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Seed dispersal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632773/simulation-of-oak-early-life-history-and-interactions-with-disturbance-via-an-individual-based-model-soel
#1
Kenneth F Kellner, Robert K Swihart
Early tree life history and demography are driven by interactions with the environment such as seed predation, herbivory, light availability, and drought. For oak (Quercus) in the eastern United States, these interactions may contribute to oak regeneration failure. Numerous studies have examined the impact of individual factors (like seed predation) on the oak regeneration process, but less information is available on the relative and combined impacts of multiple intrinsic and extrinsic factors on early oak life history...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631322/prolonged-embryogenesis-in-austrobaileya-scandens-austrobaileyaceae-its-ecological-and-evolutionary-significance
#2
Juan M Losada, Julien B Bachelier, William E Friedman
The embryology of basal angiosperm lineages (Amborella, Nymphaeales and Austrobaileyales) is central to reconstructing the early evolution of flowering plants. Previous studies have shown that mature seeds in Austrobaileyales are albuminous, with a small embryo surrounded by a substantial diploid endosperm. However, little is known of seed ontogeny and seedling germination in Austrobaileya scandens, sister to all other extant Austrobaileyales. Standard histochemical techniques were used to study ovule/seed development and germination of Austrobaileya...
July 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628116/cadherin-composition-and-multicellular-aggregate-invasion-in-organotypic-models-of-epithelial-ovarian-cancer-intraperitoneal-metastasis
#3
Y Klymenko, O Kim, E Loughran, J Yang, R Lombard, M Alber, M S Stack
During epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) progression, intraperitoneally disseminating tumor cells and multicellular aggregates (MCAs) present in ascites fluid adhere to the peritoneum and induce retraction of the peritoneal mesothelial monolayer prior to invasion of the collagen-rich submesothelial matrix and proliferation into macro-metastases. Clinical studies have shown heterogeneity among EOC metastatic units with respect to cadherin expression profiles and invasive behavior; however, the impact of distinct cadherin profiles on peritoneal anchoring of metastatic lesions remains poorly understood...
June 19, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627760/reproductive-phenology-of-melastomataceae-species-with-contrasting-reproductive-systems-contemporary-and-historical-drivers
#4
Vinícius L G Brito, Fabiano Rodrigo da Maia, Fernando A O Silveira, Carla Magioni Fracasso, José Pires Lemos-Filho, G Wilson Fernandes, Renato Goldenberg, Leonor Patrícia Cerdeira Morellato, Marlies Sazima, Vanessa G Staggemeier
Flowering and fruiting are key events in the life history of plants, and both are critical to their reproductive success. Besides the role of evolutionary history, plant reproductive phenology is regulated by abiotic factors and shaped by biotic interactions with pollinators and seed dispersers. In Melastomataceae, a dominant Neotropical clade, the reproductive systems vary from allogamous with biotic pollination to apomitic, and seed dispersal varies from dry (self-dispersed) to fleshy fruits (animal-dispersed)...
June 19, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616198/seed-dispersal-of-diospyros-virginiana-in-the-past-and-the-present-evidence-for-a-generalist-evolutionary-strategy
#5
Mimi Rebein, Charli N Davis, Helena Abad, Taylor Stone, Jillian Del Sol, Natalie Skinner, Matthew D Moran
Several North American trees are hypothesized to have lost their co-evolved seed disperser during the late-Pleistocene extinction and are therefore considered anachronistic. We tested this hypothesis for the American persimmon (Diospyros virginiana) by studying the effects of gut passage of proposed seed dispersers on seedling survival and growth, natural fruiting characteristics, and modern animal consumption patterns. We tested gut passage effects on persimmon seeds using three native living species, the raccoon (Procyon lotor), Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana), and coyote (Canis latrans), and two Pleistocene analogs; the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) and alpaca (Vicugna pacos)...
June 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616068/genetic-diversity-and-structure-of-lolium-perenne-ssp-multiflorum-in-california-vineyards-and-orchards-indicate-potential-for-spread-of-herbicide-resistance-via-gene-flow
#6
Elizabeth Karn, Marie Jasieniuk
Management of agroecosystems with herbicides imposes strong selection pressures on weedy plants leading to the evolution of resistance against those herbicides. Resistance to glyphosate in populations of Lolium perenne L. ssp. multiflorum is increasingly common in California, USA, causing economic losses and the loss of effective management tools. To gain insights into the recent evolution of glyphosate resistance in L. perenne in perennial cropping systems of northwest California and to inform management, we investigated the frequency of glyphosate resistance and the genetic diversity and structure of 14 populations...
