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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793156/mechanical-properties-of-the-human-scalp-in-tension
#1
Lisa Falland-Cheung, Mario Scholze, Pamela F Lozano, Benjamin Ondruschka, Darryl C Tong, Paul A Brunton, J Neil Waddell, Niels Hammer
Mechanical properties of the human scalp have not been investigated to a great extent with limited information available. The purpose of this study was to provide new baseline material data for human scalp tissue of various ages, which can be applied to experimental and constitutive models, such as in the area of impact biomechanics. This study used specimens from the left and right temporal, fronto-parietal and occipital regions of the human scalp. It investigated the tensile behavior of scalp tissue using tissues harvested from unfixed, fresh cadavers...
May 17, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793021/phosphoinositide-3-kinase-p110%C3%AE-negatively-regulates-thrombopoietin-mediated-platelet-activation-and-thrombus-formation
#2
T A Blair, S F Moore, T G Walsh, J L Hutchinson, T N Durrant, K E Anderson, A W Poole, I Hers
Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) plays an important role in platelet function and contributes to platelet hyperreactivity induced by elevated levels of circulating peptide hormones, including thrombopoietin (TPO). Previous work established an important role for the PI3K isoform; p110β in platelet function, however the role of p110α is still largely unexplored. Here we sought to investigate the role of p110α in TPO-mediated hyperactivity by using a conditional p110α knockout (KO) murine model in conjunction with platelet functional assays...
May 21, 2018: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793000/effect-of-a-bisphosphonate-and-selective-estrogen-receptor-modulator-on-bone-remodeling-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetes-and-ovariectomized-rat-model
#3
Young-Seok Lee, Rishab Gupta, Jeong-Taik Kwon, Dae-Chul Cho, Ye Jin Seo, Sung Young Seu, Eui Kyun Park, Inbo Han, Chi-Heon Kim, Joo-Kyung Sung, Kyoung-Tae Kim
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Diabetes and menopause can cause severe osteoporosis. In general, menopause and diabetes can lead to an imbalance in bone turnover, which results in secondary osteoporosis. However, the efficacy of antiresorptive drugs against this form of osteoporosis has not been extensively evaluated. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the changes in vertebral bone remodeling when postmenopausal osteoporosis is accompanied by diabetes and the efficacy of bisphosphonates and selective estrogen-receptor modulators (SERMs) against these outcomes...
May 21, 2018: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792924/creation-of-an-acellular-vaginal-matrix-for-potential-vaginal-augmentation-and-cloacal-repair
#4
K V Greco, L G Jones, I Obiri-Yeboa, T Ansari
STUDY OBJECTIVE: our aim was to use porcine vagina to create a vaginal matrix and test its cellular biocompatibility. DESIGN: vagina was harvested from pigs and de-cellularised (DC) using a combination of detergents (Triton x-100 and sodium deoxycholate) and enzymes (DNAse/RNAse). INTERVENTIONS: the presence of cellular material, collagen structural integrity and basement membrane proteins were assessed histologically. To address cytocompatibility, porcine adipose derived-mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSC) were harvested from abdominal fat together with vaginal epithelial cells (VEC) and seeded onto the mucosal aspect of the vaginal scaffold...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792851/collagen-induced-arthritis-in-dark-agouti-rats-as-a-model-for-study-of-immunological-sexual-dimorphisms-in-the-human-disease
#5
Mirjana Dimitrijević, Nevena Arsenović-Ranin, Biljana Bufan, Mirjana Nacka-Aleksić, Mirjana Lazarević Macanović, Petar Milovanović, Marija Đurić, Jelena Sopta, Gordana Leposavić
Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) is a frequently used animal model of rheumatoid arthritis, human autoimmune disease that exhibits clear sex bias in incidence and clinical course. Female Dark Agouti rats immunized for CIA showed also greater incidence and higher arthritic score than their male counterparts. The study investigated sex differences in mechanisms controlling the primary immune responses in draining lymph nodes (dLNs), as a factor contributing to this dimorphism. The higher frequencies of CD4 + CD25 + Foxp3- cells, presumably activated effector T (Teff) cells, and IL-17+, IFN-γ + and IL-17 + IFN-γ + T cells were found in female comapared with male rat dLNs...
