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Michael Marsh
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November 2016: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Yanan Cao, Xiangyi Cao, Zhenzhu Yue, Ling Wang
Behavioral and recent neuroimaging findings have shown reversal of interference effects due to manipulating proportion congruency (PC), which suggests that task-irrelevant stimulus-response (S-R) associations are strengthened and applied to predict responses. However, it is unclear how the strengthened S-R associations are represented and applied in the brain. We investigated with a between-subjects PC paradigm of the Hedge and Marsh task using electroencephalography (EEG). The behavioral results showed the reversal of the conflict effects, suggesting that task-irrelevant S-R associations were strengthened and used to prepare responses...
October 17, 2016: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
R Hurlemann, N Marsh
Numerous honorary initiatives for humanitarian aid towards refugees illustrate the high prevalence of altruistic behavior in the population. In medicine, an exquisite example of a human propensity for altruism is organ donation. Current perspectives on the neurobiology of altruism suggest that it is deeply rooted in the motivational architecture of the social brain. This is reflected by the social evolution of cooperation and parochialism, both of which are modulated by the evolutionarily conserved peptide hormone oxytocin...
October 17, 2016: Der Nervenarzt
Ong-Art Phruetthiphat, Michael Willey, Matthew D Karam, Yubo Gao, Brian O Westerlind, J Lawrence Marsh
OBJECTIVE: To compare patients with acetabular fractures that are isolated (acetabular fracture alone) and acetabular fracture presenting with additional non-acetabular injury using functional outcomes, complications, and readmissions. DESIGN: Retrospective review SETTING:: Level 1 Trauma CenterPatients/Participants: 215 patients underwent open surgical treatment for acetabular fracture between 2003 and 2012 with age ≥18 years and minimum one year follow-up inclusive of functional scores and complications...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
Shanmuganathan Chandrakasan, Rebecca A Marsh, Gulbu Uzel, Steven M Holland, Kara N Shah, Jack Bleesing
Patients with NEMO deficiency tolerate myeloablative hematopoietic stem cell conditioning and transplant, and most patients achieve adequate immune reconstitution to correct the underlying immune deficiency.
October 12, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Eve Normandin, Elizabeth Chmelo, Mary F Lyles, Anthony P Marsh, Barbara J Nicklas
PURPOSE: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is greatest in older obese adults and effective evidence-based treatment strategies are lacking. This study determined the efficacy of adding caloric restriction (CR) for weight loss to resistance training (RT) on metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its individual components in older overweight and obese adults. METHODS: We performed a 5-month randomized controlled trial in 126 older (65-79 yrs) overweight and obese (Body Mass Index: 27-35 kg/m) men and women who were assigned to progressive 3-d/wk, moderate-intensity RT with (RT+CR) or without caloric restriction (RT)...
October 13, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Mafalda Dias, Jonathan Frazer, M C David Marsh
We construct ensembles of random scalar potentials for N_{f}-interacting scalar fields using nonequilibrium random matrix theory, and use these to study the generation of observables during small-field inflation. For N_{f}=O(few), these heavily featured scalar potentials give rise to power spectra that are highly nonlinear, at odds with observations. For N_{f}≫1, the superhorizon evolution of the perturbations is generically substantial, yet the power spectra simplify considerably and become more predictive, with most realizations being well approximated by a linear power spectrum...
September 30, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Maarten Schrama, Fons van der Plas, Matty P Berg, Han Olff
1.Terrestrial ecosystems are characterised by a strong functional connection between the green (plant-herbivore-based) and brown (detritus-detritivore-based) parts of the food web, which both develop over successional time. However, the interlinked changes in green and brown food web diversity patterns in relation to key ecosystem processes are rarely studied. 2.Here, we demonstrate changes in species richness, diversity and evenness over a wide range of invertebrate green and brown trophic groups during 100 years of primary succession in a salt marsh ecosystem, using a well-calibrated chronosequence...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Animal Ecology
Ameer L Elaimy, Aarif Ahsan, Katherine Marsh, William B Pratt, Dipankar Ray, Theodore S Lawrence, Mukesh K Nyati
Heat shock protein 90 is a chaperone that plays an essential role in the stabilization of a large number of signal transduction molecules, many of which are associated with oncogenesis. An Hsp90 isoform (Hsp90α) has been shown to be selectively phosphorylated on two N-terminal threonine residues (threonine 5 and 7) and is involved in the DNA damage response and apoptosis. However, the kinase that phosphorylates Hsp90α after ionizing radiation (IR) and its role in post-radiation DNA repair remains unclear...
