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Seed dispersal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100022/mycorrhizal-specificity-does-not-limit-the-distribution-of-an-endangered-orchid-species
#1
Michael Waud, Rein Brys, Wouter Van Landuyt, Bart Lievens, Hans Jacquemyn
What factors determine the distribution of a species is a central question in ecology and conservation biology. In general, the distribution of plant species is assumed to be controlled by dispersal or environmentally controlled recruitment. For plant species which are critically dependent on mycorrhizal symbionts for germination and seedling establishment, specificity in mycorrhizal associations and availability of suitable mycorrhizal fungi can be expected to have a major impact on successful colonization and establishment, and thus ultimately on a species distribution...
January 18, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091760/characteristics-of-green-blue-fluorescence-generated-from-the-adaxial-sides-of-leaves-of-tree-species
#2
Masayoshi Nakayama, Tsukasa Iwashina
We discovered that some tree species have leaves whose adaxial sides show bright green-blue fluorescence upon exposure to ultraviolet irradiation. In total, 141 native Japanese species belonging to 47 families were analyzed, and the brightness of the leaf fluorescence, represented by the L* values (Lab color space) of the pictures, was evaluated. The species possessing the brightest fluorescent leaves, with L* > 50, were Camellia japonica, Camellia sasanqua, and Cleyera japonica of Theaceae, Osmanthus heterophyllus and Ligustrum japonicum of Oleaceae, Aucuba japonica of Garryaceae, and Trochodendron aralioides of Trochodendraceae...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079940/reproductive-modification-in-forest-plantations-impacts-on-biodiversity-and-society
#3
REVIEW
Steven H Strauss, Kristin N Jones, Haiwei Lu, Joshua D Petit, Amy L Klocko, Matthew G Betts, Berry J Brosi, Robert J Fletcher, Mark D Needham
1000 I. 1000 II. 1001 III. 1014 IV. 1015 V. 1016 1016 References 1016 SUMMARY: Genetic engineering (GE) can be used to improve forest plantation productivity and tolerance of biotic and abiotic stresses. However, gene flow from GE forest plantations is a large source of ecological, social and legal controversy. The use of genetic technologies to mitigate or prevent gene flow has been discussed widely and should be technically feasible in a variety of plantation taxa. However, potential ecological effects of such modifications, and their social acceptability, are not well understood...
February 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078452/do-deer-and-raccoons-defecate-in-the-right-place-fitness-consequences-of-vertebrate-seed-dispersal-for-a-deciduous-forest-herb
#4
Eric C Niederhauser, Glenn R Matlack
Precision of seed placement in a heterogeneous environment is often assumed to select for the evolution of animal-mediated dispersal systems, but this hypothesis has rarely been tested in a multivariate sense. We quantify the microsite fitness benefits of dispersal by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and raccoons (Procyon lotor) for mayapple (Podophyllum peltatum), a shade-tolerant perennial herb, in deciduous forests of southeastern Ohio, USA. Micro-environmental variables were recorded at dung-deposition microsites, at rooting points of mayapple shoots, and at random (control) points in the forest...
January 11, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074936/hygroscopic-motions-of-fossil-conifer-cones
#5
Simon Poppinga, Nikolaus Nestle, Andrea Šandor, Bruno Reible, Tom Masselter, Bernd Bruchmann, Thomas Speck
Conifer cones represent natural, woody compliant structures which move their scales as passive responses to changes in environmental humidity. Here we report on water-driven opening and closing motions in coalified conifer cones from the Eemian Interglacial (approx. 126,000-113,000 years BP) and from the Middle Miocene (approx. 16.5 to 11.5 million years BP). These cones represent by far the oldest documented evidence of plant parts showing full functionality of such passive hydraulically actuated motion. The functional resilience of these structures is far beyond the biological purpose of seed dispersal and protection and is because of a low level of mineralization of the fossils...
