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Seed dispersal

Farah Zaaboul, Husnain Raza, Cao Chen, Yuanfa Liu
A microscopic image of a section of a peanut seed shows that oil bodies (OBs) are a small droplet of oil that is dispersed throughout the whole seed. The protein profile of peanut's OBs recovered using the aqueous extraction method at different pH was found to have 2 oleosin isoforms of 14 and 16 kDa. Moreover, OBs essential amino acids are 1.52 higher than those in the PPI. Oleic acid and linoleic acid are the major fatty acids in both cold press peanut oil and OBs regardless of pH. Tocopherol content went from 270...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Food Science
Helena J R Einzmann, Gerhard Zotz
The ongoing destruction of old-growth forests puts tropical forest species under great pressure because of the resulting habitat loss. A pre-requisite for the maintenance of a viable metacommunity in a fragmented landscape is the connectivity between habitable patches. We experimentally studied four vital steps of epiphyte dispersal in different habitat types in western Panama. (i) Seed falling velocity (Vterm) is known to correlate with long-distance dispersal via convective updraft. All measured Vterm of bromeliad and orchid seeds fell into a range of velocities with a high chance of long-distance dispersal...
November 2017: AoB Plants
Scott R Abella, Timothy A Schetter, Timothy L Walters
To advance predictive ecology, the hypothesis of hierarchical predictability proposes that community measures for which species are interchangeable (e.g., structure and species richness) are more predictable than measures for which species identity matters (e.g., community composition). Predictability is hypothesized to decrease for response measures in order of the following categories: structure, species richness, function, and species composition. We tested this hypothesis using a 14-year, oak savanna-prairie restoration experiment that removed non-native pine plantations at 24 sites in northwestern Ohio, USA...
December 9, 2017: Oecologia
Ahmed Debez, Ikram Belghith, Andreas Pich, Wael Taamalli, Chedly Abdelly, Hans-Peter Braun
Seed germination recovery aptitude is an adaptive trait of overriding significance for the successful establishment and dispersal of extremophile plants in their native ecosystems. Cakile maritima is an annual halophyte frequent on Mediterranean coasts, which transiently produces transiently dormant seeds under high salinity, but that germinate fast when soil salinity is lowered by rainfall. Here, we report eco-physiological and proteomic data about (i) the effect of high salt (200 mM NaCl) on the early developmental stages (germination and seedling) and (ii) the seed germination recovery capacity of this species...
December 8, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
G Penco, E Allaria, I Cudin, S Di Mitri, D Gauthier, S Spampinati, M Trovó, L Giannessi, E Roussel, S Bettoni, P Craievich, E Ferrari
In linac-driven free-electron lasers, colliders, and energy recovery linacs, a common way to compress the electron bunch to kiloampere level is based upon the implementation of a magnetic dispersive element that converts particle energy deviation into a path-length difference. Nonlinearities of such a process are usually compensated by enabling a high harmonic rf structure properly tuned in amplitude and phase. This approach is however not straightforward, e.g., in C-band and X-band linacs. In this Letter we demonstrate that the longitudinal self-induced field excited by the electron beam itself is able to linearize the compression process without any use of high harmonic rf structure...
November 3, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Priscila Andre Sanz-Veiga, Leonardo Ré Jorge, Santiago Benitez-Vieyra, Felipe W Amorim
Extrafloral nectaries can occur in both vegetative and reproductive plant structures. In many Rubiaceae species in the Brazilian Cerrado, after corolla abscission, the floral nectary continues to secret nectar throughout fruit development originating post-floral pericarpial nectaries which commonly attract many ant species. The occurrence of such nectar secreting structures might be strategic for fruit protection against seed predators, as plants are expected to invest higher on more valuable and vulnerable parts...
2017: PloS One
Sonia Iurian, Elena Dinte, Cristina Iuga, Cătălina Bogdan, Iuliana Spiridon, Lucian Barbu-Tudoran, Andreea Bodoki, Ioan Tomuţă, Sorin E Leucuţa
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the funtion of fenugreek seed mucilage (FSM) as potential matrix forming agent for orodispersible pharmaceutical lyophilisates. The FSM was isolated and characterized. FSM colloidal dispersions were prepared and the rheological evaluation was performed. Oral lyophilisates (OLs) with different FSM concentrations, containing meloxicam as model drug were prepared by freeze drying method. The OLs were characterized and compared to gelatin containing tablets, prepared under the same conditions...