July 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611073/population-genetic-structure-of-the-rock-outcrop-species-encholirium-spectabile-bromeliaceae-the-role-of-pollination-vs-seed-dispersal-and-evolutionary-implications
#7
Rodrigo C Gonçalves-Oliveira, Tina Wöhrmann, Ana M Benko-Iseppon, Florian Krapp, Marccus Alves, Maria das Graças L Wanderley, Kurt Weising
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Inselbergs are terrestrial, island-like rock outcrop environments that present a highly adapted flora. The epilithic bromeliad Encholirium spectabile is a dominant species on inselbergs in the Caatinga of northeastern Brazil. We conducted a population genetic analysis to test whether the substantial phenotypic diversity of E. spectabile could be explained by limited gene flow among populations and to assess the relative impact of pollen vs. seed dispersal on the genetic structure of the species...
June 13, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597434/ectopic-expression-of-lc-differentially-regulated-anthocyanin-biosynthesis-in-the-floral-parts-of-tobacco-nicotiana-tobacum-l-plants
#8
Zong-An Huang, Ting Zhao, Ning Wang, Shu-Song Zheng
BACKGROUND: Anthocyanins are the conspicuous pigments of flowering plants and participate in several aspects of plant development and defense, such as seeds and pollens dispersal. Leaf colour (Lc) is the first basic/helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor controlling anthocyanin biosynthesis isolated from maize (Zea mays L.). Ectopic expression of maize Lc enhanced anthocyanin biosynthesis in many plants including tobacco (Nicotiana tobacum L.). However, the molecular regulatory mechanism of anthocyanin biosynthesis in the different floral parts of tobacco remains largely unknown...
December 2016: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595721/study-of-antioxidant-effects-on-malignant-glioma-cells-by-constructing-a-tumor-microvascular-structure-on-microchip
#9
Hanyang Liu, Mingsha Jie, Ziyi He, Hai-Fang Li, Jin-Ming Lin
In this work, a three-dimensional tumor-microvascular structure was simulated on a microfluidic chip for study of antioxidants effects on malignant glioma cells in vitro. The 3D hydrogel containing lumen was constructed to co-culture endothelial cells and glioma cells to mimic tumor microvascular environment. Macroporous gelatin transglutaminase (TG) hydrogel was prepared with biological and mechanical properties suitable for cells culture and nutrient refresh. To reform a vessel structure, U87 cells were dispersed in the TG-gelatin hydrogel and HUVEC cells were seeded in the lumen of hydrogel...
July 25, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593544/the-environmental-risks-of-neonicotinoid-pesticides-a-review-of-the-evidence-post-2013
#10
Thomas James Wood, Dave Goulson
Neonicotinoid pesticides were first introduced in the mid-1990s, and since then, their use has grown rapidly. They are now the most widely used class of insecticides in the world, with the majority of applications coming from seed dressings. Neonicotinoids are water-soluble, and so can be taken up by a developing plant and can be found inside vascular tissues and foliage, providing protection against herbivorous insects. However, only approximately 5% of the neonicotinoid active ingredient is taken up by crop plants and most instead disperses into the wider environment...
June 7, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592885/low-genetic-diversity-and-potential-inbreeding-in-an-isolated-population-of-alder-buckthorn-frangula-alnus-following-a-founder-effect
#11
Caroline M V Finlay, Caroline R Bradley, S Jane Preston, Jim Provan
Alder buckthorn (Frangula alnus) is one of Ireland's rarest tree species, and in Northern Ireland the species is now restricted to a single population in Peatlands Park, Co. Armagh numbering ca. 140 mature trees. Genotyping of 95% of the trees at nine nuclear microsatellite loci revealed that levels of genetic diversity within this population were generally lower than those reported from larger populations in Spain. Analysis of six chloroplast microsatellite loci revealed no variation. The level of F IS was significantly higher than that in the Spanish populations, as well as in other populations across Europe, potentially indicating inbreeding...
June 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590876/cucumber-green-mottle-mosaic-virus-rapidly-increasing-global-distribution-etiology-epidemiology-and-management
#12
Aviv Dombrovsky, Lucy T T Tran-Nguyen, Roger A C Jones
Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) was first described in 1935 infecting cucumber, making it one of the first plant viruses to be described. Its initial distribution occurred out of England to other countries. This was followed by its subsequent distribution from England and these other countries. This process increased slowly between 1935 and 1985, faster between 1986 and 2006, and rapidly between 2007 and 2016. The discovery that it diminished cucurbit fruit yields and quality, especially of watermelon, prompted a substantial research effort in worst-affected countries...