January 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073438/individual-based-modelling-of-the-development-and-transport-of-a-karenia-mikimotoi-bloom-on-the-north-west-european-continental-shelf
#6
P A Gillibrand, B Siemering, P I Miller, K Davidson
In 2006, a large and prolonged bloom of the dinoflagellate Karenia mikimotoi occurred in Scottish coastal waters, causing extensive mortalities of benthic organisms including annelids and molluscs and some species of fish (Davidson et al., 2009). A coupled hydrodynamic-algal transport model was developed to track the progression of the bloom around the Scottish coast during June-September 2006 and hence investigate the processes controlling the bloom dynamics. Within this individual-based model, cells were capable of growth, mortality and phototaxis and were transported by physical processes of advection and turbulent diffusion, using current velocities extracted from operational simulations of the MRCS ocean circulation model of the North-west European continental shelf...
March 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071733/an-automated-method-for-large-scale-monitoring-of-seed-dispersal-by-ants
#7
Audrey Bologna, Etienne Toffin, Claire Detrain, Alexandre Campo
Myrmecochory is the process of seed dispersal by ants; however, it is highly challenging to study, mainly because of the small size of both partners and the comparatively large range of dispersal. The mutualistic interaction between ants and seeds involves the former retrieving diaspores, consuming their elaiosome (a nutrient-rich appendage), and the rejection of seeds from the nest. Here, we introduce a semi-automated method based on stitching high resolution images together, allowing the study of myrmecochory in a controlled environment over time...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058781/multi-photon-microscope-measurement-based-biphasic-multi-scale-analyses-of-knee-joint-articular-cartilage-and-chondrocyte-by-using-visco-anisotropic-hyperelastic-finite-element-method-and-smoothed-particle-hydrodynamics-method
#8
Eiji Nakamachi, Tomohiro Noma, Kaito Nakahara, Yoshihiro Tomita, Yusuke Morita
The articular cartilage of a knee joint has a variety of functions including dispersing stress and absorbing shock in the tissue, and lubricating the surface region of cartilage. The metabolic activity of chondrocytes under the cyclic mechanical stimulations regenerates the morphology and function of tissues. Hence, the stress evaluation of the chondrocyte is vital subject to assess the regeneration cycle in the normal walking condition, and predict the injury occurrence in the accidents. Further, the threshold determination of stress for the chondrocytes activation is valuable for development of regenerative bio-reactor of articular cartilage...
January 5, 2017: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054650/osbt1-encodes-an-adp-glucose-transporter-involved-in-starch-synthesis-and-compound-granule-formation-in-rice-endosperm
#9
Sanfeng Li, Xiangjin Wei, Yulong Ren, Jiehua Qiu, Guiai Jiao, Xiuping Guo, Shaoqing Tang, Jianmin Wan, Peisong Hu
Starch is the main storage carbohydrate in higher plants. Although several enzymes and regulators for starch biosynthesis have been characterized, a complete regulatory network for starch synthesis in cereal seeds remains elusive. Here, we report the identification and characterization of the rice Brittle1 (OsBT1) gene, which is expressed specifically in the developing endosperm. The osbt1 mutant showed a white-core endosperm and a significantly lower grain weight than the wild-type. The formation and development of compound starch granules in osbt1 was obviously defective: the amyloplast was disintegrated at early developmental stages and the starch granules were disperse and not compound in the endosperm cells in the centre region of osbt1 seeds...
January 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054266/effects-of-supersaturation-control-strategies-on-hydroxyapatite-hap-crystallization-for-phosphorus-recovery-from-wastewater
#10
Hongliang Dai, Xiwu Lu, Yonghong Peng, Zixuan Yang, Huaqing Zhsssu
The HAP crystallization for phosphorus removal from wastewater contributes to an environmental friendly production due to the fact that it helps reduce or eliminate the water eutrophication as well as increases the recovery of mineral resources. However, the generated microcrystalline with poor settleability in high levels of supersaturation solution has a negative effect on the phosphorus recovery efficiency. To overcome the drawback, multiple reagent feed ports (four feed ports) and different recirculation ratio (1...
