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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454257/infants-agent-individuation-it-s-what-s-on-the-insides-that-counts
#1
Hernando Taborda-Osorio, Erik W Cheries
Adults and preschool-aged children believe that internal properties are more important than external properties when determining an agent's identity over time. The current study examined the developmental origins of this understanding using a manual-search individuation task with 13-month-old infants. Subjects observed semi-transparent objects that looked and behaved like animate agents placed into box that they could reach but not see into. Across trials infants observed objects with either the same- or different-colored insides placed into the box...
February 14, 2018: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454242/making-space-work-staff-socio-spatial-practices-in-a-paediatric-outpatient-department
#2
Tineke Water, Jill Wrapson, Stephen Reay, Katrina Ford
Studies of the characteristics of therapeutic landscapes have become common in medical geography. However, there is limited analysis of how therapeutic landscapes are produced. Based upon the qualitative theoretical thematic analysis of focus group data, this study examined the spatial work carried out by healthcare practitioners in a paediatric outpatients' department, turning unsatisfactory space into a therapeutic place. The study highlights the spatial strategies employed by staff to mitigate socio-spatial deficiencies in the healthcare environment...
February 14, 2018: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454238/transformations-of-dissolved-organic-matter-induced-by-uv-photolysis-hydroxyl-radicals-chlorine-radicals-and-sulfate-radicals-in-aqueous-phase-uv-based-advanced-oxidation-processes
#3
Lathika Varanasi, Erica Coscarelli, Maryam Khaksari, Lynn R Mazzoleni, Daisuke Minakata
Considering the increasing identification of trace organic contaminants in natural aquatic environments, the removal of trace organic contaminants from water or wastewater discharge is an urgent task. Ultraviolet (UV) and UV-based advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), such as UV/hydrogen peroxide (UV/H 2 O 2 ), UV/free chlorine and UV/persulfate, are attractive and promising approaches for the removal of these contaminants due to the high reactivity of active radical species produced in these UV-AOPs with a wide variety of organic contaminants...
February 8, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454224/the-consonant-vowel-pattern-determines-the-structure-of-orthographic-representations-in-the-left-fusiform-gyrus
#4
Fabienne Chetail, Mariagrazia Ranzini, Xavier De Tiège, Vincent Wens, Alain Content
Recent findings demonstrated readers' sensitivity to the distinction between consonant and vowel letters. Especially, the way consonants and vowels are organised within written words determines their perceptual structure. The present work attempted to overcome two limitations of previous studies by examining the neurophysiological correlates of this perceptual structure through magnetoencephalography (MEG). One aim was to establish that the extraction of vowel-centred units takes place during early stages of processing...
February 2, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454219/reading-skill-related-to-left-ventral-occipitotemporal-cortex-during-a-phonological-awareness-task-in-5-6-year-old-children
#5
Jin Wang, Marc F Joanisse, James R Booth
The left ventral occipitotemporal cortex (vOT) is important in visual word recognition. Studies have shown that the left vOT is generally observed to be involved in spoken language processing in skilled readers, suggesting automatic access to corresponding orthographic information. However, little is known about where and how the left vOT is involved in the spoken language processing of young children with emerging reading ability. In order to answer this question, we examined the relation of reading ability in 5-6-year-old kindergarteners to the activation of vOT during an auditory phonological awareness task...
February 14, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454194/diagnostic-and-treatment-services-for-patients-with-psychogenic-nonepileptic-seizures-pnes-a-survey-of-health-professionals-in-urban-china
#6
Xin Tong, Dongmei An, Markus Reuber, Qin Zhang, Dong Zhou
PURPOSE: This study is intended to provide an overview of diagnostic and treatment services for patients with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) across China. METHODS: Using a questionnaire devised by the PNES Task Force of Neuropsychiatry Commission of the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE), we conducted a survey among Chinese health professionals at the Sixth Advanced International Course: Clinical Epileptology. Descriptive analyses were performed...
January 31, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454154/age-related-functional-changes-in-domain-specific-medial-temporal-lobe-pathways
#7
David Berron, Katja Neumann, Anne Maass, Hartmut Schütze, Klaus Fliessbach, Verena Kiven, Frank Jessen, Magdalena Sauvage, Dharshan Kumaran, Emrah Düzel
There is now converging evidence from studies in animals and humans that the medial temporal lobes (MTLs) harbor anatomically distinct processing pathways for object and scene information. Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging studies in humans suggest that this domain-specific organization may be associated with a functional preference of the anterior-lateral part of the entorhinal cortex (alErC) for objects and the posterior-medial entorhinal cortex (pmErC) for scenes. As MTL subregions are differentially affected by aging and neurodegenerative diseases, the question was raised whether aging may affect the 2 pathways differentially...
