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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812922/a-circulating-micro-rna-signature-serves-as-a-diagnostic-and-prognostic-indicator-in-sarcoidosis
#1
Christian Ascoli, Yue Huang, Cody Schott, Benjamin A Turturice, Ahmed Metwally, David L Perkins, Patricia W Finn
Micro-RNAs (miRNAs) act as post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. In sarcoidosis, aberrant miRNA expression may enhance immune responses mounted against an unknown antigenic agent. We tested whether a distinct miRNA signature functions as a diagnostic biomarker and explored its role as an immune modulator in sarcoidosis. Expression of miRNAs from peripheral blood mononuclear cells from subjects that met clinical and histopathologic criteria for sarcoidosis were compared to those from matched controls in the ACCESS study...
August 16, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810524/pioglitazone-induced-bone-loss-in-diabetic-rats-and-its-amelioration-by-berberine-a-portrait-of-molecular-crosstalk
#2
Mohammad Adil, Mohd Nizam Mansoori, Divya Singh, Amit Dattatraya Kandhare, Manju Sharma
Diabetes mellitus and osteoporosis both are high prevalence disorders, especially in the elderly population. Pioglitazone, a PPAR-γ agonist associated with bone loss and risk of fracture in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. In this study, ameliorative effect of berberine against pioglitazone-induced bone loss in diabetic rats and possible mechanisms has been explored. Diabetes was induced in male Wistar albino rats by streptozotocin (65 mg/kg, i.v.) after 15min of nicotinamide (230mg/kg, i.p.) administration...
August 11, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808261/atomic-force-microscopy-micro-rheology-reveals-large-structural-inhomogeneities-in-single-cell-nuclei
#3
Michael Lherbette, Ália Dos Santos, Yukti Hari-Gupta, Natalia Fili, Christopher P Toseland, Iwan A T Schaap
During growth, differentiation and migration of cells, the nucleus changes size and shape, while encountering forces generated by the cell itself and its environment. Although there is increasing evidence that such mechanical signals are employed to control gene expression, it remains unclear how mechanical forces are transduced through the nucleus. To this end, we have measured the compliance of nuclei by applying oscillatory strains between 1 and 700 Hz to individual nuclei of multiple mammalian cell-lines that were compressed between two plates...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808205/farnesol-inhibits-development-of-caries-by-augmenting-oxygen-sensitivity-and-suppressing-virulence-associated-gene-expression-instreptococcus-mutans
#4
Li Cao, Zhen-Zhen Zhang, Shuang-Bo Xu, Ming Ma, Xin Wei
Streptococcus mutans is a primary etiological agent of dental caries. Farnesol, as a potential antimicrobial agent, inhibits the development ofS. mutans biofilm. In this study, we hypothesized that farnesol inhibits caries development in vitro and interferes with biofilm formation by regulating virulence-associated gene expression. The inhibitory effects of farnesol to S. mutans biofilms on enamel surfaces were investigated by determining micro-hardness and calcium measurements. Additionally, the morphological changes ofS...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806146/three-dimensional-bioprinting-of-polycaprolactone-reinforced-gene-activated-bioinks-for-bone-tissue-engineering
#5
Gráinne M Cunniffe, Tomas Gonzalez-Fernandez, Andrew Daly, Binulal N Sathy, Oju Jeon, Eben Alsberg, Daniel J Kelly
Regeneration of complex bone defects remains a significant clinical challenge. Multi-tool biofabrication has permitted the combination of various biomaterials to create multifaceted composites with tailorable mechanical properties and spatially controlled biological function. In this study we sought to use bioprinting to engineer nonviral gene activated constructs reinforced by polymeric micro-filaments. A gene activated bioink was developed using RGD-γ-irradiated alginate and nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA) complexed to plasmid DNA (pDNA)...
