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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677622/genetic-correlations-between-wellbeing-depression-and-anxiety-symptoms-and-behavioral-responses-to-the-emotional-faces-task-in-healthy-twins
#1
Kylie M Routledge, Leanne M Williams, Anthony W F Harris, Peter R Schofield, C Richard Clark, Justine M Gatt
Currently there is a very limited understanding of how mental wellbeing versus anxiety and depression symptoms are associated with emotion processing behaviour. For the first time, we examined these associations using a behavioural emotion task of positive and negative facial expressions in 1668 healthy adult twins. Linear mixed model results suggested faster reaction times to happy facial expressions was associated with higher wellbeing scores, and slower reaction times with higher depression and anxiety scores...
March 19, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677580/effects-of-a-skill-demonstration-video-delivered-by-smartphone-on-facilitating-nursing-students-skill-competencies-and-self-confidence-a-randomized-controlled-trial-study
#2
Yeu-Hui Chuang, Fu-Chih Lai, Chia-Chi Chang, Hsu-Tien Wan
BACKGROUND: The correct and appropriate performance of nursing skills by students can ensure patient safety and care quality. However, developing appropriate teaching and learning strategies to enhance nursing students' nursing skills and knowledge are challenging tasks for nursing faculty members. Nowadays, smartphones are popular mobile devices that are used on campuses by students and could be considered a potential tool to deliver learning materials to nursing students. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine the effects of a skill demonstration video delivered by smartphone on facilitating nursing students' nursing skill competency and confidence...
April 7, 2018: Nurse Education Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677561/motor-preparation-in-picture-naming-tasks
#3
Joao Leote, Juan M Castellote, Jordi Casanova-Molla, Judith Navarro-Otano, Rita G Nunes, Hugo A Ferreira, Josep Valls-Sole
In certain circumstances, words can be uttered as an involuntary action. We hypothesize that, once pronunciation of a word is fully prepared it can be triggered as a reflex with no need for cortical processing. We used modified protocols of picture naming tasks, with different levels of cognitive demands, to measure reaction time to word pronunciation (RTWP). In test trials, picture presentation was accompanied by a startling auditory stimulus (SAS). When one and the same picture was repeatedly shown, SAS shortened RTWP by about 30% (StartReact effect), which did not occur when random pictures were shown...
April 17, 2018: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677552/put-your-hands-up-gesturing-improves-preschoolers-executive-function
#4
Candace L Rhoads, Patricia H Miller, Gina O Jaeger
This study addressed the causal direction of a previously reported relation between preschoolers' gesturing and their executive functioning on the Dimensional Change Card Sort (DCCS) sorting-switch task. Gesturing the relevant dimension for sorting was induced in a Gesture group through instructions, imitation, and prompts. In contrast, the Control group was instructed to "think hard" when sorting. Preschoolers (N = 50) performed two DCCS tasks: (a) sort by size and then spatial orientation of two objects and (b) sort by shape and then proximity of the two objects...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677548/combination-of-curcumin-and-vagus-nerve-stimulation-attenuates-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-induced-behavioral-deficits
#5
Jian Xu, Xinjuan Kong, Hong Xiu, Yihe Dou, Zeyu Wu, Peng Sun
AIM: Previous studies indicated that cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury (CI/RI) could induce behavioral deficits. Single treatment of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) or curcumin is reported to restore CI/RI-induced behavioral deficits. However, the synergic effect remains unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rats were divided into 6 groups: sham, CI/RI, VNS, CI/RI + VNS, VNS + curcumin and CI/RI + VNS + curcumin groups. Each group was further divided into three or four subgroups for further assessments...
April 17, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677367/stable-microsaccades-and-microsaccade-induced-global-alpha-band-phase-reset-across-the-life-span
#6
Ying Gao, Carl Huber, Bernhard A Sabel
Purpose: To understand the effect of aging on microsaccade functions and brain physiologic responses, we quantified microsaccades and their physiologic correlates (including their interaction with alpha band brain oscillation) in normal subjects of different ages. Methods: Twenty-two normally sighted young (18 to 29 years), 22 middle-aged (31 to 55 years), and 22 elderly subjects (56 to 77 years) participated in this cross-sectional study. Dense array EEG and high-resolution eye-tracking data were simultaneously recorded during a fixation task...
