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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812626/dispersal-governs-the-reorganization-of-ecological-networks-under-environmental-change
#1
Patrick L Thompson, Andrew Gonzalez
Ecological networks, such as food webs, mutualist webs and host-parasite webs, are reorganizing as species abundances and spatial distributions shift in response to environmental change. Current theoretical expectations for how this reorganization will occur are available for competition or for parts of interaction networks, but these may not extend to more complex networks. Here we use metacommunity theory to develop new expectations for how complex networks will reorganize under environmental change, and show that dispersal is crucial for determining the degree to which networks will retain their composition and structure...
May 8, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810707/seasonal-and-spatial-variations-of-prokaryoplankton-communities-in-a-salinity-influenced-watershed-china
#2
Anyi Hu, Hongjie Wang, Xiaoyang Yang, Liyuan Hou, Jiangwei Li, Shuang Li, Chang-Ping Yu
Prokaryotes represent the largest biodiversity pool and drive the biogeochemical cycles in fluvial environments. However, the mechanisms underlying the assembly of prokaryotic communities are largely unexplored at taxonomic and functional levels, simultaneously. Here, we investigated the spatio-seasonal distribution of prokaryoplankton communities in a salinity-influenced watershed, China using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. The OTUs were divided into core and satellite, based on a statistical approach...
August 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754943/design-of-multi-phase-dynamic-chemical-networks
#3
Chenrui Chen, Junjun Tan, Ming-Chien Hsieh, Ting Pan, Jay T Goodwin, Anil K Mehta, Martha A Grover, David G Lynn
Template-directed polymerization reactions enable the accurate storage and processing of nature's biopolymer information. This mutualistic relationship of nucleic acids and proteins, a network known as life's central dogma, is now marvellously complex, and the progressive steps necessary for creating the initial sequence and chain-length-specific polymer templates are lost to time. Here we design and construct dynamic polymerization networks that exploit metastable prion cross-β phases. Mixed-phase environments have been used for constructing synthetic polymers, but these dynamic phases emerge naturally from the growing peptide oligomers and create environments suitable both to nucleate assembly and select for ordered templates...
August 2017: Nature Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727281/defaunation-leads-to-interaction-deficits-not-interaction-compensation-in-an-island-seed-dispersal-network
#4
Evan C Fricke, Joshua J Tewksbury, Haldre S Rogers
Following defaunation, the loss of interactions with mutualists such as pollinators or seed dispersers may be compensated through increased interactions with remaining mutualists, ameliorating the negative cascading impacts on biodiversity. Alternatively, remaining mutualists may respond to altered competition by reducing the breadth or intensity of their interactions, exacerbating negative impacts on biodiversity. Despite the importance of these responses for our understanding of the dynamics of mutualistic networks and their response to global change, the mechanism and magnitude of interaction compensation within real mutualistic networks remains largely unknown...
July 20, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709280/collapse-of-resilience-patterns-in-generalized-lotka-volterra-dynamics-and-beyond
#5
Chengyi Tu, Jacopo Grilli, Friedrich Schuessler, Samir Suweis
Recently, a theoretical framework aimed at separating the roles of dynamics and topology in multidimensional systems has been developed [Gao et al., Nature (London) 530, 307 (2016)10.1038/nature16948]. The validity of their method is assumed to hold depending on two main hypotheses: (i) The network determined by the the interaction between pairs of nodes has negligible degree correlations; (ii) the node activities are uniform across nodes on both the drift and the pairwise interaction functions. Moreover, the authors consider only positive (mutualistic) interactions...
June 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696537/fire-influences-the-structure-of-plant-bee-networks
#6
G Peralta, E L Stevani, N P Chacoff, J Dorado, D P Vázquez
1. Fire represents a frequent disturbance in many ecosystems, which can affect plant-pollinator assemblages and hence the services they provide. Furthermore, fire events could affect the architecture of plant-pollinator interaction networks, modifying the structure and function of communities. 2. Some pollinators, such as wood-nesting bees, may be particularly affected by fire events due to damage to nesting material and its long regeneration time. However, it remains unclear whether fire influences the structure of bee plant interactions...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637917/degree-heterogeneity-and-stability-of-ecological-networks
#7
Gang Yan, Neo D Martinez, Yang-Yu Liu
A classic measure of ecological stability describes the tendency of a community to return to equilibrium after small perturbations. While many advances show how the network architecture of these communities severely constrains such tendencies, one of the most fundamental properties of network structure, i.e. degree heterogeneity-the variability of the number of links associated with each species, deserves further study. Here we show that the effects of degree heterogeneity on stability vary with different types of interspecific interactions...