December 2017: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
Katja Sperber, Tina Steinbrecher, Kai Graeber, Gwydion Scherer, Simon Clausing, Nils Wiegand, James E Hourston, Rainer Kurre, Gerhard Leubner-Metzger, Klaus Mummenhoff
The biomechanical and ecophysiological properties of plant seed/fruit structures are fundamental to survival in distinct environments. Dispersal of fruits with hard pericarps (fruit coats) encasing seeds has evolved many times independently within taxa that have seed dispersal as their default strategy. The mechanisms by which the constraint of a hard pericarp determines germination timing in response to the environment are currently unknown. Here, we show that the hard pericarp of Lepidium didymum controls germination solely by a biomechanical mechanism...
November 30, 2017: Nature Communications
Brendan F Kohrn, Jessica M Persinger, Mitchell B Cruzan
Premise of the study: Seed dispersal contributes to gene flow and is responsible for colonization of new sites and range expansion. Sequencing chloroplast haplotypes offers a way to estimate contributions of seed dispersal to population genetic structure and enables studies of population history. Whole-genome sequencing is expensive, but resources can be conserved by pooling samples. Unfortunately, haplotype associations among single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are lost in pooled samples, and treating SNP allele frequencies as independent markers provides biased estimates of genetic structure...
November 2017: Applications in Plant Sciences
Tara N Furstenau, Reed A Cartwright
Inbreeding in hermaphroditic plants can occur through two different mechanisms: biparental inbreeding, when a plant mates with a related individual, or self-fertilization, when a plant mates with itself. To avoid inbreeding, many hermaphroditic plants have evolved self-incompatibility (SI) systems which prevent or limit self-fertilization. One particular SI system-homomorphic SI-can also reduce biparental inbreeding. Homomorphic SI is found in many angiosperm species, and it is often assumed that the additional benefit of reduced biparental inbreeding may be a factor in the success of this SI system...
2017: PeerJ
Javier Elias Florentín, Andrea Alejandra Cabaña Fader, Roberto Manuel Salas, Steven Janssens, Steven Dessein, Elsa Leonor Cabral
Galianthe (Rubiaceae) is a neotropical genus comprising 50 species divided into two subgenera, Galianthe subgen. Galianthe, with 39 species and Galianthe subgen. Ebelia, with 11 species. The diagnostic features of the genus are: usually erect habit with xylopodium, distylous flowers arranged in lax thyrsoid inflorescences, bifid stigmas, 2-carpellate and longitudinally dehiscent fruits, with dehiscent valves or indehiscent mericarps, plump seeds or complanate with a wing-like strophiole, and pollen with double reticulum, rarely with a simple reticulum...
2017: PeerJ
Xiang Liu, Chang-Zhen Fu, Min Gao, Han-Cheng Zhi, Xiang-Bo Yang, Bao-Lin Guo
In this study, 128 individuals form 14 Epimedium pubescens populations and 1 E. stellulatum population were analyzed by ISSR marker. The data were calculated by POPGENE software and clustered by UPGMA method. Optical microscope was used to observe the main types of the non-glandular hairs and their characteristics in each population. It is found that the following conclusions: Non-glandular hairs can be divided into five morphological categories, long straight pubescent, curly pubescent, appressed curly pubescent, pseudo short appressed hairs and long appressed...
August 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Mekala Sundaram, Nathanael I Lichti, Nicole J Olynk Widmar, Robert K Swihart
Seeds of many hardwood trees are dispersed by scatter-hoarding rodents, and this process is often mediated by the traits of seeds. Although numerous studies have linked seed traits to seed preference by rodents, little is known about how rodents forage for seeds when multiple desirable and undesirable seed traits are available simultaneously. Here, we adopt a novel method of designing choice experiments to study how eastern gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) select for 6 traits (caloric value, protein content, tannin concentration, kernel mass, dormancy period and toughness of shell) among seeds...
