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Eric Hoffmaster, Jennifer Vonk
Once thought to be uniquely human, prosocial behavior has been observed in a number of species, including vampire bats that engage in costly food-sharing. Another social chiropteran, Jamaican fruit bats (Artibeus jamaicensis), have been observed to engage in cooperative mate guarding, and thus might be expected to display prosocial behavior as well. However, frugivory and hematophagy diets may impose different selection pressures on prosocial preferences, given that prosocial preferences may depend upon cognitive abilities selected by different ecological constraints...
November 20, 2016: Behavioral Sciences
Tomás A Carlo, Juan M Morales
Regenerated forests now compose over half of the world's tropical forest cover and are increasingly important as providers of ecosystem services, freshwater, and biodiversity conservation. Much of the value and functionality of regenerating forests depends on the plant diversity they contain. Tropical forest diversity is strongly shaped by mutualistic interactions between plants and fruit-eating animals (frugivores) that disperse seeds. Here we show how seed dispersal by birds can influence the speed and diversity of early successional forests in Puerto Rico...
July 2016: Ecology
Yucheng Zhou, M Monica Giusti, Joyce Parker, Jordano Salamanca, Cesar Rodriguez-Saona
The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål), is an invasive pest from Asia that feeds on many agricultural crops in the United States, including blueberries. Yet, the effects of H. halys feeding on fruit chemistry and induced resistance to insects remain unknown. Here we hypothesized that frugivory by H. halys changes fruit chemical composition, which in turn affects insect feeding behavior. In field experiments, blueberry fruit was either mechanically injured or injured by 0 (control), 2, 5, or 10 H...
October 2016: Environmental Entomology
Susan Coiner-Collier, Robert S Scott, Janine Chalk-Wilayto, Susan M Cheyne, Paul Constantino, Nathaniel J Dominy, Alison A Elgart, Halszka Glowacka, Laura C Loyola, Kerry Ossi-Lupo, Melissa Raguet-Schofield, Mauricio G Talebi, Enrico A Sala, Pawel Sieradzy, Andrea B Taylor, Christopher J Vinyard, Barth W Wright, Nayuta Yamashita, Peter W Lucas, Erin R Vogel
Substantial variation exists in the mechanical properties of foods consumed by primate species. This variation is known to influence food selection and ingestion among non-human primates, yet no large-scale comparative study has examined the relationships between food mechanical properties and feeding strategies. Here, we present comparative data on the Young's modulus and fracture toughness of natural foods in the diets of 31 primate species. We use these data to examine the relationships between food mechanical properties and dietary quality, body mass, and feeding time...
September 2016: Journal of Human Evolution
Derek Engelbrecht
Galagos are generally regarded as dietary specialists that feed predominantly on insects and gum. The diet of the thick-tailed greater galago is more varied and also includes fruit and small vertebrates, although the latter is rare and restricted to certain populations. The southern lesser galago is seemingly a more specialist forager, but frugivory was recently reported in two separate populations, suggesting at least some dietary plasticity in this species. The species is not known to consume vertebrates...
October 2016: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Katherine E Carter, Steven Worthington
BACKGROUND: Developmental processes that underpin morphological variation have become a focus of interest when attempting to interpret macroevolutionary patterns. Recently, the Dental Inhibitory Cascade (DIC) model has been suggested to explain much of the variation in mammalian molar size proportions. We tested the macroevolutionary implications of this model using anthropoid primate species (n=100), focusing on overall morphological patterns, as well as predictions made about molar size variability, direct developmental control, and diet...
2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
F A F Jacomassa
The goal of this study was to identify which bird species consume Solanum granuloso-leprosum fruits and disperse its seeds. 60 hours of focal observations were carried out between April and May 2006 on the edge of a deciduous forest fragment in the Uruguay River region, Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. Ten species were observed in total removing 443 fruits. Saltator similis removed 61.8% of the fruits, followed by Tangara sayaca (17.1%), Pipraeidea bonariensis (11.7%), and T. preciosa (6.8%), while the remaining six species accounted for only 2...
October 2016: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
Roberto Leonan Morim Novaes, Renan de França Souza, Edvandro Abreu Ribeiro, André Costa Siqueira, Alexandre Verçosa Greco, Ricardo Moratelli
BACKGROUND: Myotis occurs from tropical to temperate regions throughout the globe, and it is the largest bat genus with more than 100 species. Most species are insect-eaters, but a few also feed on other invertebrates and fishes; there is no confirmed evidence of a plant item in their diet. NEW INFORMATION: During fieldwork in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, small seeds were retrieved from the feces of one adult female of the Black Myotis, Myotis nigricans-one of the most common Neotropical bats...
