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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088777/causes-and-characteristics-of-medical-student-referrals-to-a-professional-behaviour-board
#1
Pieter C Barnhoorn, Jan H Bolk, Marleen W Ottenhoff-de Jonge, Walther N K A van Mook, Arnout Jan de Beaufort
Objectives: To describe the nature of unprofessional behaviour displayed by medical students, as well as the characteristics of students referred to the professional behaviour board. Methods: A descriptive mixed methods approach was taken, in which qualitative data on unprofessional behaviour, as well as quantitative data on the demographics of referred students were collected during the study period between June 1, 2009 and January 1, 2014. In order to compare the referred students with the total student population, data on gender, nationality and phase in the curriculum of the total student population, collected from the student administration desk, were also used...
January 15, 2017: International Journal of Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088706/topological-imaging-in-bounded-elastic-media
#2
Emma Lubeigt, Serge Mensah, Sandrine Rakotonarivo, Jean-François Chaix, François Baqué, Gilles Gobillot
Detecting, imaging and sizing defects in a bounded elastic medium is still a difficult task, especially when access is complex. Adjoint methods simplify the task as they take advantage of prior information such as the geometry and material properties. However, they still reveal a number of important limitations. Artifacts observed on the conventional topological energy image result from wave interactions with the boundaries of the inspected medium. The paper describes a method for addressing these artifacts, which involves forward and adjoint fields specified in terms of the boundary conditions...
January 4, 2017: Ultrasonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088679/post-event-processing-in-social-anxiety-disorder-examining-the-mediating-roles-of-positive-metacognitive-beliefs-and-perceptions-of-performance
#3
Dubravka Gavric, David A Moscovitch, Karen Rowa, Randi E McCabe
BACKGROUND: Post-event processing (PEP) is defined as repetitive negative thinking following anxiety provoking social events. PEP is thought to maintain anxiety symptoms in Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) but little is known about the specific factors that contribute to the maintenance of PEP. AIMS: The current study investigated how perceptions of performance and positive metacognitive beliefs might contribute to the persistence of PEP. METHOD: Participants with SAD (n = 24) as well as anxious (n = 24) and healthy (n = 25) control participants completed a standardized social performance task in the lab...
January 4, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088677/the-relationship-between-children-s-sensitivity-to-dominant-and-non-dominant-patterns-of-lexical-stress-and-reading-accuracy
#4
Joanne Arciuli
This study reports on a new task for assessing children's sensitivity to lexical stress for words with different stress patterns and demonstrates that this task is useful in examining predictors of reading accuracy during the elementary years. In English, polysyllabic words beginning with a strong syllable exhibit the most common or dominant pattern of lexical stress (e.g., "coconut"), whereas polysyllabic words beginning with a weak syllable exhibit a less common non-dominant pattern (e.g., "banana"). The new Aliens Talking Underwater task assesses children's ability to match low-pass filtered recordings of words to pictures of objects...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088660/processes-of-anticipatory-postural-adjustment-and-step-movement-of-gait-initiation
#5
Hiroki Mizusawa, Yasutomo Jono, Yasuyuki Iwata, Atsushi Kinoshita, Koichi Hiraoka
The purpose of this study was to elucidate whether the anticipatory postural adjustment (APA) and focal step movement of gait initiation are produced as a single process or different processes and whether the APA receives an inhibitory drive from the ongoing stop process of gait initiation. Healthy humans initiated gait in response to a first visual cue that instructed the initial swing leg. In some trials, a switch or stop cue was also provided after the first cue. When the stop cue was provided, participants withheld gait initiation...
January 12, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088648/the-influence-of-5-httlpr-transporter-genotype-on-amygdala-subgenual-anterior-cingulate-cortex-connectivity-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#6
Francisco Velasquez, Jillian Lee Wiggins, Whitney I Mattson, Donna M Martin, Catherine Lord, Christopher S Monk
Social deficits in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are linked to amygdala functioning and functional connection between the amygdala and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sACC) is involved in the modulation of amygdala activity. Impairments in behavioral symptoms and amygdala activation and connectivity with the sACC seem to vary by serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) variant genotype in diverse populations. The current preliminary investigation examines whether amygdala-sACC connectivity differs by 5-HTTLPR genotype and relates to social functioning in ASD...
December 23, 2016: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088647/the-developmental-relationship-between-specific-cognitive-domains-and-grey-matter-in-the-cerebellum
#7
Dorothea M Moore, Anila M D'Mello, Lauren M McGrath, Catherine J Stoodley
There is growing evidence that the cerebellum is involved in cognition and cognitive development, yet little is known about the developmental relationship between cerebellar structure and cognitive subdomains in children. We used voxel-based morphometry to assess the relationship between cerebellar grey matter (GM) and language, reading, working memory, executive function, and processing speed in 110 individuals aged 8-17 years from the Pediatric Imaging, Neurocognition, and Genetics (PING) Study. Further, we examined the effect of age on the relationships between cerebellar GM and cognition...
