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Susanne Bartel, Heike Ohlbrecht
OBJECTIVE: This study focuses on the theory-practice transfer in the field of research on participation in working life (LTA). The aim was to determine what expectations are prevalent on the part of service providers, how they access scientific knowledge, how the transfer into practice takes place and what research gaps exist. At the same time, representatives of the German Statutory Pension Insurance were asked about internal structures for identifying research topics and evaluating research results as well as for knowledge transfer...
June 2018: Die Rehabilitation
Parnit K Bhupal, Kevin A Anderson, Gabrielle P Shall, Jonathan D Lynn, Katrina S Hoolsema, Julien Rossignol, Gary L Dunbar, Michael I Sandstrom
BACKGROUND: Putative treatments derived from in-vivo stem cell transplant derived dopamine (DA) assessed with hemiparkinsonian rats have been assessed via DA-agonist-induced rotations involving imbalanced intra-hemispheric striatal DA receptor stimulation. However, such tests obscure the natural responses of grafts to sensory stimuli, and drug-induced plasticity can modify the circuit being tested. Thus, we propose an alternative testing strategy using a novel water tank swimming apparatus...
June 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Alexi Baidoshvili, Anca Bucur, Jasper van Leeuwen, Jeroen van der Laak, Philip Kluin, Paul J van Diest
BACKGROUND: The benefits of digital pathology for workflow improvement and thereby cost savings in pathology, at least partly outweighing investment costs, are increasingly recognized. Successful implementations in a variety of scenarios start to demonstrate cost benefits of digital pathology for both research and routine diagnostics, contributing to a sound business case encouraging further adoption. To further support new adopters, there is still a need for detailed assessment of the impact this technology has on the relevant pathology workflows with emphasis on time saving...
June 20, 2018: Histopathology
J Reginald Fils-Aimé, David J Grelotti, Tatiana Thérosmé, Bonnie N Kaiser, Giuseppe Raviola, Yoldie Alcindor, Jennifer Severe, Emmeline Affricot, Katherine Boyd, Rupinder Legha, Shin Daimyo, Stephanie Engel, Eddy Eustache
This study evaluates the use of a mental health mobile clinic to overcome two major challenges to the provision of mental healthcare in resource-limited settings: the shortage of trained specialists; and the need to improve access to safe, effective, and culturally sound care in community settings. Employing task-shifting and supervision, mental healthcare was largely delivered by trained, non-specialist health workers instead of specialists. A retrospective chart review of 318 unduplicated patients assessed and treated during the mobile clinic's first two years (January 2012 to November 2013) was conducted to explore outcomes...
2018: PloS One
Sambit Kumar Mishra, Robert L Jernigan
Dynamic communities in proteins comprise the cohesive structural units that individually exhibit rigid body motions. These can correspond to structural domains, but are usually smaller parts that move with respect to one another in a protein's internal motions, key to its functional dynamics. Previous studies emphasized their importance to understand the nature of ligand-induced allosteric regulation. These studies reported that mutations to key community residues can hinder transmission of allosteric signals among the communities...
2018: PloS One
R A Vinogradov, V V Matusevich
The carotid glomus is an anatomical structure located in the bifurcation of the common carotid artery and consisting of chemo and baroreceptors. It is an important reflexogenic zone participating in provision of constancy of arterial pressure. Performing eversion carotid endarterectomy is accompanied by damage of the structures of the carotid glomus, which is followed by persistent arterial hypertension in the early postoperative period. This complication remains one of the unsolved tasks in surgery of carotid arteries...
2018: Angiologii︠a︡ i Sosudistai︠a︡ Khirurgii︠a︡, Angiology and Vascular Surgery
M A Cherniavskiĭ, A A Gusev, D V Chernova, I V Iarkov, M L Gordeev
Prevention of neurological complications in cardiosurgical and reconstructive vascular surgery is one of the priority tasks of preserving ability to work and decreasing invalidization of patients in the postoperative period. Presented in the article is a clinical case report regarding multiple-stage treatment of a female patient with a combined aortic defect, coronary pathology, and a multilevel bilateral lesion of the brachiocephalic arteries. The first stage consisted in performing a hybrid operation, i. e...
2018: Angiologii︠a︡ i Sosudistai︠a︡ Khirurgii︠a︡, Angiology and Vascular Surgery
Amelia J H Arundale, Jacob J Capin, Ryan Zarzycki, Angela Smith, Lynn Snyder-Mackler
BACKGROUND: The Anterior Cruciate Ligament-Specialized Post-Operative Return to Sports (ACL-SPORTS) randomized controlled trial was designed to address deficits in functional and patient-reported outcomes. The trial examined the effects of a secondary ACL prevention program that included progressive strengthening, agility training, plyometrics (SAP), and other components of current primary prevention protocols, with perturbation training (SAP + PERT group) and without PERT (SAP group)...