2015: Biodiversity Data Journal
J Farias, M Sanchez, M F Abreu, F Pedroni
The ecology of seed dispersal is critical to understand the patterns of distribution and abundance of plant species. We investigated seed dispersal aspects associated with the high abundance of Buchenavia tomentosa in the Serra Azul State Park (PESA). We estimated fruit production and conducted fruit removal experiments. We carried out diurnal and nocturnal observations on frugivory as well as germination tests. Fruiting occurred in the dry season and totaled 1,365,015 ± 762,670 fruits.ha-1. B. tomentosa fruits were utilized by eight animal species...
November 2015: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
Asmita Sengupta, Kim R McConkey, Sindhu Radhakrishna
Human provisioning of wildlife with food is a widespread global practice that occurs in multiple socio-cultural circumstances. Provisioning may indirectly alter ecosystem functioning through changes in the eco-ethology of animals, but few studies have quantified this aspect. Provisioning of primates by humans is known to impact their activity budgets, diets and ranging patterns. Primates are also keystone species in tropical forests through their role as seed dispersers; yet there is no information on how provisioning might affect primate ecological functions...
2015: PloS One
Pablo R Stevenson, Andrés Link, Sebastian González-Caro, María Fernanda Torres-Jiménez
Frugivory is a widespread mutualistic interaction in which frugivores obtain nutritional resources while favoring plant recruitment through their seed dispersal services. Nonetheless, how these complex interactions are organized in diverse communities, such as tropical forests, is not fully understood. In this study we evaluated the existence of plant-frugivore sub-assemblages and their phylogenetic organization in an undisturbed western Amazonian forest in Colombia. We also explored for potential keystone plants, based on network analyses and an estimate of the amount of fruit going from plants to frugivores...
2015: PloS One
Anusha Ramdarshan, Maeva J Orliac
OBJECTIVES: Innovations in brain structure and increase in brain size relative to body mass are key features of Primates evolutionary history. Surprisingly, the endocranial morphology of early Euprimates is still rather poorly known, and our understanding of early euprimate brain evolution (Eocene epoch) relies on a handful of specimens. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this article, we describe the endocranial cast of the tarsiiform Microchoerus erinaceus from the late Early Eocene of Perrière (Quercy fissure filling, France) based on a virtual reconstruction extracted from CT scan data of the endocranial cavity of the complete, undeformed specimen UM-PRR1771...
January 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Alison Ravenscraft, Carol L Boggs
Evolutionary dietary shifts have major ecological consequences. One likely consequence is a change in nutrient limitation-some nutrients become more abundant in the diet, others become more scarce. Individuals' behavior should change accordingly to match this new limitation regime: they should seek out nutrients that are deficient in the new diet. We investigated the relationship between diet and responses to nutrients using adult Costa Rican butterflies with contrasting feeding habits, testing the hypothesis that animals will respond more positively to nutrients that are scarcer in their diets...
May 2016: Oecologia
Shelly Masi, Roger Mundry, Sylvia Ortmann, Chloé Cipolletta, Luigi Boitani, Martha M Robbins
The daily energy requirements of animals are determined by a combination of physical and physiological factors, but food availability may challenge the capacity to meet nutritional needs. Western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) are an interesting model for investigating this topic because they are folivore-frugivores that adjust their diet and activities to seasonal variation in fruit availability. Observations of one habituated group of western gorillas in Bai-Hokou, Central African Republic (December 2004-December 2005) were used to examine seasonal variation in diet quality and nutritional intake...
2015: PloS One
Chin Cheung Tang, Daniel C Thomas, Richard M K Saunders
A phylogenetic study of the genus Goniothalamus (Annonaceae) is presented using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches, with 65 species sampled (48.5% of the genus) based on sequences of nine chloroplast DNA regions (11,214 aligned positions). The resultant phylogeny clearly indicates that Goniothalamus is monophyletic. Preliminary research initially focused on identifying synapomorphies and estimating the phylogenetic signal of selected morphological characters based on parsimony and likelihood ancestral character state reconstructions...
