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Seed dispersal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231249/low-host-specificity-and-abundance-of-frugivorous-lepidoptera-in-the-lowland-rain-forests-of-papua-new-guinea
#1
Katerina Sam, Richard Ctvrtecka, Scott E Miller, Margaret E Rosati, Kenneth Molem, Kipiro Damas, Bradley Gewa, Vojtech Novotny
We studied a community of frugivorous Lepidoptera in the lowland rainforest of Papua New Guinea. Rearing revealed 122 species represented by 1,720 individuals from 326 woody plant species. Only fruits from 52% (171) of the plant species sampled were attacked. On average, Lepidoptera were reared from 1 in 89 fruits and a kilogram of fruit was attacked by 1.01 individuals. Host specificity of Lepidoptera was notably low: 69% (33) of species attacked plants from >1 family, 8% (4) fed on single family, 6% (3) on single genus and 17% (8) were monophagous...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226232/the-epigenome-and-transcriptional-dynamics-of-fruit-ripening
#2
James Giovannoni, Cuong Nguyen, Betsy Ampofo, Silin Zhong, Zhangjun Fei
Fruit has evolved myriad forms that facilitate seed dispersal in varied environmental and ecological contexts. Because fleshy fruits become attractive and nutritious to seed-dispersing animals, the transition from unripe to ripe fruit represents a dramatic shift in survival strategy-from protecting unripe fruit against damaging animals to making it appealing to those same animals once ripened. For optimal fitness, ripening therefore must be tightly controlled and coordinated with seed development. Fruits, like many vegetative tissues of plants that contribute to human diets, are also subject to decay, which is enhanced as a consequence of the ripening transition...
February 22, 2017: Annual Review of Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223860/polymeric-films-as-a-promising-carrier-for-bioadhesive-drug-delivery-development-characterization-and-optimization
#3
Pallavi Bassi, Gurpreet Kaur
Bioadhesive films using tamarind seed polysaccharide were prepared for the treatment of candida vaginitis using nystatin as the model drug. Films were prepared by solvent casting method. A 3(2) factorial design was employed to study the effect of independent variables (polymer and plasticizer concentration) on a range of dependent variables namely mechanical, swelling, interfacial, and bioadhesive properties through response surface methodological approach, using Design Expert® software. Formulation composition that provided the most desired and optimized results was selected using desirability approach...
January 2017: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218805/functional-nonredundancy-of-elephants-in-a-disturbed-tropical-forest
#4
Nitin Sekar, Chia-Lo Lee, Raman Sukumar
Conservation efforts are often motivated by the threat of global extinction. Yet if conservationists had more information suggesting that the local extirpation of individual species could lead to undesirable ecological effects, conservationists might more frequently attempt to protect or restore such species across their range even if they are not in danger of global extinction. Scientists have seldom measured or quantitatively predicted the functional consequences of species loss, even for large, extinction-prone species that theory suggests should be functionally unique...
February 20, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216905/green-biosynthesis-characterization-in-vitro-antidiabetic-activity-and-investigational-acute-toxicity-studies-of-some-herbal-mediated-silver-nanoparticles-on-animal-models
#5
Kalakotla Shanker, Gottumukkala Krishna Mohan, Md Ashwaq Hussain, Naradala Jayarambabu, Poka Lakshmi Pravallika
: Diabetes is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia, altered carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism. In recent studies, Nanoscience and nanotechnology are blazing fields for researchers; for researchers; of late there has been a prodigious excitement in the field of nanopharmacology to study silver nanoparticle (SNP) synthesis using natural products. Biological methods have been used to synthesize SNPs using medicinally active plants having an antidiabetic role, and this made us to assess the biologically synthesized SNPs from the seed extract of Psoralea corylifolia using 1 mM silver nitrate solution...
January 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212396/plants-promote-mating-and-dispersal-of-the-human-pathogenic-fungus-cryptococcus
#6
Deborah J Springer, Rajinikanth Mohan, Joseph Heitman
Infections due to Cryptococcus are a leading cause of fungal infections worldwide and are acquired as a result of environmental exposure to desiccated yeast or spores. The ability of Cryptococcus to grow, mate, and produce infectious propagules in association with plants is important for the maintenance of the genetic diversity and virulence factors important for infection of animals and humans. In the Western United States and Canada, Cryptococcus has been associated with conifers and tree species other than Eucalyptus; however, to date Cryptococcus has only been studied on live Arabidopsis thaliana, Eucalyptus sp...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211487/natural-persistence-of-the-coastal-plant-glehnia-littoralis-along-temperate-sandy-coasts
#7
Hong-Xiao Yang, Jian-Min Chu, Xiao-Shan Liu
We studied germination behaviors and persistence mechanism of wild Glehnia littoralis, a typical coastal species at temperate sandy coasts of the North Pacific Ocean, and tested the hypothesis that the coastal plants may have evolved special seeds adapting to the coasts, by which they recruit and persist easily, occupying the coasts as ideal habitats. In the Shandong Peninsula, China, we investigated temperature and moisture conditions of coast sand in relation to germination and evaluated effects of sand burial, seawater immersion and sowing time on germination...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211270/uniform-patchy-platelets-by-seeded-heteroepitaxial-growth-of-crystallizable-polymer-blends-in-two-dimensions
#8
Ali Nazemi, Xiaoming He, Liam R MacFarlane, Robert L Harniman, Ming-Siao Hsiao, Mitchell A Winnik, Charl F J Faul, Ian Manners
Rectangular platelets formed by the self-assembly of block copolymers in selective solvents are of interest for a range of applications. Recently we showed that the seeded growth of crystallizable blends of a block copolymer and homopolymer yields well-defined, low dispersity examples of these two-dimensional (2D) structures. The key feature was the use of the same crystallizable polymer segment in the seed and blend components to enable an efficient homoepitaxial growth process. Herein we demonstrate that this 2D crystallization-driven self-assembly approach can be extended to heteropitaxial growth by the use of different crystallizable polymers with compatible crystal structures...
