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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427114/h-lifestyle-use-of-drugs-by-healthy-people-for-enhancing-cognition-creativity-motivation-and-pleasure
#1
REVIEW
L-S Camilla d'Angelo, George Savulich, Barbara J Sahakian
Today there is continued, and in some cases growing, availability of psychoactive substances, including treatments for mental health disorders such as cognitive enhancers, which can enhance or restore brain function, but also 'recreational' drugs such as novel psychoactive substances (NPS). The use of psychoactive drugs has both benefits and risks: whilst new drugs to treat cognitive symptoms in neuropsychiatric or neurodegenerative disorders could have great benefits for many patient groups, the increasing ease of accessibility to recreational NPS and the increasing lifestyle use of cognitive enhancers by healthy people means that the effective management of psychoactive substances will be an issue of increasing importance...
April 20, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427041/the-efficacy-of-donepezil-administration-on-acetylcholinesterase-activity-and-altered-redox-homeostasis-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
Pinar Atukeren, Mahir Cengiz, Hakan Yavuzer, Remise Gelisgen, Esma Altunoglu, Sena Oner, Fusun Erdenen, Damla Yuceakın, Himmet Derici, Ufuk Cakatay, Hafize Uzun
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a serious multifactorial disorder with progressive neurodegenerative outcomes related with impaired redox homeostasis. Inhibition of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE), as one of the major therapeutic strategies, is considered to be offering only symptomatic relief and moderate disease modifying effect. We intended to investigate the effects of acetylcholinesterase inhibition via donepezil on protein carbonyl (PCO), advanced protein oxidation products (AOPP) and ischemia modified albumin (IMA) as protein oxidation markers and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), prooxidant-antioxidant balance (PAB), total thiol (T-SH), protein thiol (P-SH) as antioxidant status markers and also kynurenine (KYN), N-formyl kynurenine (N-FKYN) and protein bound dityrosine (DT) levels all in one demonstrating the redox homeostasis in Alzheimer patients also correlated with AChE activity...
April 17, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425868/pomegranate-as-a-possible-treatment-in-reducing-risk-of-developing-wound-healing-obesity-neurodegenerative-disorders-and-diabetes-mellitus
#3
Manaf AlMatar, Md Rashedul Islam, Othman Albari, Işıl Var, Fatih Köksal
Four distinguished although overlying stages make up the methodical procedure of wound healing, which are hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation and remodelling. Multiple sclerosis (MS) comprises a persistent inflammatory infection of the central nervous system, and is related to demyelination, neurodegeneration, as well as susceptibility to oxidative pressure. Obesity signifies a swiftly developing danger to the wellbeing of populations in a rising number of nations. Usually called diabetes mellitus (DM) by medical practitioners, diabetes details a collection of metabolic diseases within which the individual has raised blood glucose, either due to an insufficiency of insulin generation, or the lack of suitable response by the body to insulin, or both...
April 19, 2017: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424219/down-regulation-of-rbo-pi4kiii%C3%AE-facilitates-a%C3%AE-42-secretion-and-ameliorates-neural-deficits-in-a%C3%AE-42-expressing-drosophila
#4
Xiao Zhang, Wen-An Wang, Li-Xiang Jiang, Hai-Yan Liu, Bao-Zhu Zhang, Nastasia Lim, Qing-Yi Li, Fu-De Huang
Phosphoinositides and their metabolizing enzymes are involved in Aβ42 metabolism and Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. In yeast and mammals, Eighty-five requiring 3 (EFR3), whose Drosophila homolog is Rolling Blackout (RBO), forms a plasma membrane-localized protein complex with phosphatidylinositol-4-kinase type IIIα(PI4KIIIα) and a scaffold protein to tightly control the level of plasmalemmal phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PI4P). Here, we report that RBO binds to Drosophila PI4KIIIα, and that in an Aβ42-expressing Drosophila model, separate genetic reduction of PI4KIIIα and RBO, or pharmacological inhibition of PI4KIIIα ameliorated synaptic transmission deficit, climbing ability decline, and premature death, and reduced neuronal accumulation of Aβ42 Moreover, we found that RBO-PI4KIIIa downregulation increased neuronal Aβ42 release, and that PI4P facilitated the assembly or oligomerization of Aβ42 in/on liposomes...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423937/concordance-of-several-subcellular-interactions-initiates-alzheimer-s-dementia-their-reversal-requires-combination-treatment
#5
W J Fessel
The pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease involves multiple pathways that, at the macrolevel, include decreased proliferation plus increased loss affecting neurons, astrocytes, and capillaries and, at the subcellular level, involve several elements: amyloid/amyloid precursor protein, presenilins, the unfolded protein response, the ubiquitin/proteasome system, the Wnt/catenin system, the Notch signaling system, mitochondria, mitophagy, calcium, and tau. Data presented show the intimate, anatomical interactions between neurons, astrocytes, and capillaries; the interactions between the several subcellular factors affecting those cells; and the treatments that are currently available and that might correct dysfunctions in the subcellular factors...