June 7, 2017: Annual Review of Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584699/difference-on-cone-size-preferences-between-two-coniferous-species-by-great-spotted-woodpecker-dendrocopos-major
#13
Łukasz Dylewski, Reuven Yosef, Łukasz Myczko
The number of species that specialize in pre-dispersal seed predation is relatively small. Examples of specialized pre-dispersal seed predators adapted to feeding on closed cones include vertebrate species like Crossbills, Squirrels, Nutcrackers and Woodpeckers. Seed predation selects against certain phenotypic features of cones and favors another phenotypic features. In this study, we document preferences of the Great Spotted Woodpecker (Dendrocopos major) for specific traits in the cones of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris)...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580981/seeding-layer-assisted-selective-area-growth-of-as-rich-inasp-nanowires-on-inp-substrates
#14
Dingkun Ren, Alan C Farrell, Benjamin S Williams, Diana L Huffaker
We present the first demonstration of arsenic-rich InAs1-xPx (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.33) nanowire arrays grown on InP (111)B substrates by catalyst-free selective-area metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. It is shown that by introducing a thin InAs seeding layer prior to the growth of the nanowire, an extremely high vertical yield is achieved by eliminating rotational twins between (111)A and (111)B crystal orientations. InAsP nanowire arrays show strong emission of photoluminescence (PL) at room temperature, suggesting a significant reduction of surface state density compared with InAs nanowires...
June 5, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578408/seed-mass-of-angiosperm-woody-plants-better-explained-by-life-history-traits-than-climate-across-china
#15
Jingming Zheng, Zhiwen Guo, Xiangping Wang
Seed mass is a basic trait in studies of functional ecology. Examining how seed mass is affected by biotic and abiotic factors could improve our understanding of ecological strategies in plants. Here we examined the relationships of seed mass with 13 climate variables and seven life history traits, and partitioned the relative effects of life history traits vs. climate, based on seed mass data for 1265 woody angiosperm species in China. Our results showed that seed mass decreased with latitude, and most climate variables were positively correlated with seed mass...
June 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566481/defaunation-effects-on-plant-recruitment-depend-on-size-matching-and-size-trade-offs-in-seed-dispersal-networks
#16
Isabel Donoso, Matthias Schleuning, Daniel García, Jochen Fründ
Defaunation by humans causes a loss of large animals in many ecosystems globally. Recent work has emphasized the consequences of downsizing in animal communities for ecosystem functioning. However, no study so far has integrated network theory and life-history trade-offs to mechanistically evaluate the functional consequences of defaunation in plant-animal networks. Here, we simulated an avian seed-dispersal network and its derived ecosystem function seedling recruitment to assess the relative importance of different size-related mechanisms...
May 31, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560765/an-amazonian-rainforest-and-its-fragments-as-a-laboratory-of-global-change
#17
William F Laurance, José L C Camargo, Philip M Fearnside, Thomas E Lovejoy, G Bruce Williamson, Rita C G Mesquita, Christoph F J Meyer, Paulo E D Bobrowiec, Susan G W Laurance
We synthesize findings from one of the world's largest and longest-running experimental investigations, the Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project (BDFFP). Spanning an area of ∼1000 km(2) in central Amazonia, the BDFFP was initially designed to evaluate the effects of fragment area on rainforest biodiversity and ecological processes. However, over its 38-year history to date the project has far transcended its original mission, and now focuses more broadly on landscape dynamics, forest regeneration, regional- and global-change phenomena, and their potential interactions and implications for Amazonian forest conservation...
May 30, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558159/a-foundation-of-ecology-rediscovered-100%C3%A2-years-of-succession-on-the-william-s-cooper-plots-in-glacier-bay-alaska
#18
Brian Buma, Sarah Bisbing, John Krapek, Glenn Wright
Understanding plant community succession is one of the original pursuits of ecology, forming some of the earliest theoretical frameworks in the field. Much of this was built on the long-term research of William S. Cooper, who established a permanent plot network in Glacier Bay, Alaska, in 1916. This study now represents the longest-running primary succession plot network in the world. Permanent plots are useful for their ability to follow mechanistic change through time without assumptions inherent in space-for-time (chronosequence) designs...
June 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556493/multi-scale-responses-to-warming-in-an-experimental-insect-metacommunity
#19
Tess Nahanni Grainger, Benjamin Gilbert
In metacommunities, diversity is the product of species interactions at the local scale and dispersal between habitat patches at the regional scale. Although warming can alter both species interactions and dispersal, the combined effects of warming on these two processes remains uncertain. To determine the independent and interactive effects of warming-induced changes to local species interactions and dispersal, we constructed experimental metacommunities consisting of enclosed milkweed patches seeded with five herbivorous milkweed specialist insect species...
May 29, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556095/the-microbiota-of-diapause-how-host-microbe-associations-are-formed-after-dormancy-in-an-aquatic-crustacean
#20
Alexandra A Mushegian, Jean-Claude Walser, Karen E Sullam, Dieter Ebert
1.A critical question in symbiosis research is where and how organisms obtain beneficial microbial symbionts in different ecological contexts. Microbiota of juveniles are often derived directly from their mother or from the immediate environment. The origin of beneficial symbionts, however, is less obvious in organisms with diapause and dispersal stages, such as plants with dormant seeds and animals in ephemeral or strongly seasonal habitats. In these cases, parents and offspring are separated in time and space, which may affect opportunities for both vertical and horizontal transmission of symbionts...
May 29, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
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