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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230908/probiotics-for-people-with-hepatic-encephalopathy
#1
REVIEW
Rohan Dalal, Richard G McGee, Stephen M Riordan, Angela C Webster
BACKGROUND: Hepatic encephalopathy is a disorder of brain function as a result of liver failure or portosystemic shunt or both. Both hepatic encephalopathy (clinically overt) and minimal hepatic encephalopathy (not clinically overt) significantly impair patient's quality of life and daily functioning, and represent a significant burden on healthcare resources. Probiotics are live micro-organisms, which when administered in adequate amounts, may confer a health benefit on the host. OBJECTIVES: To determine the beneficial and harmful effects of probiotics in any dosage, compared with placebo or no intervention, or with any other treatment for people with any grade of acute or chronic hepatic encephalopathy...
February 23, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230773/programmed-death-ligand-1-pd-l1-tumor-expression-is-associated-with-a-better-prognosis-and-diabetic-disease-in-triple-negative-breast-cancer-patients
#2
Gerardo Botti, Francesca Collina, Giosuè Scognamiglio, Federica Rao, Valentina Peluso, Rossella De Cecio, Michela Piezzo, Gabriella Landi, Michelino De Laurentiis, Monica Cantile, Maurizio Di Bonito
Triple Negative Breast Cancers (TNBC) subtype is an aggressive disease with poor clinical outcome. The only treatment available is surgery followed by chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) is a trans-membrane protein expressed on a wide variety of cells including immune cells, epithelial and vascular endothelial cells. Recently, PD-1/PD-L1 pathway signaling was described as an adaptive immune resistance mechanism enacted by the tumor cells to evade the immune response. Its presence on tumor cell membranes, acquired for this reason, through time, is an important prognostic value...
February 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229360/thyroid-hormone-acting-via-tr%C3%AE-induces-expression-of-browning-genes-in-mouse-bone-marrow-adipose-tissue
#3
Richard C Lindsey, Subburaman Mohan
PURPOSE: Mutant hypothyroid mouse models have recently shown that thyroid hormone is critical for skeletal development during an important prepubertal growth period. Additionally, thyroid hormone negatively regulates total body fat, consistent with the well-established effects of thyroid hormone on energy and fat metabolism. Since bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells differentiate into both adipocytes and osteoblasts and a relationship between bone marrow adipogenesis and osteogenesis has been predicted, we hypothesized thyroid hormone deficiency during the postnatal growth period increases marrow adiposity in mice...
February 22, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228268/er-stress-protein-chop-mediates-insulin-resistance-by-modulating-adipose-tissue-macrophage-polarity
#4
Toru Suzuki, Junhong Gao, Yasushi Ishigaki, Keiichi Kondo, Shojiro Sawada, Tomohito Izumi, Kenji Uno, Keizo Kaneko, Sohei Tsukita, Kei Takahashi, Atsuko Asao, Naoto Ishii, Junta Imai, Tetsuya Yamada, Seiichi Oyadomari, Hideki Katagiri
Obesity represents chronic inflammatory states promoted by pro-inflammatory M1-macrophage infiltration into white adipose tissue (WAT), thereby inducing insulin resistance. Herein, we demonstrate the importance of an ER stress protein, CHOP, in determining adipose tissue macrophage (ATM) polarity and systemic insulin sensitivity. A high-fat diet (HFD) enhances ER stress with CHOP upregulation in adipocytes. CHOP deficiency prevents HFD-induced insulin resistance and glucose intolerance with ATM M2 predomination and Th2 cytokine upregulation in WAT...
February 21, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228108/expression-profiling-and-bioinformatic-analyses-suggest-new-target-genes-and-pathways-for-human-hair-follicle-related-micrornas
#5
Lara M Hochfeld, Thomas Anhalt, Céline S Reinbold, Marisol Herrera-Rivero, Nadine Fricker, Markus M Nöthen, Stefanie Heilmann-Heimbach
BACKGROUND: Human hair follicle (HF) cycling is characterised by the tight orchestration and regulation of signalling cascades. Research shows that micro(mi)RNAs are potent regulators of these pathways. However, knowledge of the expression of miRNAs and their target genes and pathways in the human HF is limited. The objective of this study was to improve understanding of the role of miRNAs and their regulatory interactions in the human HF. METHODS: Expression levels of ten candidate miRNAs with reported functions in hair biology were assessed in HFs from 25 healthy male donors...