April 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677333/ensemble-representation-for-multiple-facial-expressions-evidence-for-a-capacity-limited-perceptual-process
#7
Luyan Ji, Wenfeng Chen, Tom Loeys, Gilles Pourtois
We tested the processing capacity of establishing ensemble representation for multiple facial expressions using the simultaneous-sequential paradigm. Each set consisted of 16 faces conveying a variable amount of happy and angry expressions. Participants judged on a continuous scale the perceived average emotion from each face set (Experiment 1). In the simultaneous condition, the 16 faces were presented concurrently; in the sequential condition, two sets, each containing eight faces, were presented successively...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677324/endogenous-attention-improves-perception-in-amblyopic-macaques
#8
Amelie Pham, Marisa Carrasco, Lynne Kiorpes
Amblyopia, a developmental disorder of vision, affects many aspects of spatial vision as well as motion perception and some cognitive skills. Current models of amblyopic vision based on known neurophysiological deficiencies have yet to provide an understanding of the wide range of amblyopic perceptual losses. Visual spatial attention is known to enhance performance in a variety of detection and discrimination tasks in visually typical humans and nonhuman primates. We investigated whether and how voluntary spatial attention affected psychophysical performance in amblyopic macaques...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677322/attention-based-perceptual-learning-does-not-affect-access-to-awareness
#9
Chris L E Paffen, Surya Gayet, Micha Heilbron, Stefan Van der Stigchel
Visual information that is relevant for an observer gains prioritized access to awareness (Gayet, Van der Stigchel, & Paffen, 2014). Here we investigate whether information that was relevant for an extended duration is prioritized for access to awareness when it is no longer relevant. We applied a perceptual-learning paradigm, in which observers were trained for 3 days on a speed-discrimination task. This task used a stimulus consisting of two motion directions, of which one was relevant to the task and one irrelevant...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677321/probing-the-temporal-dynamics-of-the-exploration-exploitation-dilemma-of-eye-movements
#10
Benedikt V Ehinger, Lilli Kaufhold, Peter König
When scanning a visual scene, we are in a constant decision process regarding whether to further exploit the information content at the current fixation or to go on and explore the scene. The balance of these two processes determines the distribution of fixation durations. Using a gaze-contingent paradigm, we experimentally interrupt this process to probe its state. Here, we developed a guided-viewing task where only a single 3° aperture of an image ("bubble") is displayed. Subjects had to fixate the bubble for an experimentally controlled time (forced fixation time)...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677319/focusing-and-orienting-spatial-attention-differently-modulate-crowding-in-central-and-peripheral-vision
#11
Andrea Albonico, Marialuisa Martelli, Emanuela Bricolo, Eleonora Frasson, Roberta Daini
The allocation of attentional resources to a particular location or object in space involves two distinct processes: an orienting process and a focusing process. Indeed, it has been demonstrated that performance of different visual tasks can be improved when a cue, such as a dot, anticipates the position of the target (orienting), or when its dimensions (as in the case of a small square) inform about the size of the attentional window (focusing). Here, we examine the role of these two components of visuo-spatial attention (orienting and focusing) in modulating crowding in peripheral (Experiment 1 and Experiment 3a) and foveal (Experiment 2 and Experiment 3b) vision...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677309/vitamin-d-calcium-or-combined-supplementation-for-the-primary-prevention-of-fractures-in-community-dwelling-adults-us-preventive-services-task-force-recommendation-statement
#12
David C Grossman, Susan J Curry, Douglas K Owens, Michael J Barry, Aaron B Caughey, Karina W Davidson, Chyke A Doubeni, John W Epling, Alex R Kemper, Alex H Krist, Martha Kubik, Seth Landefeld, Carol M Mangione, Michael Silverstein, Melissa A Simon, Chien-Wen Tseng
Importance: Because of the aging population, osteoporotic fractures are an increasingly important cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Approximately 2 million osteoporotic fractures occurred in the United States in 2005, and annual incidence is projected to increase to more than 3 million fractures by 2025. Within 1 year of experiencing a hip fracture, many patients are unable to walk independently, more than half require assistance with activities of daily living, and 20% to 30% of patients will die...