January 4, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049761/an-evolutionary-framework-for-carpel-developmental-control-genes
#11
Kai C Pfannebecker, Matthias Lange, Oliver Rupp, Annette Becker
Carpels are the female reproductive organs of flowering plants (angiosperms), enclose the ovules, and develop into fruits. The presence of carpels unites angiosperms, and they are suggested to be the most important autapomorphy of the angiosperms, e.g., they prevent inbreeding and allow efficient seed dispersal. Many transcriptional regulators and coregulators essential for carpel development are encoded by diverse gene families and well characterized in Arabidopsis thaliana Among these regulators are AGAMOUS (AG), ETTIN (ETT), LEUNIG (LUG), SEUSS (SEU), SHORT INTERNODE/STYLISH (SHI/STY), and SEPALLATA1, 2, 3, 4 (SEP1, 2, 3, 4)...
October 20, 2016: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040515/cytotoxicity-and-antiviral-activity-of-electrochemical-synthesized-silver-nanoparticles-against-poliovirus
#12
Tran Quang Huy, Nguyen Thi Hien Thanh, Nguyen Thanh Thuy, Pham Van Chung, Pham Ngoc Hung, Anh-Tuan Le, Nguyen Thi Hong Hanh
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been proven to have noticeable cytotoxicity in vitro and antiviral activity against some types of enveloped viruses. This paper presents the cytotoxicity and antiviral activity of pure AgNPs synthesized by the electrochemical method, towards cell culture and poliovirus (a non-enveloped virus). Prepared AgNPs were characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Before incubation with poliovirus, different concentrations of AgNPs were added to human rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cell monolayers seeded in 96 well plates for testing their cytotoxicity...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039920/seed-removal-in-a-tropical-north-american-desert-an-evaluation-of-pre-and-post-dispersal-seed-removal-in-stenocereus-stellatus
#13
R Álvarez-Espino, L Ríos-Casanova, H Godínez-Álvarez
To determine seed removal influence on seed populations, we need to quantify pre- and post-dispersal seed removal. Several studies have quantified seed removal in temperate American deserts, but few studies have been performed in tropical deserts. These studies have only quantified pre- or post-dispersal seed removal, thus underestimating the influence of seed removal. We evaluated pre- and post-dispersal seed removal in the columnar cactus Stenocereus stellatus in a Mexican tropical desert. We performed selective exclosure experiments to estimate percentage of seeds removed by ants, birds and rodents during the pre- and post-dispersal phases...
December 31, 2016: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031807/spatial-patterns-of-an-endemic-mediterranean-palm-recolonizing-old-fields
#14
Miguel E Jácome-Flores, Miguel Delibes, Thorsten Wiegand, José M Fedriani
Throughout Europe, increased levels of land abandonment lead to (re)colonization of old lands by forests and shrublands. Very little is known about the spatial pattern of plants recolonizing such old fields. We mapped in two 21-22-ha plots, located in the Doñana National Park (Spain), all adult individuals of the endozoochorous dwarf palm Chamaerops humilisL. and determined their sex and sizes. We used techniques of spatial point pattern analysis (SPPA) to precisely quantify the spatial structure of these C...
December 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028017/genetic-variation-in-the-invasive-weed-mikania-micrantha-asteraceae-suggests-highways-as-corridors-for-its-dispersal-in-southern-china
#15
Shi-Lei Geng, Quan Chen, Wen-Li Cai, Ao-Cheng Cao, Can-Bin Ou-Yang
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Roads as corridors of seed or fruit spatial dispersal have major impacts on the establishment and spread of invasive species, but their precise role in population genetic variation remains poorly understood. The South American weed Mikania micrantha has spread rapidly across southern China since its introduction to the Shenzhen area in 1984. This study investigated how its genetic diversity is distributed along highways, and whether highways have acted as corridors for the rapid expansion of M...
