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Mutualistic network

Carl Peter J Maury
A crucial stage in the origin of life was the emergence of the first molecular entity that was able to replicate, transmit information, and evolve on the early Earth. The amyloid world hypothesis posits that in the pre-RNA era, information processing was based on catalytic amyloids. The self-assembly of short peptides into β-sheet amyloid conformers leads to extraordinary structural stability and novel multifunctionality that cannot be achieved by the corresponding nonaggregated peptides. The new functions include self-replication, catalytic activities, and information transfer...
March 17, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Thomas Rey, Christophe Jacquet
Basic molecular knowledge on plant-pathogen interactions has largely been gained from reverse and forward genetics in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, as this model plant is unable to establish endosymbiosis with mycorrhizal fungi or rhizobia, plant responses to mutualistic symbionts have been studied in parallel in other plant species, mainly legumes. The resulting analyses led to the identification of gene networks involved in various functions, from microbe recognition to signalling and plant responses, thereafter assigned to either mutualistic symbiosis or immunity, according to the nature of the initially inoculated microbe...
March 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
Sathvik X Palakurty, John R Stinchcombe, Michelle E Afkhami
A mechanistic understanding of community ecology requires tackling the nonadditive effects of multispecies interactions, a challenge that necessitates integration of ecological and molecular complexity- namely moving beyond pairwise ecological interaction studies and the 'gene at a time' approach to mechanism. Here, we investigate the consequences of multispecies mutualisms for the structure and function of genome-wide differential coexpression networks for the first time, using the tractable and ecologically-important interaction between legume Medicago truncatula, rhizobia, and mycorrhizal fungi...
March 13, 2018: Molecular Ecology
Talita Câmara, Inara R Leal, Nico Blüthgen, Fernanda M P Oliveira, Rubens T de Queiroz, Xavier Arnan
1.Anthropogenic disturbance and climate change might negatively affect the ecosystem services provided by mutualistic networks. However, the effects of such forces remain poorly characterized. They may be especially important in dry forests, which (1) experience chronic anthropogenic disturbances (CADs) as human populations exploit forest resources and (2) are predicted to face a 22% decline in rainfall under climate change. 2.In this study, we investigated the separate and combined effects of CADs and rainfall levels on the specialization of mutualistic networks in the Caatinga, a seasonally dry tropical forest typical of northeastern Brazil...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Animal Ecology
Barry Scott, Kimberly Green, Daniel Berry
Epichloë endophytes form mutualistic symbiotic associations with aerial tissues of temperate grasses. Intercalary growth of hyphae within the leaves enables fungal growth to be synchronized with host leaf growth, leading to formation of a highly structured and tightly regulated symbiotic network. Mutations in fungal genes that disrupt cell-cell fusion and other key signalling pathways lead to an antagonistic interaction characterized by unregulated growth of endophytic hyphae and detrimental effects on host growth...
February 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
Qing Shen, Yingyao Liu, Naweed I Naqvi
Phytohormone networks are crucial for maintaining the delicate balance between growth and biotic stress responses in plants. Jasmonic acid, salicylic acid, ethylene, and the associated signaling crosstalk are important for pathogen defense; whereas gibberellin and cytokinin function in growth and development in plants. Plant pathogenic fungi have evolved remarkable strategies to manipulate and/or hijack such phytohormone signaling cascades for their own benefit, thus leading to susceptibility and disease in host plants...
February 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Microbiology
Issa Diédhiou, Diaga Diouf
Root endosymbioses are mutualistic interactions between plants and the soil microorganisms (Fungus, Frankia or Rhizobium) that lead to the formation of nitrogen-fixing root nodules and/or arbuscular mycorrhiza. These interactions enable many species to survive in different marginal lands to overcome the nitrogen-and/or phosphorus deficient environment and can potentially reduce the chemical fertilizers used in agriculture which gives them an economic, social and environmental importance. The formation and the development of these structures require the mediation of specific gene products among which the transcription factors play a key role...
