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Seed dispersal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332587/bioreactor-mechanically-guided-3d-mesenchymal-stem-cell-chondrogenesis-using-a-biocompatible-novel-thermo-reversible-methylcellulose-based-hydrogel
#1
A Cochis, S Grad, M J Stoddart, S Farè, L Altomare, B Azzimonti, M Alini, L Rimondini
Autologous chondrocyte implantation for cartilage repair represents a challenge because strongly limited by chondrocytes' poor expansion capacity in vitro. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can differentiate into chondrocytes, while mechanical loading has been proposed as alternative strategy to induce chondrogenesis excluding the use of exogenous factors. Moreover, MSC supporting material selection is fundamental to allow for an active interaction with cells. Here, we tested a novel thermo-reversible hydrogel composed of 8% w/v methylcellulose (MC) in a 0...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331618/movement-of-leopard-tortoises-in-response-to-environmental-and-climatic-variables-in-a-semi-arid-environment
#2
Martyn Drabik-Hamshare, Colleen T Downs
BACKGROUND: Tortoises (Testudinidae) occur in a wide range of environments, providing important ecosystem functions, such as seed dispersal and refuge in the form of burrows. Tortoise movement has previously been shown to be related to resource availability, reproductive status and local environmental conditions. However, understanding of the variables that drive their movement remains comparatively low. We investigated aspects of movement in leopard tortoises Stigmochelys pardalis-the largest and most abundant tortoise species in sub-Saharan Africa-in response to environmental, climatic and individual variables in the semi-arid Karoo, South Africa...
2017: Movement Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321366/climate-change-induced-range-shifts-of-three-allergenic-ragweeds-ambrosia-l-in-europe-and-their-potential-impact-on-human-health
#3
Karen Rasmussen, Jakob Thyrring, Robert Muscarella, Finn Borchsenius
Invasive allergenic plant species may have severe health-related impacts. In this study we aim to predict the effects of climate change on the distribution of three allergenic ragweed species (Ambrosia spp.) in Europe and discuss the potential associated health impact. We built species distribution models based on presence-only data for three ragweed species, using MAXENT software. Future climatic habitat suitability was modeled under two IPCC climate change scenarios (RCP 6.0 and RCP 8.5). We quantify the extent of the increase in 'high allergy risk' (HAR) areas, i...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317110/atlantic-frugivory-a-plant-frugivore-interaction-dataset-for-the-atlantic-forest
#4
Carolina Bello, Mauro Galetti, Denise Montan, Marco A Pizo, Tatiane C Mariguela, Laurence Culot, Felipe Bufalo, Fabio Labecca, Felipe Pedrosa, Rafaela Constantini, Carine Emer, Wesley R Silva, Fernanda R da Silva, Otso Ovaskainen, Pedro Jordano
The dataset provided here includes 8320 frugivory interactions (records of pairwise interactions between plant and frugivore species) reported for the Atlantic Forest. The dataset includes interactions between 331 vertebrate species (232 birds, 90 mammals, five fishes, one amphibian and three reptiles) and 788 plant species. We also present information on traits directly related to the frugivory process (endozoochory), such as the size of fruits and seeds and the body mass and gape size of frugivores. Data were extracted from 166 published and unpublished sources spanning from 1961 to 2016...
