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Seed dispersal

Pablo Ramón, Eduardo Velázquez, Adrián Escudero, Marcelino de la Cruz
We assessed the relative importance of dispersal limitation, environmental heterogeneity and their joint effects as determinants of the spatial patterns of 229 species in the moist tropical forest of Barro Colorado Island (Panama). We differentiated five types of species according to their dispersal syndrome; autochorous, anemochorous, and zoochorous species with small, medium-size and large fruits. We characterized the spatial patterns of each species and we checked whether they were best fitted by Inhomogeneous Poisson (IPP), Homogeneous Poisson cluster (HPCP) and Inhomogeneous Poisson cluster processes (IPCP) by means of the Akaike Information Criterion...
2018: PloS One
Xin-Ran Li, Joyita Deb, S Vinod Kumar, Lars Østergaard
Plants respond to diurnal and seasonal changes in temperature by reprogramming vital developmental pathways. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that define environmental modulation of plant growth and reproduction is critical in the context of climate change that threatens crop yield worldwide. Here, we report that elevated temperature accelerates fruit dehiscence in members of the Brassicaceae family including the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana and important crop species. Arabidopsis fruit development is controlled by a network of interacting regulatory genes...
February 7, 2018: Molecular Plant
Goolia Nikravan, Vahid Haddadi-Asl, Mehdi Salami-Kalajahi
Dual stimuli-responsive yolk-shell nanoparticles with cross-linked poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) pH-responsive core and cross-linked poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) temperature-responsive shell were synthesized via two different methods In the first method, silica encapsulated PAA (PAA@SiO 2 ) was used as seed in distillation precipitation polymerization (DPP) of HEMA to yield PAA@SiO 2 @PHEMA from which silica layer was etched by HF solution to produce yolk-shell PAA@air@PHEMA nanoparticles. In the second method, swollen PAA nanoparticles at pH = 10 were used as seeds in emulsion polymerization of HEMA to yield core-shell PAA@PHEMA nanoparticles...
February 9, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
N Kandasamy, T Venugopal, K Kannan
A flower like cobalt oxide nanostructured thin film (Co2O3) on Nickel (Ni) plate as have been successfully developed via alcoholic Seed Layer assisted chemical bath Deposition (SLD) process. Through the controlled alkaline electrolytes, the flower and paddles like Co2O3 nanoarchitectures were formed. The prepared thin film was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray (SEM and EDX), Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), Raman spectroscopy techniques. Electron micrograph reveals the flower and paddles like nanostructured Co2O3 thin film deposited on Ni plates...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Randall S Reiserer, Gordon W Schuett, Harry W Greene
Seed dispersal is a key evolutionary process and a central theme in the population ecology of terrestrial plants. The primary producers of most land-based ecosystems are propagated by and maintained through various mechanisms of seed dispersal that involve both abiotic and biotic modes of transportation. By far the most common biotic seed transport mechanism is zoochory, whereby seeds, or fruits containing them, are dispersed through the activities of animals. Rodents are one group of mammals that commonly prey on seeds (granivores) and play a critical, often destructive, role in primary dispersal and the dynamics of plant communities...
February 14, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Shuo Yan, Weilong Zhu, Boyu Zhang, Xinmi Zhang, Jialin Zhu, Jizhe Shi, Pengxiang Wu, Fengming Wu, Xiangrui Li, Qingwen Zhang, Xiaoxia Liu
The public concern about pollen-mediated gene flow (PGF) from genetically modified (GM) crops to non-GM crops heats up in recent years over China. In the current study, we conducted greenhouse and field experiments to measure PGF with various physical isolation measures, including 90, 80, 60 and 40 holes/cm2 separation nets and Sorghum bicolor, Zea mays and Lycopersicon esculentum separation crops between GM cotton and non-GM line (Shiyuan321) by seed DNA test during 2013 to 2015, and pollen grain dyeing was also conducted to assess the pollen flow in greenhouse during 2013...
February 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Zhenyun Han, Yanan Hu, Yuanda Lv, Jocelyn K C Rose, Yaqiang Sun, Fei Shen, Yi Wang, Xinzhong Zhang, Xuefeng Xu, Ting Wu, Zhenhai Han
Many fleshy fruits have evolved vivid external or internal coloration, which often develops during ripening, in order to attract seed dispersers. Color changes are associated with the biosynthesis of pigments as well as degreening due to chlorophyll degradation. Cultivation has further driven the diversification of fruit color through selection criteria that can vary with ethnic or cultural origin. Here, we demonstrate that there is natural variation in the coding region of the gene ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR, ERF17, which contributes to apple fruit peel degreening...