February 22, 2017: BMC Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227812/the-development-of-real-time-pcr-micro-device-with-optical-sensor-for-early-detection-of-cancer
#6
Yusuke Kimura, Keigo Osada, Yoshinori Inoue, Masashi Ikeuchi, Koji Ikuta, Yusuke Kimura, Keigo Osada, Yoshinori Inoue, Masashi Ikeuchi, Koji Ikuta, Koji Ikuta, Yoshinori Inoue, Keigo Osada, Yusuke Kimura, Masashi Ikeuchi
We can detect cancer in the early stages by validating the expression of cancer specific nucleic acids in the blood. In this report, we have developed the micro device for performing real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR), one of the methods used for determining the quantity of nucleic acids, using a small volume of reagent. This all-in-one device can perform real-time PCR with the inclusion of heating control and the analyzing system with optical sensor.
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227432/colony-size-effect-on-neural-differentiation-of-embryonic-stem-cells-microprinted-on-stromal-cells
#7
Ramila Joshi, James Buchanan, Hossein Tavana, Ramila Joshi, James Buchanan, Hossein Tavana, Ramila Joshi, James Buchanan, Hossein Tavana
Controlling cellular microenvironment to induce neural differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) remains a major challenge. We address this need by introducing a micro-engineered co-culture system that resembles embryonic development in terms of direct intercellular interactions and induces neural differentiation of ESCs. A polymeric aqueous two-phase system (ATPS)-mediated robotic microprinting technology allows precise localization of mouse ESCs (mESCs) over a layer of supporting stromal cells. mESCs proliferate over a 2-week culture period into a single colony of defined size...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225583/microfluidic-encapsulation-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-for-articular-cartilage-tissue-regeneration
#8
Fanyi Li, Vinh X Truong, Helmut Thissen, Jessica Frith, John S Forsythe
Stem cell injections for the treatment of articular cartilage damage are a promising approach to achieve tissue regeneration. However, this method is encumbered by high cell apoptosis rates, low retention in the cartilage lesion and inefficient chondrogenesis. Here, we have used a facile, very low cost-based microfluidic technique to create visible light-cured hydrogel microparticles composed of gelatin norbornene (GelNB) and a polyethylene glycol (PEG) crosslinker. In addition, we have demonstrated that the process enables the rapid in situ micro-encapsulation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) under biocompatible microfluidic-processing conditions for long-term maintenance...
February 22, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222998/dynamics-of-apc-recruitment-at-the-site-of-injection-following-injection-of-vaccine-adjuvants
#9
Susan van Aalst, Irene Stephanie Ludwig, Peter Johannes Sylvester van Kooten, Ruurd van der Zee, Willem van Eden, Femke Broere
Vaccines often contain adjuvants to strengthen the response to the vaccine antigen. However, their modes of action at the site of injection (SOI) are poorly understood. Therefore, we assessed the local effects of adjuvant on the innate immune system in mice. We investigated the safe, widely used adjuvants MF59 and aluminum hydroxide (alum), as well as trehalose-6,6'-dibehenate (TDB), Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA) and the Toll-Like-Receptor-ligands lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Pam3CysSerLys4 (Pam3CSK4). We assessed muscle immune cell infiltration after adjuvant injection and observed 16h post immunization (hpi) an increased influx with CFA, MF59 and TDB, but not with alum, LPS or Pam3CSK4...
February 17, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222433/high-glucose-induces-mouse-mesangial-cell-overproliferation-via-inhibition-of-hydrogen-sulfide-synthesis-in-a-tlr-4-dependent-manner
#10
Tao Ding, Wei Chen, Juan Li, Jiarong Ding, Xiaobin Mei, Haiyan Hu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Overproliferation of mesangial cells was believed to play an important role in the progress of diabetic nephropathy, one of the primary complications of diabetes. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a well-known and pungent gas with the distinctive smell of rotten eggs, was discovered to play a protective role in diabetic nephropathy. METHODS: MTT assay was used to examine the viability of mesangial cells. Small interfering RNA was used to knock down the expression of TLR4 while specific inhibitor LY294002 to suppress the function of PI3K...
