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Seed dispersal

Gao Chen, Zheng-Wei Wang, Ping Wen, Wei Wei, Ya Chen, Hui Ai, Wei-Bang Sun
Vespicochory, seed dispersal by hornets, is an uncommon seed dispersal pattern in angiosperms. To date, this phenomenon has been recorded in only four families. Because of its rarity, the causes and consequences of vespicochory remain unclear. Hence, this seed dispersal syndrome is often regarded as anecdotal. Through field investigations, chemical analyses, electrophysiological tests, identification of chemosensory proteins from the antennae of hornets, and behavioral assays, we investigated whether olfactory and/or visual cues of the diaspores of Stemona tuberosa mediate the behavior of the social hornets and maintain their mutualism...
April 20, 2018: New Phytologist
Joanna K Carpenter, Jamie R Wood, Janet M Wilmshurst, Dave Kelly
Often the mutualistic roles of extinct species are inferred based on plausible assumptions, but sometimes palaeoecological evidence can overturn such inferences. We present an example from New Zealand, where it has been widely assumed that some of the largest-seeded plants were dispersed by the giant extinct herbivorous moa (Dinornithiformes). The presence of large seeds in preserved moa gizzard contents supported this hypothesis, and five slow-germinating plant species ( Elaeocarpus dentatus, E. hookerianus, Prumnopitys ferruginea, P...
April 25, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Lukas Eigentler, Jonathan A Sherratt
Vegetation patterns are a characteristic feature of semi-arid regions. On hillsides these patterns occur as stripes running parallel to the contours. The Klausmeier model, a coupled reaction-advection-diffusion system, is a deliberately simple model describing the phenomenon. In this paper, we replace the diffusion term describing plant dispersal by a more realistic nonlocal convolution integral to account for the possibility of long-range dispersal of seeds. Our analysis focuses on the rainfall level at which there is a transition between uniform vegetation and pattern formation...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Mathematical Biology
Kenji Suetsugu
• Although orthopterans are rarely considered to be effective seed dispersal agents, the large flightless crickets known as weta have been suggested to function as ecological replacements for small mammals in New Zealand, where such mammals are absent. In addition, a recent study reported that camel crickets mediate seed dispersal of several heterotrophic plants including Yoania amagiensis in Japan. • I investigated the seed dispersal mechanism of Yoania japonica because the fruit morphology is similar to Yoania amagiensis...
April 14, 2018: Plant Biology
Peilong Yang, Hao Teng, Shaobo Fang, Zhongqi Hu, Guoqing Chang, Junli Wang, Zhiyi Wei
We implement an ultrafast Yb-doped all-fiber laser which incorporates tapered single-mode fibers for managing nonlinearity and dispersion. The tapered fiber placed in the oscillator cavity aims to broaden the optical spectrum of the intracavity pulse. At the oscillator output, we use another tapered fiber to perform pulse compression. The resulting 66.1-MHz Yb-doped all-fiber oscillator self-starts and generates 0.4-nJ, 65-fs pulses, which can serve as a compact and robust seed source for subsequent high-power, high-energy amplifiers...
April 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Mar Collado-González, Miguel R Pecci-Lloret, Christopher J Tomás-Catalá, David García-Bernal, Ricardo E Oñate-Sánchez, Carmen Llena, Leopoldo Forner, Vinicius Rosa, Francisco J Rodríguez-Lozano
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the in vitro cytotoxicity of Equia Forte (GC, Tokyo, Japan) and Ionostar Molar (Voco, Cuxhaven, Germany) on human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs). METHODS: hDPSCs isolated from third molars were exposed to several dilutions of Equia Forte and Ionostar Molar eluates (1/1, 1/2 and 1/4). These eluates were obtained by storing material samples in respective cell culture medium for 24h (n=40). hDPSCs in basal growth culture medium were the control...
April 9, 2018: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
Ayşe Baldemir, Ülkü Karaman, Sadi Yusufbeyoğlu, Ayşe Eken, Nilay Ildız, Selen İlgün, Cemil Çolak, Gamze Kaçmaz, İsmail Öçsoy, Soner Çankaya
Pathogenic Acanthamoeba species often cause infection known as Acanthamoeba keratitis among people who use contact lenses. It is a type of infection that can result in corneal ulceration, visual loss or even blindness, if not treated. There are various therapeutic options available in the treatment of Acanthamoeba infections but they are usually tough treatments with limited efficacy. For instance, hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) is a commonly used contact lens disinfectant which is effective against Acanthamoeba but it is toxic to the cornea...
