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Seed dispersal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731703/natural-poly-and-oligosaccharides-as-novel-delivery-systems-for-plant-protection-compounds
#1
Olga Selyutina, Irina Apanasenko, Salavat Khalikov, Nikolay E Polyakov
To increase the bioavailability of plant protection products we have applied new approach based on non-covalent association with natural water soluble polysaccharides and oligosaccharides as delivery systems (DSs). The mechanochemical technique has been applied to prepare the solid state nano-dispersed compositions of antidote 1,8-naphthalic anhydride (NA) with arabinogalactan, sodium salt of carboxymethylcellulose, and glycyrrhizin as DSs. The effect of DSs on the solubility and the penetration of NA into the seeds of barley and wheat has been investigated by various physicochemical techniques...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727747/plant-species-dispersed-by-galapagos-tortoises-surf-the-wave-of-habitat-suitability-under-anthropogenic-climate-change
#2
Diego Ellis-Soto, Stephen Blake, Alaaeldin Soultan, Anne Guézou, Fredy Cabrera, Stefan Lötters
Native biodiversity on the Galapagos Archipelago is severely threatened by invasive alien species. On Santa Cruz Island, the abundance of introduced plant species is low in the arid lowlands of the Galapagos National Park, but increases with elevation into unprotected humid highlands. Two common alien plant species, guava (Psidium guajava) and passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) occur at higher elevations yet their seeds are dispersed into the lowlands by migrating Galapagos tortoises (Chelonoidis spp.). Tortoises transport large quantities of seeds over long distances into environments in which they have little or no chance of germination and survival under current climate conditions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727281/defaunation-leads-to-interaction-deficits-not-interaction-compensation-in-an-island-seed-dispersal-network
#3
Evan C Fricke, Joshua J Tewksbury, Haldre S Rogers
Following defaunation, the loss of interactions with mutualists such as pollinators or seed dispersers may be compensated through increased interactions with remaining mutualists, ameliorating the negative cascading impacts on biodiversity. Alternatively, remaining mutualists may respond to altered competition by reducing the breadth or intensity of their interactions, exacerbating negative impacts on biodiversity. Despite the importance of these responses for our understanding of the dynamics of mutualistic networks and their response to global change, the mechanism and magnitude of interaction compensation within real mutualistic networks remains largely unknown...
July 20, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725391/explaining-naturalization-and-invasiveness-new-insights-from-historical-ornamental-plant-catalogs
#4
Claude Lavoie, Simon Joly, Alexandre Bergeron, Geneviève Guay, Elisabeth Groeneveld
We identified plant attributes associated with naturalization and invasiveness using century-old ornamental plant catalogs from Québec (Canada). We tested the hypothesis that naturalization is determined by fewer factors than invasiveness, as the latter also requires dispersal, which introduces additional complexity. The approach we used took into account not only plant attributes as explanatory factors, but also propagule pressure, while accounting for phylogenetic relationships among species. Museum collections were used, in combination with scientific journal databases, to assess invasiveness...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725362/negative-correlation-between-altitudes-and-oxygen-isotope-ratios-of-seeds-exploring-its-applicability-to-assess-vertical-seed-dispersal
#5
Shoji Naoe, Ichiro Tayasu, Takashi Masaki, Shinsuke Koike
Vertical seed dispersal, which plays a key role in plant escape and/or expansion under climate change, was recently evaluated for the first time using negative correlation between altitudes and oxygen isotope ratio of seeds. Although this method is innovative, its applicability to other plants is unknown. To explore the applicability of the method, we regressed altitudes on δ(18)O of seeds of five woody species constituting three families in temperate forests in central Japan. Because climatic factors, including temperature and precipitation that influence δ(18)O of plant materials, demonstrate intensive seasonal fluctuation in the temperate zone, we also evaluated the effect of fruiting season of each species on δ(18)O of seeds using generalized linear mixed models (GLMM)...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717123/fungal-infestation-boosts-fruit-aroma-and-fruit-removal-by-mammals-and-birds
#6
Josep E Peris, Ana Rodríguez, Leandro Peña, José María Fedriani
For four decades, an influential hypothesis has posited that competition for food resources between microbes and vertebrates selects for microbes to alter these resources in ways that make them unpalatable to vertebrates. We chose an understudied cross kingdom interaction to experimentally evaluate the effect of fruit infection by fungi on both vertebrate (mammals and birds) fruit preferences and on ecologically relevant fruit traits (volatile compounds, toughness, etc). Our well-replicated field experiments revealed that, in contrast to previous studies, frugivorous mammals and birds consistently preferred infested over intact fruits...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710849/long-distance-dispersal-of-fungi
#7
Jacob J Golan, Anne Pringle
Dispersal is a fundamental biological process, operating at multiple temporal and spatial scales. Despite an increasing understanding of fungal biodiversity, most research on fungal dispersal focuses on only a small fraction of species. Thus, any discussion of the dispersal dynamics of fungi as a whole is problematic. While abundant morphological and biogeographic data are available for hundreds of species, researchers have yet to integrate this information into a unifying paradigm of fungal dispersal, especially in the context of long-distance dispersal (LDD)...
