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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222360/antiviral-treatment-of-bk-virus-viremia-after-kidney-transplantation
#1
REVIEW
Andrew D Santeusanio, Benjamin E Lukens, Judy Eun
PURPOSE: The various antiviral treatment options in the management of BK virus (BKV) viremia and BKV-associated nephropathy (BKVAN) are reviewed. SUMMARY: Review of the PubMed database from 1990 to 2016 for all English language case series, cohort studies, and randomized controlled trials detailing antiviral treatment of BKV viremia or BKVAN in kidney transplant recipients returned only 16 published reports. The majority of these reports were based on small case series or protocol-based cohort studies, with no prospective head-to-head data and only modest benefit reported for cidofovir, leflunomide, i...
December 15, 2017: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222317/thrombocytopenia-in-hospitalized-patients-approach-to-the-patient-with-thrombotic-microangiopathy
#2
REVIEW
Marie Scully
Thrombotic microangiopathies (TMAs), specifically, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) and complement-mediated hemolytic uremic syndrome (CM-HUS) are acute life-threatening disorders that require prompt consideration, diagnosis, and treatment to improve the high inherent mortality and morbidity. Presentation is with microangiopathic hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia (MAHAT) and variable organ symptoms resulting from microvascular thrombi. Neurological and cardiac involvement is most common in TTP and associated with poorer prognosis and primarily renal involvement in CM-HUS...
December 8, 2017: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222315/extracorporeal-photopheresis-cellular-therapy-for-the-treatment-of-acute-and-chronic-graft-versus-host-disease
#3
REVIEW
Jennifer Schneiderman
Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a potentially curative option for many disease states. Despite significant improvements in strategies used to prevent and treat acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (a/cGVHD), they continue to negatively affect outcomes of HSCT significantly. Standard, first-line treatment consists of corticosteroids; beyond this, there is little consistency in therapeutic regimens. Current options include the addition of various immunosuppressive agents, the use of which puts patients at even higher risks for infection and other morbidities...
December 8, 2017: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222293/current-treatment-algorithm-for-the-management-of-lower-risk-mds
#4
REVIEW
Aristoteles Giagounidis
Lower risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), defined as MDS with a Revised International Prognostic Scoring System score ≤3.5 points, will remain a challenging entity in 2018. Supportive care continues to be the linchpin of treatment, although the options to reduce transfusion needs are broadening. To achieve red blood cell transfusion independence in non-del(5q) patients, erythropoiesis-stimulating agents remain a mainstay of therapy as long as endogenous erythropoietin levels are <500 U/L (and preferably <200 U/L)...
December 8, 2017: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221884/-efficacy-and-tolerance-of-tocilizumab-for-corticosteroid-sparing-in-giant-cell-arteritis-and-aortitis-experience-of-nimes-university-hospital-about-eleven-patients
#5
J Broner, E Arnaud
INTRODUCTION: Giant cell arteritis is a large-vessels vasculitis, which treatment consists in a slowly-tappered steroid-therapy. Immunosuppressive agents are sometimes used in case of steroid-dependance. We have conducted an observationnal retrospective study including patients treated with tocilizumab for a giant cell arteritis or an aortitis in the internal medicine department at the Nîmes University Hospital. RESULTS: Eleven patients were included between 2011 and 2016, who had been treated only with prednisone...
December 5, 2017: La Revue de Médecine Interne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221689/tissue-regeneration-the-crosstalk-between-mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-immune-response
#6
Kai Qi, Na Li, Zhenyu Zhang, Gerry Melino
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) exist in almost all tissues with the capability to differentiate into several different cell types and hold great promise in tissue repairs in a cell replacement manner. The study of the bidirectional regulation between MSCs and immune response has ushered an age of rethinking of tissue regeneration in the process of stem cell-based tissue repairs. By sensing damaged signals, both endogenous and exogenous MSCs migrate to the damaged site where they involve in the reconstitution of the immune microenvironment and empower tissue stem/progenitor cells and other resident cells, whereby facilitate tissue repairs...
December 2, 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219790/hepatitis-c-virus-infection-in-kidney-transplant-patients-current-treatment-options
#7
Pavlina Dzekova-Vidimliski, Aleksandar Sikole
Hepatitis C virus infection is highly prevalent among kidney transplant recipients, occurring consequently to their previous treatment with hemodialysis. Hepatitis C virus infection has been associated with lower graft and patient survival compared with that shown in patients without infection. The lower survival has been associated with the posttransplant progression of liver disease and increased risk for development of extrahepatic complications. The choice of immunosuppressive drugs could significantly affect the course of the infection with an accelerated viral replication after kidney transplant...