February 17, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209759/revisiting-seed-and-soil-examining-the-primary-tumor-and-cancer-cell-foraging-in-metastasis
#9
Amber E de Groot, Sounak Roy, Joel S Brown, Kenneth J Pienta, Sarah R Amend
Metastasis is the consequence of a cancer cell that disperses from the primary tumor, travels throughout the body, and invades and colonizes a distant site.  Based on Paget's 1889 hypothesis, the majority of modern metastasis research focuses on the properties of the metastatic "seed and soil," but the implications of the primary tumor "soil" have been largely neglected. The rare lethal metastatic "seed" arises as a result of the selective pressures in the primary tumor. Optimal foraging theory describes how cancer cells adopt a mobile foraging strategy to balance predation risk and resource reward...
February 16, 2017: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207815/generalist-dispersers-promote-germination-of-an-alien-fleshy-fruited-tree-invading-natural-grasslands
#10
Martín Raúl Amodeo, María Belén Vázquez, Sergio Martín Zalba
Plants with animal-dispersed fruits seem to overcome the barriers that limit their spread into new habitats more easily than other invasive plants and, at the same time, they pose special difficulties for containment, control or eradication. The effects of animals on plant propagules can be very diverse, with positive, neutral or negative consequences for germination and recruitment. Moreover, the environmental conditions where the seeds are deposited and where the post-dispersal processes take place can be crucial for their fate...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202910/a-new-primitive-neornithischian-dinosaur-from-the-jurassic-of-patagonia-with-gut-contents
#11
Leonardo Salgado, José I Canudo, Alberto C Garrido, Miguel Moreno-Azanza, Leandro C A Martínez, Rodolfo A Coria, José M Gasca
We describe a new species of an ornithischian dinosaur, Isaberrysaura mollensis gen. et sp. nov. The specimen, consisting in an almost complete skull and incomplete postcranium was collected from the marine-deltaic deposits of the Los Molles Formation (Toarcian-Bajocian), being the first reported dinosaur for this unit, one of the oldest from Neuquén Basin, and the first neornithischian dinosaur known from the Jurassic of South America. Despite showing a general stegosaurian appearance, the extensive phylogenetic analysis carried out depicts Isaberrysaura mollensis gen...
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198839/parametric-amplification-of-100-fs-mid-infrared-pulses-in-zngep-sub-2-sub-driven-by-a-ho-yag-chirped-pulse-amplifier
#12
Tsuneto Kanai, Pavel Malevich, Sarayoo Sasidharan Kangaparambil, Kakuta Ishida, Makoto Mizui, Kaoru Yamanouchi, Heinar Hoogland, Ronald Holzwarth, Audrius Pugzlys, Andrius Baltuska
We report on the parametric generation of 100 fs sub-6-cycle 40 μJ pulses with the center wavelength at 5.2 μm using a 1 ps 2.1 μm pump laser and a dispersion management scheme based on bulk material. Our optically synchronized amplifier chain consists of a Ho:YAG chirped-pulse amplifier and white-light-seeded optical parametric amplifiers providing simultaneous passive carrier-envelope phase locking of three ultrashort longwave pulses at the pump, signal, and idler wavelengths corresponding, respectively, to 2...
February 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198677/decipher-the-ancestry-of-the-plant-specific-lbd-gene-family
#13
Yimeng Kong, Peng Xu, Xinyun Jing, Longxian Chen, Laigeng Li, Xuan Li
BACKGROUND: Lateral Organ Boundaries Domain (LBD) genes arise from charophyte algae and evolve essential functions in land plants in regulating organ development and secondary metabolism. Although diverse plant species have been investigated to construct the phylogeny of LBD gene family, a detailed and reliable ancestry that characterizes their evolutionary patterns has not been revealed. RESULTS: We develop an improved bioinformatic method that allows robust detection of 431 LBD genes in 11 high-quality land plant genomes...
