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Seed dispersal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437453/three-dominant-awnless-genes-in-common-wheat-fine-mapping-interaction-and-contribution-to-diversity-in-awn-shape-and-length
#1
Motohiro Yoshioka, Julio C M Iehisa, Ryoko Ohno, Tatsuro Kimura, Hiroyuki Enoki, Satoru Nishimura, Shuhei Nasuda, Shigeo Takumi
The awn is a long needle-like structure formed at the tip of the lemma in the florets of some grass species. It plays a role in seed dispersal and protection against animals, and can contribute to the photosynthetic activity of spikes. Three main dominant inhibitors of awn development (Hd, B1 and B2) are known in hexaploid wheat, but the causal genes have not been cloned yet and a genetic association with awn length diversity has been found only for the B1 allele. To analyze the prevalence of these three awning inhibitors, we attempted to predict the genotypes of 189 hexaploid wheat varieties collected worldwide using markers tightly linked to these loci...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437138/epidemiology-of-basil-downy-mildew
#2
Yigal Cohen, Yariv Ben-Naim, Lidan Falach, Evgenia Rubin
Basil downy mildew (BDM) caused by the oomycete Peronospora belbahrii is a destructive disease of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) worldwide. It has originated in Uganda in the 1930's and recently spread to Europe, Middle East, Americas and the Far East. Seed transmission may be responsible to its quick global spread. The pathogen attacks leaf blades, producing chlorotic lesions with ample dark asexual spores on the lower leaf surface. Oospores may occur in the mesophyll of infected leaves. The asexual spores germinate on a wet leaf surface within 2h and penetrate into the epidermis within 4h...
April 24, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429848/stuck-in-fragments-population-genetics-of-the-endangered-collared-brown-lemur-eulemur-collaris-in-the-malagasy-littoral-forest
#3
Stefania Bertoncini, Jacopo D'Ercole, Francesca Brisighelli, Jean-Baptiste Ramanamanjato, Cristian Capelli, Sergio Tofanelli, Giuseppe Donati
OBJECTIVES: The Endangered collared brown lemur (Eulemur collaris) is the largest primate living in the littoral forest of southeastern Madagascar, a top priority habitat for biodiversity conservation on the island. Because this lemur is a key seed-disperser, an evaluation of the structure and connectivity of the populations surviving in the forest fragments is urgently needed to guide conservation plans. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Genetic variability at autosomal microsatellites and mitochondrial DNA was investigated in a total of 49 collared brown lemurs sampled by non-invasive methods in three littoral forest fragments and in the nearby lowland humid forest...
April 21, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427654/effect-of-high-intensity-ultrasound-on-the-technofunctional-properties-and-structure-of-jackfruit-artocarpus-heterophyllus-seed-protein-isolate
#4
J A Resendiz-Vazquez, J A Ulloa, J E Urías-Silvas, P U Bautista-Rosales, J C Ramírez-Ramírez, P Rosas-Ulloa, L González-Torres
The influence of high-intensity ultrasound (HIU) on the technofunctional properties and structure of jackfruit seed protein isolate (JSPI) was investigated. Protein solutions (10%, w/v) were sonicated for 15min at 20kHz to the following levels of power output: 200, 400, and 600W (pulse duration: on-time, 5s; off-time 1s). Compared with untreated JSPI, HIU at 200W and 400W improved the oil holding capacity (OHC) and emulsifying capacity (EC), but the emulsifying activity (EA) and emulsion stability (ES) increased at 400W and 600W...
July 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416694/experimental-dispersal-reveals-characteristic-scales-of-biodiversity-in-a-natural-landscape
#5
Rachel M Germain, Sharon Y Strauss, Benjamin Gilbert
Ecological theory posits that dispersal among habitat patches links local communities and is a key "regional" process that maintains biological diversity. However, manipulations required to experimentally test regional processes are infeasible for most systems, and thus more work is needed to detect the scales at which regional processes manifest and their overall effect on diversity. In a Californian grassland, a hotspot for global biodiversity, we used a seed vacuum to increase dispersal at spatial scales varying from 1 m to 10 km while maintaining a realistic spatial structure of species pools and environmental conditions...
