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Seed dispersal

Nigel Hardiman, Kristina Charlotte Dietz, Ian Bride, Louis Passfield
Land managers of natural areas are under pressure to balance demands for increased recreation access with protection of the natural resource. Unintended dispersal of seeds by visitors to natural areas has high potential for weedy plant invasions, with initial seed attachment an important step in the dispersal process. Although walking and mountain biking are popular nature-based recreation activities, there are few studies quantifying propensity for seed attachment and transport rate on boot soles and none for bike tires...
October 17, 2016: Environmental Management
Yu-Bin Yan, Norm C Duke, Mei Sun
Rhizophora species are the most widely distributed mangrove trees in the Indo-West Pacific (IWP) region. Comparative studies of these species with shared life history traits can help identify evolutionary factors that have played most important roles in determining genetic diversity within and between populations in ocean-current dispersed mangrove tree species. We sampled 935 individuals from 54 natural populations for genotyping with 13 microsatellite markers to investigate the level of genetic variation, population structure, and gene flow on a broad geographic scale in Rhizophora apiculata, Rhizophora mucronata, and Rhizophora stylosa across the IWP region...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Hongmao Zhang, Wei Chu, Zhibin Zhang
It is not well investigated that cultivated trees affect seeding regeneration of their wild relatives that share similar seed dispersers of animals. Here, we investigated the differences in seed fates of cultivated walnut (Juglans regia) and wild Manchurian walnut (J. mandshurica) trees under rodent predation and dispersal. J. regia seeds have higher nutritional value (large size, mass and kernel mass) and lower mechanical defensiveness (thin endocarp) than J. mandshurica seeds. We tracked seeds of J. regia and J...
October 13, 2016: Integrative Zoology
Kurt B Petersen, Martin Burd
The primitive land plant life cycle featured the production of spores of unimodal size, a condition called homospory. The evolution of bimodal size distributions with small male spores and large female spores, known as heterospory, was an innovation that occurred repeatedly in the history of land plants. The importance of desiccation-resistant spores for colonization of the land is well known, but the adaptive value of heterospory has never been well established. It was an addition to a sexual life cycle that already involved male and female gametes...
October 11, 2016: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
Laís P Gabriel, Maria Elizabeth M Dos Santos, André L Jardini, Gilmara N T Bastos, Carmen G B T Dias, Thomas J Webster, Rubens Maciel Filho
In this work, thermoset polyurethane composites were prepared by the addition of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles using the reactants polyol polyether and an aliphatic diisocyanate. The polyol employed in this study was extracted from the Euterpe oleracea Mart. seeds from the Amazon Region of Brazil. The influence of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles on the structure and morphology of the composites was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), the structure was evaluated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermal properties were analyzed by thermogravimetry analysis (TGA), and biological properties were studied by in vitro and in vivo studies...
October 5, 2016: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Hongping Chen, Jesús Marín-Sáez, Roberto Romero-González, Antonia Garrido Frenich
A method was developed for the determination of atropine and scopolamine in buckwheat and related products. A modified QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) extraction procedure was evaluated. Dispersive solid phase extraction (d-SPE) was studied as clean-up step, using graphitized black carbon (GBC) and primary secondary amine (PSA). The extract was diluted with water (50:50, v/v) prior to chromatographic analysis. The method was validated and recoveries (except chia samples spiked at 10μg/kg) ranged from 75% to 92%...
March 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
Mauro Commisso, Ketti Toffali, Pamela Strazzer, Matteo Stocchero, Stefania Ceoldo, Barbara Baldan, Marisa Levi, Flavia Guzzo
The phenylpropanoid and flavonoid families include thousands of specialized metabolites that influence a wide range of processes in plants, including seed dispersal, auxin transport, photoprotection, mechanical support and protection against insect herbivory. Such metabolites play a key role in the protection of plants against abiotic stress, in many cases through their well-known ability to inhibit the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, the precise role of specific phenylpropanoid and flavonoid molecules is unclear...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Atul S Rathore, L Sathiyanarayanan, Shreekant Deshpande, Kakasaheb R Mahadik
A rapid and sensitive method for the extraction and determination of four major polyphenolic components in Euphoria longana Lam. seeds is presented for the first time based on matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction followed by ultra high performance liquid chromatography with hybrid triple quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry. Matrix solid-phase dispersion method was designed for the extraction of Euphoria longana seed constituents and compared with microwave-assisted extraction and ultrasonic-assisted extraction methods...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Separation Science
Bart J A Pollux
Animal-mediated seed dispersal (zoochory) is considered to be an important mechanism regulating biological processes at larger spatial scales. To date, intra-specific variation in seed disperser quality within seed-dispersing animals has not been studied. Here, I employed seed feeding trials to quantify individual differences in disperser quality within the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) using seeds of two aquatic plants: unbranched bur-reed (Sparganium emersum, Sparganiaceae) and arrowhead (Sagittaria sagittifolia, Alismataceae)...
