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Seed dispersal

Itsuki Ohya, Satoshi Nanami, Akira Itoh
The reproductive capacities of dioecious plant species may be limited by severe pollen limitation and narrow seed shadows for the two reasons. First, they are unable to self-pollinate, and seed production occurs only with pollinator movement from males to females. Second, only 50% of the individuals in populations contribute to seed production. Despite these handicaps, dioecious plants maintain their populations in plant communities with cooccurring cosexual plants, and no substantial difference in population growth rates has been found between dioecious and cosexual plants...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Rouhollah Khani, Zeinab Rostami, Ghodsieh Bagherzade, Vahid Khojeh
In this study, for the monitoring and quantification of p-coumaric acid (p-CA) in vinegar, carrot juice, and seed extract from the plant species Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn, an efficient and low-cost analytical method has been applied. For this purpose, a dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) method, followed by UV-Vis spectrophotometric detection, was used. To form a cloudy solution, a binary mixture containing ethanol as a disperser solvent and chloroform as an extraction solvent was rapidly injected by syringe into a sample solution containing p-CA...
August 10, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
Igor J Chybicki
This paper introduces the NMπ computer program designed for estimation of plant mating system and seed and pollen dispersal kernels. NMπ is a re-implementation of the NM+ program and provides new features such as support for multi-core processors, explicit treatment of dioecy, the possibility of incorporating uniparentally cytoplasmic markers, the possibility of assessing assortative mating due to phenotypic similarity and inference about offspring genealogies. The probability model of parentage (the neighborhood model) accounts for missing data and genotyping errors, which can be estimated along with regular parameters of the mating system...
August 14, 2017: Molecular Ecology Resources
Laurence Culot, Carolina Bello, João Luis Ferreira Batista, Hilton Thadeu Zarate do Couto, Mauro Galetti
The extinction of large frugivores has consequences for the recruitment of large-seeded plants with potential lasting effects on carbon storage in tropical rainforests. However, previous studies relating frugivore defaunation to changes in carbon storage ignore potential compensation by redundant frugivores and the effects of seed predators on plant recruitment. Based on empirical data of the recruitment success of a large-seeded hardwood tree species (Cryptocarya mandioccana, Lauraceae) across a defaunation gradient of seed dispersers and predators, we show that defaunation increases both seed dispersal limitation and seed predation...
August 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
K Jhansi, N Jayarambabu, K Paul Reddy, N Manohar Reddy, R Padma Suvarna, K Venkateswara Rao, V Ramesh Kumar, V Rajendar
Current study describes the green, environmental friendly, and cost-effectiveness technique for the preparation of MgO nanoparticles (NPs) via white button mushroom aqueous extract. The synthesized MgO NPs were characterized using equipments such as X-ray diffraction, dynamic light scattering (DLS), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) for average crystalline size, particle size, morphology, elemental analysis, and weight loss of the materials, respectively...
August 2017: 3 Biotech
Elena Babiychuk, Sergei Kushnir, Santelmo Vasconcelos, Mariana Costa Dias, Nelson Carvalho-Filho, Gisele Lopes Nunes, Jorge Filipe Dos Santos, Lourival Tyski, Delmo Fonseca da Silva, Alexandre Castilho, Vera Lucia Imperatriz Fonseca, Guilherme Oliveira
Amazon comprises a vast variety of ecosystems, including savannah-like Canga barrens that evolved on iron-lateritic rock plateaus of the Carajás Mountain range. Individual Cangas are enclosed by the rain forest, indicating insular isolation that enables speciation and plant community differentiation. To establish a framework for the research on natural history and conservation management of endemic Canga species, seven chloroplast DNA loci and an ITS2 nuclear DNA locus were used to study natural molecular variation of the red flowered Ipomoea cavalcantei and the lilac flowered I...
August 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
Mathieu Lasfargues, Graham Stead, Muhammad Amjad, Yulong Ding, Dongsheng Wen
Seeding nanoparticles in molten salts has been shown recently as a promising way to improve their thermo-physical properties. The prospect of such technology is of interest to both academic and industrial sectors in order to enhance the specific heat capacity of molten salt. The latter is used in concentrated solar power plants as both heat transfer fluid and sensible storage. This work explores the feasibility of producing and dispersing nanoparticles with a novel one pot synthesis method. Using such a method, CuO nanoparticles were produced in situ via the decomposition of copper sulphate pentahydrate in a KNO₃-NaNO₃ binary salt...