February 5, 2018: Plant Physiology
Matthieu Alfaro, Hirofumi Izuhara, Masayasu Mimura
Several mathematical models are proposed to understand spatial patchy vegetation patterns arising in drylands. In this paper, we consider the system with nonlocal dispersal of plants (through a redistribution kernel for seeds) proposed by Pueyo et al. (Oikos 117:1522-1532, 2008) as a model for vegetation in water-limited ecosystems. It consists in two reaction diffusion equations for surface water and soil water, combined with an integro-differential equation for plants. For this system, under suitable assumptions, we prove well-posedness using the Schauder fixed point theorem...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Mathematical Biology
Diego F E Escobar, Fernando A O Silveira, Leonor Patricia C Morellato
Background and Aims: The relationship between fruiting phenology and seed dispersal syndrome is widely recognized; however, the interaction of dormancy classes and plant life-history traits in relation to fruiting phenology and seed dispersal is understudied. Here we examined the relationship between fruiting season and seed dormancy and how this relationship is modulated by dormancy classes, dispersal syndromes, seed mass and seed moisture content in a Brazilian savanna (cerrado). Methods: Dormancy classes (non-dormancy and physical, morphological, morphophysiological, physiological and physiophysical dormancy) of 34 cerrado species were experimentally determined...
February 7, 2018: Annals of Botany
Anita Küpper, Harish K Manmathan, Darci Giacomini, Eric L Patterson, William B McCloskey, Todd A Gaines
Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) is a major weed in United States cotton and soybean production systems. Originally native to the Southwest, the species has spread throughout the country. In 2004 a population of A. palmeri was identified with resistance to glyphosate, a herbicide heavily relied on in modern no-tillage and transgenic glyphosate-resistant (GR) crop systems. This project aims to determine the degree of genetic relatedness among eight different populations of GR and glyphosate-susceptible (GS) A...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Teresa Lenser, Danuše Tarkowská, Ondřej Novák, Per K I Wilhelmsson, Tom Bennett, Stefan A Rensing, Miroslav Strnad, Günter Theißen
Life in unpredictably changing habitats is a great challenge, especially for sessile organisms like plants. Fruit and seed heteromorphism is one way to cope with such variable environmental conditions. It denotes the production of distinct types of fruits and seeds that often mediate distinct life-history strategies in terms of dispersal, germination and seedling establishment. But although the phenomenon can be found in numerous species and apparently evolved several times independently, its developmental time course or molecular regulation remains largely unknown...
February 8, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
J E Meireles, P S Manos
Understanding the colonization of extreme marginal habitats and the relative roles of space and environment in maintaining peripheral populations remains challenging. Here we leverage a system of pairs of rainforest and sandy coastal plain communities that allow us to decouple spatial and environmental effects in the population structure and migration rates of the bromeliad Aechmea nudicaulis. Structure and gene flow between populations were estimated from Bayesian clustering and coalescent based migration models applied to chloroplast sequence and nuclear microsatellite data...
February 8, 2018: Molecular Ecology
Charlotte H Mills, Mike Letnic
Functional extinction of once abundant species has frequently preceded understanding of their ecological roles. Consequently, our understanding of ecosystems is prone to shifting baselines because it often relies on observations made on depauperate species assemblages. In Australian deserts, current paradigms are that ants are the dominant granivores, mammals are unimportant seed predators and that myrmecochory in many Australian shrubs is an adaptation to increase dispersal distance and direct seeds to favourable germination sites...
January 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Cong-Yu Ke, Guo-Min Lu, Wu-Juan Sun, Xun-Li Zhang
This paper reports the development of hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) by synthesizing sub-2 μm polymer packings which was packed into a chromatographic pie for fast separation of native proteins at low pressures demonstrating high efficiency. Using styrene as monomer and ethylene dimethacrylate (EDMA)as swelling agent, the polystyrene seeds with an average particle size of 0.8 μm and monodisperse polymeric microspheres with a particle size of 1.5-5.0 μm were synthesized through dispersion polymerization and one-step swelling method, respectively...