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Mutualistic network

Frederic Libersat, Maayan Kaiser, Stav Emanuel
Neuro-parasitology is an emerging branch of science that deals with parasites that can control the nervous system of the host. It offers the possibility of discovering how one species (the parasite) modifies a particular neural network, and thus particular behaviors, of another species (the host). Such parasite-host interactions, developed over millions of years of evolution, provide unique tools by which one can determine how neuromodulation up-or-down regulates specific behaviors. In some of the most fascinating manipulations, the parasite taps into the host brain neuronal circuities to manipulate hosts cognitive functions...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Marisabel Rodriguez Rodriguez, Darin Kopp, Daniel Allen, Yun Kang
The exchange of resources across ecosystem boundaries can have large impacts on ecosystem structures and functions at local and regional scales. In this article, we develop a simple model to investigate dynamical implications of bi-directional resource exchanges between two local ecosystems in a meta-ecosystem framework. In our model, we assume that (1) Each local ecosystem acts as both a resource donor and recipient, such that one ecosystem donating resources to another results in a cost to the donating system and a benefit to the recipient; and (2) The costs and benefits of the bi-directional resource exchange between two ecosystems are correlated in a nonlinear fashion...
May 5, 2018: Mathematical Biosciences
Laura Hernández, Annick Vignes, Stéphanie Saba
Centralized markets are often considered more efficient than bilateral exchanges because information is public and the same for all the agents. On decentralized markets, where the information is private, the influence of trust on the market outcome has been underlined by many authors. We present an empirical study of the distinctive Boulogne-sur-Mer Fish Market (where both buyers and sellers can choose to trade by either bidding or bargaining), focused on the interactions between agents. Our approach is inspired by studies of mutualistic ecosystems, where the agents are of two different types (as in plant-pollinator networks) and the interactions only take place between agents of different kinds, naturally providing benefits to both...
2018: PloS One
Qi Li, Feibi Lin, Chen Yang, Juanping Wang, Yan Lin, Mengyuan Shen, Min S Park, Tao Li, Jindong Zhao
Cyanobacterial blooms are worldwide issues of societal concern and scientific interest. Lake Taihu and Lake Dianchi, two of the largest lakes in China, have been suffering from annual Microcystis -based blooms over the past two decades. These two eutrophic lakes differ in both nutrient load and environmental parameters, where Microcystis microbiota consisting of different Microcystis morphospecies and associated bacteria (epibionts) have dominated. We conducted a comprehensive metagenomic study that analyzed species diversity, community structure, functional components, metabolic pathways and networks to investigate functional interactions among the members of six Microcystis -epibiont communities in these two lakes...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Alexandra L McCully, Megan G Behringer, Jennifer R Gliessman, Evgeny V Pilipenko, Jeffrey L Mazny, Michael Lynch, D Allan Drummond, James B McKinlay
Microbial mutualistic cross-feeding interactions are ubiquitous and can drive important community functions. Engaging in cross-feeding undoubtedly affects the physiology and metabolism of individual species involved. However, the nature in which an individual's physiology is influenced by cross-feeding and the importance of those physiological changes for the mutualism have received little attention. We previously developed a genetically tractable coculture to study bacterial mutualisms. The coculture consists of fermentative Escherichia coli and phototrophic Rhodopseudomonas palustris In this coculture, E...
May 4, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
David H Hembry, Rafael L G Raimundo, Erica A Newman, Lesje Atkinson, Chang Guo, Paulo R Guimarães, Rosemary G Gillespie
1.Biological intimacy-the degree of physical proximity or integration of partner taxa during their life cycles-is thought to promote the evolution of reciprocal specialization and modularity in the networks formed by co-occurring mutualistic species, but this hypothesis has rarely been tested. 2.Here, we test this "biological intimacy hypothesis" by comparing the network architecture of brood pollination mutualisms, in which specialized insects are simultaneously parasites (as larvae) and pollinators (as adults) of their host plants to that of other mutualisms which vary in their biological intimacy (including ant-myrmecophyte, ant-extrafloral nectary, plant-pollinator, and plant-seed disperser assemblages)...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Animal Ecology
Zhenwei Dai, Olabisi Oluwabukola Coker, Geicho Nakatsu, William K K Wu, Liuyang Zhao, Zigui Chen, Francis K L Chan, Karsten Kristiansen, Joseph J Y Sung, Sunny Hei Wong, Jun Yu
BACKGROUND: Alterations of gut microbiota are associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) in different populations and several bacterial species were found to contribute to the tumorigenesis. The potential use of gut microbes as markers for early diagnosis has also been reported. However, cohort specific noises may distort the structure of microbial dysbiosis in CRC and lead to inconsistent results among studies. In this regard, our study targeted at exploring changes in gut microbiota that are universal across populations at species level...