October 11, 2016: Oncotarget
Dominik Florian Stangler, Andreas Hamann, Hans-Peter Kahle, Heinrich Spiecker
A useful approach to monitor tree response to climate change and environmental extremes is the recording of long-term time series of stem radial variations obtained with precision dendrometers. Here, we study the impact of environmental stress on seasonal growth dynamics and productivity of yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britton) and sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) in the Great Lakes, St Lawrence forest region of Ontario. Specifically, we research the effects of a spring heat wave in 2010, and a summer drought in 2012 that occurred during the 2005-14 study period...
October 13, 2016: Tree Physiology
Vincent Ng, Mengyang Cao, Herbert W Marsh, Louis Tay, Martin E P Seligman
The factor structure of the Values in Action Inventory of Strengths (VIA-IS; Peterson & Seligman, 2004) has not been well established as a result of methodological challenges primarily attributable to a global positivity factor, item cross-loading across character strengths, and questions concerning the unidimensionality of the scales assessing character strengths. We sought to overcome these methodological challenges by applying exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) at the item level using a bifactor analytic approach to a large sample of 447,573 participants who completed the VIA-IS with all 240 character strengths items and a reduced set of 107 unidimensional character strength items...
October 13, 2016: Psychological Assessment
Jan Rummel, Ann-Katrin Wesslein, Thorsten Meiser
Event-based prospective memory (PM) is the ability to remember to perform an intention in response to an environmental cue. Recent microstructure models postulate four distinguishable stages of successful event-based PM fulfillment. That is, (a) the event must be noticed, (b) the intention must be retrieved, (c) the context must be verified, and (d) the intended action must be coordinated with the demands of any currently ongoing task (e.g., Marsh, Hicks, & Watson, 2002b). Whereas the cognitive processes of Stages 1, 2, and 3 have been studied more or less extensively, little is known about the processes of Stage 4 so far...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
Thomas Hopper, Marcia S Meixler
Coastal ecosystems experience a wide range of stressors including wave forces, storm surge, sea-level rise, and anthropogenic modification and are thus vulnerable to erosion. Urban coastal ecosystems are especially important due to the large populations these limited ecosystems serve. However, few studies have addressed the issue of urban coastal vulnerability at the landscape scale with spatial data that are finely resolved. The purpose of this study was to model and map coastal vulnerability and the role of natural habitats in reducing vulnerability in Jamaica Bay, New York, in terms of nine coastal vulnerability metrics (relief, wave exposure, geomorphology, natural habitats, exposure, exposure with no habitat, habitat role, erodible shoreline, and surge) under past (1609), current (2015), and future (2080) scenarios using InVEST 3...
2016: PloS One
Tommaso Moschetti, Timothy Sharpe, Gerhard Fischer, May E Marsh, HongKin Ng, Matthew Morgan, Duncan Scott, Tom L Blundell, Ashok Venkitaraman, John Skidmore, Chris Abell, Marko Hyvönen
Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) are increasingly important targets for drug discovery. Efficient fragment-based drug discovery approaches to tackle PPIs are often stymied by difficulties in the production of stable, unliganded target proteins. Here, we report an approach that exploits protein engineering to 'humanise' thermophilic archeal surrogate proteins as targets for small molecule inhibitor discovery, and exemplify this approach in the development of inhibitors against the PPI between the recombinase RAD51 and tumour suppressor BRCA2...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Molecular Biology
Maureen Lichtveld, Samendra Sherchan, Kaitlyn B Gam, Richard K Kwok, Christopher Mundorf, Arti Shankar, Lissa Soares
This review examines current research ascertaining the impact of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on human health and ecosystems. Driven by the need to strategically focus research funding, the authors also assess the implications of those findings and promote a transdisciplinary research agenda addressing critical gaps.Epidemiologic studies conducted in workers and vulnerable communities in the spill's aftermath showed that non-chemical stressors affect resilience. Ecosystem-wise salt marsh species showed variability in structural and functional changes, attributed to species-specific tolerance, oil exposure, and belowground plant organs damage...