March 19, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316606/a-comprehensive-phenotypic-investigation-of-the-pod-shattering-syndrome-in-common-bean
#5
Maria L Murgia, Giovanna Attene, Monica Rodriguez, Elena Bitocchi, Elisa Bellucci, Davide Fois, Laura Nanni, Tania Gioia, Diego M Albani, Roberto Papa, Domenico Rau
Seed shattering in crops is a key domestication trait due to its relevance for seed dispersal, yield, and fundamental questions in evolution (e.g., convergent evolution). Here, we focused on pod shattering in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), the most important legume crop for human consuption in the world. With this main aim, we developed a methodological pipeline that comprises a thorough characterization under field conditions, including also the chemical composition and histological analysis of the pod valves...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316068/contribution-by-vertebrates-to-seed-dispersal-effectiveness-in-the-gal%C3%A3-pagos-islands-a-community-wide-approach
#6
M Nogales, A González-Castro, B Rumeu, A Traveset, P Vargas, P Jaramillo, J M Olesen, R Heleno
Seed dispersal and seedling recruitment are crucial phases in the life cycle of all spermatophyte plants. The net contribution of seed dispersers to plant establishment is known as seed dispersal effectiveness (SDE) and is defined as the product of a quantitative (number of seeds dispersed) and a qualitative (probability of recruitment) component. In Galápagos, we studied the direct contribution to SDE (number of seeds dispersed and effect on seedling emergence) provided by the five island groups of frugivores (giant tortoises, lizards, medium-sized passerine birds, small non-finch passerine birds and finches) in the two main habitats in this archipelago: the lowland and the highland zones, and found 16 vertebrate species dispersing 58 plant species...
March 17, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303636/variation-in-seed-packaging-of-a-fleshy-fruited-conifer-provides-insights-into-the-ecology-and-evolution-of-multi-seeded-fruits
#7
Lucía DeSoto, Rubén Torices, Susana Rodríguez-Echeverría, Cristina Nabais
The study of intraspecific seed packaging (i.e. seed size/number strategy) variation across different populations may allow a better understanding of the ecological forces that drive seed evolution in plants. Juniperus thurifera (Cupressaceae) provides a good model to study this due to the existence of two subspecies differentiated by phenotypic traits, such as seed size and cone seediness (number of seeds inside a cone) across its range. The aim of this study was to analyse seed packaging (seed mass and cone seediness) variation at different scales (subspecies, populations and individuals) and the relationship between cone and seed traits in European and African J...
March 17, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303393/effective-nut-dispersal-by-magpies-pica-pica-l-in-a-mediterranean-agroecosystem
#8
Jorge Castro, Mercedes Molina-Morales, Alexandro B Leverkus, Loreto Martínez-Baroja, Lorenzo Pérez-Camacho, Pedro Villar-Salvador, Salvador Rebollo, José M Rey-Benayas
Scatter-hoarding animals such as corvids play a crucial role in the dispersal of nut-producing tree species. This interaction is well known for some corvids, but remains elusive for other species such as the magpie (Pica pica), an abundant corvid in agroecosystems and open landscapes of the Palearctic region. In addition, the establishment of the individual dispersed seeds-a prerequisite for determining seed-dispersal effectiveness-has never before been documented for the interaction between corvids and nut-producing trees...
March 16, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293851/love-me-not-meter-a-sensor-device-for-detecting-petal-detachment-forces-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#9
Andrew Maule, Graham Henning, Sara Patterson
Abscission is the developmentally controlled loss of plant organs, providing diverse functions such as shedding senescent or diseased leaves, dispersing seeds, or dropping ripened fruit. This process is defined by the hydrolytic breakdown of the middle lamella in the abscission zone, allowing for organ detachment. While the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana does not undergo leaf abscission, it does have a predictable progression of floral organ abscission. To study abscission zone physical integrity in Arabidopsis, a breakstrength meter for Arabidopsis was developed to reliably measure the petal detachment forces...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289566/differential-attraction-of-drosophilids-to-banana-baits-inoculated-with-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-and-hanseniaspora-uvarum-within-a-neotropical-forest-remnant
#10
Marcos R D Batista, Fabiana Uno, Rafael D Chaves, Rosana Tidon, Carlos A Rosa, Louis B Klaczko
BACKGROUND: Yeasts are a necessary requisite in the diet of most Drosophila species that, in turn, may vector their dispersal in natural environments. Differential attractiveness experiments and the isolation of yeasts consumed by Drosophila may be informative for characterizing this association. Hanseniaspora uvarum is among the most common yeast species isolated from Drosophila crops, with high attractiveness to drosophilids. Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been widely used to collect flies, and it allows broad sampling of almost all local Drosophila species...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286354/how-did-the-domestication-of-fertile-crescent-grain-crops-increase-their-yields
#11
Catherine Preece, Alexandra Livarda, Pascal-Antoine Christin, Michael Wallace, Gemma Martin, Michael Charles, Glynis Jones, Mark Rees, Colin P Osborne
The origins of agriculture, 10 000 years ago, led to profound changes in the biology of plants exploited as grain crops, through the process of domestication. This special case of evolution under cultivation led to domesticated cereals and pulses requiring humans for their dispersal, but the accompanying mechanisms causing higher productivity in these plants remain unknown. The classical view of crop domestication is narrow, focusing on reproductive and seed traits including the dispersal, dormancy and size of seeds, without considering whole-plant characteristics...