December 21, 2016: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088637/multi-scale-control-influences-sense-of-agency-investigating-intentional-binding-using-event-control-approach
#8
Devpriya Kumar, Narayanan Srinivasan
Control exercised by humans through interactions with the environment is critical for sense of agency. Here, we investigate how control at multiple levels influence implicit sense of agency measured using intentional binding. Participants are asked to hit a moving target using a joystick with noisy control followed by an intentional binding task initiated by the target hitting action. Perceptual-motor level control was manipulated through noise in the joystick controller (experiment 1) and goal-level control in terms of feedback about successful hit (experiments 2a and 2b)...
January 12, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088629/induction-of-hypothyroidism-during-early-postnatal-stages-triggers-a-decrease-in-cognitive-performance-by-decreasing-hippocampal-synaptic-plasticity
#9
Paulina Salazar, Pedro Cisternas, Juan Francisco Codocedo, Nibaldo C Inestrosa
Thyroid hormones are vital in the control of multiple body functions, including the correct performance of the brain. Multiple diseases are associated with thyroid gland functioning, including hypothyroidism. To date, little is known regarding the effects of the establishment of this condition at a young age on brain function. Here, we evaluated the effect of hypothyroidism in an early postnatal stage in cognitive abilities with focus on the hippocampus. In our model, hypothyroidism was induced in young rats at 21days of age using 0...
January 11, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088577/analyze-the-beta-waves-of-electroencephalogram-signals-from-young-musicians-and-non-musicians-in-major-scale-working-memory-task
#10
Chien-Chang Hsu, Ching-Wen Cheng, Yi-Shiuan Chiu
Electroencephalograms can record wave variations in any brain activity. Beta waves are produced when an external stimulus induces logical thinking, computation, and reasoning during consciousness. This work uses the beta wave of major scale working memory N-back tasks to analyze the differences between young musicians and non-musicians. After the feature analysis uses signal filtering, Hilbert-Huang transformation, and feature extraction methods to identify differences, k-means clustering algorithm are used to group them into different clusters...
January 11, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088572/bcs-class-iv-drugs-highly-notorious-candidates-for-formulation-development
#11
REVIEW
Rohan Ghadi, Neha Dand
BCS class IV drugs (e.g., amphotericin B, furosemide, acetazolamide, ritonavir, paclitaxel) exhibit many characteristics that are problematic for effective oral and per oral delivery. Some of the problems associated include low aqueous solubility, poor permeability, erratic and poor absorption, inter and intra subject variability and significant positive food effect which leads to low and variable bioavailability. Also, most of the class IV drugs are substrate for P-glycoprotein (low permeability) and substrate for CYP3A4 (extensive pre systemic metabolism) which further potentiates the problem of poor therapeutic potential of these drugs...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088553/the-influence-of-landmark-stability-on-control-by-occasion-setters
#12
REVIEW
Lauren M Cleland, Chad M Ruprecht, Ronnie V Lee, Kenneth J Leising
In an operant serial feature-positive procedure, an occasion setter (OSX) signals that a response will be reinforced in the presence of second stimulus (e.g., a discriminative stimulus, A). During a transfer test, the OS is paired with a different discriminative stimulus. Experiment 1a tested transfer effects in a touchscreen-based spatial occasion setting task with pigeons. During training, four OSs (OSW, OSX, OSY, and OSZ) were paired on separate trials with landmark A (LMA) or B (LMB) and the opportunity for a reinforced response one location to the immediate left (R1) or right (R2) of the LM (OSW→LMA:R1, OSX→LMA:R2, OSY→LMB:R1, OSZ→LMB:R2)...
January 11, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088534/the-social-transmission-of-metacontrol-policies-mechanisms-underlying-the-interpersonal-transfer-of-persistence-and-flexibility
#13
REVIEW
Bernhard Hommel, Lorenza S Colzato
Humans often face binary cognitive-control dilemmas, with the choice between persistence and flexibility being a crucial one. Tackling these dilemmas requires metacontrol, i.e., the control of the current cognitive-control policy. As predicted from functional, psychometric, neuroscientific, and modeling approaches, interindividual variability in metacontrol biases towards persistence or flexibility could be demonstrated in metacontrol-sensitive tasks. These biases covary systematically with genetic predispositions regarding mesofrontal and nigrostriatal dopaminergic functioning and the individualistic or collectivistic nature of the cultural background...