December 27, 2016: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028015/pollen-mediated-gene-flow-and-fine-scale-spatial-genetic-structure-in-olea-europaea-subsp-europaea-var-sylvestris
#16
D Beghè, A Piotti, Z Satovic, R de la Rosa, A Belaj
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Wild olive (Olea europaea subsp. europaea var. sylvestris) is important from an economic and ecological point of view. The effects of anthropogenic activities may lead to the genetic erosion of its genetic patrimony, which has high value for breeding programmes. In particular, the consequences of the introgression from cultivated stands are strongly dependent on the extent of gene flow and therefore this work aims at quantitatively describing contemporary gene flow patterns in wild olive natural populations...
December 27, 2016: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024604/direct-one-pot-synthesis-of-glutathione-capped-hydrophilic-fept-cds-nanoprobe-for-efficient-bimodal-imaging-application
#17
Deepak K Jha, Koushik Saikia, Srijita Chakrabarti, Kakoli Bhattacharya, Komanduri S Varadarajan, Anant B Patel, Danswrang Goyary, P Chattopadhyay, P Deb
One-pot synthesis methods for development of hydrophilic imaging nanoprobes have advantages over multi-pot methods due to their simple procedures, less probability for degradation of efficiency, superior control over growth and morphology, cost effectiveness, improved scope for scale-up synthesis etc. Here, we present a novel one-pot facile synthesis of hydrophilic colloidal bimodal nanoprobe (FePt-CdS) prepared through a seed-mediated nucleation and growth technique. In this facile synthesis of complex nanostructure, glutathione (GSH) was used as the capping agent to render biocompatibility and dispersibility...
March 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018846/developing-integrated-crop-knowledge-networks-to-advance-candidate-gene-discovery
#18
Keywan Hassani-Pak, Martin Castellote, Maria Esch, Matthew Hindle, Artem Lysenko, Jan Taubert, Christopher Rawlings
The chances of raising crop productivity to enhance global food security would be greatly improved if we had a complete understanding of all the biological mechanisms that underpinned traits such as crop yield, disease resistance or nutrient and water use efficiency. With more crop genomes emerging all the time, we are nearer having the basic information, at the gene-level, to begin assembling crop gene catalogues and using data from other plant species to understand how the genes function and how their interactions govern crop development and physiology...
December 2016: Applied & Translational Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008930/bio-inspired-self-shaping-ceramics
#19
Fabio L Bargardi, Hortense Le Ferrand, Rafael Libanori, André R Studart
Shaping ceramics into complex and intricate geometries using cost-effective processes is desirable in many applications but still remains an open challenge. Inspired by plant seed dispersal units that self-fold on differential swelling, we demonstrate that self-shaping can be implemented in ceramics by programming the material's microstructure to undergo local anisotropic shrinkage during heat treatment. Such microstructural design is achieved by magnetically aligning functionalized ceramic platelets in a liquid ceramic suspension, subsequently consolidated through an established enzyme-catalysed reaction...
December 23, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008919/ecological-networks-are-more-sensitive-to-plant-than-to-animal-extinction-under-climate-change
#20
Matthias Schleuning, Jochen Fründ, Oliver Schweiger, Erik Welk, Jörg Albrecht, Matthias Albrecht, Marion Beil, Gita Benadi, Nico Blüthgen, Helge Bruelheide, Katrin Böhning-Gaese, D Matthias Dehling, Carsten F Dormann, Nina Exeler, Nina Farwig, Alexander Harpke, Thomas Hickler, Anselm Kratochwil, Michael Kuhlmann, Ingolf Kühn, Denis Michez, Sonja Mudri-Stojnić, Michaela Plein, Pierre Rasmont, Angelika Schwabe, Josef Settele, Ante Vujić, Christiane N Weiner, Martin Wiemers, Christian Hof
Impacts of climate change on individual species are increasingly well documented, but we lack understanding of how these effects propagate through ecological communities. Here we combine species distribution models with ecological network analyses to test potential impacts of climate change on >700 plant and animal species in pollination and seed-dispersal networks from central Europe. We discover that animal species that interact with a low diversity of plant species have narrow climatic niches and are most vulnerable to climate change...
December 23, 2016: Nature Communications
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