April 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415137/drivers-of-species-role-in-avian-seed-dispersal-mutualistic-networks
#6
Esther Sebastián-González
The mutualistic interaction between frugivore birds and the fruiting plants they disperse presents an asymmetric interaction pattern, with some species having a more important role (i.e. being essential) for maintaining the structure and functioning of the interaction network. The identification of the biological characteristics of these species is of major importance for the understanding and conservation of seed-dispersal interactions. In this study, I use a network approach and avian seed-dispersal networks from 23 different geographical areas to test 5 hypotheses about species characteristics determining the structure of the assemblage...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413729/elucidating-the-diet-of-the-island-flying-fox-pteropus-hypomelanus-in-peninsular-malaysia-through-illumina-next-generation-sequencing
#7
Sheema Abdul Aziz, Gopalasamy Reuben Clements, Lee Yin Peng, Ahimsa Campos-Arceiz, Kim R McConkey, Pierre-Michel Forget, Han Ming Gan
There is an urgent need to identify and understand the ecosystem services of pollination and seed dispersal provided by threatened mammals such as flying foxes. The first step towards this is to obtain comprehensive data on their diet. However, the volant and nocturnal nature of bats presents a particularly challenging situation, and conventional microhistological approaches to studying their diet can be laborious and time-consuming, and provide incomplete information. We used Illumina Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) as a novel, non-invasive method for analysing the diet of the island flying fox (Pteropus hypomelanus) on Tioman Island, Peninsular Malaysia...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412621/xanthium-strumarium-l-seed-hull-as-a-zero-cost-alternative-for-rhodamine-b-dye-removal
#8
Shraddha Khamparia, Dipika Kaur Jaspal
Treatment of polluted water has been considered as one of the most important aspects in environmental sciences. Present study explores the decolorization potential of a low cost natural adsorbent Xanthium strumarium L. seed hull for the adsorption of a toxic xanthene dye, Rhodamine B (RHB). The characterization of the adsorbent revealed the presence of high amount of carbon, when exposed to Electron Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). Further appreciable decolorization took place which was confirmed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis noticing shift in peaks...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412035/novel-consequences-of-bird-pollination-for-plant-mating
#9
REVIEW
Siegfried L Krauss, Ryan D Phillips, Jeffrey D Karron, Steven D Johnson, David G Roberts, Stephen D Hopper
Pollinator behaviour has profound effects on plant mating. Pollinators are predicted to minimise energetic costs during foraging bouts by moving between nearby flowers. However, a review of plant mating system studies reveals a mismatch between behavioural predictions and pollen-mediated gene dispersal in bird-pollinated plants. Paternal diversity of these plants is twice that of plants pollinated solely by insects. Comparison with the behaviour of other pollinator groups suggests that birds promote pollen dispersal through a combination of high mobility, limited grooming, and intra- and interspecies aggression...
April 12, 2017: Trends in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410388/tiger-on-the-prowl-invasion-history-and-spatio-temporal-genetic-structure-of-the-asian-tiger-mosquito-aedes-albopictus-skuse-1894-in-the-indo-pacific
#10
Andrew J Maynard, Luke Ambrose, Robert D Cooper, Weng K Chow, Joseph B Davis, Mutizwa O Muzari, Andrew F van den Hurk, Sonja Hall-Mendelin, Jeomhee M Hasty, Thomas R Burkot, Michael J Bangs, Lisa J Reimer, Charles Butafa, Neil F Lobo, Din Syafruddin, Yan Naung Maung Maung, Rohani Ahmad, Nigel W Beebe
BACKGROUND: Within the last century, increases in human movement and globalization of trade have facilitated the establishment of several highly invasive mosquito species in new geographic locations with concurrent major environmental, economic and health consequences. The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is an extremely invasive and aggressive daytime-biting mosquito that is a major public health threat throughout its expanding range. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used 13 nuclear microsatellite loci (on 911 individuals) and mitochondrial COI sequences to gain a better understanding of the historical and contemporary movements of Ae...
April 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405794/a-model-for-the-spread-of-an-invasive-weed-tradescantia-fluminensis
#11
Alexandra B Hogan, Mary R Myerscough
Tradescantia fluminensis is an invasive weed and a serious threat to native forests in eastern Australia and New Zealand. Current methods of eradication are often ineffective, so understanding the growth mechanisms of Tradescantia is important in formulating better control strategies. We present a partial differential equation (PDE) model for Tradescantia growth and spatial proliferation that accounts for Tradescantia's particular creeping and branching morphology, and the impact of self-shading on plant growth...