February 15, 2018: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
A B F Ivens, A Gadau, E T Kiers, D J C Kronauer
Mutualistic interactions with microbes have played a crucial role in the evolution and ecology of animal hosts. However, it is unclear what factors are most important in influencing particular host-microbe associations. While closely related animal species may have more similar microbiota than distantly related species due to phylogenetic contingencies, social partnerships with other organisms, such as those in which one animal farms another, may also influence an organism's symbiotic microbiome. We studied a mutualistic network of Brachymyrmex and Lasius ants farming several honeydew-producing Prociphilus aphids and Rhizoecus mealybugs to test whether the mutualistic microbiomes of these interacting insects are primarily correlated with their phylogeny or with their shared social partnerships...
February 7, 2018: Molecular Ecology
Bo Wang, Min Lu, James M Cook, Da-Rong Yang, Derek W Dunn, Rui-Wu Wang
Different types of mutualisms may interact, co-evolve and form complex networks of interdependences, but how species interact in networks of a mutualistic community and maintain its stability remains unclear. In a mutualistic network between treehoppers-weaver ants and fig-pollinating wasps, we found that the cuticular hydrocarbons of the treehoppers are more similar to the surface chemical profiles of fig inflorescence branches (FIB) than the cuticular hydrocarbons of the fig wasps. Behavioral assays showed that the cuticular hydrocarbons from both treehoppers and FIBs reduce the propensity of weaver ants to attack treehoppers even in the absence of honeydew rewards, suggesting that chemical camouflage helps enforce the mutualism between weaver ants and treehoppers...
January 30, 2018: Scientific Reports
Huimin Xu, Dayong Zhao, Rui Huang, Xinyi Cao, Jin Zeng, Zhongbo Yu, Katherine V Hooker, K David Hambright, Qinglong L Wu
Free-living (FL) and particle-attached (PA) bacterial communities play critical roles in nutrient cycles, metabolite production, and as a food source in aquatic systems, and while their community composition, diversity, and functions have been well studied, we know little about their community interactions, co-occurrence patterns, and niche occupancy. In the present study, 13 sites in Taihu Lake were selected to study the differences of co-occurrence patterns and niches occupied between the FL and PA bacterial communities using correlation-based network analysis...
January 9, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Jens M Olesen, Christian F Damgaard, Francisco Fuster, Ruben H Heleno, Manuel Nogales, Beatriz Rumeu, Kristian Trøjelsgaard, Pablo Vargas, Anna Traveset
Life on oceanic islands deviate in many ways from that on the mainland. Their biodiversity is relatively poor and some groups are well-represented, others not, especially not insects. A scarcity of insects forces birds to explore alternative food, such as nectar and fruit. In this way, island birds may pollinate and disperse seed to an extent unseen on any mainland; they may even first consume floral resources of a plant species and then later harvest the fruit of the same species. Through this biotic reuse, they may act as double mutualists...
January 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Junjie Jiang, Zi-Gang Huang, Thomas P Seager, Wei Lin, Celso Grebogi, Alan Hastings, Ying-Cheng Lai
Complex networked systems ranging from ecosystems and the climate to economic, social, and infrastructure systems can exhibit a tipping point (a "point of no return") at which a total collapse of the system occurs. To understand the dynamical mechanism of a tipping point and to predict its occurrence as a system parameter varies are of uttermost importance, tasks that are hindered by the often extremely high dimensionality of the underlying system. Using complex mutualistic networks in ecology as a prototype class of systems, we carry out a dimension reduction process to arrive at an effective 2D system with the two dynamical variables corresponding to the average pollinator and plant abundances...
January 8, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Amanda C Perofsky, Rebecca J Lewis, Laura A Abondano, Anthony Di Fiore, Lauren Ancel Meyers
In wild primates, social behaviour influences exposure to environmentally acquired and directly transmitted microorganisms. Prior studies indicate that gut microbiota reflect pairwise social interactions among chimpanzee and baboon hosts. Here, we demonstrate that higher-order social network structure-beyond just pairwise interactions-drives gut bacterial composition in wild lemurs, which live in smaller and more cohesive groups than previously studied anthropoid species. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and social network analysis of grooming contacts, we estimate the relative impacts of hierarchical (i...