May 21, 2018: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792846/adenosine-receptor-distribution-in-rhesus-monkey-ocular-tissue
#6
Krista M Beach, Li-Fang Hung, Baskar Arumugam, Earl L Smith, Lisa A Ostrin
Adenosine receptor (ADOR) antagonists, such as 7-methylxanthine (7-MX), have been shown to slow myopia progression in humans and animal models. Adenosine receptors are found throughout the body, and regulate the release of neurotransmitters such as dopamine and glutamate. However, the role of adenosine in eye growth is unclear. Evidence suggests that 7-MX increases scleral collagen fibril diameter, hence preventing axial elongation. This study used immunohistochemistry (IHC) and reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) to examine the distribution of the four ADORs in the normal monkey eye to help elucidate potential mechanisms of action...
May 21, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792508/effects-of-tgf-%C3%AE-overexpression-via-raav-gene-transfer-on-the-early-repair-processes-in-an-osteochondral-defect-model-in-minipigs
#7
Magali Cucchiarini, Ann-Kathrin Asen, Lars Goebel, Jagadeesh K Venkatesan, Gertrud Schmitt, David Zurakowski, Michael D Menger, Matthias W Laschke, Henning Madry
BACKGROUND: Application of the chondrogenic transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) is an attractive approach to enhance the intrinsic biological activities in damaged articular cartilage, especially when using direct gene transfer strategies based on the clinically relevant recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vectors. PURPOSE: To evaluate the ability of an rAAV-TGF-β construct to modulate the early repair processes in sites of focal cartilage injury in minipigs in vivo relative to control (reporter lacZ gene) vector treatment...
May 1, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792385/an-organotypic-reconstructed-human-urethra-to-study-c-trachomatis-infection
#8
Bart Versteeg, Lenie J van den Broek, Sylvia Bruisten, Margriet Mullender, Henry J C de Vries, Susan Gibbs
Organotypic models to investigate host-microbiome interactions are still a challenge for the field of tissue engineering. This is particularly the case for organs such as the urethra. Several cell line, animal and tissue models are available to study C. trachomatis infections, but none fully reflect natural infection in native human tissue. Therefore, we developed an organotypic reconstructed human urethral model (RhU) to study invasive and non-invasive strains of C. trachomatis. Primary urethra cells were used to reconstruct epithelium on a fibroblast populated collagen-fibrin hydrogel, yielding a RhU...
May 24, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792348/cell-division-cycle-7-kinase-is-a-negative-regulator-of-cell-mediated-collagen-degradation
#9
Michael Jeffrey Podolsky, Deepti Gupta, Arnold Ha, Ryan Ta, Amin Khalifeh-Soltani, William McKleroy, Ritwik Datta, Dean Sheppard, Kamran Atabai
Although extensive work has delineated many of the mechanisms of extracellular matrix (ECM) production, far less is known about pathways that regulate ECM degradation. This is particularly true of cellular internalization and degradation of matrix, which play an underappreciated role in ECM metabolism and lung fibrosis. For example, genetic perturbation of this pathway leads to exacerbated fibrosis in experimental animal models. In this work, we present the results of an unbiased screen of Drosophila phagocytes that yielded multiple genes that when silenced led to increased collagen uptake...
May 24, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792275/collagen-type-iii-glomerulopathy
#10
Helen P Pizzo, Mark Haas, Dechu Puliyanda
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792110/a-comparative-study-of-anterior-cruciate-ligament-reconstruction-with-double-single-or-selective-bundle-techniques
#11
Zi-Yang Chia, Jade N Chee, Hamid Rahmatullah Bin-Abd-Razak, Denny Tt Lie, Paul Cc Chang
PURPOSE: Reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is the most frequently performed reconstructive surgery in the knee. Biomechanical studies have shown that double bundle (DB) reconstruction is better than single bundle (SB) reconstruction with regard to rotational stability. It is postulated that resection of ACL fibres that remain in continuity may be counterproductive for the knee as these fibres have the capacity to produce collagen. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy among selective bundle, DB and SB ACL reconstructions over a 2-year post-operative follow-up period...