February 2017: Functional Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284942/investigation-on-by-products-of-bioenergy-systems-anaerobic-digestion-and-gasification-as-potential-crop-nutrient-using-ftir-xrd-sem-analysis-and-phyto-toxicity-test
#12
Sampriti Kataki, Samarendra Hazarika, D C Baruah
Success and acceptability of the bio energy conversion technology to a large extent depend upon management of the inevitable by-products generated during the conversion process. By-products can be considered favourable as organic fertilizer as they retain nutrients with varying composition depending upon input biomass. However, characteristics of these heterogeneous resources with respect to feedstock and processing conditions have to be assessed to state on their agricultural and environmental benefits. Therefore, 3 types of anaerobic digestion by-products (digestate) from surplus biomass viz...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282042/divergent-extremes-but-convergent-recovery-of-bacterial-and-archaeal-soil-communities-to-an-ongoing-subterranean-coal-mine-fire
#13
Sang-Hoon Lee, Jackson W Sorensen, Keara L Grady, Tammy C Tobin, Ashley Shade
Press disturbances are stressors that are extended or ongoing relative to the generation times of community members, and, due to their longevity, have the potential to alter communities beyond the possibility of recovery. They also provide key opportunities to investigate ecological resilience and to probe biological limits in the face of prolonged stressors. The underground coal mine fire in Centralia, Pennsylvania has been burning since 1962 and severely alters the overlying surface soils by elevating temperatures and depositing coal combustion pollutants...
March 10, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280552/fluff-thieving-birds-sabotage-seed-dispersal
#14
Vanya G Rohwer, Anton Pauw, Paul R Martin
Characterizing many species interactions as mutualisms can be misleading because some members of the interaction derive greater fitness benefits at the expense of other members. We provide detailed natural history data on a suspected bird-plant mutualism in South Africa where many species of birds use fluffy Eriocephalus seed material to construct their nests, potentially dispersing seeds for the plant. We focus on a common bird, Prinia maculosa, which invests heavily in gathering Eriocephalus material. Prinias spent 5 of their median 6-day nest construction period adding seed material to their nests and frequently travelled outside their territory boundary to gather Eriocephalus material...
January 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273569/toxicity-of-combined-mixtures-of-nanoparticles-to-plants
#15
Izabela Jośko, Patryk Oleszczuk, Ewa Skwarek
An increasing production and using of nanoproducts results in releasing and dispersing nanoparticles (NPs) in the environment. Being released into various environment components, NPs may interact with numerous pollutants, including other NPs. This research aimed at assessing toxicity of combined binary mixtures of NPs. The study focused on assessing mixtures of NPs believed to be toxic (nano-ZnO+nano-CuO) and nano-ZnO/nano-CuO with the ones that are insignificantly toxic or non-toxic NPs (nano-TiO2/nano-Cr2O3/nano-Fe2O3)...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270682/effects-of-an-invasive-predator-cascade-to-plants-via-mutualism-disruption
#16
Haldre S Rogers, Eric R Buhle, Janneke HilleRisLambers, Evan C Fricke, Ross H Miller, Joshua J Tewksbury
Invasive vertebrate predators are directly responsible for the extinction or decline of many vertebrate species, but their indirect impacts often go unmeasured, potentially leading to an underestimation of their full impact. When invasives extirpate functionally important mutualists, dependent species are likely to be affected as well. Here, we show that the invasive brown treesnake, directly responsible for the extirpation of forest birds from the island of Guam, is also indirectly responsible for a severe decline in plant recruitment as a result of disrupting the fruit-frugivore mutualism...