December 6, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Sergi Valverde, Jordi Piñero, Bernat Corominas-Murtra, Jose Montoya, Lucas Joppa, Ricard Solé
Mutualistic networks have been shown to involve complex patterns of interactions among animal and plant species, including a widespread presence of nestedness. The nested structure of these webs seems to be positively correlated with higher diversity and resilience. Moreover, these webs exhibit marked measurable structural patterns, including broad distributions of connectivity, strongly asymmetrical interactions and hierarchical organization. Hierarchical organization is an especially interesting property, since it is positively correlated with biodiversity and network resilience, thus suggesting potential selection processes favouring the observed web organization...
January 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
Julia Astegiano, Florian Altermatt, François Massol
Species establish different interactions (e.g. antagonistic, mutualistic) with multiple species, forming multilayer ecological networks. Disentangling network co-structure in multilayer networks is crucial to predict how biodiversity loss may affect the persistence of multispecies assemblages. Existing methods to analyse multilayer networks often fail to consider network co-structure. We present a new method to evaluate the modular co-structure of multilayer networks through the assessment of species degree co-distribution and network module composition...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
Olga Taran, Chenrui Chen, Tolulope O Omosun, Ming-Chien Hsieh, Allisandra Rha, Jay T Goodwin, Anil K Mehta, Martha A Grover, David G Lynn
The RNA world hypothesis simplifies the complex biopolymer networks underlining the informational and metabolic needs of living systems to a single biopolymer scaffold. This simplification requires abiotic reaction cascades for the construction of RNA, and this chemistry remains the subject of active research. Here, we explore a complementary approach involving the design of dynamic peptide networks capable of amplifying encoded chemical information and setting the stage for mutualistic associations with RNA...
December 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Silvana Sant Anna de Souza, Carolina Moura Catta-Preta, João Marcelo P Alves, Danielle P Cavalcanti, Marta M G Teixeira, Erney P Camargo, Wanderley De Souza, Rosane Silva, Maria Cristina M Motta
In trypanosomatids, the kinetoplast is the portion of the single mitochondrion that is connected to the basal body and contains the kDNA, a network composed by circular and interlocked DNA. The kDNA packing is conducted by Kinetoplast Associated Proteins (KAPs), which are similar to eukaryotic histone H1. In symbiont-harboring trypanosomatids (SHTs) such as Angomonas deanei and Strigomonas culicis, a ß-proteobacterium co-evolves with the host in a mutualistic relationship. The prokaryote confers nutritional benefits to the host and affects its cell structure...
2017: PloS One
Natacha P Chacoff, Julian Resasco, Diego P Vázquez
Ecological interactions are highly dynamic in time and space. Previous studies of plant-animal mutualistic networks have shown that the occurrence of interactions varies substantially across years. We analyzed interannual variation of a quantitative mutualistic network, in which links are weighted by interaction frequency. The network was sampled over six consecutive years, representing one of the longest time series for a community-wide mutualistic network. We estimated the interannual similarity in interactions and assessed the determinants of their persistence...
January 2018: Ecology
Paulo R Guimarães, Mathias M Pires, Pedro Jordano, Jordi Bascompte, John N Thompson
Ecological interactions have been acknowledged to play a key role in shaping biodiversity. Yet a major challenge for evolutionary biology is to understand the role of ecological interactions in shaping trait evolution when progressing from pairs of interacting species to multispecies interaction networks. Here we introduce an approach that integrates coevolutionary dynamics and network structure. Our results show that non-interacting species can be as important as directly interacting species in shaping coevolution within mutualistic assemblages...
October 26, 2017: Nature
Ioannis A Stringlis, Silvia Proietti, Richard Hickman, Marcel C Van Verk, Christos Zamioudis, Corné M J Pieterse
Below ground, microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) of root-associated microbiota can trigger costly defenses at the expense of plant growth. However, beneficial rhizobacteria, such as Pseudomonas simiae WCS417, promote plant growth and induce systemic resistance without being warded off by local root immune responses. To investigate early root responses that facilitate WCS417 to exert its plant-beneficial functions, we performed time series RNA-Seq of Arabidopsis roots in response to live WCS417 and compared it with MAMPs flg22417 (from WCS417), flg22Pa (from pathogenic Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and fungal chitin...
January 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
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