June 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637838/experimental-species-removals-impact-the-architecture-of-pollination-networks
#8
Berry J Brosi, Kyle Niezgoda, Heather M Briggs
Mutualistic networks are key for the creation and maintenance of biodiversity, yet are threatened by global environmental change. Most simulation models assume that network structure remains static after species losses, despite theoretical and empirical reasons to expect dynamic responses. We assessed the effects of experimental single bumblebee species removals on the structure of entire flower visitation networks. We hypothesized that network structure would change following processes linking interspecific competition with dietary niche breadth...
June 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547568/biofertilizers-and-sustainable-agriculture-exploring-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi
#9
REVIEW
Nicholas O Igiehon, Olubukola O Babalola
Worldwide agricultural food production has to double in 2050 so as to feed the global increasing population while reducing dependency on conventional chemical fertilizers plus pesticides. To accomplish this objective, there is the need to explore the several mutualistic interactions between plant roots and rhizosphere microbiome. Biofertilization is the process of boosting the abundance of microorganisms such as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in the natural plant rhizosphere which depicts a beneficial alternative to chemical fertilization practices...
May 25, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535261/recruitment-of-a-lineage-specific-virulence-regulatory-pathway-promotes-intracellular-infection-by-a-plant-pathogen-experimentally-evolved-into-a-legume-symbiont
#10
Delphine Capela, Marta Marchetti, Camille Clérissi, Anthony Perrier, Dorian Guetta, Carine Gris, Marc Valls, Alain Jauneau, Stéphane Cruveiller, Eduardo P C Rocha, Catherine Masson-Boivin
Ecological transitions between different lifestyles, such as pathogenicity, mutualism and saprophytism, have been very frequent in the course of microbial evolution, and often driven by horizontal gene transfer. Yet, how genomes achieve the ecological transition initiated by the transfer of complex biological traits remains poorly known. Here we used experimental evolution, genomics, transcriptomics and high-resolution phenotyping to analyze the evolution of the plant pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum into legume symbionts, following the transfer of a natural plasmid encoding the essential mutualistic genes...
May 23, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533969/ranking-of-critical-species-to-preserve-the-functionality-of-mutualistic-networks-using-the-k-core-decomposition
#11
Javier García-Algarra, Juan Manuel Pastor, José María Iriondo, Javier Galeano
BACKGROUND: Network analysis has become a relevant approach to analyze cascading species extinctions resulting from perturbations on mutualistic interactions as a result of environmental change. In this context, it is essential to be able to point out key species, whose stability would prevent cascading extinctions, and the consequent loss of ecosystem function. In this study, we aim to explain how the k-core decomposition sheds light on the understanding the robustness of bipartite mutualistic networks...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523126/transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-a-master-regulator-of-the-gut-microbiota-and-immune-cell-interactions
#12
REVIEW
David Bauché, Julien C Marie
The relationship between host organisms and their microbiota has co-evolved towards an inter-dependent network of mutualistic interactions. This interplay is particularly well studied in the gastrointestinal tract, where microbiota and host immune cells can modulate each other directly, as well as indirectly, through the production and release of chemical molecules and signals. In this review, we define the functional impact of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) on this complex interplay, especially through its modulation of the activity of local regulatory T cells (Tregs), type 17 helper (Th17) cells, innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) and B cells...
April 2017: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490622/mutualistic-strategies-minimize-coextinction-in-plant-disperser-networks
#13
Evan C Fricke, Joshua J Tewksbury, Elizabeth M Wandrag, Haldre S Rogers
The global decline of mutualists such as pollinators and seed dispersers may cause negative direct and indirect impacts on biodiversity. Mutualistic network models used to understand the stability of mutualistic systems indicate that species with low partner diversity are most vulnerable to coextinction following mutualism disruption. However, existing models have not considered how species vary in their dependence on mutualistic interactions for reproduction or survival, overlooking the potential influence of this variation on species' coextinction vulnerability and on network stability...
May 17, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469020/trophic-level-successional-age-and-trait-matching-determine-specialization-of-deadwood-based-interaction-networks-of-saproxylic-beetles
#14
Beate Wende, Martin M Gossner, Ingo Grass, Tobias Arnstadt, Martin Hofrichter, Andreas Floren, Karl Eduard Linsenmair, Wolfgang W Weisser, Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter
The specialization of ecological networks provides important insights into possible consequences of biodiversity loss for ecosystem functioning. However, mostly mutualistic and antagonistic interactions of living organisms have been studied, whereas detritivore networks and their successional changes are largely unexplored. We studied the interactions of saproxylic (deadwood-dependent) beetles with their dead host trees. In a large-scale experiment, 764 logs of 13 tree species were exposed to analyse network structure of three trophic groups of saproxylic beetles over 3 successional years...