July 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691710/global-mismatch-between-fishing-dependency-and-larval-supply-from-marine-reserves
#8
Marco Andrello, François Guilhaumon, Camille Albouy, Valeriano Parravicini, Joeri Scholtens, Philippe Verley, Manuel Barange, U Rashid Sumaila, Stéphanie Manel, David Mouillot
Marine reserves are viewed as flagship tools to protect exploited species and to contribute to the effective management of coastal fisheries. Yet, the extent to which marine reserves are globally interconnected and able to effectively seed areas, where fisheries are most critical for food and livelihood security is largely unknown. Using a hydrodynamic model of larval dispersal, we predict that most marine reserves are not interconnected by currents and that their potential benefits to fishing areas are presently limited, since countries with high dependency on coastal fisheries receive very little larval supply from marine reserves...
July 10, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688134/does-scatter-hoarding-of-seeds-benefit-cache-owners-or-pilferers
#9
Haifeng Gu, Qingjian Zhao, Zhibin Zhang
Scatter-hoarding behavior of granivorous rodents plays an important role in seed dispersal and seedling regeneration of trees, as well as the evolution of several well-known mutualisms between trees and rodents in forest ecosystems. Because it is difficult to identify seed hoarders and pilferers under field conditions by traditional methods, the full costs incurred and benefits accrued by scatter-hoarding have not been fully evaluated in most systems. By using infrared radiation camera tracking and seed tagging, we investigated the comprehensive benefits and losses of scatter-hoarded seeds (Camellia oleifera) for three sympatric rodent species (Apodemus draco, Niviventer confucianus and Leopoldamys edwardsi) in a subtropical forest of Southwest China during 2013 through 2015...
July 7, 2017: Integrative Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688128/effects-of-fragmentation-on-the-seed-predation-and-dispersal-by-rodents-differ-among-species-with-different-seed-size
#10
Qiong Chen, Kyle W Tomlinson, Lin Cao, Bo Wang
Fragmentation influences the population dynamics and community composition of vertebrate animals. Fragmentation effects on rodent species in forests may in turn affect seed predation and dispersal of many plant species. Previous studies have usually addressed this question by monitoring a single species, and their results are contradictory. Very few studies have discussed the fragmentation effect on rodent-seed interaction among tree species with different seed sizes, which can significantly influence rodent foraging preference and seed fate...
July 7, 2017: Integrative Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687774/andean-mountain-building-did-not-preclude-dispersal-of-lowland-epiphytic-orchids-in-the-neotropics
#11
Oscar Alejandro Pérez-Escobar, Marc Gottschling, Guillaume Chomicki, Fabien L Condamine, Bente B Klitgård, Emerson Pansarin, Günter Gerlach
The Andean uplift is one of the major orographic events in the New World and has impacted considerably the diversification of numerous Neotropical lineages. Despite its importance for biogeography, the specific role of mountain ranges as a dispersal barrier between South and Central American lowland plant lineages is still poorly understood. The swan orchids (Cycnoches) comprise ca 34 epiphytic species distributed in lowland and pre-montane forests of Central and South America. Here, we study the historical biogeography of Cycnoches to better understand the impact of the Andean uplift on the diversification of Neotropical lowland plant lineages...
July 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679598/mucuna-pruriens-in-parkinson-disease-a-double-blind-randomized-controlled-crossover-study
#12
Roberto Cilia, Janeth Laguna, Erica Cassani, Emanuele Cereda, Nicolò G Pozzi, Ioannis U Isaias, Manuela Contin, Michela Barichella, Gianni Pezzoli
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether Mucuna pruriens (MP), a levodopa-containing leguminous plant growing in all tropical areas worldwide, may be used as alternative source of levodopa for indigent individuals with Parkinson disease (PD) who cannot afford long-term therapy with marketed levodopa preparations. METHODS: We investigated efficacy and safety of single-dose intake of MP powder from roasted seeds obtained without any pharmacologic processing. Eighteen patients with advanced PD received the following treatments, whose sequence was randomized: (1) dispersible levodopa at 3...
July 5, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676800/atribacteria-from-the-subseafloor-sedimentary-biosphere-disperse-to-the-hydrosphere-through-submarine-mud-volcanoes
#13
Tatsuhiko Hoshino, Tomohiro Toki, Akira Ijiri, Yuki Morono, Hideaki Machiyama, Juichiro Ashi, Kei Okamura, Fumio Inagaki
Submarine mud volcanoes (SMVs) are formed by muddy sediments and breccias extruded to the seafloor from a source in the deep subseafloor and are characterized by the discharge of methane and other hydrocarbon gasses and deep-sourced fluids into the overlying seawater. Although SMVs act as a natural pipeline connecting the Earth's surface and subsurface biospheres, the dispersal of deep-biosphere microorganisms and their ecological roles remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the microbial communities in sediment and overlying seawater at two SMVs located on the Ryukyu Trench off Tanegashima Island, southern Japan...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667257/long-distance-biotic-dispersal-of-tropical-seagrass-seeds-by-marine-mega-herbivores
#14
Samantha J Tol, Jessie C Jarvis, Paul H York, Alana Grech, Bradley C Congdon, Robert G Coles
Terrestrial plants use an array of animals as vectors for dispersal, however little is known of biotic dispersal of marine angiosperms such as seagrasses. Our study in the Great Barrier Reef confirms for the first time that dugongs (Dugong dugon) and green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) assist seagrass dispersal. We demonstrate that these marine mega-herbivores consume and pass in faecal matter viable seeds for at least three seagrass species (Zostera muelleri, Halodule uninervis and Halophila decipiens). One to two seagrass seeds per g DW of faecal matter were found during the peak of the seagrass reproductive season (September to December), with viability on excretion of 9...