October 4, 2016: Oecologia
Sergio Díaz Infante, Carlos Lara, María Del Coro Arizmendi, Luis E Eguiarte, Juan Francisco Ornelas
BACKGROUND: Relationships between floral biology and pollinator behavior are important to understanding species diversity of hemiparasitic Psittacanthus mistletoes (c. 120 species). We aimed to investigate trait divergence linked to pollinator attraction and reproductive isolation (RI) in two hummingbird-pollinated and bird-dispersed Psittacanthus species with range overlap. METHODS: We investigated the phylogenetic relationships, floral biology, pollinator assemblages, seed dispersers and host usage, and the breeding system and female reproductive success of two sympatric populations of P...
2016: PeerJ
A M E Noreen, M A Niissalo, S K Y Lum, E L Webb
As deforestation and urbanization continue at rapid rates in tropical regions, urban forest patches are essential repositories of biodiversity. However, almost nothing is known about gene flow of forest-dependent tree species in urban landscapes. In this study, we investigated gene flow in the insect-pollinated, wind-dispersed tropical tree Koompassia malaccensis in and among three remnant forest patches in the urbanized landscape of Singapore. We genotyped the vast majority of adults (N=179) and a large number of recruits (N=2103) with 8 highly polymorphic microsatellite markers...
October 5, 2016: Heredity
Ju-Hwan Oh, Hyunku Shin, Jong Yun Choi, Hee Won Jung, Yeonho Choi, Jae-Seung Lee
Noble metal bimetallic nanomaterials have attracted a great deal of attention owing to the strong correlation between their morphology and chemical and physical properties. Even though the synthetic strategies for controlling the shapes of monometallic nanomaterials such as gold (Au) and silver (Ag) are well-developed, limited advances have been made with Au/Ag bimetallic nanomaterials to date. In this work, we demonstrate a highly complex in-plate and on-plate structural control of Au/Ag bimetallic nanoplates (Au/AgBNPLs) in contrast to conventional, simply structured, 1D and 2D, branched, and polyhedral nanomaterials...
October 3, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Byeong Guk Jeong, Young-Shin Park, Jun Hyuk Chang, Ikjun Cho, Jai Kyeong Kim, Heesuk Kim, Kookheon Char, Jinhan Cho, Victor I Klimov, Philip Park, Doh C Lee, Wan Ki Bae
Thick inorganic shell endows colloidal nanocrystals (NCs) with enhanced photochemical stability and suppression of photoluminescence intermittency (also known as blinking). However, the progress of using thick-shell heterostructure NCs in applications has been limited, due to low photoluminescence quantum yield (PL QY  60%) at room temperature. Here, we demonstrate thick-shell NCs with CdS/CdSe/CdS seed/spherical quantum well/shell (SQW) geometry that exhibit near-unity PL QY at room temperature and suppression of blinking...
October 2, 2016: ACS Nano
Katherine A Cleary, Lisette P Waits, Paul A Hohenlohe
Rapid anthropogenic land use change threatens the primary habitat of the Chestnut short-tailed bat (Carollia castanea) throughout much of its range. Information on population genetic structure can inform management strategies for this widespread frugivorous bat, and effective protection of C. castanea will also benefit the more than 20 mutualistic plant species of which this bat is the primary seed disperser. To facilitate understanding of population genetic structure in this species, fourteen novel microsatellite markers were developed using restriction-site-associated DNA libraries and Illumina sequencing and tested on 28 individuals from 13 locations in Costa Rica...