April 12, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405306/new-aspects-of-grassland-recovery-in-old-fields-revealed-by-trait-based-analyses-of-perennial-crop-mediated-succession
#12
András Kelemen, Béla Tóthmérész, Orsolya Valkó, Tamás Miglécz, Balázs Deák, Péter Török
Classical old-field succession studies focused on vegetation changes after the abandonment of annual croplands or on succession after the elimination of cultivated crops. Perennial-crop-mediated succession, where fields are initially covered by perennial crops, reveals alternative aspects of old-field succession theories. We tested the validity of classical theories of old-field succession for perennial-crop-mediated succession. We formulated the following hypotheses: (1) functional diversity increases with increasing field age; (2) resource acquisition versus conservation trade-off shifts toward conservation at community level during the succession; (3) the importance of spatial and temporal seed dispersal decreases during the succession; and (4) competitiveness and stress-tolerance increases and ruderality decreases at community level during the succession...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405027/virus-genomes-reveal-factors-that-spread-and-sustained-the-ebola-epidemic
#13
Gytis Dudas, Luiz Max Carvalho, Trevor Bedford, Andrew J Tatem, Guy Baele, Nuno R Faria, Daniel J Park, Jason T Ladner, Armando Arias, Danny Asogun, Filip Bielejec, Sarah L Caddy, Matthew Cotten, Jonathan D'Ambrozio, Simon Dellicour, Antonino Di Caro, Joseph W Diclaro, Sophie Duraffour, Michael J Elmore, Lawrence S Fakoli, Ousmane Faye, Merle L Gilbert, Sahr M Gevao, Stephen Gire, Adrianne Gladden-Young, Andreas Gnirke, Augustine Goba, Donald S Grant, Bart L Haagmans, Julian A Hiscox, Umaru Jah, Jeffrey R Kugelman, Di Liu, Jia Lu, Christine M Malboeuf, Suzanne Mate, David A Matthews, Christian B Matranga, Luke W Meredith, James Qu, Joshua Quick, Suzan D Pas, My V T Phan, Georgios Pollakis, Chantal B Reusken, Mariano Sanchez-Lockhart, Stephen F Schaffner, John S Schieffelin, Rachel S Sealfon, Etienne Simon-Loriere, Saskia L Smits, Kilian Stoecker, Lucy Thorne, Ekaete Alice Tobin, Mohamed A Vandi, Simon J Watson, Kendra West, Shannon Whitmer, Michael R Wiley, Sarah M Winnicki, Shirlee Wohl, Roman Wölfel, Nathan L Yozwiak, Kristian G Andersen, Sylvia O Blyden, Fatorma Bolay, Miles W Carroll, Bernice Dahn, Boubacar Diallo, Pierre Formenty, Christophe Fraser, George F Gao, Robert F Garry, Ian Goodfellow, Stephan Günther, Christian T Happi, Edward C Holmes, Brima Kargbo, Sakoba Keïta, Paul Kellam, Marion P G Koopmans, Jens H Kuhn, Nicholas J Loman, N'Faly Magassouba, Dhamari Naidoo, Stuart T Nichol, Tolbert Nyenswah, Gustavo Palacios, Oliver G Pybus, Pardis C Sabeti, Amadou Sall, Ute Ströher, Isatta Wurie, Marc A Suchard, Philippe Lemey, Andrew Rambaut
The 2013-2016 West African epidemic caused by the Ebola virus was of unprecedented magnitude, duration and impact. Here we reconstruct the dispersal, proliferation and decline of Ebola virus throughout the region by analysing 1,610 Ebola virus genomes, which represent over 5% of the known cases. We test the association of geography, climate and demography with viral movement among administrative regions, inferring a classic 'gravity' model, with intense dispersal between larger and closer populations. Despite attenuation of international dispersal after border closures, cross-border transmission had already sown the seeds for an international epidemic, rendering these measures ineffective at curbing the epidemic...