April 11, 2018: Microbiome
Benno I Simmons, William J Sutherland, Lynn V Dicks, Jörg Albrecht, Nina Farwig, Daniel García, Pedro Jordano, Juan P González-Varo
1.There is growing interest in understanding the functional outcomes of species interactions in ecological networks. For many mutualistic networks, including pollination and seed dispersal networks, interactions are generally sampled by recording animal foraging visits to plants. However, these visits may not reflect actual pollination or seed dispersal events, despite these typically being the ecological processes of interest. 2.Frugivorous animals can act as seed dispersers, by swallowing entire fruits and dispersing their seeds, or as pulp peckers or seed predators, by pecking fruits to consume pieces of pulp or seeds...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Animal Ecology
Peter Mikula, Jiří Hadrava, Tomáš Albrecht, Piotr Tryjanowski
Birds sitting or feeding on live large African herbivorous mammals are a visible, yet quite neglected, type of commensalistic-mutualistic association. Here, we investigate general patterns in such relationships at large spatial and taxonomic scales. To obtain large-scale data, an extensive internet-based search for photos was carried out on Google Images. To characterize patterns of the structural organization of commensalistic-mutualistic associations between African birds and herbivorous mammals, we used a network analysis approach...
2018: PeerJ
Marco Túlio P Coelho, Thiago F Rangel
A contemporary goal in ecology is to determine the ecological and evolutionary processes that generate recurring structural patterns in mutualistic networks. One of the great challenges is testing the capacity of neutral processes to replicate observed patterns in ecological networks, since the original formulation of the neutral theory lacks trophic interactions. Here, we develop a stochastic-simulation neutral model adding trophic interactions to the neutral theory of biodiversity. Without invoking ecological differences among individuals of different species, and assuming that ecological interactions emerge randomly, we demonstrate that a spatially explicit multitrophic neutral model is able to capture the recurrent structural patterns of mutualistic networks (i...
April 2018: American Naturalist
Carl Peter J Maury
A crucial stage in the origin of life was the emergence of the first molecular entity that was able to replicate, transmit information, and evolve on the early Earth. The amyloid world hypothesis posits that in the pre-RNA era, information processing was based on catalytic amyloids. The self-assembly of short peptides into β-sheet amyloid conformers leads to extraordinary structural stability and novel multifunctionality that cannot be achieved by the corresponding nonaggregated peptides. The new functions include self-replication, catalytic activities, and information transfer...
March 17, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Thomas Rey, Christophe Jacquet
Basic molecular knowledge on plant-pathogen interactions has largely been gained from reverse and forward genetics in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, as this model plant is unable to establish endosymbiosis with mycorrhizal fungi or rhizobia, plant responses to mutualistic symbionts have been studied in parallel in other plant species, mainly legumes. The resulting analyses led to the identification of gene networks involved in various functions, from microbe recognition to signalling and plant responses, thereafter assigned to either mutualistic symbiosis or immunity, according to the nature of the initially inoculated microbe...
March 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
Sathvik X Palakurty, John R Stinchcombe, Michelle E Afkhami
A mechanistic understanding of community ecology requires tackling the nonadditive effects of multispecies interactions, a challenge that necessitates integration of ecological and molecular complexity-namely moving beyond pairwise ecological interaction studies and the "gene at a time" approach to mechanism. Here, we investigate the consequences of multispecies mutualisms for the structure and function of genomewide differential coexpression networks for the first time, using the tractable and ecologically important interaction between legume Medicago truncatula, rhizobia and mycorrhizal fungi...