November 23, 2017: Integrative Zoology
Tara Canelo, Álvaro Gaytán, Guillermo González-Bornay, Raul Bonal
Insect herbivory decreases plant fitness by constraining plant growth, survival and reproductive output. Most studies on the effects of herbivory in trees rely on correlational inter-individual comparisons and could thus be affected by confounding factors linked to both herbivory and plant performance. Using the Mediterranean Holm oak (Quercus ilex) as study model, we followed an experimental approach in which leaf-feeding insects (mainly Lepidoptera caterpillars) were excluded from some shoots in all study trees...
November 23, 2017: Integrative Zoology
Fabiano R Maia, Patricia S Sujii, Viviane Silva-Pereira, Renato Goldenberg
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The genetic structure of organisms results from the interactions between life history traits and the ecological and demographic characteristics of the landscape that shape the intra- and interpopulation genetic variation in space and time. In this study, we used a species restricted to islands of grassland vegetation in southern Brazil to investigate the effects of its naturally fragmented distribution on diversity and genetic structure patterns. METHODS: Diversity and intra- and interpopulational genetic structure were analyzed using polymorphisms of eight nuclear microsatellite markers in 205 individuals of T...
November 22, 2017: American Journal of Botany
John J Schenk, Kelsey Saunders
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: A repeated pattern of American amphitropical disjunct species or sister species distributed on either side of the equator has long-fascinated botanists, but the modes of these disjunctions remain untested. We evaluated diaspore morphology to generate hypotheses on probable dispersal mechanisms. METHODS: The sizes and structures of diaspores, habit, habitat, distribution, and dispersal units were collected for 108 species from literature searches and herbarium specimens...
November 22, 2017: American Journal of Botany
Diane R Campbell, Alison K Brody, Mary V Price, Nickolas M Waser, George Aldridge
Individual differences in fecundity often serve as proxies for differences in overall fitness, especially when it is difficult to track the fate of an individual's offspring to reproductive maturity. Using fecundity may be biased, however, if density-dependent interactions between siblings affect survival and reproduction of offspring from high- and low-fecundity parents differently. To test for such density-dependent effects in plants, we sowed seeds of the wildflower Ipomopsis aggregata (scarlet gilia) to mimic partially overlapping seed shadows of pairs of plants, one of which produced twice as many seeds...
December 2017: American Naturalist
Emma Teeling, Sonja Vernes, Liliana M Davalos, David A Ray, M Thomas P Gilbert, Eugene Myers, Bat K Consortium
Bats are unique among mammals, possessing some of the rarest mammalian adaptations, including true self-powered flight, laryngeal echolocation, exceptional longevity, unique immunity, contracted genomes, and vocal learning. They provide key ecosystem services, pollinating tropical plants, dispersing seeds, and controlling insect pest populations, thus driving healthy ecosystems. They account for more than 20% of all living mammalian diversity, and their crown-group evolutionary history dates back to the Eocene...
November 20, 2017: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
T A A Vaz, A G Rodrigues-Junior, A C Davide, A T Nakamura, P E Toorop
Diaspore structure has been hypothesized to play a role in seed viability and/or germination of recalcitrant seeds, especially for Swartzia langsdorffii. Thus, this work aims to (1) investigate in situ contribution of pericarp and aril on seed viability and germination, and (2) identify morphoanatomical traits of Swartzia langsdorffii diaspores that aid its desiccation-sensitive seed to remain viable. The role of the pericarp and aril in seed survival and germination was investigated by placing the whole fruit, whole seeds (arillate seed) and bare seeds (without aril) on the soil in the forest understory, assessing germination, emergence, dead, firm and predated seeds; and water content (WC) of pericarps, arils and seeds...
November 22, 2017: Plant Biology
Elizabeth R Pansing, Diana F Tomback, Michael B Wunder, Joshua P French, Aaron C Wagner
Tree recruitment is a spatially structured process that may undergo change over time because of variation in postdispersal processes. We examined seed pilferage, seed germination, and seedling survival in whitebark pine to determine whether 1) microsite type alters the initial spatial pattern of seed caches, 2) higher abiotic stress (i.e. higher elevations) exacerbates spatial distribution changes, and 3) these postdispersal processes are spatially clustered. At two study areas, we created a seed distribution pattern by burying seed caches in microsite types frequently used by whitebark pine's avian seed disperser (Clark's nutcracker) in upper subalpine forest and at treeline, the latter characterized by high abiotic environmental stress...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
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