February 22, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222358/tyrosine-kinase-inhibition-is-an-important-factor-for-gene-expression-of-crth2-in-human-eosinophils-and-lymphocytes-a-novel-mechanism-for-explaining-eosinophils-recruitment-by-the-neuro-immune-axis-in-allergic-rhinitis
#11
A E El-Shazly, P Roncarati, M Lejeune, P P Lefebvre, P Delvenne
We recently shown a novel neuro-immune competition between vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and PGD2 for CRTH2 receptor, and that genistein augmented VIP and PGD2-induced eosinophil chemotaxis. However, there are neither studies on the CRTH2 gene expression in allergic rhinitis (AR) nor in the effect of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in CRTH2 gene regulation. Our Objectives were to study the gene expression modulation of CRTH2 receptor in AR patients and the effect of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) on CRTH2 gene modulation...
February 18, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222310/circulating-mirna-associated-with-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-in-a-cohort-of-military-combat-veterans
#12
Christiana G Martin, Hyungsuk Kim, Sijung Yun, Whitney Livingston, Joseph Fetta, Vincent Mysliwiec, Tristin Baxter, Jessica M Gill
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) affects many returning combat veterans, but underlying biological mechanisms remain unclear. In order to compare circulating micro RNA (miRNA) of combat veterans with and without PTSD, peripheral blood from 24 subjects was collected following deployment, and isolated miRNA was sequenced. PTSD was associated with 8 differentially expressed miRNA. Pathway analysis shows that PTSD is related to the axon guidance and Wnt signaling pathways, which work together to support neuronal development through regulation of growth cones...
January 31, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221779/experimental-assessment-of-photon-fluence-rate-distributions-in-a-medium-pressure-uv-photoreactor
#13
Mengkai Li, Zhimin Qiang, Chen Wang, James R Bolton, Ernest R Blatchley
The performance of a medium-pressure (MP) mercury lamp photoreactor is strongly influenced by the spatial photon fluence rate (PFR) distributions, which are wavelength-dependent. To address this issue, PFR distributions in an MP lamp photoreactor were measured using a 360-degree response micro-fluorescent silica detector (MFSD). To accurately express the optical behavior in an MP photoreactor, PFR, MFSD response PFR (PFRMFSD), and effective germicidal PFR (PFRGER) were defined and compared. The measured axial and radial PFRMFSD values agreed well with the corresponding results from a simulation model (UVCalc®)...
February 21, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221018/low-efficiency-upconversion-nanoparticles-for-high-resolution-coalignment-of-near-infrared-and-visible-light-paths-on-a-light-microscope
#14
Sriramkumar Sundaramoorthy, Adrian Garcia Badaracco, Sophia M Hirsch, Jun Hong Park, Tim Davies, Julien Dumont, Mimi Shirasu-Hiza, Andrew C Kummel, Julie C Canman
The combination of near-infrared (NIR) and visible wavelengths in light microscopy for biological studies is increasingly common. For example, many fields of biology are developing the use of NIR for optogenetics, in which an NIR laser induces a change in gene expression and/or protein function. One major technical barrier in working with both NIR and visible light on an optical microscope is obtaining their precise coalignment at the imaging plane position. Photon upconverting particles (UCPs) can bridge this gap as they are excited by NIR light but emit in the visible range via an anti-Stokes luminescence mechanism...
February 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219197/-down-regulation-of-mir-146b-5p-promotes-malignant-transformation-of-fusion-cells-after-co-culture-of-macrophages-with-glioma-stem-cells-in-vitro
#15
H H Cai, H Y Wang, H R Liu, Y J Sheng, D G Xi, Y P Xue, X L Dai, A D Wang, Q Huang, J Dong
Objective: To observe mutual interactions between macrophages(Mφ) and glioma stem cells (GSCs)in dual-color tracing model in vitro, to identify the biological characteristics of fusion cells in multiple levels, and to analysis the relevant molecular mechanisms. Methods: Red fluorescent protein(RFP) gene was stably transfected into human GSCs cell line SU4. Mφ cells were obtained from Balb/c nude mice with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) expression. Then two cells were co-cultured in dual-color tracing platform...