May 2017: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422708/a-brief-essay-on-non-pharmacological-treatment-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
Alberto Raggi, Domenica Tasca, Raffaele Ferri
Current pharmacological therapies for Alzheimer's disease (AD) do not modify its course and are not always beneficial. Therefore, the optimization of quality of life represents the best possible outcome achievable in all stages of the disease. Cognitive and behavioural rehabilitation represents the main therapeutic approach for this purpose, also in order to mitigate indirectly the burden of distress of family caregivers. The aim of this mini-review is to go through this theme by discussing cognitive activation, virtual reality and neuromodulation techniques...
April 19, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422052/folic-acid-reduces-tau-phosphorylation-by-regulating-pp2a-methylation-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-mice
#7
Miaoyan Zheng, Chen Zou, Mengyue Li, Guowei Huang, Yuxia Gao, Huan Liu
High incidence rate of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is observed in patients with type 2 diabetes. Aggregated β-amyloid (Aβ) and hyperphosphorylated tau are the hallmarks of AD. Hyperphosphorylated tau has been detected in diabetic animals as well as in diabetic patients. Folates mediate the transfer of one carbon unit, required in various biochemical reactions. The effect of folate on tau phosphorylation in diabetic models still remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the effect and mechanism of folic acid on hyperphosphorylation of tau in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice...
April 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420695/adeno-associated-viral-9-mediated-cdk5-inhibitory-peptide-reverses-pathologic-changes-and-behavioral-deficits-in-the-alzheimer-s-disease-mouse-model
#8
Yong He, Suyue Pan, Miaojing Xu, Rongni He, Wei Huang, Pingping Song, Jianou Huang, Han-Ting Zhang, Yafang Hu
Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5), which binds to and is activated by p35, phosphorylates multiple substrates and plays an essential role in the development and function of the CNS; however, proteolytic production of p25 from p35 under stress conditions leads to the inappropriate activation of Cdk5 and contributes to hyperphosphorylation of τ and other substrates that are related to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Selective inhibition of aberrant Cdk5 activity via genetic overexpression of Cdk5 inhibitory peptide (CIP) reduces pathologic changes and prevents brain atrophy and memory loss in p25-transgenic mice...
April 18, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419590/cracking-the-neural-code-treating-paralysis-and-the-future-of-bioelectronic-medicine
#9
C Bouton
The human nervous system is a vast network carrying not only sensory and movement information, but also information to and from our organs, intimately linking it to our overall health. Scientists and engineers have been working for decades to tap into this network and 'crack the neural code' by decoding neural signals and learning how to 'speak' the language of the nervous system. Progress has been made in developing neural decoding methods to decipher brain activity and bioelectronic technologies to treat rheumatoid arthritis, paralysis, epilepsy and for diagnosing brain-related diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease...