May 19, 2017: Materials
Paloma Torroba-Balmori, Katharina B Budde, Katrin Heer, Santiago C González-Martínez, Sanna Olsson, Caroline Scotti-Saintagne, Maxime Casalis, Bonaventure Sonké, Christopher W Dick, Myriam Heuertz
The analysis of fine-scale spatial genetic structure (FSGS) within populations can provide insights into eco-evolutionary processes. Restricted dispersal and locally occurring genetic drift are the primary causes for FSGS at equilibrium, as described in the isolation by distance (IBD) model. Beyond IBD expectations, spatial, environmental or historical factors can affect FSGS. We examined FSGS in seven African and Neotropical populations of the late-successional rain forest tree Symphonia globulifera L. f. (Clusiaceae) to discriminate the influence of drift-dispersal vs...
2017: PloS One
Landon R Jones, Scott M Duke-Sylvester, Paul L Leberg, Derek M Johnson
Habitat loss can alter animal movements and disrupt animal seed dispersal mutualisms; however, its effects on spatial patterns of seed dispersal are not well understood. To explore the effects of habitat loss on seed dispersal distances and seed dispersion (aggregation), we created a spatially explicit, individual-based model of an animal dispersing seeds (SEADS-Spatially Explicit Animal Dispersal of Seeds) in a theoretical landscape of 0%-90% habitat loss based on three animal traits: movement distance, gut retention time, and time between movements...
July 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Yanping Zhu, Min Wu, Naiyun Gao, Wenhai Chu, Na An, Qiongfang Wang, Shuaifeng Wang
The priority pollutant antimony (Sb) exists primarily as Sb(V) and Sb(III) in natural waters, and Sb(III) is generally with greater mobility and toxicity than Sb(V). The bio-reduction of Sb(V) would not become a meaningful Sb-removal process unless the accumulation of produced dissolved Sb(III) could be controlled. Here, we examined the dissimilatory antimonate bio-reduction with or without the coexistence of sulfate using Sb-acclimated biomass. Results demonstrated that 0.8mM Sb(V) was almost completely bio-reduced within 20h along with 48...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
A Dávila-Lara, M Affenzeller, A Tribsch, V Díaz, H P Comes
The Central American seasonally dry tropical (SDT) forest biome is one of the worlds' most endangered ecosystems, yet little is known about the genetic consequences of its recent fragmentation. A prominent constituent of this biome is Calycophyllum candidissimum, an insect-pollinated and wind-dispersed canopy tree of high socio-economic importance, particularly in Nicaragua. Here, we surveyed amplified fragment length polymorphisms across 13 populations of this species in Nicaragua to elucidate the relative roles of contemporary vs historical factors in shaping its genetic variation...
August 2, 2017: Heredity
Dana M Schwartz, Meryem O Pehlivaner Kara, Allan Goldstein, Harold C Ott, Adam Ekenseair
The native extracellular matrix (ECM) serves as a unique platform for tissue engineering because it provides an organ-specific scaffold in terms of both matrix composition and tissue architecture. However, efficacious cell-seeding techniques for recellularizing the ECM constructs with appropriate cell types to restore biologic function remain under development. In this study, the impact of spraying as a seeding technique for repopulation of decellularized small intestine was investigated. In a series of experiments, CaCo-2 cells was first used to investigate the effect of spray device type and pressure on cell viability and to optimize parameters for seeding intestinal epithelial cells...
July 29, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
Tao Wang, Stephan Handschuh-Wang, Songquan Zhang, Xuechang Zhou, Yongbing Tang
Nanocrystalline diamond particles are promising candidates for copious applications in materials science, biology and electronics. In this work, diamond nucleation density was unprecedentedly enhanced via a non-invasive electrostatic self-assembly seeding approach. By addition of glutamic acid to the nanodiamond seeding solution, the positively charged amino-group of glutamic acid, which is adsorbed on nanodiamond particles, enhances the adsorption on negative charged cemented carbide substrate. The highest nucleation density (1...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Charlotte E Boott, Jessica Gwyther, Robert L Harniman, Dominic W Hayward, Ian Manners
The preparation of well-defined nanoparticles based on soft matter, using solution-processing techniques on a commercially viable scale, is a major challenge of widespread importance. Self-assembly of block copolymers in solvents that selectively solvate one of the segments provides a promising route to core-corona nanoparticles (micelles) with a wide range of potential uses. Nevertheless, significant limitations to this approach also exist. For example, the solution processing of block copolymers generally follows a separate synthesis step and is normally performed at high dilution...