December 2017: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218828/monocytic-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-as-prognostic-factor-in-chronic-myeloid-leukaemia-patients-treated-with-dasatinib
#8
Cesarina Giallongo, Nunziatina L Parrinello, Piera La Cava, Giuseppina Camiolo, Alessandra Romano, Marina Scalia, Fabio Stagno, Giuseppe A Palumbo, Roberto Avola, Giovanni Li Volti, Daniele Tibullo, Francesco Di Raimondo
Myeloid suppressor cells are a heterogeneous group of myeloid cells that are increased in patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) inducing T cell tolerance. In this study, we found that therapy with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) decreased the percentage of granulocytic MDSC, but only patients treated with dasatinib showed a significant reduction in the monocytic subset (M-MDSC). Moreover, a positive correlation was observed between number of persistent M-MDSC and the value of major molecular response in dasatinib-treated patients...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218396/-multiple-well-demarcated-skin-erosions-and-ulcers-following-exanthematous-drug-eruption-after-sultamicillin-therapy
#9
A Markovic, J C Simon, R Treudler
This article presents the case of a patient with newly developed skin erosions and ulcerations following an exanthematous drug eruption due to sultamicillin therapy. The skin lesions were treated topically with clobetasol and prednicarbate and orally with methylprednisolone. A skin smear revealed massive growth of Escherichia coli bacteria. Blood cultures were negative. The cause for developing ecthyma gangrenosum in our patient were iatrogenic immunosuppression and transient bacteremia.
December 7, 2017: Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift Für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und Verwandte Gebiete
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218366/haploidentical-natural-killer-cells-induce-remissions-in-non-hodgkin-lymphoma-patients-with-low-levels-of-immune-suppressor-cells
#10
Veronika Bachanova, Dhifaf Sarhan, Todd E DeFor, Sarah Cooley, Angela Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Bruce R Blazar, Julie M Curtsinger, Linda Burns, Daniel J Weisdorf, Jeffrey S Miller
We report a novel phase 2 clinical trial in patients with poor prognosis refractory non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) testing the efficacy of haploidentical donor natural killer (NK) cell therapy (NK dose 0.5-3.27 × 107 NK cells/kg) with rituximab and IL-2 (clinicaltrials.gov NCT01181258). Therapy was tolerated without graft-versus-host disease, cytokine release syndrome, or neurotoxicity. Of 14 evaluable patients, 4 had objective responses (29%; 95% CI 12-55%) at 2 months: 2 had complete response lasting 3 and 9 months...
December 7, 2017: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217890/nontubercular-mycobacterial-infection-in-a-renal-allograft-recipient
#11
U Anandh, K Jayanna
A 71-year-old male, a renal allograft recipient, presented to us with a history of fever and right palm swelling. He had a history of fever 7 years back when he was treated with antitubercular treatment (ATT). Three years back, he was diagnosed to have gout and he was started on allopurinol. He developed severe bone marrow toxicity and allopurinol was changed to febuxostat. On admission, routine investigations did not reveal any focus of infection. The fluid aspirate from the palm revealed acid-fast bacilli (AFB)...
November 2017: Indian Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217883/squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-skin-after-20-years-of-renal-transplantation
#12
J Poddar, A D Sharma, S Patel, U Suryanarayana
Solid organ transplant recipients are at high risk of developing malignancies due to the prolonged use of immunosuppressant drugs. Squamous cell carcinoma of skin can occur in these patients even after decades of organ transplant. A 45-year-old male underwent renal transplant for end-stage renal disease 23 years ago and was on immunosuppressive drugs since then. The patient was on regular follow-up. Three years back, he developed squamous cell carcinoma of both forearms and hands, which was treated with radiation therapy using 8 MeV electrons, by parallel opposed fields to a dose of 60 Gy/30 fractions...
November 2017: Indian Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217821/il-11-promotes-the-treatment-efficacy-of-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-therapy-in-aplastic-anemia-model-mice-through-a-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-microrna-204-thrombopoietin-regulatory-axis
#13
Yan Wang, Zhi-Yun Niu, Yu-Jie Guo, Li-Hua Wang, Feng-Ru Lin, Jing-Yu Zhang
Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation could be of therapeutic value for aplastic anemia (AA) patients, and immunosuppressants may facilitate the efficiency of the procedure. As anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-11 (IL-11) has a thrombopoietic effect, its use in cases of chronic bone marrow failure, such as AA, has been proposed to induce HSC function. However, the putative mechanisms that may support this process remain poorly defined. We found that decreased miR-204-5p levels were coincident with increased proliferation in mouse HSCs following exposure to IL-11 in vitro...
December 8, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217470/safe-and-effective-interferon-beta-gene-therapy-for-the-treatment-of-multiple-sclerosis-by-regulating-biological-activity-through-the-design-of-interferon-beta-galectin-9-fusion-proteins
#14
Atsushi Hamana, Yuki Takahashi, Akane Tanioka, Makiya Nishikawa, Yoshinobu Takakura
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common demyelinating disease. Despite the historical use of interferon-beta (IFN-β) for the treatment of patients with MS, concerns exist regarding the side effects of IFN-β. In this study, we designed a series of novel IFN-β fusion proteins containing galectin-9 (gal-9), which exerts immunosuppressive effects through the binding to its receptor on activated Th1 cells. We hypothesized that these fusion proteins would improve the therapeutic effects and reduce the side effects of IFN-β...