November 2015: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
V F Gonçalves, A M Silva, C Q Baesse, C Melo
Siparuna guianensis is a neotropical tree species, found both on edge and interior of forest fragments, mainly on understory and regeneration areas. The fruit are zoochorous with a sweet aril. This work aims to determine the bird species that eat the fruits of S. guianensis in a semi deciduous forest fragment in Brazilian Cerrado and measure which species have the highest potential as seed dispersers. Seven individuals of S. guianensis were sampled, totaling 69 hours. A hundred and fifty four visits were registered by seven species of birds...
May 2015: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
Mitchell T Irwin, Jean-Luc Raharison, David R Raubenheimer, Colin A Chapman, Jessica M Rothman
Animals experience spatial and temporal variation in food and nutrient supply, which may cause deviations from optimal nutrient intakes in both absolute amounts (meeting nutrient requirements) and proportions (nutrient balancing). Recent research has used the geometric framework for nutrition to obtain an improved understanding of how animals respond to these nutritional constraints, among them free-ranging primates including spider monkeys and gorillas. We used this framework to examine macronutrient intakes and nutrient balancing in sifakas (Propithecus diadema) at Tsinjoarivo, Madagascar, in order to quantify how these vary across seasons and across habitats with varying degrees of anthropogenic disturbance...
2015: PloS One
Andrey Verendeev, Christian Thomas, Shannon C McFarlin, William D Hopkins, Kimberley A Phillips, Chet C Sherwood
Meissner's corpuscles (MCs) are tactile mechanoreceptors found in the glabrous skin of primates, including fingertips. These receptors are characterized by sensitivity to light touch, and therefore might be associated with the evolution of manipulative abilities of the hands in primates. We examined MCs in different primate species, including common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus, n = 5), baboon (Papio anubis, n = 2), rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta, n = 3), chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes, n = 3), bonobo (Pan paniscus, n = 1) and human (Homo sapiens, n = 8)...
July 2015: Journal of Anatomy
Mario Carrillo-Araujo, Neslihan Taş, Rocio J Alcántara-Hernández, Osiris Gaona, Jorge E Schondube, Rodrigo A Medellín, Janet K Jansson, Luisa I Falcón
The members of the Phyllostomidae, the New-World leaf-nosed family of bats, show a remarkable evolutionary diversification of dietary strategies including insectivory, as the ancestral trait, followed by appearance of carnivory and plant-based diets such as nectarivory and frugivory. Here we explore the microbiome composition of different feeding specialists: insectivore Macrotus waterhousii, sanguivore Desmodus rotundus, nectarivores Leptonycteris yerbabuenae and Glossophaga soricina, and frugivores Carollia perspicillata and Artibeus jamaicensis...
2015: Frontiers in Microbiology
Sarah A Boyle, Cynthia L Thompson, Anneke Deluycker, Silvia J Alvarez, Thiago H G Alvim, Rolando Aquino, Bruna M Bezerra, Jean P Boubli, Mark Bowler, Christini Barbosa Caselli, Renata R D Chagas, Stephen F Ferrari, Isadora P Fontes, Tremaine Gregory, Torbjørn Haugaasen, Stefanie Heiduck, Rose Hores, Shawn Lehman, Fabiano R de Melo, Leandro S Moreira, Viviane S Moura, Mariana B Nagy-Reis, Erwin Palacios, Suzanne Palminteri, Carlos A Peres, Liliam Pinto, Marcio Port-Carvalho, Adriana Rodríguez, Ricardo R dos Santos, Eleonore Z F Setz, Christopher A Shaffer, Felipe Ennes Silva, Rafaela F Soares da Silva, João P Souza-Alves, Leonardo C Trevelin, Liza M Veiga, Tatiana M Vieira, Mary E DuBose, Adrian A Barnett
Pitheciids are known for their frugivorous diets, but there has been no broad-scale comparison of fruit genera used by these primates that range across five geographic regions in South America. We compiled 31 fruit lists from data collected from 18 species (three Cacajao, six Callicebus, five Chiropotes, and four Pithecia) at 26 study sites in six countries. Together, these lists contained 455 plant genera from 96 families. We predicted that 1) closely related Chiropotes and Cacajao would demonstrate the greatest similarity in fruit lists; 2) pitheciids living in closer geographic proximity would have greater similarities in fruit lists; and 3) fruit genus richness would be lower in lists from forest fragments than continuous forests...
May 2016: American Journal of Primatology
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