January 31, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454146/matching-trends-for-the-fellowship-in-minimally-invasive-gynecologic-surgery-fmigs-since-participation-in-the-national-residency-match-program-nrmp
#8
Maria V Vargas, Magdy P Milad
OBJECTIVE: To describe the level of interest in the fellowship in minimally invasive gynecologic surgery (FMIGS) using data from National Residency Match Program (NRMP) over the past 4 years. DESIGN: Retrospective report (Canadian Task Force Classification II-2) SETTING: Publically reported data from the NRMP PARTICIPANTS: Applicants using the NRMP to match into fellowship training. INTERVENTIONS: Reporting matching trends for the gynecologic surgical subspecialty programs starting in 2014, when the FMIGS programs started participating in the NRMP...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454144/natural-orifice-specimen-extraction-nose-during-laparoscopic-bowel-resection-for-colorectal-endometriosis-technique-and-outcome
#9
Attila Bokor, Peter Lukovich, Noemi Csibi, Thomas D'Hooghe, Dan Lebovic, Reka Brubel, Janos Rigo
STUDY OBJECTIVE We first present a detailed description of a modified NOSE-colectomy technique. Secondly, we report the postoperative outcomes of our prospective case series when compared to conventional laparoscopic bowel resection in a relatively large series of patients. DESIGN Canadian Task Force Classification II-1. SETTING University tertiary referral center. PATIENTS Patient selection The last 90 consecutive patients in our care with DIE of the bowel are presented in this study. Patients were diagnosed at the 1 st Department of OB/GYN Semmelweis Universtiy Budapest, Hungary...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454111/combining-rosetta-with-molecular-dynamics-md-a-benchmark-of-the-md-based-ensemble-protein-design
#10
Jan Ludwiczak, Adam Jarmula, Stanislaw Dunin-Horkawicz
Computational protein design is a set of procedures for computing amino acid sequences that will fold into a specified structure. Rosetta Design, a commonly used software for protein design, allows for the effective identification of sequences compatible with a given backbone structure, while molecular dynamics (MD) simulations can thoroughly sample near-native conformations. We benchmarked a procedure in which Rosetta design is started on MD-derived structural ensembles and showed that such a combined approach generates 20 to 30% more diverse sequences than currently available methods with only a slight increase in computation time...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454085/effects-of-orientation-and-differential-reinforcement-ii-transitivity-and-transfer-across-five-member-sets
#11
Micah Amd, Marlon A de Oliveira, Denise A Passarelli, Livia C Balog, Julio C de Rose
A recent report by Amd and colleagues (2017) demonstrated that orienting towards successively presented stimulus-stimulus pairs yielded significantly more transitive relations then when those same pairs were differentially reinforced following training for three, 3-member stimulus sets. We build on that work in four important ways. First, transitivity yields produced by Pavlovian and instrumental procedures were compared following training for three 5-member sets (A1-B1-C1-D1-E1, A2-B2-C2-D2-E2, A3-B3-C3-D3-E3), where the 'A' stimuli were emotional faces and all remaining stimuli were nonsense words...
February 14, 2018: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454010/enhancing-creative-cognition-with-a-rapid-right-parietal-neurofeedback-procedure
#12
Sergio Agnoli, Marco Zanon, Serena Mastria, Alessio Avenanti, Giovanni Emanuele Corazza
The present article describes an innovative neurofeedback training (NFT) procedure aimed at increasing creative cognition through the enhancement of specific brain activities previously associated with divergent thinking. We designed and tested two NFT protocols based on training alpha and beta EEG oscillations selectively measured over the right parietal region. A total of 80 participants were involved, 40 in the alpha NFT protocol and 40 in the beta NFT protocol. The NFT loop was closed on a video stream that would advance only when oscillation power exceeded a normalized threshold...
February 14, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454000/anticipatory-stress-associated-with-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-implications-for-psychosocial-stress-research
#13
Ethan W Gossett, Muriah D Wheelock, Adam M Goodman, Tyler R Orem, Nathaniel G Harnett, Kimberly H Wood, Sylvie Mrug, Douglas A Granger, David C Knight
Stress tasks performed during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) elicit a relatively small cortisol response compared to stress tasks completed in a traditional behavioral laboratory, which may be due to apprehension of fMRI that elicits an anticipatory stress response. The present study investigated whether anticipatory stress is greater prior to research completed in an MRI environment than in a traditional behavioral laboratory. Anticipatory stress (indexed by cortisol) was greater prior to testing in the MRI environment than traditional behavioral laboratory...