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Fernando Gonçalves, Ricardo S Bovendorp, Gabrielle Beca, Carolina Bello, Raul Costa-Pereira, Renata L Muylaert, Raisa R Rodarte, Nacho Villar, Rafael Souza, Maurício E Graipel, Jorge J Cherem, Deborah Faria, Julio Baumgarten, Martín R Alvarez, Emerson M Vieira, Nilton Cáceres, Renata Pardini, Yuri L R Leite, Leonora P Costa, Marco A R Mello, Erich Fischer, Fernando C Passos, Luiz H Varzinczak, Jayme A Prevedello, Ariovaldo P Cruz-Neto, Fernando Carvalho, Alexandre R Percequillo, Agustin Paviolo, Alessandra Nava, José M B Duarte, Noé U de la Sancha, Enrico Bernard, Ronaldo G Morato, Juliana F Ribeiro, Rafael G Becker, Gabriela Paise, Paulo S Tomasi, Felipe Vélez-Garcia, Geruza L Melo, Jonas Sponchiado, Felipe Cerezer, Marília A S Barros, Albérico Q S de Souza, Cinthya C Dos Santos, Gastón A F Giné, Patricia Kerches-Rogeri, Marcelo M Weber, Guilherme Ambar, Lucía V Cabrera-Martinez, Alan Eriksson, Maurício Silveira, Carolina F Santos, Lucas Alves, Eder Barbier, Gabriela C Rezende, Guilherme S T Garbino, Élson O Rios, Adna Silva, Alexandre Túlio A Nascimento, Rodrigo S de Carvalho, Anderson Feijó, Juan Arrabal, Ilaria Agostini, Daniela Lamattina, Sebastian Costa, Ezequiel Vanderhoeven, Fabiano R de Melo, Plautino de Oliveira Laroque, Leandro Jerusalinsky, Mônica M Valença-Montenegro, Amely B Martins, Gabriela Ludwig, Renata B de Azevedo, Agustin Anzóategui, Marina X da Silva, Marcela Figuerêdo Duarte Moraes, Alexandre Vogliotti, Andressa Gatti, Thomas Püttker, Camila S Barros, Thais K Martins, Alexine Keuroghlian, Donald P Eaton, Carolina L Neves, Marcelo S Nardi, Caryne Braga, Pablo R Gonçalves, Ana Carolina Srbek-Araujo, Poliana Mendes, João A de Oliveira, Fábio A M Soares, Patrício A Rocha, Peter Crawshaw, Milton C Ribeiro, Mauro Galetti
Measures of traits are the basis of functional biological diversity. Numerous works consider mean species-level measures of traits while ignoring individual variance within species. However, there is a large amount of variation within species and it is increasingly apparent that it is important to consider trait variation not only between species, but also within species. Mammals are an interesting group for investigating trait-based approaches because they play diverse and important ecological functions (e...
February 2018: Ecology
Rupinder Chahal, Abhijit Anand Mohite, Heinrich Heimann, Atul Bansal
PURPOSE: We report a previously unrecognised mechanism of secondary glaucoma due to iridescent crystalline particles released from an irradiated iris melanoma. It masqueraded as refractory hypertensive uveitis following uncomplicated phacoemulsification. METHODS: A 58-year-old gentleman had an iris melanoma that underwent successful regression following irradiation with proton beam radiotherapy (PBRT). Three years later an uncomplicated phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implant was performed and subsequently the patient presented with apparently "refractory hypertensive uveitis"...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Glaucoma
Lucas Silveira Tavares, Luciana Affonso Junqueira, Ívina Catarina de Oliveira Guimarães, Jaime Vilela de Resende
Chia seeds (Salvia hispanica L.) when immersed in water, produce a highly viscous solution due to the release of mucilage, high molecular weight complex carbohydrates with wide application in the food industry. Thus, this study involve development of method for extracting mucilage from chia seed based on mechanical process and low temperature. The method involve extraction by cold pressing and drying by freeze-drying, which was compared to the traditional hot extraction method. The chia seed mucilage cultivated in Brazil was extracted successfully using the previously mentioned extraction method...
February 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Carolina Pometti, Cecilia Bessega, Ana Cialdella, Mauricio Ewens, Beatriz Saidman, Juan Vilardi
The identification of factors that structure intraspecific diversity is of particular interest for biological conservation and restoration ecology. All rangelands in Argentina are currently experiencing some form of deterioration or desertification. Acacia aroma is a multipurpose species widely distributed throughout this country. In this study, we used the AFLP technique to study genetic diversity, population genetic structure, and fine-scale spatial genetic structure in 170 individuals belonging to 6 natural Argentinean populations...
2018: PloS One
Addisie Geremew, Melkamu G Woldemariam, Alemayehu Kefalew, Iris Stiers, Ludwig Triest
Limited seed or pollen dispersal enhances spatial genetic relatedness between individuals (fine-scale spatial genetic structure, FSGS), which usually decreases as a function of physical distance. However, such isotropic pattern of FSGS may not always occur when spatially asymmetric processes, for instance, wind direction during dispersal, are considered in wind-pollinated and -dispersed plants. This study assessed the pattern of FSGS in the keystone tropical wetland plant Cyperus papyrus (papyrus) as a function of these isotropic and anisotropic processes...
February 2018: AoB Plants
Kelley L Flaherty, James S Rentch, James T Anderson
Mechanisms of long-distance dispersal are important in establishing and maintaining plant populations in isolated wetland habitats. White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) have been cited as long-distance dispersers of both native and exotic plant species in North America; however, knowledge regarding their influence in wetlands is limited. Given traditional classification methods for seed dispersal, white-tailed deer are not likely viewed as important dispersal mechanism for wetland plants. We collected naturally deposited white-tailed deer faecal pellet piles from wetlands in Canaan Valley, West Virginia, USA...
February 2018: AoB Plants
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