May 17, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444516/trap-nesting-hymenoptera-and-their-network-with-parasites-in-recovered-riparian-forests-brazil
#15
G J Araujo, R Fagundes, Y Antonini
Different aspects of human activities can cause environmental change that endanger species persistence, alter species distributions, and lead to changes in antagonistic and mutualistic interactions, whereas deforestation and flooding of riparian forest results in landscapes consisting of patchily distributed riparian forest fragments in a matrix of pastures, plantations, and urban areas. Therefore, we assessed the richness, abundance, and trophic interactions of trap-nesting Hymenoptera and their parasites at four patches of restored riparian forest and at one reference natural fragment, of different sizes and ages, located at the Volta Grande Reservoir, in Minas Gerais and São Paulo states to answer the following questions: (1) Does the richness and abundance of cavity-nesting bees and wasps differ in riparian forest fragments according to the seasonal periods? (2) Does the composition of cavity-nesting bees and wasps vary among restoration and reference sites and between climate seasons (wet and dry)? (3) How do the degrees of specialization of the parasites vary among the patches of forest? We recorded 12 species of wasps, eight of bees, and nine species of parasites...
April 25, 2017: Neotropical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431213/genome-mining-unearths-a-hybrid-nonribosomal-peptide-synthetase-like-pteridine-synthase-biosynthetic-gene-cluster
#16
Hyun Bong Park, Corey E Perez, Karl W Barber, Jesse Rinehart, Jason M Crawford
Nonribosomal peptides represent a large class of metabolites with pharmaceutical relevance. Pteridines, such as pterins, folates, and flavins, are heterocyclic metabolites that often serve as redox-active cofactors. The biosynthetic machineries for construction of these distinct classes of small molecules operate independently in the cell. Here, we discovered an unprecedented nonribosomal peptide synthetase-like-pteridine synthase hybrid biosynthetic gene cluster in Photorhabdus luminescens using genome synteny analysis...
March 15, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415137/drivers-of-species-role-in-avian-seed-dispersal-mutualistic-networks
#17
Esther Sebastián-González
The mutualistic interaction between frugivore birds and the fruiting plants they disperse presents an asymmetric interaction pattern, with some species having a more important role (i.e. being essential) for maintaining the structure and functioning of the interaction network. The identification of the biological characteristics of these species is of major importance for the understanding and conservation of seed-dispersal interactions. In this study, I use a network approach and avian seed-dispersal networks from 23 different geographical areas to test five hypotheses about species characteristics determining the structure of the assemblage...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410570/natural-selection-drove-metabolic-specialization-of-the-chromatophore-in-paulinella-chromatophora
#18
Cecilio Valadez-Cano, Roberto Olivares-Hernández, Osbaldo Resendis-Antonio, Alexander DeLuna, Luis Delaye
BACKGROUND: Genome degradation of host-restricted mutualistic endosymbionts has been attributed to inactivating mutations and genetic drift while genes coding for host-relevant functions are conserved by purifying selection. Unlike their free-living relatives, the metabolism of mutualistic endosymbionts and endosymbiont-originated organelles is specialized in the production of metabolites which are released to the host. This specialization suggests that natural selection crafted these metabolic adaptations...
April 14, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402583/the-potential-indirect-effects-among-plants-via-shared-hummingbird-pollinators-are-structured-by-phenotypic-similarity
#19
Pedro Joaquim Bergamo, Marina Wolowski, Pietro Kiyoshi Maruyama, Jeferson Vizentin-Bugoni, Luísa G Carvalheiro, Marlies Sazima
Plant species within communities may overlap in pollinators' use and influence visitation patterns of shared pollinators, potentially engaging in indirect interactions (e.g., facilitation or competition). While several studies have explored the mechanisms regulating insect-pollination networks, there is a lack of studies on bird-pollination systems, particularly in species-rich tropical areas. Here, we evaluated if phenotypic similarity, resource availability (floral abundance), evolutionary relatedness and flowering phenology affect the potential for indirect effects via shared pollinators in hummingbird-pollinated plant species within four communities in the Brazilian Atlantic forest...
April 12, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358026/molecular-characterization-reveals-the-complexity-of-previously-overlooked-coral-exosymbiont-interactions-and-the-implications-for-coral-guild-ecology
#20
H Rouzé, M Leray, H Magalon, L Penin, P Gélin, N Knowlton, C Fauvelot
Several obligate associate crabs and shrimps species may co-occur and interact within a single coral host, leading to patterns of associations that can provide essential ecological services. However, knowledge of the dynamics of interactions in this system is limited, partly because identifying species involved in the network remains challenging. In this study, we assessed the diversity of the decapods involved in exosymbiotic assemblages for juvenile and adult Pocillopora damicornis types α and β on reefs of New Caledonia and Reunion Island...
March 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
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