May 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791651/relationship-between-adiponectin-and-leptin-on-osteocalcin-in-obese-adolescents-during-weight-loss-therapy
#12
Raquel Munhoz da Silveira Campos, Deborah Cristina Landi Masquio, Flávia Campos Corgosinho, Joana Pereira de Carvalho-Ferreira, Bárbara Dal Molin Netto, Ana Paula Grotti Clemente, Lian Tock, Sergio Tufik, Marco Túlio de Mello, Ana Raimunda Dâmaso
OBJECTIVES: Obesity is a multifactorial disease characterized by the presence of the pro-inflammatory state associated with the development of many comorbidities, including bone turnover marker alterations. This study aimed to investigate the role of the inflammatory state on bone turnover markers in obese adolescents undergoing interdisciplinary weight loss treatment for one year. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Thirty four post-pubescent obese adolescents with primary obesity, a body mass index (BMI) greater than > 95th percentile of the CDC reference growth charts, participated in the present investigation...
May 17, 2018: Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791208/human-soluble-phospholipase-a-2-receptor-is-an-inhibitor-of-the-integrin-mediated-cell-migratory-response-to-collagen-i
#13
Kazunori Watanabe, Kazuhiro Watanabe, Yosuke Watanabe, Daisuke Fujioka, Takamitsu Nakamura, Kazuto Nakamura, Jun-Ei Obata, Kiyotaka Kugiyama
Murine membrane-bound phospholipase A2 receptor 1 (PLA2 R) is shed and released into plasma in a soluble form that retains all of the extracellular domains. Relatively little is known about human PLA2 R. This study examined whether human soluble PLA2 R may have biological functions and whether soluble PLA2 R may exist in human plasma. Here, we showed that human recombinant soluble PLA2 R (rsPLA2 R) bound to collagen-I and inhibited interaction of collagen-I with the extracellular domain of integrin β1 on the cell surface of HEK293 cells...
May 23, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790606/the-significance-of-spectrophotometric-image-analysis-for-diagnosis-of-the-melanocytic-skin-tumours-in-association-with-their-thickness
#14
K Sakalauskienė, S Valiukevičienė, R Raišutis, G Linkevičiūtė
BACKGROUND: Cutaneous melanoma is a melanocytic skin tumour, which has very poor prognosis while it is highly resistant to treatment and tends to metastasize. Thickness of melanoma is one of the most important biomarker for stage of disease, prognosis and surgery planning. In this study, we hypothesized that the analysis of spectrophotometric (SIAscope) images can provide the information about skin tumour thickness. METHODS: The intensity of blood displacement, "erythematous blush", collagen holes, intensity of collagen, dermal and epidermal melanin were estimated in SIAgraphs...
May 23, 2018: Skin Research and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790537/physical-defects-in-basement-membrane-mimicking-collagen-iv-matrices-trigger-cellular-emt-and-invasion
#15
Christopher Walter, Joshua T Davis, Jairaj Mathur, Amit Pathak
In fibrosis and cancer, degradation of basement membrane (BM) and cell invasion are considered as key outcomes of a cellular transformation called epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Here, we pose a converse question - can preexisting physical defects in the BM matrix cause EMT in normal epithelial cells? On a BM-mimicking matrix of collagen-IV-coated polyacrylamide (PA) gel, we have discovered a reverse phenomenon in which preexisting defects trigger EMT in normal epithelial cells. Through spatiotemporal measurements and simulations in silico, we demonstrate that the EMT precedes cellular mechanoactivation on defective matrices, but they occur concurrently on stiff matrices...