June 1, 2018: Sports Health
Sumitash Jana, Aditya Murthy
While inhibitory control of single effector movements has been widely studied, the control of coordinated eye-hand movements has received less attention. Nevertheless, previous studies have contradictorily suggested that either a common or separate signal/s is/are responsible for inhibition of coordinated eye-hand movements. In continuation of our previous study, we varied behavioural contexts and used a stochastic accumulation to threshold model which predicts a scaling of the mean reaction time distribution with its variance, to study the inhibitory control of eye-hand movements...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Muhammad A Parvaz, Kristen Kim, Sean Froudist-Walsh, Jeffrey H Newcorn, Iliyan Ivanov
OBJECTIVE: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with elevated risk for later development of substance use disorders (SUD), specifically because youth with ADHD, similar to individuals with SUD, exhibit deficits in learning abilities and reward processing. Another known risk factor for SUD is familial history of substance dependence. Youth with familial SUD history show reward processing deficits, higher prevalence of externalizing disorders, and higher impulsivity scores...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
Yu-Ching Lo, Hsiao-Fan Tseng, Yu-Jing Chiu, Bo-Hao Wu, Jia-Wei Li, Jiun-Tai Chen
Anisotropic polymer particles have attracted great attention because of their unique properties and potential applications in various areas, such as microelectronics, drug delivery, and medical imaging. The fabrication and morphology control, espe-cially the shape recovery, of anisotropic polymer particles, however, remains a challenging task. In this work, we develop a novel strategy to fabricate anisotropic polymer particles by thermally stretching poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) films embedding polystyrene (PS) microspheres using a weight...
June 20, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Scott R Walter
We have all felt the cognitive disjuncture of being interrupted during an important task. Most ED physicians will readily proffer the high frequency and/or burden of interruptions during their work, and of the many observational studies of interruptions in healthcare EDs do indeed have high interruption rates[2]. In experimental psychology, where many of these ideas originated, there is plenty of evidence that interruptions negatively affect performance. Interruptions have been associated with reduced performance on complex tasks[3,4], increased sequence errors[5], increased task completion time and augmented annoyance and anxiety[6]...
June 20, 2018: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
Vanessa Petruo, Benjamin Bodmer, Valerie C Brandt, Leoni Baumung, Veit Roessner, Alexander Münchau, Christian Beste
BACKGROUND: Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (GTS) is a multifaceted neuropsychiatric developmental disorder with onset in childhood or adolescence and frequent remissions in early adulthood. A rather new emerging concept of this syndrome suggests that it is a disorder of purposeful actions, in which sensory processes and their relation to motor responses (actions) play a particularly important role. Thus, this syndrome might be conceived as a condition of altered 'perception-action binding'...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
Anna E Kornadt, Peggy Voss, Helene H Fung, Thomas M Hess, Klaus Rothermund
Objectives: Preparation for age-related changes is a central task in midlife and older age and a determinant of functioning and well-being in later life. If and how people prepare is influenced by societal and institutional circumstances and also by beliefs about aging and the future. Method: We assessed domain-specific preparation for age-related changes in samples from three countries with high population aging but different premises regarding preparation, and analyzed data from N=1,830 individuals aged 35-85 years from urban regions in Germany, the USA, as well as China (Hong Kong)...
June 19, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
Sonia Grimbuhler, Jean-François Viel
The proper use of personal protective equipment (PPE) plays an important role in reducing exposure to pesticides in vineyard farming activities, including re-entry tasks. However, discomfort from clothing systems may increase the physiological burden on workers. We compared the physiological burdens of vineyard workers wearing three different types of PPE during canopy management in field humid conditions while accounting for occupational, climatic, and geographical environments. The study was conducted in the Bordeaux vineyards of southern France during June 2012...
June 19, 2018: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
Laura Panagi, Lydia Poole, Ruth A Hackett, Andrew Steptoe
Background: Positive psychological characteristics in people with type 2 diabetes (T2D) are associated with better health and longevity, and one plausible physiological mechanism involves lower markers of inflammation. Positive affect is related to lower basal inflammatory markers and smaller inflammatory responses to acute stress, but this association in people with T2D remains to be examined. Purpose: To examine the relationship between happiness and inflammatory markers at baseline and in response to acute stress in people with T2D...
June 18, 2018: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
Rebeca de Oliveira Chappaz, Simone Dos Santos Barreto, Karin Zazo Ortiz
BACKGROUND: Pneumo-phono-articulatory coordination is often impaired in dysarthric patients. Because all speech is produced upon exhalation, adequate respiratory support and coordination are essential for communication. Nevertheless, studies investigating respiratory parameters for speech are scarce. The objectives of the present study were to analyze and compare the numbers of words and syllables (universal measurement) per exhalation among healthy and dysarthric speakers, in different speech tasks...
June 18, 2018: São Paulo Medical Journal, Revista Paulista de Medicina
Amy F Bailes, Jenny Dorich
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Pediatric Physical Therapy
Sílvia Leticia Pavão, Livia Pessarelli Visicato, Carolina Souza Neves da Costa, Ana Carolina de Campos, Nelci Adriana C F Rocha
AIM: To investigate suit-orthosis effects on postural sway during anticipatory and compensatory postural adjustments (APA and CPA, respectively) in a seated reaching task performed by children with cerebral palsy (CP). METHODS: Twenty-nine children were divided according to Manual Ability Classification System (MACS) I and II-III. Participants were instructed to reach forward toward an object both in a no-suit condition and in a suit-orthosis condition. RESULTS: Using the suit-orthosis, children at MACS II-III decreased velocity of center-of-pressure (CoP) sway during APA, whereas children at MACS I increased the anterior-posterior CoP displacement during CPA...
July 2018: Pediatric Physical Therapy
Marcelo R Rosales, Jennifer Romack, Rosa Angulo-Barroso
PURPOSE: The aim was to explore the timing and duration of muscle activation during a landing task in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and compare their responses to those of children who are developing typically (TD). METHODS: Six children (ages 3-4.5 years), half with ASD, hung from a vertical bar, landed, and reacted to a light cue that signaled the child to run to the right or left or to stay in place. Electromyography and kinematics were recorded and compared between groups...
July 2018: Pediatric Physical Therapy
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