August 14, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800333/pain-assessment-in-dementia-evaluation-of-a-point-of-care-technological-solution
#6
Mustafa Atee, Kreshnik Hoti, Richard Parsons, Jeffery D Hughes
Pain is common among people with moderate to severe dementia, but inability of patients to self-report means it often goes undetected and untreated. We developed the electronic Pain Assessment Tool (ePAT) to address this issue. A point-of-care App, it utilizes facial recognition technology to detect facial micro-expressions indicative of pain. ePAT also records the presence of pain-related behaviors under five additional domains (Voice, Movement, Behavior, Activity, and Body). In this observational study, we assessed the psychometric properties of ePAT compared to the Abbey Pain Scale (APS)...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798322/luciferase-expression-allows-bioluminescence-imaging-but-imposes-limitations-on-the-orthotopic-mouse-4t1-model-of-breast-cancer
#7
V P Baklaushev, A Kilpeläinen, S Petkov, M A Abakumov, N F Grinenko, G M Yusubalieva, A A Latanova, I L Gubskiy, F G Zabozlaev, E S Starodubova, T O Abakumova, M G Isaguliants, V P Chekhonin
Implantation of reporter-labeled tumor cells in an immunocompetent host involves a risk of their immune elimination. We have studied this effect in a mouse model of breast cancer after the orthotopic implantation of mammary gland adenocarcinoma 4T1 cells genetically labelled with luciferase (Luc). Mice were implanted with 4T1 cells and two derivative Luc-expressing clones 4T1luc2 and 4T1luc2D6 exhibiting equal in vitro growth rates. In vivo, the daughter 4T1luc2 clone exhibited nearly the same, and 4T1luc2D6, a lower growth rate than the parental cells...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797104/increased-microrna-93-5p-inhibits-osteogenic-differentiation-by-targeting-bone-morphogenetic-protein-2
#8
Ying Zhang, Qiu-Shi Wei, Wei-Bin Ding, Lei-Lei Zhang, Hui-Chao Wang, Ying-Jie Zhu, Wei He, Yu-Na Chai, You-Wen Liu
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Trauma-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head (TIONFH) is a major complication of femoral neck fractures. Degeneration and necrosis of subchondral bone can cause collapse, which results in hip joint dysfunction in patients. The destruction of bone metabolism homeostasis is an important factor for osteonecrosis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have an important role in regulating osteogenic differentiation, but the mechanisms underlying abnormal bone metabolism of TIONFH are poorly understood...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796540/recent-advances-in-targeted-delivery-of-tissue-plasminogen-activator-for-enhanced-thrombolysis-in-ischemic-stroke
#9
Masumeh Zamanlu, Mehdi Farhoudi, Morteza Eskandani, Javad Mahmoudi, Jaleh Barar, Mohammad Rafi, Yadollah Omidi
Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is the only FDA approved medical treatment for the ischemic stroke. However, it associates with some inevitable limitations, including: short therapeutic window, extremely short half-life and low penetration in large clots. Systemic administration (i.v./i.a.) may lead to complications such as hemorrhagic conversion in the brain and relapse in the form of re-occlusion. Furthermore, ultrasound has been utilized in combination with contrast agents, echogenic liposome, microspheres or nanoparticles carrying tPA for improving thrombolysis - an approach that has resulted in slight improvement of tPA delivery and facilitated thrombolysis...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Drug Targeting
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794406/the-non-coding-rna-landscape-of-human-hematopoiesis-and-leukemia
#10
Adrian Schwarzer, Stephan Emmrich, Franziska Schmidt, Dominik Beck, Michelle Ng, Christina Reimer, Felix Ferdinand Adams, Sarah Grasedieck, Damian Witte, Sebastian Käbler, Jason W H Wong, Anushi Shah, Yizhou Huang, Razan Jammal, Aliaksandra Maroz, Mojca Jongen-Lavrencic, Axel Schambach, Florian Kuchenbauer, John E Pimanda, Dirk Reinhardt, Dirk Heckl, Jan-Henning Klusmann
Non-coding RNAs have emerged as crucial regulators of gene expression and cell fate decisions. However, their expression patterns and regulatory functions during normal and malignant human hematopoiesis are incompletely understood. Here we present a comprehensive resource defining the non-coding RNA landscape of the human hematopoietic system. Based on highly specific non-coding RNA expression portraits per blood cell population, we identify unique fingerprint non-coding RNAs-such as LINC00173 in granulocytes-and assign these to critical regulatory circuits involved in blood homeostasis...