February 7, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218726/biomarkers-in-pediatric-community-acquired-pneumonia
#16
REVIEW
Nicola Principi, Susanna Esposito
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is an infectious disease caused by bacteria, viruses, or a combination of these infectious agents. The severity of the clinical manifestations of CAP varies significantly. Consequently, both the differentiation of viral from bacterial CAP cases and the accurate assessment and prediction of disease severity are critical for effectively managing individuals with CAP. To solve questionable cases, several biomarkers indicating the etiology and severity of CAP have been studied...
February 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218482/osteoblastic-differentiation-of-periodontal-ligament-stem-cells-on-non-stoichiometric-calcium-phosphate-and-titanium-surfaces
#17
L Winning, L Robinson, A R Boyd, I A El Karim, F T Lundy, B J Meenan
Bioactive materials offer particular clinical benefits in the field of dental implantology, where differentiation of stem cells towards an osteoblastic lineage is required for osseointegration and appropriate function of implants in vivo. The aim of this study was to evaluate the osteoblastic response of Stro-1+ve periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) to three well-characterised biomaterial surfaces: an abraded titanium surface (cpTi) control; a polycrystalline titanium surface, with both micro and nano-topography produced by radio frequency magnetron sputtering (TiTi); and the same surface incorporating a sputter deposited calcium phosphate coating (CaP-TiTi)...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217782/receptor-for-hyaluronan-mediated-motility-rhamm-hmmr-is-a-novel-target-for-promoting-subcutaneous-adipogenesis
#18
S B Bahrami, C Tolg, T Peart, C Symonette, M Veiseh, J U Umoh, D W Holdsworth, J B McCarthy, L G Luyt, M J Bissell, A Yazdani, E A Turley
Hyaluronan, CD44 and the Receptor for Hyaluronan-Mediated Motility (RHAMM, gene name HMMR) regulate stem cell differentiation including mesenchymal progenitor differentiation. Here, we show that CD44 expression is required for subcutaneous adipogenesis, whereas RHAMM expression suppresses this process. We designed RHAMM function blocking peptides to promote subcutaneous adipogenesis as a clinical and tissue engineering tool. Adipogenic RHAMM peptides were identified by screening for their ability to promote adipogenesis in culture assays using rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, mouse pre-adipocyte cell lines and primary human subcutaneous pre-adipocytes...
February 20, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217602/health-worker-posting-and-transfer-at-primary-level-in-tamil-nadu-governance-of-a-complex-health-system-function
#19
Surekha Garimella, Kabir Sheikh
BACKGROUND: Posting and transfer (PT) of health personnel - placing the right health workers in the right place at the right time - is a core function of any large-scale health service. In the context of government health services, this may be seen as a simple process of bureaucratic governance and implementation of the rule of law. However the literature from India and comparable low and middle-income country health systems suggests that in reality PT is a contested domain, driven by varied expressions of private and public interest throughout the chain of implementation...
July 2016: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214897/mir-125b-regulates-the-osteogenic-differentiation-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-by-targeting-bmpr1b
#20
Huaqing Wang, Zhao Xie, Tianyong Hou, Zhiqiang Li, Ke Huang, Jicheng Gong, Wei Zhou, Kanglai Tang, Jianzhong Xu, Shiwu Dong
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) plays a crucial role in bone regeneration and bone reparation. This complex process is regulated precisely and firmly by specific factors. Recent studies have demonstrated that miR-125b regulates osteogenic differentiation, but little is known about the molecular mechanisms of this regulation. Furthermore, how miR-125b regulates the osteogenic differentiation of MSCs still needs elucidation. METHODS: In the present study, human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) were isolated and induced to osteoblasts with miR-125b inhibition or overexpression...
January 31, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
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