January 2018: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
Simeon Rossmann, Merete Wiken Dees, Juliana Perminow, Richard Meadow, May Bente Brurberg
Pathogenic soft rot Enterobacteriaceae (SRE) belonging to the genera Pectobacterium and Dickeya cause diseases in potato and numerous other crops. Seed potatoes are the most important source of infection, but how initially pathogen-free tubers become infected remains an enigma. Since the 1920s, insects have been hypothesized to contribute to SRE transmission. To validate this hypothesis and to map the insect species potentially involved in SRE dispersal, we have analyzed the occurrence of SRE in insects recovered from potato fields over a period of two years...
April 6, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Rannveig M Jacobsen, Anne Sverdrup-Thygeson, Håvard Kauserud, Tone Birkemoe
Ecological networks are composed of interacting communities that influence ecosystem structure and function. Fungi are the driving force for ecosystem processes such as decomposition and carbon sequestration in terrestrial habitats, and are strongly influenced by interactions with invertebrates. Yet, interactions in detritivore communities have rarely been considered from a network perspective. In the present study, we analyse the interaction networks between three functional guilds of fungi and insects sampled from dead wood...
April 11, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Erik Kleyheeg, Mascha Claessens, Merel B Soons
Waterbirds disperse a wide range of plant seeds via their guts, promoting biotic connectivity between isolated habitat patches. However, the intensity of digestive forces encountered by seeds, and therefore their potential to survive digestive tract passage, varies within and between waterbird species. Here, we investigate under controlled conditions how the interaction between seed traits and digestive strategies affect the germinability of seeds following waterbird-mediated dispersal. We exposed seeds of 30 wetland plant species to the main digestive processes in the dabbling duck digestive system: mechanical, chemical and intestinal digestion...
2018: PloS One
Danielle O Moreira, Sky K Alibhai, Zoe C Jewell, Cristina J da Cunha, Jardel B Seibert, Andressa Gatti
Background: As a landscape architect and a major seed disperser, the lowland tapir ( Tapirus terrestris ) is an important indicator of the ecological health of certain habitats. Therefore, reliable data regarding tapir populations are fundamental in understanding ecosystem dynamics, including those associated with the Atlantic Forest in Brazil. Currently, many population monitoring studies use invasive tagging with radio or satellite/Global Positioning System (GPS) collars. These techniques can be costly and unreliable, and the immobilization required carries physiological risks that are undesirable particularly for threatened and elusive species such as the lowland tapir...
2018: PeerJ
R B P Miranda, L Grenho, A Carvalho, M H Fernandes, F J Monteiro, P F Cesar
This investigation aimed at developing micropatterned silica thin films (MSTFs) containing nanohydroxyapatite (nano-HA) microaggregates that were not completely covered by silica so that they could directly interact with the surrounding cells. The objectives were 1) to evaluate the effect of the presence of 2 films (MSTF with or without nano-HA addition) on the characteristic strength (σ0 ) and Weibull modulus ( m) of a yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) and 2) to evaluate the effect of these 2 films, as applied onto the Y-TZP surface, on the morphology, orientation, and proliferation of MG63 cells...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Dental Research
Sally V Taylor, Christian Krupke
BACKGROUND: Current insect resistance management plans rely on refuges of plants without Bt toxins to provide a gene pool of unexposed insects. Insects from refuges must mate with insects from Bt maize to slow resistance evolution. We used stable isotope labeling to observe Diabrotica virgifera virgifera emergence, dispersal, physical characteristics, and mating in Bt and refuge maize planted in different refuge configurations. Our objective was to assess how refuge type facilitates mating between insects from Bt and refuge plants...
March 30, 2018: Pest Management Science
Luke Browne, Jordan Karubian
Negative density dependence, where survival decreases as density increases, is a well-established driver of species diversity at the community level, but the degree to which a similar process might act on the density or frequency of genotypes within a single plant species to maintain genetic diversity has not been well studied in natural systems. In this study, we determined the maternal genotype of naturally dispersed seeds of the palm Oenocarpus bataua within a tropical forest in northwest Ecuador, tracked the recruitment of each seed, and assessed the role of individual-level genotypic rarity on survival...
