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Mutualistic network

Xianan Xie, Hui Lin, Xiaowei Peng, Congrui Xu, Zhongfeng Sun, Kexin Jiang, Antian Huang, Xiaohui Wu, Nianwu Tang, Alessandra Salvioli, Paola Bonfante, Bin Zhao
The majority of terrestrial vascular plants are capable of forming mutualistic associations with obligate biotrophic arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi from the phylum Glomeromycota. This mutualistic symbiosis provides the fungus with fixed carbohydrates, and reciprocally improves plant phosphate (Pi) uptake. AM fungal transporters can acquire Pi from the soil through the hyphal networks. Nevertheless, the precise functions of AM fungal Pi transporters, and whether they act as sensors, apart from as nutrient transporters, in fungal signal transduction remain unclear...
September 26, 2016: Molecular Plant
Colin Campbell, Laura Russo, Alessandra Marins, Og DeSouza, Karsten Schönrogge, David Mortensen, John Tooker, Réka Albert, Katriona Shea
The analysis of ecological networks is generally bottom-up, where networks are established by observing interactions between individuals. Emergent network properties have been indicated to reflect the dominant mode of interactions in communities that might be mutualistic (e.g., pollination) or antagonistic (e.g., host-parasitoid communities). Many ecological communities, however, comprise species interactions that are difficult to observe directly. Here, we propose that a comparison of the emergent properties from detail-rich reference communities with known modes of interaction can inform our understanding of detail-sparse focal communities...
September 2016: Ecology and Evolution
Henintsoa Onivola Minoarivelo, Cang Hui
Biological invasion remains a major threat to biodiversity in general and a disruptor to mutualistic interactions in particular. While a number of empirical studies have directly explored the role of invasion in mutualistic pollination networks, a clear picture is yet to emerge and a theoretical model for comprehension still lacking. Here, using an eco-evolutionary model of bipartite mutualistic networks with trait-mediated interactions, we explore invader trait, propagule pressure, and network features of recipient community that contribute importantly to the success and impact of an invasion...
July 2016: Ecology and Evolution
Monika Rajtor, Zofia Piotrowska-Seget
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) form mutualistic associations with the roots of 80-90% of vascular plant species and may constitute up to 50% of the total soil microbial biomass. AMF have been considered to be a tool to enhance phytoremediation, as their mycelium create a widespread underground network that acts as a bridge between plant roots, soil and rhizosphere microorganisms. Abundant extramatrical hyphae extend the rhizosphere thus creating the hyphosphere, which significantly increases the area of a plant's access to nutrients and contaminants...
November 2016: Chemosphere
David J Clarke
A general definition of secondary metabolism is that it consists of the metabolic pathways and the products of metabolism that are not absolutely required for the survival of the organism. Using this definition, it is now well established that Photorhabdus elaborate an extensive secondary metabolism during the post-exponential phase of bacterial growth. This secondary metabolism includes, but is not limited to, the production of light, a stilbene antibiotic and an anthraquinone pigment. In this chapter, the role of secondary metabolism during the life cycle of Photorhabdus will be discussed...
July 29, 2016: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Shoko Sakai, Soeren Metelmann, Yukihiko Toquenaga, Arndt Telschow
Plant-animal mutualistic networks are characterized by highly heterogeneous degree distributions. The majority of species interact with few partner species, while a small number are highly connected to form network hubs that are proposed to play an important role in community stability. It has not been investigated, however, if or how the degree distributions vary among types of mutualisms or communities, or between plants and animals in the same network. Here, we evaluate the degree distributions of pollination and seed-dispersal networks, which are two major types of mutualistic networks that have often been discussed in parallel, using an index based on Pielou's evenness...
June 2016: Royal Society Open Science
Daniel W Carstensen, Malena Sabatino, Leonor Patricia C Morellato
Mutualistic interaction networks have been shown to be structurally conserved over space and time while pairwise interactions show high variability. In such networks, modularity is the division of species into compartments, or modules, where species within modules share more interactions with each other than they do with species from other modules. Such a modular structure is common in mutualistic networks and several evolutionary and ecological mechanisms have been proposed as underlying drivers. One prominent explanation is the existence of pollination syndromes where flowers tend to attract certain pollinators as determined by a set of traits...
May 2016: Ecology
Michelle Ramos-Robles, Ellen Andresen, Cecilia Díaz-Castelazo
Background. Ecological communities are dynamic collections whose composition and structure change over time, making up complex interspecific interaction networks. Mutualistic plant-animal networks can be approached through complex network analysis; these networks are characterized by a nested structure consisting of a core of generalist species, which endows the network with stability and robustness against disturbance. Those mutualistic network structures can vary as a consequence of seasonal fluctuations and food availability, as well as the arrival of new species into the system that might disorder the mutualistic network structure (e...
2016: PeerJ
A Mougi
Contrary to stable natural ecosystems, the classical ecological theory predicts that complex ecological communities are fragile. The adaptive switching of interaction partners was proposed as a key factor to resolve the complexity-stability problem. However, this theory is based on the food webs that comprise predator-prey interactions alone; thus, the manner in which adaptive behavior affects the dynamics of hybrid communities with multiple interaction types remains unclear. Here, using a bipartite community network model with antagonistic and mutualistic interactions, I show that adaptive partner shifts by both antagonists and mutualists are crucial to the persistence of communities...
2016: Scientific Reports
Kazuhiro Takemoto, Kosuke Kajihara
Theoretical studies have indicated that nestedness and modularity-non-random structural patterns of ecological networks-influence the stability of ecosystems against perturbations; as such, climate change and human activity, as well as other sources of environmental perturbations, affect the nestedness and modularity of ecological networks. However, the effects of climate change and human activities on ecological networks are poorly understood. Here, we used a spatial analysis approach to examine the effects of climate change and human activities on the structural patterns of food webs and mutualistic networks, and found that ecological network structure is globally affected by climate change and human impacts, in addition to current climate...