January 25, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190845/investigation-of-1-dodecylimidazolium-modified-filter-papers-as-a-thin-film-microextraction-phase-for-the-preconcentration-of-bisphenol-a-from-plant-oil-samples
#14
Cunling Ye, Chang Liu, Shen Wang, Zhike Wang
Based on the tunability of ionic liquids (ILs) according to the specific requirement of an application, 1-dodecylimidazolium chloride with amphiphilic structures was chemically fabricated on the surface of filter papers (DIL-FPs) for the first time. After synthesis, DIL-FPs was characterized by scanning electronic microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. DIL-FPs was used as a novel thin-film microextraction (TFME) phase for the preconcentration of amphiphilic bisphenol A from plant oil samples...
2017: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187562/type-localities-of-heteroptera-insecta-hemiptera-from-turkey
#15
Ahmet Dursun, Meral Fent
The Heteroptera (Hemiptera) fauna of the Palaearctic Region is represented by 9365 species belonging to 1632 genera of which 1349 species belonging to 469 genera are also recorded from Turkey. Type localities of 237 species are in Turkey of which 108 species and 4 subspecies are endemic for the Heteroptera fauna of Turkey, indicating the importance of the country as a refugium, genetic hotspot and dispersal centre during pleistocene glaciation. Some heteroptera are important in agriculture as predators used in biological control or as ectoparasits and pests on plants...
February 6, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185279/variation-in-seed-size-is-structured-by-dispersal-syndrome-and-cone-morphology-in-conifers-and-other-nonflowering-seed-plants
#16
Andrew B Leslie, Jeremy M Beaulieu, Sarah Mathews
Seed size varies tremendously in plants and its evolution is influenced by multiple ecological and biological factors that are difficult to disentangle. In this study, we focus on understanding the role of seed dispersal by animals in the evolution of seed size in conifers, the most diverse extant nonflowering seed plant group. Relationships among seed size, dispersal syndrome, climate and cone morphology were analyzed across conifers using quantitative models of character evolution and phylogenetic regression techniques...
February 10, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182628/migratory-timing-rate-routes-and-wintering-areas-of-white-crested-elaenia-elaenia-albiceps-chilensis-a-key-seed-disperser-for-patagonian-forest-regeneration
#17
Susana Patricia Bravo, Victor Rodolfo Cueto, Cristian Andrés Gorosito
Migratory animals often play key ecological roles within the communities they visit throughout their annual journeys. As a consequence of the links between biomes mediated by migrants, changes in one biome could affect remote areas in unpredictable ways. Migratory routes and timing of most Neotropical austral migrants, which breed at south temperate latitudes of South America and overwinter closer to or within tropical latitudes of South America, have yet to be described in detail. As a result, our understanding about how these birds provide links between South American biomes is almost non-existent...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158320/dispersal-limitation-of-tillandsia-species-correlates-with-rain-and-host-structure-in-a-central-mexican-tropical-dry-forest
#18
Elizabeth Victoriano-Romero, Susana Valencia-Díaz, Víctor Hugo Toledo-Hernández, Alejandro Flores-Palacios
Seed dispersal permits the colonization of favorable habitats and generation of new populations, facilitating escape from habitats that are in decline. There is little experimental evidence of the factors that limit epiphyte dispersion towards their hosts. In a tropical dry forest in central Mexico, we monitored the phenology of dispersion of epiphyte species of the genus Tillandsia; we tested experimentally whether precipitation could cause failures in seed dispersal and whether seed capture differs among vertical strata and between host species with high (Bursera copallifera) and low (Conzattia multiflora) epiphyte loads...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158284/impacts-of-fire-on-non-native-plant-recruitment-in-black-spruce-forests-of-interior-alaska
#19
Xanthe J Walker, Matthew D Frey, Alexandra J Conway, Mélanie Jean, Jill F Johnstone
Climate change is expected to increase the extent and severity of wildfires throughout the boreal forest. Historically, black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.) forests in interior Alaska have been relatively free of non-native species, but the compounding effects of climate change and an altered fire regime could facilitate the expansion of non-native plants. We tested the effects of wildfire on non-native plant colonization by conducting a seeding experiment of non-native plants on different substrate types in a burned black spruce forest, and surveying for non-native plants in recently burned and mature black spruce forests...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158031/4-w-100-khz-few-cycle-mid-infrared-source-with-sub-100-mrad-carrier-envelope-phase-noise
#20
Nicolas Thiré, Raman Maksimenka, Bálint Kiss, Clément Ferchaud, Pierre Bizouard, Eric Cormier, Károly Osvay, Nicolas Forget
We demonstrate an optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier delivering 4-cycles (38-fs) pulses centered around 3.1 µm at 100-kHz repetition rate with an average power of 4 W and an undersampled single-shot carrier-envelope phase noise of 81 mrad recorded over 25 min. The amplifier is pumped by a ~1.1 ps, Yb-YAG, thin-disk regenerative amplifier and seeded with a supercontinuum generated in bulk YAG from the same pump pulses. Carrier-envelope phase stability is passively achieved through difference-frequency generation between pump and seed pulses...
January 23, 2017: Optics Express
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