June 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666782/how-bonobo-communities-deal-with-tannin-rich-fruits-re-ingestion-and-other-feeding-processes
#15
David Beaune, Gottfried Hohmann, Adeline Serckx, Tetsuya Sakamaki, Victor Narat, Barbara Fruth
This report describes bonobo (Pan paniscus, Hominidae) behavioral flexibility and inter-community differences with high tannin level fruit processing. In fruiting plants, tannin should discourage certain seed dispersers (direct deterrence hypothesis) such as primates. Based on data deriving from five study sites; LuiKotale, Lomako, Wamba, Malebo and Manzano, we compare consumption and dispersal of fruit species rich in tannins: Parinari and Musanga pulp was chewed across all communities probably for saliva tannin neutralisation...
June 27, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666198/decision-making-criteria-for-plant-species-selection-for-phytostabilization-issues-of-biodiversity-and-functionality
#16
Ahlem Ellili, Jacques Rabier, Pascale Prudent, Marie-Dominique Salducci, Alma Heckenroth, Mokhtar Lachaâl, Isabelle Laffont-Schwob
In polluted protected areas, using phytoremediation raises the question of the choice of the plant species to select. As an example, Atriplex halimus has been identified as a proliferative plant species that needs to be eradicated in the Calanques National Park (PNCal). Since it has been proven that the spontaneous populations of this plant species could phytostabilize shore waste deposits generated by past industrial activities within the PNCal territory, its status seems controversial, presenting a dilemma between biodiversity management of a protected area and ecological solutions for pollution management...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658272/sensing-of-minute-airflow-motions-near-walls-using-pappus-type-nature-inspired-sensors
#17
Christoph H Bruecker, Vladimir Mikulich
This work describes the development and use of pappus-like structures as sensitive sensors to detect minute air-flow motions. We made such sensors from pappi taken from nature-grown seed, whose filiform hairs' length-scale is suitable for the study of large-scale turbulent convection flows. The stem with the pappus on top is fixated on an elastic membrane on the wall and tilts under wind-load proportional to the velocity magnitude in direction of the wind, similar as the biological sensory hairs found in spiders, however herein the sensory hair has multiple filiform protrusions at the tip...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649359/species-traits-and-interaction-rules-shape-a-species-rich-seed-dispersal-interaction-network
#18
Esther Sebastián-González, Mathias M Pires, Camila I Donatti, Paulo R Guimarães, Rodolfo Dirzo
Species phenotypic traits affect the interaction patterns and the organization of seed-dispersal interaction networks. Understanding the relationship between species characteristics and network structure help us understand the assembly of natural communities and how communities function. Here, we examine how species traits may affect the rules leading to patterns of interaction among plants and fruit-eating vertebrates. We study a species-rich seed-dispersal system using a model selection approach to examine whether the rules underlying network structure are driven by constraints in fruit resource exploitation, by preferential consumption of fruits by the frugivores, or by a combination of both...
June 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632773/simulation-of-oak-early-life-history-and-interactions-with-disturbance-via-an-individual-based-model-soel
#19
Kenneth F Kellner, Robert K Swihart
Early tree life history and demography are driven by interactions with the environment such as seed predation, herbivory, light availability, and drought. For oak (Quercus) in the eastern United States, these interactions may contribute to oak regeneration failure. Numerous studies have examined the impact of individual factors (like seed predation) on the oak regeneration process, but less information is available on the relative and combined impacts of multiple intrinsic and extrinsic factors on early oak life history...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631322/prolonged-embryogenesis-in-austrobaileya-scandens-austrobaileyaceae-its-ecological-and-evolutionary-significance
#20
Juan M Losada, Julien B Bachelier, William E Friedman
The embryology of basal angiosperm lineages (Amborella, Nymphaeales and Austrobaileyales) is central to reconstructing the early evolution of flowering plants. Previous studies have shown that mature seeds in Austrobaileyales are albuminous, with a small embryo surrounded by a substantial diploid endosperm. However, little is known of seed ontogeny and seedling germination in Austrobaileya scandens, sister to all other extant Austrobaileyales. Standard histochemical techniques were used to study ovule/seed development and germination of Austrobaileya...
July 2017: New Phytologist
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