August 2017: Nature Chemistry
Mark A Taylor, Martha D Cooper, Reena Sellamuthu, Peter Braun, Andrew Migneault, Alyssa Browning, Emily Perry, Johanna Schmitt
Major alleles for seed dormancy and flowering time are well studied, and can interact to influence seasonal timing and fitness within generations. However, little is known about how this interaction controls phenology, life history, and population fitness across multiple generations in natural seasonal environments. To examine how seed dormancy and flowering time shape annual plant life cycles over multiple generations, we established naturally dispersing populations of recombinant inbred lines of Arabidopsis thaliana segregating early and late alleles for seed dormancy and flowering time in a field experiment...
July 28, 2017: New Phytologist
Boram Kim, Reiza Ventura, Byong-Taek Lee
The potential of decellularized cell-derived ECM deposited on biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) scaffold for bone tissue engineering was investigated. Rat derived bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (RBMSCs) were cultured on porous BCP scaffolds for 3 weeks and decellularized with two different methods (freeze-thaw (F/T) or sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)). The decellularized ECM deposited scaffolds (dECM-BCP) were characterized through scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer, and confocal microscopy...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
Erin Conlisk, Cristina Castanha, Matthew J Germino, Thomas T Veblen, Jeremy M Smith, Andrew B Moyes, Lara M Kueppers
Understanding how climate warming will affect the demographic rates of different ecotypes is critical to predicting shifts in species distributions. Here we present results from a common garden, climate change experiment in which we measured seedling recruitment of lodgepole pine, a widespread North American conifer that is also planted globally. Seeds from a low-elevation provenance had greater recruitment to their third year (by 323%) than seeds from a high-elevation provenance across sites within and above its native elevation range and across climate manipulations...
July 26, 2017: Global Change Biology
Christopher Finn McQuaid, Frank van den Bosch, Anna Szyniszewska, Titus Alicai, Anthony Pariyo, Patrick Chiza Chikoti, Christopher Aidan Gilligan
Trade or sharing that moves infectious planting material between farms can, for vertically-transmitted plant diseases, act as a significant force for dispersal of pathogens, particularly where the extent of material movement may be greater than that of infected vectors or inoculum. The network over which trade occurs will then effect dispersal, and is important to consider when attempting to control the disease. We consider the difference that planting material exchange can make to successful control of cassava brown streak disease, an important viral disease affecting one of Africa's staple crops...
July 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
Guan-Song Yang, Liu Yang, Yue-Hua Wang, Shi-Kang Shen
Yunnanopilia longistaminea is an endangered monotypic species belonging to Opiliaceae. This edible plant is an important germplasm source with a high economic value in China if propagation were less difficult. Seed dormancy and germination of this species were investigated to improve propagation. Considering seeds have a fully developed embryo and mature and are dispersed in summer, and radicles and epicotyls emerge the following autumn and next spring, respectively, we hypothesized that Y. longistaminea seeds may undergo physiological epicotyl dormancy...
2017: PeerJ
Marco Sanna Angotzi, Anna Musinu, Valentina Mameli, Andrea Ardu, Claudio Cara, Daniel Niznansky, Huolin L Xin, Carla Cannas
An easy, low-cost, repeatable seed-mediated growth approach in solvothermal condition has been proposed to synthesize bimagnetic spinel ferrite core-shell heterostructures in the 10-20 nm particle size range. Cobalt ferrite and manganese ferrite nanoparticles (CoFe2O4 and MnFe2O4) have been coated with isostructural spinel ferrites like maghemite/magnetite, MnFe2O4 and CoFe2O4 with similar cell parameters to create different heterostructures. The conventional study of the structure, morphology and composition has been combined with advanced techniques in order to achieve details on the interface at the nanoscale level...
July 23, 2017: ACS Nano
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