April 17, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677308/vitamin-d-calcium-or-combined-supplementation-for-the-primary-prevention-of-fractures-in-community-dwelling-adults-evidence-report-and-systematic-review-for-the-us-preventive-services-task-force
#13
Leila C Kahwati, Rachel Palmieri Weber, Huiling Pan, Margaret Gourlay, Erin LeBlanc, Manny Coker-Schwimmer, Meera Viswanathan
Importance: Osteoporotic fractures result in significant morbidity and mortality. Objective: To update the evidence for benefits and harms of vitamin D, calcium, or combined supplementation for the primary prevention of fractures in community-dwelling adults to inform the US Preventive Services Task Force. Data Sources: PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and trial registries through March 21, 2017; references; and experts. Surveillance continued through February 28, 2018...
April 17, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677238/studies-omitted-from-the-us-preventive-services-task-force-recommendations-for-child-vision-screening-reply
#14
Sean P Donahue
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 12, 2018: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677236/studies-omitted-from-the-us-preventive-services-task-force-recommendations-for-child-vision-screening
#15
David C Grossman, Susan J Curry, Douglas K Owens
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 12, 2018: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677201/an-incremental-clustering-method-based-on-the-boundary-profile
#16
Junpeng Bao, Wenqing Wang, Tianshe Yang, Guan Wu
Many important applications continuously generate data, such as financial transaction administration, satellite monitoring, network flow monitoring, and web information processing. The data mining results are always evolving with the newly generated data. Obviously, for the clustering task, it is better to incrementally update the new clustering results based on the old data rather than to recluster all of the data from scratch. The incremental clustering approach is an essential way to solve the problem of clustering with growing Big Data...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677196/catechol-o-methyltransferase-moderates-effect-of-stress-mindset-on-affect-and-cognition
#17
Alia J Crum, Modupe Akinola, Bradley P Turnwald, Ted J Kaptchuk, Kathryn T Hall
There is evidence that altering stress mindset-the belief that stress is enhancing vs. debilitating-can change cognitive, affective and physiological responses to stress. However individual differences in responsiveness to stress mindset manipulations have not been explored. Given the previously established role of catecholamines in both placebo effects and stress, we hypothesized that genetic variation in catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), an enzyme that metabolizes catecholamines, would moderate responses to an intervention intended to alter participants' mindsets about stress...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677129/assessment-of-dry-epidermal-electrodes-for-long-term-electromyography-measurements
#18
Momona Yamagami, Keshia M Peters, Ivana Milovanovic, Irene Kuang, Zeyu Yang, Nanshu Lu, Katherine M Steele
Commercially available electrodes can only provide quality surface electromyography (sEMG) measurements for a limited duration due to user discomfort and signal degradation, but in many applications, collecting sEMG data for a full day or longer is desirable to enhance clinical care. Few studies for long-term sEMG have assessed signal quality of electrodes using clinically relevant tests. The goal of this research was to evaluate flexible, gold-based epidermal sensor system (ESS) electrodes for long-term sEMG recordings...
April 20, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677125/detrimental-effects-of-helium-ion-irradiation-on-cognitive-performance-and-cortical-levels-of-map-2-in-b6d2f1-mice
#19
Jacob Raber, Eileen Ruth S Torres, Tunde Akinyeke, Joanne Lee, Sydney J Weber Boutros, Mitchell S Turker, Amy Kronenberg
The space radiation environment includes helium (⁴He) ions that may impact brain function. As little is known about the effects of exposures to ⁴He ions on the brain, we assessed the behavioral and cognitive performance of C57BL/6J × DBA2/J F1 (B6D2F1) mice three months following irradiation with ⁴He ions (250 MeV/n; linear energy transfer (LET) = 1.6 keV/μm; 0, 21, 42 or 168 cGy). Sham-irradiated mice and mice irradiated with 21 or 168 cGy showed novel object recognition, but mice irradiated with 42 cGy did not...
April 20, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677101/electromyographic-and-joint-kinematic-patterns-in-runner-s-dystonia
#20
Omar F Ahmad, Pritha Ghosh, Christopher Stanley, Barbara Karp, Mark Hallett, Codrin Lungu, Katharine Alter
Runner’s dystonia (RD) is a task-specific focal dystonia of the lower limbs that occurs when running. In this retrospective case series, we present surface electromyography (EMG) and joint kinematic data from thirteen patients with RD who underwent instrumented gait analysis (IGA) at the Functional and Biomechanics Laboratory at the National Institutes of Health. Four cases of RD are described in greater detail to demonstrate the potential utility of EMG with kinematic studies to identify dystonic muscle groups in RD...
April 20, 2018: Toxins
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