April 16, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419260/mitochondria-targeted-small-molecule-ss31-a-potential-candidate-for-the-treatment-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
P Hemachandra Reddy, Maria Manczak, Ramesh Kandimalla
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 15, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419192/efficacy-and-safety-of-a-novel-acetylcholinesterase-inhibitor-octohydroaminoacridine-in-mild-to-moderate-alzheimer-s-disease-a-phase-ii-multicenter-randomised-controlled-trial
#11
Shifu Xiao, Tao Wang, Xiuqiang Ma, Yingyi Qin, Xia Li, Zhongxin Zhao, Xueyuan Liu, Xiaoping Wang, Hengge Xie, Qinpu Jiang, Li Sun, Benyan Luo, Lan Shang, Weixian Chen, Yan Bai, Muni Tang, Maolin He, Lan Wu, Qilin Ma, Deren Hou, Jia He
Background: inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) has been a effective treatment for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Octohydroaminoacridine, a new AChE inhibitor, is a potential treatment for AD. Method: we conducted a multicenter, randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group Phase II clinical trial to investigate the effects of octohydroaminoacridine in patients with mild-to-moderate AD. Patients were randomised to receive placebo thrice daily, octohydroaminoacridine 1 mg/thrice daily (TID) (low-dose group), 2 mg/TID (middle-dose group) or 4 mg/TID (high-dose group)...
April 17, 2017: Age and Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418065/vitamin-e-for-alzheimer-s-dementia-and-mild-cognitive-impairment
#12
REVIEW
Nicolas Farina, David Llewellyn, Mokhtar Gad El Kareem Nasr Isaac, Naji Tabet
BACKGROUND: Vitamin E occurs naturally in the diet. It has several biological activities, including functioning as an antioxidant to scavenge toxic free radicals. Evidence that free radicals may contribute to the pathological processes behind cognitive impairment has led to interest in the use of vitamin E supplements to treat mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2000, and previously updated in 2006 and 2012...
April 18, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417590/calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-cgrp-a-novel-target-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
REVIEW
Yogendra Singh, Gaurav Gupta, Birendra Shrivastava, Rajiv Dahiya, Juhi Tiwari, Madhu Ashwathanarayana, Rakesh Kumar Sharma, Mohit Agrawal, Anurag Mishra, Kamal Dua
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is leading cause of death among older characterized by neurofibrillary tangles, oxidative stress, progressive neuronal deficits, and increased levels of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides. Cholinergic treatment could be the best suitable physiological therapy for AD. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a thirty-seven-amino acid regulatory neuropeptide resulting from different merging of the CGRP gene, which also includes adrenomedullin, amylin, calcitonin, intermedin, and calcitonin receptor-stimulating peptide...
April 17, 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417263/rosuvastatin-attenuates-high-salt-and-cholesterol-diet-induced-neuroinflammation-and-cognitive-impairment-via-preventing-nuclear-factor-kappab-pathway
#14
Ibraheem Husain, Mohd Akhtar, Divya Vohora, Malik Zainul Abdin, Mohammad Islamuddin, Mohd Jawaid Akhtar, Abul Kalam Najmi
Recent attention is focused on the impact of diet on health and mental well-being. High-salt and cholesterol diet (HSCD) is known to be associated with neuroinflammation which is the predominant factor for neurodegenerative disease like Alzheimer disease (AD). In the present study, we examined the neuroprotective potential of rosuvastatin, an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor against HSCD induced neuroinflammation and cognitive impairment. Our results demonstrated that HSCD-induced cognitive impairment as determined by Morris water maze (MWM) task...
April 18, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415883/electrosteric-stealth-rivastigmine-loaded-liposomes-for-brain-targeting-preparation-characterization-ex-vivo-bio-distribution-and-in-vivo-pharmacokinetic-studies
#15
Sara Nageeb El-Helaly, Ahmed Abd Elbary, Mohamed A Kassem, Mohamed A El-Nabarawi
Being one of the highly effective drugs in treatment of Alzheimer's disease, Rivastigmine brain targeting is highly demandable, therefore liposomal dispersion of Rivastigmine was prepared containing 2 mol% PEG-DSPE added to Lecithin, Didecyldimethyl ammonium bromide (DDAB), Tween 80 in 1:0.02:0.25 molar ratio. A major challenge during the preparation of liposomes is maintaining a stable formulation, therefore the aim of our study was to increase liposomal stability by addition of DDAB to give an electrostatic stability and PEG-DSPE to increase stability by steric hindrance, yielding what we called an electrosteric stealth (ESS) liposomes...