August 9, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791515/a-multiscale-fluidic-device-for-the-study-of-dendrite-mediated-cell-to-cell-communication
#11
Sean McCutcheon, Robert Majeska, Mitchell Schaffler, Maribel Vazquez
Many cell types communicate by means of dendritic extensions via a multi-tiered set of geometric and chemical cues. Until recently, mimicking the compartmentalized in vivo cellular environment of dendrite-expressing cells such as osteocytes and motor neurons in a spatially and temporally controllable manner was limited by the challenges of in vitro device fabrication at submicron scales. Utilizing the improved resolution of current fabrication technology, we have designed a multiscale device, the Macro-micro-nano system, or Mμn, composed of two distinct cell-seeding and interrogation compartments separated by a nanochannel array...
August 8, 2017: Biomedical Microdevices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790977/micro-and-nano-vesicles-from-first-trimester-human-placentae-carry-flt-1-and-levels-are-increased-in-severe-preeclampsia
#12
Mancy Tong, Qi Chen, Joanna L James, Peter R Stone, Lawrence W Chamley
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Preeclampsia is a life-threatening hypertensive disease affecting 3-5% of pregnancies. While the pathogenesis of preeclampsia remains unclear, it is known that placenta-derived factors trigger the disease by activating maternal endothelial cells prior to the onset of clinical symptoms. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) of different sizes extruded by the placenta may be one factor. The truncated/secreted form of Flt-1 (sFlt-1) has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789862/genome-wide-identification-and-characterization-of-putative-lncrnas-in-the-diamondback-moth-plutella-xylostella-l
#13
Yue Wang, Tingting Xu, Weiyi He, Xiujing Shen, Qian Zhao, Jianlin Bai, Minsheng You
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are of particular interest because of their contributions to many biological processes. Here, we present the genome-wide identification and characterization of putative lncRNAs in a global insect pest, Plutella xylostella. A total of 8096 lncRNAs were identified and classified into three groups. The average length of exons in lncRNAs was longer than that in coding genes and the GC content was lower than that in mRNAs. Most lncRNAs were flanked by canonical splice sites, similar to mRNAs...
August 5, 2017: Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789651/effect-of-athletic-fatigue-damage-and-the-associated-bone-targeted-remodeling-in-the-rat-ulna
#14
Li Hao, Li Rui-Xin, Han Biao, Zhao Bin, Hao Bao-Hui, Liu Ying-Jie, Zhang Xi-Zheng
BACKGROUND: Fatigue damage of the long bones is prevalent in running athletes and military recruits due to vigorous mid- and long-term physical activity. The current study attempted to know the features of bony athletic fatigue damage and to explore the mechanism of fatigue damage repair through bone targeted remodeling process. METHODS: Right ulnae of the Wistar rats were fatigue loaded on an INSTRON 5865 to construct the athletic fatigue damage model, and several time points (i...
August 8, 2017: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783929/how-electroconvulsive-therapy-works-understanding-the-neurobiological-mechanisms
#15
REVIEW
Amit Singh, Sujita Kumar Kar
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a time tested treatment modality for the management of various psychiatric disorders. There have been a lot of modifications in the techniques of delivering ECT over decades. Despite lots of criticisms encountered, ECT has still been used commonly in clinical practice due to its safety and efficacy. Research evidences found multiple neuro-biological mechanisms for the therapeutic effect of ECT. ECT brings about various neuro-physiological as well as neuro-chemical changes in the macro- and micro-environment of the brain...
August 31, 2017: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783714/aging-and-calorie-restriction-regulate-the-expression-of-mir-125a-5p-and-its-target-genes-stat3-casp2-and-stard13
#16
Kuldeep Makwana, Sonal Arvind Patel, Nikkhil Velingkaar, Jey Sabith Ebron, Girish C Shukla, Roman V Kondratov V Kondratov
Calorie restriction (CR) is a dietary intervention known to delay aging. In order, to understand molecular mechanisms of CR, we analyzed the expression of 983 MicroRNAs (miRNAs) in the liver of female mice after 2 years of 30% CR using micro-array. 16 miRNAs demonstrated significant changes in their expression upon CR in comparison with age-matched control. mmu-miR-125a-5p (miR-125a-5p) was significantly upregulated upon CR, and in agreement with this, the expression of mRNAs for its three predicted target genes: Stat3, Casp2, and Stard13 was significantly downregulated in the liver of CR animals...