May 23, 2018: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790092/effects-of-olive-leaf-powder-supplemented-to-fish-feed-on-muscle-protein-of-red-sea-bream
#16
Muh Ali Arsyad, Takashi Akazawa, Chie Nozaki, Makoto Yoshida, Kenichi Oyama, Tatsuo Mukai, Masahiro Ogawa
Olive leaf is known to have the high polyphenol content of 6-9% in dry weight. We investigated the effects of olive leaf powder (OLP) supplemented to fish feed on muscle protein of red sea bream (Pagrus major). Fish reared with feed containing 8% OLP for 40 days had 1.4 times higher myofibril content and 2.2 times higher acid-soluble collagen content than fish reared with control feed for the same period. On the other hand, sarcoplasmic protein content and collagenase activity of the muscle were almost the same between the control fish and OLP-diet fish...
May 22, 2018: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789558/celastrol-alleviates-renal-fibrosis-by-upregulating-cannabinoid-receptor-2-expression
#17
Ming Tang, Xu Cao, Kun Zhang, You Li, Quan-You Zheng, Gui-Qing Li, Qian-Hui He, Shu-Jing Li, Gui-Lian Xu, Ke-Qin Zhang
Renal fibrosis is the final manifestation of various chronic kidney diseases, and no effective therapy is available to prevent or reverse it. Celastrol, a triterpene that derived from traditional Chinese medicine, is a known potent anti-fibrotic agent. However, the underlying mechanisms of action of celastrol on renal fibrosis remain unknown. In this study, we found that celastrol treatment remarkably attenuated unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO)-induced mouse renal fibrosis. This was evidenced by the significant reduction in tubular injury; collagen deposition; accumulation of fibronectin, collagen I, and α-smooth muscle actin; and the expression levels of pro-fibrotic factors Vim, Cola1, and TGF-β1 mRNA, as well as inflammatory responses...
May 22, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789409/characterization-of-an-activating-r1353h-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-receptor-variant-in-a-male-with-extreme-tall-height
#18
Yingbo Lin, Hermine A van Duyvenvoorde, Hong Liu, Chen Yang, Dudi Warsito, Chang Yin, Sarina G Kant, Felix Haglund, Jan M Wit, Olle Larsson
OBJECTIVE: The Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) is important in growth and development, and inactivating IGF1R mutations cause short stature and relatively high levels of serum IGF-I. We identified an unclassified IGF1R R1353H variant in a male with extreme tall height, very low levels of serum IGF-I and delayed and prolonged growth spurt. The index case's mother and three sons all carried the variant, but so far only the eldest son (age 18) presented with tall height. We hypothesized that the variant could constitute an activating mutation...
May 22, 2018: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789348/gestational-low-protein-intake-enhances-whole-kidney-mir-192-and-mir-200-family-expression-and-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-in-rat-adult-male-offspring
#19
Letícia B Sene, Victor Hugo Gonçalves Rizzi, José A R Gontijo, Patricia A Boer
Studies have shown that adult offspring of mothers fed a protein-restricted diet during pregnancy present a pronounced reduction of nephron number associated with decreased fractional urinary sodium excretion and arterial hypertension. Additionally, recent advances in our understanding of the molecular pathways that govern the association of gestational nutritional restriction, intrauterine growth retardation and inflammation with impaired nephrogenesis, nephron underdosing and kidney fibrosis point to the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) as a common factor...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789248/native-enthesis-preservation-versus-removal-in-rotator-cuff-repair-in-a-rabbit-model
#20
Wei Su, Xiaoxi Li, Song Zhao, Peng Shen, Shikui Dong, Jia Jiang, Jinzhong Zhao
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to explore whether preservation of native enthesis during rotator cuff repair (RCR) results in a histologically and biomechanically better rotator cuff-greater tuberosity (RC-GT) connection in an animal model. METHODS: Thirty-six New Zealand white rabbits were used in this study. The supraspinatus tendons were cut from the footprint to create a rotator cuff tear (RCT) on both shoulders, followed by immediate repair, with a 1 mm thick tendon stump remaining on the footprint...
May 19, 2018: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
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