April 2018: Molecular Ecology
Talita Câmara, Inara R Leal, Nico Blüthgen, Fernanda M P Oliveira, Rubens T de Queiroz, Xavier Arnan
Anthropogenic disturbance and climate change might negatively affect the ecosystem services provided by mutualistic networks. However, the effects of such forces remain poorly characterized. They may be especially important in dry forests, which (1) experience chronic anthropogenic disturbances (CADs) as human populations exploit forest resources, and (2) are predicted to face a 22% decline in rainfall under climate change. In this study, we investigated the separate and combined effects of CADs and rainfall levels on the specialization of mutualistic networks in the Caatinga, a seasonally dry tropical forest typical of north-eastern Brazil...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Animal Ecology
Barry Scott, Kimberly Green, Daniel Berry
Epichloë endophytes form mutualistic symbiotic associations with aerial tissues of temperate grasses. Intercalary growth of hyphae within the leaves enables fungal growth to be synchronized with host leaf growth, leading to formation of a highly structured and tightly regulated symbiotic network. Mutations in fungal genes that disrupt cell-cell fusion and other key signalling pathways lead to an antagonistic interaction characterized by unregulated growth of endophytic hyphae and detrimental effects on host growth...
February 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
Qing Shen, Yingyao Liu, Naweed I Naqvi
Phytohormone networks are crucial for maintaining the delicate balance between growth and biotic stress responses in plants. Jasmonic acid, salicylic acid, ethylene, and the associated signaling crosstalk are important for pathogen defense; whereas gibberellin and cytokinin function in growth and development in plants. Plant pathogenic fungi have evolved remarkable strategies to manipulate and/or hijack such phytohormone signaling cascades for their own benefit, thus leading to susceptibility and disease in host plants...
February 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Microbiology
Issa Diédhiou, Diaga Diouf
Root endosymbioses are mutualistic interactions between plants and the soil microorganisms (Fungus, Frankia or Rhizobium) that lead to the formation of nitrogen-fixing root nodules and/or arbuscular mycorrhiza. These interactions enable many species to survive in different marginal lands to overcome the nitrogen-and/or phosphorus deficient environment and can potentially reduce the chemical fertilizers used in agriculture which gives them an economic, social and environmental importance. The formation and the development of these structures require the mediation of specific gene products among which the transcription factors play a key role...
February 15, 2018: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Aniek B F Ivens, Alice Gadau, E Toby Kiers, Daniel J C Kronauer
Mutualistic interactions with microbes have played a crucial role in the evolution and ecology of animal hosts. However, it is unclear what factors are most important in influencing particular host-microbe associations. While closely related animal species may have more similar microbiota than distantly related species due to phylogenetic contingencies, social partnerships with other organisms, such as those in which one animal farms another, may also influence an organism's symbiotic microbiome. We studied a mutualistic network of Brachymyrmex and Lasius ants farming several honeydew-producing Prociphilus aphids and Rhizoecus mealybugs to test whether the mutualistic microbiomes of these interacting insects are primarily correlated with their phylogeny or with their shared social partnerships...
February 7, 2018: Molecular Ecology
Bo Wang, Min Lu, James M Cook, Da-Rong Yang, Derek W Dunn, Rui-Wu Wang
Different types of mutualisms may interact, co-evolve and form complex networks of interdependences, but how species interact in networks of a mutualistic community and maintain its stability remains unclear. In a mutualistic network between treehoppers-weaver ants and fig-pollinating wasps, we found that the cuticular hydrocarbons of the treehoppers are more similar to the surface chemical profiles of fig inflorescence branches (FIB) than the cuticular hydrocarbons of the fig wasps. Behavioral assays showed that the cuticular hydrocarbons from both treehoppers and FIBs reduce the propensity of weaver ants to attack treehoppers even in the absence of honeydew rewards, suggesting that chemical camouflage helps enforce the mutualism between weaver ants and treehoppers...
January 30, 2018: Scientific Reports
Huimin Xu, Dayong Zhao, Rui Huang, Xinyi Cao, Jin Zeng, Zhongbo Yu, Katherine V Hooker, K David Hambright, Qinglong L Wu
Free-living (FL) and particle-attached (PA) bacterial communities play critical roles in nutrient cycles, metabolite production, and as a food source in aquatic systems, and while their community composition, diversity, and functions have been well studied, we know little about their community interactions, co-occurrence patterns, and niche occupancy. In the present study, 13 sites in Taihu Lake were selected to study the differences of co-occurrence patterns and niches occupied between the FL and PA bacterial communities using correlation-based network analysis...
January 9, 2018: Microbial Ecology
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