July 31, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782569/the-protective-effects-of-electro-acupuncture-in-thoracic-surgery-on-trauma-stressed-rats-involve-the-rostral-ventrolateral-medulla-and-supraoptic-nucleus
#17
Huan-Huan Zhang, Yi-Nan Tao, Mei-Yan Jiang, Jin Wang, Jun Chen, Chun-Mei Xia, Lin-Lin Shen, Meng-Ya Wang, Da-Nian Zhu
The present study was designed to explore whether the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) and supraoptic nucleus (SON) were involved in the protective effects of electro-acupuncture (EA) on cardiac function in thoracic surgery on trauma-stressed rats. The rats were randomly divided into a non-stressed group (Control), surgical trauma-stressed group (Trauma), and Neiguan EA applied on the surgical trauma-stressed group (Trauma+EA-PC 6). RVLM neuron discharge was observed by using an in vivo electrophysiological method, and micro-dialysis combining high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorometric detection (HPLC-FD) was used to assess expression of amino acids in the RVLM...
August 3, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781815/preliminary-data-on-microrna-expression-profiles-in-a-group-of-south-african-patients-diagnosed-with-chronic-myeloid-leukaemia
#18
Andrea Prinsloo, Roger Pool, Chantal Van Niekerk
Micro-ribonucleic acids (miRNAs) are small functional non-coding RNAs that downregulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Abnormal expression of specific miRNAs has been recorded in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, other non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphomas, lung cancer and chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML). The aim of this study was to compare miRNA expression profiles among patients with newly diagnosed CML, those on established therapy with imatinib mesylate, and healthy individuals. The expression of 88 miRNAs was evaluated in a total of nine samples divided into three groups: Group 1 comprised three samples collected from newly diagnosed CML patients; group 2 consisted of three samples collected from patients on therapy; the remaining three samples were collected from healthy volunteers (control group)...
September 2017: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776079/evaluation-of-a-xenogeneic-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-2-vaccine-in-two-preclinical-metastatic-tumor-models-in-mice
#19
Sofie Denies, Bregje Leyman, Hanne Huysmans, Francis Combes, Séan Mc Cafferty, Laetitia Cicchelero, Marjan Steppe, Joyca De Temmerman, Niek N Sanders
In this study, a xenogeneic DNA vaccine encoding for human vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (hVEGFR-2) was evaluated in two murine tumor models, the B16-F10 melanoma and the EO771 breast carcinoma model. The vaccine was administered by intradermal injection followed by electroporation. The immunogenicity and the biological efficacy of the vaccine were tested in (1) a prophylactic setting, (2) a therapeutic setting, and (3) a therapeutic setting combined with surgical removal of the primary tumor...
August 3, 2017: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775303/molecular-characterization-of-breast-cancer-ctcs-associated-with-brain-metastasis
#20
Debasish Boral, Monika Vishnoi, Haowen N Liu, Wei Yin, Marc L Sprouse, Antonio Scamardo, David S Hong, Tuan Z Tan, Jean P Thiery, Jenny C Chang, Dario Marchetti
The enumeration of EpCAM-positive circulating tumor cells (CTCs) has allowed estimation of overall metastatic burden in breast cancer patients. However, a thorough understanding of CTCs associated with breast cancer brain metastasis (BCBM) is necessary for early identification and evaluation of treatment response to BCBM. Here we report that BCBM CTCs is enriched in a distinct sub-population of cells identifiable by their biomarker expression and mutational content. Deriving from a comprehensive analysis of CTC transcriptomes, we discovered a unique "circulating tumor cell gene signature" that is distinct from primary breast cancer tissues...
August 4, 2017: Nature Communications
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