April 20, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403166/functional-decay-in-tree-community-within-tropical-fragmented-landscapes-effects-of-landscape-scale-forest-cover
#14
Larissa Rocha-Santos, Maíra Benchimol, Margaret M Mayfield, Deborah Faria, Michaele S Pessoa, Daniela C Talora, Eduardo Mariano-Neto, Eliana Cazetta
As tropical rainforests are cleared, forest remnants are increasingly isolated within agricultural landscapes. Understanding how forest loss impacts on species diversity can, therefore, contribute to identifying the minimum amount of habitat required for biodiversity maintenance in human-modified landscapes. Here, we evaluate how the amount of forest cover, at the landscape scale, affects patterns of species richness, abundance, key functional traits and common taxonomic families of adult trees in twenty Brazilian Atlantic rainforest landscapes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391099/re-establishment-of-hummock-topography-promotes-tree-regeneration-on-highly-disturbed-moderate-rich-fens
#15
Victor J Lieffers, Richard T Caners, Hangfei Ge
Winter exploration of oil sands deposits underlying wooded fens mostly eliminates the hummock-hollow topography on drilling pads and the ice roads leading to them, after their abandonment in spring. Recovery of black spruce (Picea mariana (P. Mill.) B.S.P.) and tamarack (Larix laricina (Du Roi) K. Koch) on these disturbed peatlands is thought to depend on the recovery of hummock topography. In late winter, numerous large blocks of frozen peat (1.5 × 1.5 m) were lifted out of the flattened drilling pads and positioned beside their excavated hollows; this was done on six temporary pads...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389923/dispersal-of-remnant-endangered-trees-in-a-fragmented-and-disturbed-forest-by-frugivorous-birds
#16
Ning Li, Bing Bai, Xin-Hai Li, Shu-Qing An, Chang-Hu Lu
Most endangered plant species in a fragmented forest behave as a unique source population, with a high dependence on frugivorous birds for recruitment and persistence. In this study, we combined field data of dispersal behavior of birds and GIS information of patch attributes to estimate how frugivorous birds could affect the effective dispersal pattern of Chinese yew (Taxus chinensis) in a fragmented and disturbed forest. Nine bird species were observed to visit T. chinensis trees, with Urocissa erythrorhyncha, Zoothera dauma and Picus canus being the most common dispersers...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389898/influence-of-sucrose-on-growth-and-sensitivity-of-candida-albicans-alone-and-in-combination-with-enterococcus-faecalis-and-streptococcus-mutans-to-photodynamic-therapy
#17
Fernanda Malagutti Tomé, Lucas De Paula Ramos, Fernanda Freire, Cristiane Aparecida Pereira, Ingrid Christine Barbosa de Oliveira, Juliana Campos Junqueira, Antonio Olavo Cardoso Jorge, Luciane Dias de Oliveira
This study has evaluated the effects of photodynamic inactivation (PDI) using erythrosine as photosensitizer and green light-emitting diode (LED) on biofilms of Candida albicans alone and in combination with Enterococcus faecalis and Streptococcus mutans. We have also evaluated the effect of sucrose on biofilm formation and bacterial growth and sensitivity to PDI. Biofilms were formed in suspension of 10(6) cells/ml on plates before being grown in broth culture with and without sucrose and incubated for 48 h...
April 7, 2017: Lasers in Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382337/physiochemical-properties-of-greatly-enhanced-photoluminescence-of-aqueous-dispersible-upconversion-caf2-yb-er-nanoparticles
#18
Anees A Ansari, Ranvijay Yadav, S B Rai
Crystal phase morphological structure and optical properties of the as-prepared upconversion CaF2:Yb/Er(core) and sequential coating of an inert crystalline material and silica layers surrounding the seed core-nanoparticles (NPs) were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), optical absorption, FTIR spectroscopy and upconversion photoluminescence spectroscopy. Owing to the unique properties of CaF2 host matrix, we realized their practical applications in biomedical science to improve the upconversion luminescence property and aqueous dispersibility...
April 6, 2017: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380806/anderson-localisation-and-optical-event-horizons-in-rogue-soliton-generation
#19
Mohammed F Saleh, Claudio Conti, Fabio Biancalana
We unveil the relation between the linear Anderson localisation process and nonlinear modulation instability. Anderson localised modes are formed in certain temporal intervals due to the random background noise. Such localised modes seed the formation of solitary waves that will appear during the modulation instability process at those preferred intervals. Afterwards, optical-event horizon effects between dispersive waves and solitons produce an artificial collective acceleration that favours the collision of solitons, which could eventually lead to a rogue-soliton generation...
March 6, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378197/non-dietary-analytical-features-of-chimpanzee-scats
#20
Caroline A Phillips, Richard W Wrangham, William C McGrew
Non-dietary aspects of ape scats such as scat weight and diameter are correlated with age and sex of defaecator for gorillas and orangutans. Defaecation rates of primates, including apes, illuminate their role as primary seed dispersers. We assess if non-dietary features of scats for East African chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) reveal such insights for members of the Kanyawara community in Kibale National Park, Uganda. Our objective is to see if such data yield useful perspectives for future census work on unhabituated chimpanzees, that is, what can scats tell us about a wild study population, beyond diet? We followed ten adults from this community, as well as travelling parties, comparing observed vs...
April 4, 2017: Primates; Journal of Primatology
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