2016: PeerJ
R Wolcott, N Sanford, R Gabrilska, J L Oates, J E Wilkinson, K P Rumbaugh
OBJECTIVE: Diverse microorganisms present on the surface of chronic wounds have been established to constitute wound microbiota. The aims of this study were to quantify the viability of wound microbiota, classify dispersal of viable microbes from the wound, and determine if human wound microbiota can produce a chronic wound in an animal model. METHOD: Wound microbiotas as units (multiple microbial species acting as one infectious agent) were obtained from well-defined human chronic wounds and seeded onto mouse surgical excision wounds to produce chronically infected wounds that closely resembled the chronic wounds observed in the original hosts...
October 2016: Journal of Wound Care
Maidul Beg, Anukul Maji, Amit Kumar Mandal, Somnath Das, Mt Nasima Aktara, Pradeep K Jha, Maidul Hossain
In recent years, green synthesized nanoparticles from plant extract have drawn a great interest due to their prospective nanomedicinal application. This study investigates a proficient, safer, and sustainable way for the preparation of AgNPs using medicinal plant Pongamia pinnata (family: Leguminoseae, species: Pinnata) seeds extract without using any external reducing and stabilizing agent. Both ultraviolet-visible spectrum at λmax  = 439 nm and energy dispersive X-ray spectra proof the formation of AgNPs...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Molecular Recognition: JMR
James R P Worth, Shota Sakaguchi, Karl D Rann, Clarence J W Bowman, Motomi Ito, Gregory J Jordan, David M J S Bowman
Global increases in fire frequency driven by anthropogenic greenhouse emissions and land use change could threaten unique and ancient species by creeping into long-term fire refugia. The perhumid and mountainous western half of Tasmania is a globally important refugium for palaeo-endemic, fire intolerant lineages, especially conifers. Reproductive strategy will be crucial to the resilience of these organisms under warmer, dryer and more fire prone climates. This study analysed clonal versus sexual reproduction in old growth plots dominated by the palaeo-endemic conifer Athrotaxis cupressoides (Cupressaceae), a species that lacks any traits to tolerate frequent landscape fire...
September 26, 2016: Scientific Reports
Michio Nakamura, Tetsuya Sakamaki, Koichiro Zamma
Great apes are important seed dispersers with large bodies, able to swallow large seeds and travel long distances. Although there have been several studies investigating seed dispersal quality [sensu Schupp (Vegetatio 107/108:15-29, 1993)] by chimpanzees, there is little information on the volume of seeds they can carry in their bodies. When a relatively fresh corpse of a mature female chimpanzee was found at Mahale, Tanzania, we took advantage of the rare opportunity to investigate the total weight and cubic volume of seeds recovered from the corpse...
September 23, 2016: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Mohamad S Alsalhi, Sandhanasamy Devanesan, Akram A Alfuraydi, Radhakrishnan Vishnubalaji, Murugan A Munusamy, Kadarkarai Murugan, Marcello Nicoletti, Giovanni Benelli
BACKGROUND: The present study focused on a simple and eco-friendly method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with multipurpose anticancer and antimicrobial activities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied a green synthesis route to produce AgNPs by using an aqueous extract of Pimpinella anisum seeds (3 mM). Their antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity on human neonatal skin stromal cells (hSSCs) and colon cancer cells (HT115) were assessed. RESULTS: A biophysical characterization of the synthesized AgNPs was realized: the morphology of AgNPs was determined by transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, and ultraviolet-vis absorption spectroscopy...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Desale Y Okubamichael, Megan E Griffiths, David Ward
Host specificity has been investigated for centuries in mistletoes, viruses, insects, parasitoids, lice and flukes, yet it is poorly understood. Reviewing the numerous studies on mistletoe host specificity may contribute to our understanding of these plants and put into context the dynamics at work in root parasitic plants and animal parasites. The mechanisms that determine host specificity in mistletoes are not as well documented and understood as those in other groups of parasites. To rectify this we synthesised the available literature and analysed data compiled from herbaria, published monographs and our own field studies in South Africa...
September 22, 2016: AoB Plants
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