January 11, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088506/linguistic-indicators-of-pain-catastrophizing-in-patients-with-chronic-musculoskeletal-pain
#14
Doerte U Junghaenel, Stefan Schneider, Joan E Broderick
: The present study examined markers of pain catastrophizing in the word use of patients with chronic pain. Patients (n = 71) completed the Pain Catastrophizing Scale and wrote about their life with pain. Quantitative word count analysis examined whether the essays contained linguistic indicators of catastrophizing. Bivariate correlations showed that catastrophizing was associated with greater use of first person singular pronouns, such as "I" (r = .27, p≤ .05) and pronouns referencing other people (r = 28, p≤ ...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088499/initial-uncertainty-impacts-statistical-learning-in-sound-sequence-processing
#15
Juanita Todd, Alexander Provost, Lisa Whitson, Daniel Mullens
This paper features two studies confirming a lasting impact of first learning on how subsequent experience is weighted in early relevance-filtering processes. In both studies participants were exposed to sequences of sound that contained a regular pattern on two different timescales. Regular patterning in sound is readily detected by the auditory system and used to form "prediction models" that define the most likely properties of sound to be encountered in a given context. The presence and strength of these prediction models is inferred from changes in automatically elicited components of auditory evoked potentials...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Physiology, Paris
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088485/semantic-attributes-are-encoded-in-human-electrocorticographic-signals-during-visual-object-recognition
#16
Kyle Rupp, Matthew Roos, Griffin Milsap, Carlos Caceres, Christopher Ratto, Mark Chevillet, Nathan E Crone, Michael Wolmetz
Non-invasive neuroimaging studies have shown that semantic category and attribute information are encoded in neural population activity. Electrocorticography (ECoG) offers several advantages over non-invasive approaches, but the degree to which semantic attribute information is encoded in ECoG responses is not known. We recorded ECoG while patients named objects from 12 semantic categories and then trained high-dimensional encoding models to map semantic attributes to spectral-temporal features of the task-related neural responses...
January 11, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088471/effects-of-group-i-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-antagonists-on-sensitivity-to-reinforcer-magnitude-and-delayed-reinforcement-in-a-delay-discounting-task-in-rats-contribution-of-delay-presentation-order
#17
Justin R Yates, Katherine K Rogers, Benjamin T Gunkel, Nicholas A Prior, Mallory N Hughes, Sara M Sharpe, Hunter L Campbell, Anthony B Johnson, Margaret G Keller, Kerry A Breitenstein, Hansen N Shults
Metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGluR1) blockade has been shown to decrease impulsive choice, as measured in delay discounting. However, several variables are known to influence an animal's discounting, including sensitivity to delayed reinforcement and sensitivity to reinforcer magnitude. The goal of this experiment was to determine the effects of mGluR1, as well as mGluR5, antagonism on these parameters. Forty Sprague Dawley rats were trained in delay discounting, in which consistently choosing a small, immediate reward reflects impulsive choice...
January 11, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088241/perceptions-of-mistreatment-among-trainees-vary-at-different-stages-of-clinical-training
#18
Afif N Kulaylat, Danni Qin, Susie X Sun, Christopher S Hollenbeak, Jane R Schubart, Antone J Aboud, Donald J Flemming, Peter W Dillon, Edward R Bollard, David C Han
BACKGROUND: Mistreatment of trainees remains a frequently reported phenomenon in medical education. One barrier to creating an educational culture of respect and professionalism may be a lack of alignment in the perceptions of mistreatment among different learners. Through the use of clinical vignettes, our aim was to assess the perceptions of trainees toward themes of potential mistreatment at different stages of training. METHODS: Based on observations from external experts embedded in the clinical learning environment, six thematic areas of potential mistreatment were identified: verbal abuse, specialty-choice discrimination, non-educational tasks, withholding/denying learning opportunities, neglect and gender/racial insensitivity...
January 14, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088215/non-associative-versus-associative-learning-by-foraging-predatory-mites
#19
Peter Schausberger, Stefan Peneder
BACKGROUND: Learning processes can be broadly categorized into associative and non-associative. Associative learning occurs through the pairing of two previously unrelated stimuli, whereas non-associative learning occurs in response to a single stimulus. How these two principal processes compare in the same learning task and how they contribute to the overall behavioural changes brought about by experience is poorly understood. We tackled this issue by scrutinizing associative and non-associative learning of prey, Western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis, by the predatory mite, Neoseiulus californicus...
January 14, 2017: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088189/mars-improving-multiple-circular-sequence-alignment-using-refined-sequences
#20
Lorraine A K Ayad, Solon P Pissis
BACKGROUND: A fundamental assumption of all widely-used multiple sequence alignment techniques is that the left- and right-most positions of the input sequences are relevant to the alignment. However, the position where a sequence starts or ends can be totally arbitrary due to a number of reasons: arbitrariness in the linearisation (sequencing) of a circular molecular structure; or inconsistencies introduced into sequence databases due to different linearisation standards. These scenarios are relevant, for instance, in the process of multiple sequence alignment of mitochondrial DNA, viroid, viral or other genomes, which have a circular molecular structure...
January 14, 2017: BMC Genomics
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