2016: PloS One
Kimberly A Green, Yvonne Becker, Helen L Fitzsimons, Barry Scott
In both Sordaria macrospora and Neurospora crassa components of the conserved STRIPAK complex regulate cell-cell fusion, hyphal network development and fruiting body formation. Interestingly, a number of Epichloë festucae genes that are required for hyphal cell-cell fusion, such as noxA, noxR, proA, mpkA and mkkB, are also required for establishment of a mutualistic symbiotic interaction with Lolium perenne. To determine whether MobC, a homolog of the STRIPAK complex component MOB3 in S. macrospora and N. crassa, is required for E...
June 9, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
Kadambari Devarajan
Asian weaver ants (Oecophylla smaragdina) are arboreal ants that are known to form mutualistic complexes with their host trees. They are eusocial ants that build elaborate nests in the canopy in tropical areas. A colony comprises of multiple nests, usually on multiple trees, and the boundaries of the colony may be difficult to identify. However, they provide the ideal model for studying group living in invertebrates since there are a definite number of nests for a given substrate, the tree. Here, we briefly examine the structure of the nests and the processes involved in the construction and maintenance of these nests...
2016: PloS One
Johannes J Le Roux, Natasha R Mavengere, Allan G Ellis
Establishing mutualistic interactions in novel environments is important for the successful establishment of some non-native plant species. These associations may, in turn, impact native species interaction networks as non-natives become dominant in their new environments. Using phylogenetic and ecological interaction network approaches we provide the first report of the structure of belowground legume-rhizobium interaction networks and how they change along a gradient of invasion (uninvaded, semi invaded and heavily invaded sites) by Australian Acacia species in South Africa's Cape Floristic Region...
2016: AoB Plants
Alix M C Sauve, Elisa Thébault, Michael J O Pocock, Colin Fontaine
Pollination and herbivory networks have mainly been studied separately, highlighting their distinct structural characteristics and the related processes and dynamics. However, most plants interact with both pollinators and herbivores, and there is evidence that both types of interaction affect each other. Here we investigated the way plants connect these mutualistic and antagonistic networks together, and the consequences for community stability. Using an empirical data set, we show that the way plants connect pollination and herbivory networks is not random and promotes community stability...
April 2016: Ecology
Chung Yin Joey Leung, Joshua S Weitz
Simple growth mechanisms have been proposed to explain the emergence of seemingly universal network structures. The widely studied model of preferential attachment assumes that new nodes are more likely to connect to highly connected nodes. Preferential attachment explains the emergence of scale-free degree distributions within complex networks. Yet it is incompatible with many network systems, particularly bipartite systems in which two distinct types of agents interact. For example, the addition of new links in a host-parasite system corresponds to the infection of hosts by parasites...
March 2016: Physical Review. E
Heike Bücking, Jerry A Mensah, Carl R Fellbaum
Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi form mutualistic interactions with the majority of land plants, including some of the most important crop species. The fungus takes up nutrients from the soil, and transfers these nutrients to the mycorrhizal interface in the root, where these nutrients are exchanged against carbon from the host. AM fungi form extensive hyphal networks in the soil and connect with their network multiple host plants. These common mycorrhizal networks (CMNs) play a critical role in the long-distance transport of nutrients through soil ecosystems and allow the exchange of signals between the interconnected plants...
January 2016: Communicative & Integrative Biology
Sylvie Schulze, Jana Schleicher, Reinhard Guthke, Jörg Linde
Organisms constantly interact with other species through physical contact which leads to changes on the molecular level, for example the transcriptome. These changes can be monitored for all genes, with the help of high-throughput experiments such as RNA-seq or microarrays. The adaptation of the gene expression to environmental changes within cells is mediated through complex gene regulatory networks. Often, our knowledge of these networks is incomplete. Network inference predicts gene regulatory interactions based on transcriptome data...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Esther Sebastián-González, Marcos Moleón, Jean P Gibert, Francisco Botella, Patricia Mateo-Tomás, Pedro P Olea, Paulo R Guimarães, José A Sánchez-Zapata
Disentangling the processes that shape the organization of ecological assemblages and its implications for species coexistence is one of the foremost challenges of ecology. Although insightful advances have recently related community composition and structure with species coexistence in mutualistic and antagonistic networks, little is known regarding other species assemblages, such as those of scavengers exploiting carrion. Here we studied seven assemblages of scavengers feeding on ungulate carcasses in mainland Spain...
January 2016: Ecology
Rurun Wang, Étienne Gallant, Mohammad R Seyedsayamdost
Roseobacterclade bacteria are abundant in surface waters and are among the most metabolically diverse and ecologically significant species. This group includes opportunistic symbionts that associate with micro- and macroalgae. We have proposed that one representative member,Phaeobacter inhibens, engages in a dynamic symbiosis with the microalgaEmiliania huxleyi In one phase, mutualistically beneficial molecules are exchanged, including theRoseobacter-produced antibiotic tropodithietic acid (TDA), which is thought to protect the symbiotic interaction...
2016: MBio
Matthias Becker, Yvonne Becker, Kimberly Green, Barry Scott
Epichloë festucae forms a mutualistic symbiotic association with Lolium perenne. This biotrophic fungus systemically colonizes the intercellular spaces of aerial tissues to form an endophytic hyphal network. E. festucae also grows as an epiphyte, but the mechanism for leaf surface colonization is not known. Here we identify an appressorium-like structure, which we call an expressorium that allows endophytic hyphae to penetrate the cuticle from the inside of the leaf to establish an epiphytic hyphal net on the surface of the leaf...
July 2016: New Phytologist
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