monica R P Rao, Laxmi Babrekar, Vaishali S Kharpude, Jagruti Chaudhari
Psyllium seed polysaccharide was modified to investigate its use as multifunctional pharmaceutical excipient. The objective of this study was isolation of psyllium seed polysaccharide and crosslinking with acrylic acid using N,N-methylene bisacrylamide and its characterization. Acrylic acid was used as monomer and ammonium persulfate as initiator. A full factorial design was employed to optimize the crosslinking. The modified polysaccharide was characterized by FTIR, DSC, PXRD, loss on drying, pH, viscosity, micromeritics properties and swelling studies in 0...
May 13, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504871/pollination-and-breeding-system-of-the-enigmatic-south-african-parasitic-plant-mystropetalon-thomii-mystropetalaceae-rodents-welcome-but-not-needed
#13
Nina Hobbhahn, Sandy-Lynn Steenhuisen, Toni Olsen, Jeremy J Midgley, Steven D Johnson
Unrelated plants adapted to particular pollinator types tend to exhibit convergent evolution in floral traits. However, inferences about likely pollinators from "pollination syndromes" can be problematic due to trait overlap among some syndromes and unusual floral architecture in some lineages. An example is the rare South African parasitic plant Mystropetalon thomii (Mystropetalaceae), which has highly unusual brush-like inflorescences that exhibit features of both bird- and rodent-pollination syndromes. We used camera traps to record flower visitors, quantified floral spectral reflectance and nectar and scent production, experimentally determined self-compatibility and breeding system, and studied pollen dispersal using fluorescent dyes...
May 15, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503829/unravelling-seed-dispersal-through-fragmented-landscapes-frugivore-species-operate-unevenly-as-mobile-links
#14
Juan P González-Varo, Carolina S Carvalho, Juan M Arroyo, Pedro Jordano
Seed dispersal constitutes a pivotal process in an increasingly fragmented world, promoting population connectivity, colonization and range shifts in plants. Unveiling how multiple frugivore species disperse seeds through fragmented landscapes, operating as mobile links, has remained elusive owing to methodological constraints for monitoring seed dispersal events. We combine for the first time DNA barcoding and DNA microsatellites to identify, respectively, the frugivore species and the source trees of animal-dispersed seeds in forest and matrix of a fragmented landscape...
May 14, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496452/transcriptome-analyses-reveal-candidate-pod-shattering-associated-genes-involved-in-the-pod-ventral-sutures-of-common-vetch-vicia-sativa-l
#15
Rui Dong, Deke Dong, Dong Luo, Qiang Zhou, Xutian Chai, Jiyu Zhang, Wengang Xie, Wenxian Liu, Yang Dong, Yanrong Wang, Zhipeng Liu
The seed dispersion caused by pod shattering is a form of propagation used by many wild species. Loss of seeds from pod shattering is frequent in the common vetch (Vicia sativa L.), an important self-pollinating annual forage legume. However, pod shattering is one of the most important defects that limits the reproduction of the vetch in the field and the usage as a leguminous forage crop. To better understand the vetch pod shattering mechanism, we used high-throughput RNA sequencing to assess the global changes in the transcriptomes of the pod ventral sutures of shattering-susceptible and shattering-resistant vetch accessions screened from 541 vetch germplasms...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493968/the-dead-hardened-floral-bracts-of-dispersal-units-of-wild-wheat-function-as-storage-for-active-hydrolases-and-in-enhancing-seedling-vigor
#16
Buzi Raviv, Gila Granot, Vered Chalifa-Caspi, Gideon Grafi
It is commonly assumed that the dead, hardened floral bracts of the dispersal unit of grasses have been evolved to protect seeds from predation and / or assist in fruit/caryopsis dispersal. While these structures have important agronomical and economical implications, their adaptive value has not been fully explored. We investigated the hypothesis that the maternally derived hardened floral bracts have been evolved not just as a means for caryopsis protection and dispersal, but also as storage for substances that might affect seed germination and seedling vigor...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490622/mutualistic-strategies-minimize-coextinction-in-plant-disperser-networks
#17
Evan C Fricke, Joshua J Tewksbury, Elizabeth M Wandrag, Haldre S Rogers
The global decline of mutualists such as pollinators and seed dispersers may cause negative direct and indirect impacts on biodiversity. Mutualistic network models used to understand the stability of mutualistic systems indicate that species with low partner diversity are most vulnerable to coextinction following mutualism disruption. However, existing models have not considered how species vary in their dependence on mutualistic interactions for reproduction or survival, overlooking the potential influence of this variation on species' coextinction vulnerability and on network stability...
May 17, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489097/self-assembly-of-inverse-patchy-colloids-with-tunable-patch-coverage
#18
Manigandan Sabapathy, Remya Ann Mathews K, Ethayaraja Mani
We report a simple and scalable technique for the preparation of patchy particles with tunable patch coverage. These particles are categorized as inverse patchy colloidal particles (IPCs) as the patches repel each other while patch and non-patch surfaces attract. We demonstrate the effect of patch coverage, concentration of electrolyte and concentration of particles on the self-assembly of IPC particles. The study identifies various clustering zones such as (1) finite-sized clusters, (2) chain-like assemblies and (3) irregular amorphous aggregates...
May 24, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488781/deciphering-the-effects-of-disperser-assemblages-and-seed-mass-on-patterns-of-seed-dispersal-in-a-rodent-community
#19
Aleksandra Wróbel, Rafał Zwolak
The sizes of both seed dispersers and seeds are traits that are likely to interact to influence seed fate in many synzoochoric plant species. Here, we examined whether members of a granivorous rodent community consisting of species of different body size vary in their effectiveness as seed dispersers, and how this relationship may be altered by seed size. We marked Northern red oak (Quercus rubra Linnaeus, 1753) acorns with plastic tags and placed them in size-selective rodent exclosures. The exclosures allowed differential access of rodent groups based on different body size: (1) small (e...
May 10, 2017: Integrative Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488146/ecological-and-agriculture-impacts-of-bakery-yeast-wastewater-use-on-weed-communities-and-crops-in-an-arid-environment
#20
Mohammed H Abu-Dieyeh, Mahmoud Diab, Mohammad A Al-Ghouti
The goal of this study was to evaluate the impact of using yeast wastewater (YW) on weed communities. The study showed that all ecological parameters including species richness, dispersion, density, frequency, and % of vegetation cover were significantly increased in the site irrigated with YW compared to a natural rain fed site and another site irrigated with fresh water. The vegetation cover (%) was significantly increased by 2-folds in the site irrigated with YW (52%) than the one irrigated with fresh water (27%)...
May 9, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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