February 14, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453957/automatic-detection-of-the-duration-of-visual-static-and-dynamic-stimuli
#14
Szonya Durant, István Sulykos, István Czigler
The perception of the passing of time is fundamental to conscious experience. The duration of a sensory stimulus is one of its defining attributes, but it is not clear how this is encoded in the brain. This work explores whether the duration of a visual stimulus is an attribute that the brain can automatically adapt to and use to predict future stimulus durations. Visual mismatch negativity (vMMN) is an ERP component elicited, even when the stimuli are unattended, when an 'unexpected' visual stimulus appears amongst a series of expected stimuli in an 'oddball' paradigm...
February 14, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453857/psychosocial-student-functioning-in-comprehensive-dental-clinic-education-a-qualitative-study
#15
R Moore
INTRODUCTION: The aims were to describe first-year clinical dental students' psychosocial experiences in a known well-functioning comprehensive clinic teaching group (F+Grp) and a known dysfunctional group (Dys-Grp) and, thus, discover and describe phenomena related to psychosocial functioning of students. These groups were compared and contrasted regarding negative stress symptoms, perfectionism and coping with stress. METHODS: Eight female dental students (mean 26 years old), four in each group, were interviewed after the first clinical year about learning and emotional experiences...
February 17, 2018: European Journal of Dental Education: Official Journal of the Association for Dental Education in Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453836/cba-and-precaution-policy-making-about-emerging-technologies
#16
Gregory E Kaebnick, Michael K Gusmano
In the technology assessment literature, the leading alternative to CBA-like methods is usually held to be precaution, which is understood in various ways but is always about making decisions under conditions of uncertainty. Under such conditions, proponents of precaution commonly hold, a straightforward tallying of potential outcomes does not seem possible. Since CBA aims to tally up outcomes to determine which outcome would produce the greatest public benefit, precaution begins to look like, not just an alternative to CBA, but an incompatible alternative...
January 2018: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453824/giving-in-when-feeling-less-good-procrastination-action-control-and-social-temptations
#17
Fuschia M Sirois, Benjamin Giguère
Emotion-regulation perspectives on procrastination highlighting the primacy of short-term mood regulation focus mainly on negative affect. Positive affect, however, has received much less attention and has not been considered with respect to social temptations. To address this issue, we examined how trait procrastination was linked to positive and negative affect in the context of social temptations across two prospective studies. Action Control Theory, Personality Systems Interactions Theory, and a mood regulation theory of procrastination served as guiding conceptual frameworks...
February 17, 2018: British Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453812/cognitive-outcomes-in-children-and-adolescents-born-very-preterm-a-meta-analysis
#18
REVIEW
Christopher R Brydges, Jasmin K Landes, Corinne L Reid, Catherine Campbell, Noel French, Mike Anderson
AIM: To estimate the association between very preterm birth (<32wks' gestation) and intelligence, executive functioning, and processing speed throughout childhood and adolescence, and to examine the effects of gestational age, birthweight, and age at assessment. METHOD: Studies were included if children were born at earlier than 32 weeks' gestation, aged 4 to 17 years, had an age-matched term control group, and if the studies used standardized measures, were published in an English-language peer-reviewed journal, and placed no restrictions on participants based on task performance...
February 17, 2018: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453783/affordances-after-spinal-cord-injury
#19
Anna Sedda, Ettore Ambrosini, Giada Dirupo, Diana Tonin, Laura Valsecchi, Tiziana Redaelli, Michele Spinelli, Marcello Costantini, Gabriella Bottini
Spinal cord injury can cause cognitive impairments even when no cerebral lesion is appreciable. As patients are forced to explore the environment in a non-canonical position (i.e., seated on a wheelchair), a modified relation with space can explain motor-related cognitive differences compared to non-injured individuals. Peripersonal space is encoded in motor terms, that is, in relation to the representation of action abilities and is strictly related to the affordance of reachability. In turn, affordances, the action possibilities suggested by relevant properties of the environment, are related to the perceiver's peripersonal space and motor abilities...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453743/neuromuscular-control-deficits-and-the-risk-of-subsequent-injury-after-a-concussion-a-scoping-review
#20
REVIEW
David R Howell, Robert C Lynall, Thomas A Buckley, Daniel C Herman
An emerging area of research has identified that an increased risk of musculoskeletal injury may exist upon returning to sports after a sport-related concussion. The mechanisms underlying this recently discovered phenomenon, however, remain unknown. One theorized reason for this increased injury risk includes residual neuromuscular control deficits that remain impaired despite clinical recovery. Thus, the objectives of this review were: (1) to summarize the literature examining the relationship between concussion and risk of subsequent injury and (2) to summarize the literature for one mechanism with a theorized association with this increased injury risk, i...
February 17, 2018: Sports Medicine
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