March 30, 2018: New Phytologist
Benno I Simmons, William J Sutherland, Lynn V Dicks, Jörg Albrecht, Nina Farwig, Daniel García, Pedro Jordano, Juan P González-Varo
1.There is growing interest in understanding the functional outcomes of species interactions in ecological networks. For many mutualistic networks, including pollination and seed dispersal networks, interactions are generally sampled by recording animal foraging visits to plants. However, these visits may not reflect actual pollination or seed dispersal events, despite these typically being the ecological processes of interest. 2.Frugivorous animals can act as seed dispersers, by swallowing entire fruits and dispersing their seeds, or as pulp peckers or seed predators, by pecking fruits to consume pieces of pulp or seeds...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Animal Ecology
Ananya Mishra, Divya B Korlepara, Mohit Kumar, Ankit Jain, Narendra Jonnalagadda, Karteek K Bejagam, Sundaram Balasubramanian, Subi J George
Temporal control of supramolecular assemblies to modulate the structural and transient characteristics of synthetic nanostructures is an active field of research within supramolecular chemistry. Molecular designs to attain temporal control have often taken inspiration from biological assemblies. One such assembly in Nature which has been studied extensively, for its well-defined structure and programmable self-assembly, is the ATP-driven seeded self-assembly of actin. Here we show, in a synthetic manifestation of actin self-assembly, an ATP-selective and ATP-fuelled, controlled supramolecular polymerization of a phosphate receptor functionalised monomer...
March 30, 2018: Nature Communications
Ying Liu, Yury Tikunov, Rob E Schouten, Leo F M Marcelis, Richard G F Visser, Arnaud Bovy
Anthocyanins are a group of polyphenolic pigments that are ubiquitously found in the plant kingdom. In plants, anthocyanins play a role not only in reproduction, by attracting pollinators and seed dispersers, but also in protection against various abiotic and biotic stresses. There is accumulating evidence that anthocyanins have health-promoting properties, which makes anthocyanin metabolism an interesting target for breeders and researchers. In this review, the state of the art knowledge concerning anthocyanins in the Solanaceous vegetables, i...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
Liany Regina B Oliveira-Silva, Anielise C Campêlo, Ingrid Mirella S Lima, Ana Caroline L Araújo, Bruna M Bezerra, João Pedro Souza-Alves
The interaction between native fleshy-fruit plants and introduced fruit consumers contributes to the dynamics of highly fragmented environments. Such interactions can occur through pollination and seed dispersal. Here, we investigated the potential of seed dispersing by a non-native primate, the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus), in an urban Atlantic forest fragment in north-eastern Brazil. Fleshy fruits from non-native plants were preferentially exploited by the squirrel monkeys. We measured 147 seeds (width and length) from 20 of 106 faecal samples...
March 26, 2018: Folia Primatologica; International Journal of Primatology
Michael W Lloyd, Hayley R Tumas, Maile C Neel
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Pollen dispersal is a key process that influences ecological and evolutionary dynamics of plant populations by facilitating sexual reproduction and gene flow. Habitat loss and fragmentation have the potential to reduce pollen dispersal within and among habitat patches. We assessed aquatic pollen dispersal and mating system characteristics in Vallisneria americana-a water-pollinated plant with a distribution that has been reduced from historic levels. METHODS: We examined pollen neighborhood size, biparental inbreeding, and pollen dispersal, based on seed paternity using the indirect paternity method KinDist, from samples of 18-39 mothers and 14-20 progeny per mother from three sites across 2 years...
February 2018: American Journal of Botany
Uttariya Roy, Shubhalakshmi Sengupta, Papita Das, Avijit Bhowal, Siddhartha Datta
The present study investigated the removal of azo dye (crystal violet) by adsorption (using a low-cost adsorbent fly ash), biodegradation (using bacterial species, Pseudomonas sp.), and an integrated approach of sorption coupled with biodegradation (using fly ash immobilized with Pseudomonas sp.) on a comparative scale. To ascertain immobilization of bacteria on fly ash, immobilized bacterial cells were characterized by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform-infrared spectroscopy, and fluorescence microscopy...
April 2018: 3 Biotech
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