December 5, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215800/microencapsulation-for-the-cell-therapy-of-type-1-diabetes-mellitus-the-interplay-between-common-beliefs-prejudices-and-real-progress
#15
EDITORIAL
Riccardo Calafiore
When Anthony Sun (1) showed, for the first time in 1980, that intraperitoneal graft of allogeneic rat pancreatic islet containing alginate-poly-L-lysine microcapsules, reversed hyperglycemia in not immunosuppressed diabetic rats, a new era for the cell therapy of diabetes had started. As a unique and unmatched result, years later, Sun replied success in diabetic primates, that upon intraperitoneal transplant of microencapsulated porcine islets, showed long-term remission of hyperglycemia. However, at that time, the international academic and scientific community greeted with skepticism such a revolutionary approach...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212510/factors-affecting-treatment-outcome-in-patients-with-idiopathic-nonspecific-interstitial-pneumonia-a-nationwide-cohort-study
#16
Sang Hoon Lee, Moo Suk Park, Song Yee Kim, Dong Soon Kim, Young Whan Kim, Man Pyo Chung, Soo Taek Uh, Choon Sik Park, Sung Woo Park, Sung Hwan Jeong, Yong Bum Park, Hong Lyeol Lee, Jong Wook Shin, Eun Joo Lee, Jin Hwa Lee, Yangin Jegal, Hyun Kyung Lee, Yong Hyun Kim, Jin Woo Song, Jong Sun Park
BACKGROUND: The effects of corticosteroid-based therapy in patients with idiopathic nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (iNSIP), and factors affecting treatment outcome, are not fully understood. We aimed to investigate the long-term treatment response and factors affecting the treatment outcome in iNSIP patients from a multi-center study in Korea. METHODS: The Korean interstitial lung disease (ILD) Study Group surveyed ILD patients from 2003 to 2007. Patients were divided into two groups to compare the treatment response: response group (forced vital capacity (FVC) improves ≥10% after 1 year) and non-response group (FVC <10%)...
December 6, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212102/-conservative-treatment-of-an-aseptic-abscess-syndrome-with-splenic-abscesses-in-crohn-s-disease
#17
Thomas Göbel, Jutta Rauen-Vossloh, Hubert Georg Hotz, Andree Boldt, Andreas Erhardt
A 24-year old woman with a history of Crohn's disease developed bloody diarrhea and multiple abdominal abscesses, daily fever, leukocytosis, and elevated CRP several months after her immunosuppressive therapy with azathioprine was stopped. Recurrent abscess punctures did not detect any pathogenic germs and neither clinical nor serological response was achieved by administration of different antimicrobial therapies. Additionally, new splenic abscesses arose despite ongoing therapy. Under the suspicion of the rare aseptic abscess syndrome, representing an auto-inflammatory, extra-intestinal manifestation of Crohn's disease, the antimicrobial therapy was stopped and an intravenous therapy with prednisolone was initiated...
December 2017: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212098/immunosuppression-following-liver-transplantation-and-the-course-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-a-case-control%C3%A2-study
#18
Martina T Mogl, Daniel C Baumgart, Andreas Fischer, Johann Pratschke, Andreas Pascher
Aim The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of immunosuppression following orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) on course of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) including disease activity and complications. Methods Out of 1168 patients undergoing liver transplantation between 1988 and 2000 at our center, we identified those with IBD (n = 67). In a comparative cohort study, IBD patients after OLT were compared to controls without OLT. All drugs including immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory medication and complications during follow-up were recorded in 6-month intervals...
December 6, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210650/reprograming-carcinoma-associated-fibroblasts-by-micrornas
#19
Y Xu, X Zhou, M Mei, Y Ren
Carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are activated fibroblasts during development of several cancer types, and therefore emerge as an attractive therapeutic target for cancer therapy. Drugs such as PT-100 and sibrotuzumab that block the functions of CAFs have already been in clinical trials. However, these drugs exhibit limited efficacy in patients, partially due to the fact that currently used biomarkers for determining efficacy are not CAF-specific. Furthermore, depletion of CAFs may promote carcinogenesis and accelerate cancer progression by inducing immunosuppression and hypoxia, leading to reduced survival...
December 4, 2017: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209569/resistance-to-her2-targeted-anti-cancer-drugs-is-associated-with-immune-evasion-in-cancer-cells-and-their-derived-extracellular-vesicles
#20
Vanesa G Martinez, Sadhbh O'Neill, Josephine Salimu, Susan Breslin, Aled Clayton, John Crown, Lorraine O'Driscoll
Neuromedin U (NmU) -a neuropeptide belonging to the neuromedin family- plays a substantial role in HER2-positive breast cancer, correlating with increased aggressiveness, resistance to HER2-targeted therapies and overall significantly poorer outcome for patients. However, the mechanism through which it exerts these effects remains unclear. To elucidate this, initially we used HER2-positive breast cancer cells stably over-expressing NmU. These cells and their released extracellular vesicles (EVs) had increased amounts of the immunosuppressive cytokine TGFβ1 and the lymphocyte activation inhibitor PD-L1...
2017: Oncoimmunology
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