October 8, 2016: Current Environmental Health Reports
Elisabeth B Marsh, Wendy C Ziai, Rafael H Llinas
INTRODUCTION: Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) typically affects young patients and left untreated can result in hemorrhage or ischemic stroke. Though the disorder has been well characterized in the literature, the most appropriate way to diagnose, treat, and evaluate therapeutic response remains unclear. In previous studies, transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD) has shown elevated velocities indicative of vasospasm. This imaging modality is noninvasive and inexpensive; an attractive option for diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring if it is sensitive enough to detect changes in the acute setting given that RCVS often affects the distal vessels early in the course of disease...
May 2016: Case Reports in Neurology
Erik McShane, Celine Sin, Henrik Zauber, Jonathan N Wells, Neysan Donnelly, Xi Wang, Jingyi Hou, Wei Chen, Zuzana Storchova, Joseph A Marsh, Angelo Valleriani, Matthias Selbach
Do young and old protein molecules have the same probability to be degraded? We addressed this question using metabolic pulse-chase labeling and quantitative mass spectrometry to obtain degradation profiles for thousands of proteins. We find that >10% of proteins are degraded non-exponentially. Specifically, proteins are less stable in the first few hours of their life and stabilize with age. Degradation profiles are conserved and similar in two cell types. Many non-exponentially degraded (NED) proteins are subunits of complexes that are produced in super-stoichiometric amounts relative to their exponentially degraded (ED) counterparts...
October 5, 2016: Cell
Derek Marsh
Cross relaxation, and mI-dependence of the intrinsic electron spin-lattice relaxation rate We, are incorporated explicitly into the rate equations for the electron-spin population differences that govern the saturation behaviour of (14)N- and (15)N-nitroxide spin labels. Both prove important in spin-label EPR and ELDOR, particularly for saturation recovery studies. Neither for saturation recovery, nor for CW-saturation EPR and CW-ELDOR, can cross relaxation be described simply by increasing the value of We, the intrinsic spin-lattice relaxation rate...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
Sara Sameni, Adeela Syed, J Lawrence Marsh, Michelle A Digman
Huntington disease (HD) is an autosomal neurodegenerative disorder caused by the expansion of Polyglutamine (polyQ) in exon 1 of the Huntingtin protein. Glutamine repeats below 36 are considered normal while repeats above 40 lead to HD. Impairment in energy metabolism is a common trend in Huntington pathogenesis; however, this effect is not fully understood. Here, we used the phasor approach and Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy (FLIM) to measure changes between free and bound fractions of NADH as a indirect measure of metabolic alteration in living cells...
October 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
Derek Marsh
Nuclear relaxation is a sensitive monitor of rotational dynamics in spin-label EPR. It also contributes competing saturation transfer pathways in T1-exchange spectroscopy, and the determination of paramagnetic relaxation enhancement in site-directed spin labelling. A survey shows that the definition of nitrogen nuclear relaxation rate Wn commonly used in the CW-EPR literature for (14)N-nitroxyl spin labels is inconsistent with that currently adopted in time-resolved EPR measurements of saturation recovery. Redefinition of the normalised (14)N spin-lattice relaxation rate, b=Wn/(2We), preserves the expressions used for CW-EPR, whilst rendering them consistent with expressions for saturation recovery rates in pulsed EPR...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
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