November 2017: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413985/salvianolic-acid-b-decreases-the-generation-of-amyloid-%C3%AE-by-modulating-bace1-activity
#16
Siva Sundara Kumar Durairajan, Venkat Reddy Chirasani, Sravan Gopalakrishnan Shetty, Ashok Iyaswamy, Sandeep Malampati, Juxian Song, Liangfeng Liu, Jiandong Huang, Sanjib Senapati, Min Li
Generation and accumulation of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide after proteolytic processing of the full length amyloid precursor protein (FL-APP) by β-secretase (β-site APP cleaving enzyme or BACE1) and β -secretase is a main causal factor of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Thus, inhibition of BACE1, a rate-limiting enzyme in the production of Aβ, is an attractive therapeutic approach for the treatment of AD. Recent studies suggest that salvianolic acid B (Sal B) isolated from the radix of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, a Chinese herbal medicine commonly used for the treatment of cardiovascular, cerebrovascular and liver diseases in China...
April 17, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413833/beneficial-effects-of-a-pyrroloquinolinequinone-containing-dietary-formulation-on-motor-deficiency-cognitive-decline-and-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
Darrell Sawmiller, Song Li, Takashi Mori, Ahsan Habib, David Rongo, Vedad Delic, Patrick C Bradshaw, R Douglas Shytle, Cyndy Sanberg, Paula Bickford, Jun Tan
Alzheimer's disease (AD), a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, is linked to oxidative stress, altered amyloid precursor protein (APP) proteolysis, tau hyperphosphorylation and the accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT). A growing body of evidence suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction can be a key promoter of all of these pathologies and predicts that restoration of mitochondrial function might be a potential therapeutic strategy for AD. Therefore, in the present study, we tested the beneficial effect of a nutraceutical formulation Nutrastem II (Nutra II), containing NT020 (a mitochondrial restorative and antioxidant proprietary formulation) and pyrroloquinolinequinone (PQQ, a stimulator of mitochondria biogenesis) in 5XFAD transgenic mice...
April 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413470/identification-of-genes-associated-with-the-effect-of-inflammation-on-the-neurotransmission-of-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell
#18
Shujie Gan, Shenlong Qiu, Yiwen Feng, Yanping Zhang, Qin Qian, Zhong Wan, Jingdong Tang
Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) accumulation and hypertrophy are common in vascular disorders, and inflammation has a crucial role in the development of these diseases. To investigate the effect of inflammation on the neurotransmission of VSMC, bioinformatic analysis was performed, following next generation sequencing. Genes of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated A7r5 cells and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)-treated A7r5 cells were sequenced via next generation sequencing, and each assay was repeated three times...
April 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413178/synthesized-a%C3%AE-42-caused-intracellular-oxidative-damage-leading-to-cell-death-via-lysosome-rupture
#19
Yuki Oku, Kazuma Murakami, Kazuhiro Irie, Jun Hoseki, Yasuyoshi Sakai
Neuronal cellular accumulation of amyloid beta peptide (Aβ) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Intracellular accumulation of Aβ42, a toxic form of Aβ, was observed as an early event in AD patients. However, its contribution and the cellular mechanism of cell death remained unclear. We herein revealed the mechanism by which Aβ42 incorporated into cells leads to cell death by using chemically synthesized Aβ42 variants. The Aβ42 variant Aβ42 (E22P) which has an increased tendency to oligomerize, accumulated in lysosomes at an earlier stage than wild-type Aβ42, leading to higher ROS production and lysosomal membrane oxidation, and resulting in cell death...
April 12, 2017: Cell Structure and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412919/neurological-disorders-in-medical-use-of-cannabis-an-update
#20
Renata Solimini, Maria Concetta Rotolo, Simona Pichini, Roberta Pacifici
Medical cannabis is increasingly used as a treatment or adjunct treatment with different levels of efficacy in several neurological disorders or related symptoms (such as multiple sclerosis, autism, Parkinson and Alzheimer disease, Tourette's syndrome, Huntington's disease, neuropathic pain, epilepsy, headache), as well as in other medical conditions (e.g. nausea and vomiting, glaucoma, appetite stimulation, cancer, inflammatory conditions, asthma). Nevertheless, a number of neurological adverse effects from use of medical cannabis on the short- and on the long- term have been reported, in addition to other adverse health events...
April 13, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
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