March 8, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270225/post-transcriptional-regulation-of-fruit-ripening-and-disease-resistance-in-tomato-by-the-vacuolar-protease-slvpe3
#17
Weihao Wang, Jianghua Cai, Peiwen Wang, Shiping Tian, Guozheng Qin
BACKGROUND: Proteases represent one of the most abundant classes of enzymes in eukaryotes and are known to play key roles in many biological processes in plants. However, little is known about their functions in fruit ripening and disease resistance, which are unique to flowering plants and required for seed maturation and dispersal. Elucidating the genetic mechanisms of fruit ripening and disease resistance is an important goal given the biological and dietary significance of fruit. RESULTS: Through expression profile analyses of genes encoding tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) cysteine proteases, we identify a number of genes whose expression increases during fruit ripening...
March 7, 2017: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267161/high-magnetisation-monodisperse-and-water-dispersible-cofe-pt-core-shell-nanoparticles
#18
Ngo T Dung, Nguyen Viet Long, Le T T Tam, Pham H Nam, Le D Tung, Nguyen X Phuc, Le T Lu, Nguyen Th Kim Thanh
High magnetisation and monodisperse CoFe alloy nanoparticles are desired for a wide range of biomedical applications. However, these CoFe nanoparticles are prone to oxidation, resulting in the deterioration of their magnetic properties. In the current work, CoFe alloy nanoparticles were prepared by thermal decomposition of cobalt and iron carbonyls in organic solvents at high temperatures. Using a seeded growth method, we successfully synthesised chemically stable CoFe@Pt core/shell nanostructures. The obtained core/shell nanoparticles have high saturation magnetisation up to 135 emu g(-1)...
March 7, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261455/long-term-consistency-in-spatial-patterns-of-primate-seed-dispersal
#19
Eckhard W Heymann, Laurence Culot, Christoph Knogge, Tony Enrique Noriega Piña, Emérita R Tirado Herrera, Matthias Klapproth, Dietmar Zinner
Seed dispersal is a key ecological process in tropical forests, with effects on various levels ranging from plant reproductive success to the carbon storage potential of tropical rainforests. On a local and landscape scale, spatial patterns of seed dispersal create the template for the recruitment process and thus influence the population dynamics of plant species. The strength of this influence will depend on the long-term consistency of spatial patterns of seed dispersal. We examined the long-term consistency of spatial patterns of seed dispersal with spatially explicit data on seed dispersal by two neotropical primate species, Leontocebus nigrifrons and Saguinus mystax (Callitrichidae), collected during four independent studies between 1994 and 2013...
March 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261446/prediction-of-arctic-plant-phenological-sensitivity-to-climate-change-from-historical-records
#20
Zoe A Panchen, Root Gorelick
The pace of climate change in the Arctic is dramatic, with temperatures rising at a rate double the global average. The timing of flowering and fruiting (phenology) is often temperature dependent and tends to advance as the climate warms. Herbarium specimens, photographs, and field observations can provide historical phenology records and have been used, on a localised scale, to predict species' phenological sensitivity to climate change. Conducting similar localised studies in the Canadian Arctic, however, poses a challenge where the collection of herbarium specimens, photographs, and field observations have been temporally and spatially sporadic...
March 2017: Ecology and Evolution
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