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Immunosuppressive therapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432836/autoimmune-hepatitis-from-current-knowledge-and-clinical-practice-to-future-research-agenda
#1
REVIEW
Marcial Sebode, Johannes Hartl, Diego Vergani, Ansgar W Lohse
Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a chronic inflammatory liver disease. Unknown triggers lead to a mainly T cell-mediated immune response targeting the liver, the main auto-antigen of which has not been identified yet. The diagnosis of AIH is based on the elevation of immunoglobulin G / hypergammaglobulinemia, detection of characteristic autoantibodies as well as a typical pattern on liver histology. Exclusion of other causes of hepatitis and response to immunosuppressive treatment support the diagnosis of AIH...
April 22, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432648/rationale-for-new-checkpoint-inhibitor-combinations-in-melanoma-therapy
#2
Mario Mandalà, Carlo Tondini, Barbara Merelli, Daniela Massi
The use of monoclonal antibodies that block immunologic checkpoints, which mediate adaptive immune resistance, has revolutionized the treatment of metastatic melanoma patients. Specifically, targeting single immune suppressive molecules such as cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4), or programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) expressed on T cells or its primary ligand, programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1), resulted in pronounced clinical benefit for a subset of melanoma patients. Although single-agent immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy has demonstrated promising clinical activity in metastatic melanoma patients, there is still a significant proportion of patients who show primary resistance to these therapies...
April 21, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432279/il-35-induces-n2-phenotype-of-neutrophils-to-promote-tumor-growth
#3
Jiu-Ming Zou, Jian Qin, Yong-Chao Li, Yu Wang, Dong Li, Yu Shu, Chao Luo, Shan-Shan Wang, Gang Chi, Fang Guo, Gui-Mei Zhang, Zuo-Hua Feng
IL-35 is an immunosuppressive cytokine and exerts regulatory effects on T cells, B cells, macrophages and dendritic cells. Neutrophils are important innate immune cells that play key roles in tumor development. The effect of IL-35 on neutrophils remains unknown. Here, we report that IL-35 can induce N2 neutrophil polarization (protumor phenotype) by increasing G-CSF and IL-6 production, and promote neutrophil infiltration into tumor microenvironment. The sustained expression of IL-35 could promote chronic inflammation to augment the proangiogenic and immunosuppressive function of neutrophils...
April 4, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432050/prevalence-of-remission-and-its-effect-on-damage-and-quality-of-life-in-chinese-patients-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#4
Chi Chiu Mok, Ling Yin Ho, Sau Mei Tse, Kar Li Chan
OBJECTIVES: To study the prevalence of remission and its effect on damage and quality of life (QOL) in Chinese patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). METHODS: Patients who fulfilled≥4 American College of Rheumatology criteria for SLE were identified. Their remission status at last clinic visits was determined by the European consensus criteria (complete/clinical remission ± immunosuppressive drugs). The increase in SLE damage index (SDI) in the preceding 5 years was compared between patients who were and were not in remission for ≥5 years...
April 21, 2017: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430855/cancer-immunotherapy-trial-registrations-increase-exponentially-but-chronic-immunosuppressive-glucocorticoid-therapy-may-compromise-outcomes
#5
C M Connell, S Raby, I Beh, T Flint, E Williams, D T Fearon, D I Jodrell, T Janowitz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 14, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430699/clinical-experience-and-diagnostic-algorithm-of-vulval-crohn-s-disease
#6
Lotte Boxhoorn, Tom J Stoof, Tim de Meij, Frank Hoentjen, Bas Oldenburg, Gerd Bouma, Mark Löwenberg, Adriaan A van Bodegraven, Nanne K H de Boer
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Vulval Crohn's disease (VCD) is a rare extraintestinal cutaneous manifestation of Crohn's disease. No consensus on the diagnostic workup and therapeutic management of this condition has been provided in the current literature. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective, multicentre descriptive case series of female patients diagnosed and treated with VCD. By chart review, data on initial symptoms, clinical courses, histologic findings and therapeutic management were collected...
April 20, 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429679/mycobacterium-avium-complex-disease
#7
Charles L Daley
Despite the ubiqitous nature of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) organisms in the environment, relatively few of those who are infected develop disease. Thus, some degree of susceptibility due to either underlying lung disease or immunosuppression is required. The frequency of pulmonary MAC disease is increasing in many areas, and the exact reasons are unknown. Isolation of MAC from a respiratory specimen does not necessarily mean that treatment is required, as the decision to treatment requires the synthesis of clinical, radiographic, and microbiologic information as well as a weighing of the risks and benefits for the individual patient...
April 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429512/tailored-approach-for-management-of-ventricular-tachycardia-in-cardiac-sarcoidosis
#8
Sachin Yalagudri, Ngwe Zin Thu, Soumen Devidutta, Daljeet Saggu, Ajit Thachil, Sridevi Chennapragada, Calambur Narasimhan
INTRODUCTION: Treating ventricular tachycardia (VT) in patients with cardiac sarcoidosis (CS) is challenging as patients present in different phase of the disease (inflammatory, scar or sometimes both). A customized approach to treatment is required for better outcomes. We describe our experience in the management of VT in CS based on the phase of the disease. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients were considered to have myocardial inflammation if there was an increased myocardial (18) Fluoro Deoxy Glucose (FDG) uptake in PET-CT scan of the chest (n=14)...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429128/endophthalmitis-associated-with-purpureocillium-lilacinum-during-infliximab-treatment-for-surgically-induced-necrotizing-scleritis-successfully-treated-with-27-gauge-vitrectomy
#9
Masaaki Yoshida, Shunji Yokokura, Hiroshi Kunikata, Naoko Takada, Kazuichi Maruyama, Masahiro Toyokawa, Kazushi Kashio, Mitsuo Kaku, Toru Nakazawa
PURPOSE: To report a case of endophthalmitis associated with Purpureocillium lilacinum (P. lilacinum) during infliximab treatment for surgically induced necrotizing scleritis, successfully treated with 27-gauge vitrectomy. METHODS: A single case report. RESULTS: A 71-year-old man who had undergone immunosuppressive therapy, including infliximab, for surgically induced necrotizing scleritis (SINS) in his left eye complained of visual disturbance and eye pain in the eye...
April 20, 2017: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428903/sle-and-non-hodgkin-s-lymphoma-a-case-series-and-review-of-the-literature
#10
Prajwal Boddu, Abdul S Mohammed, Chandrahasa Annem, Winston Sequeira
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystem autoimmune disorder punctuated by varied multiorgan complications all along the course of its natural history. Lymphoma represents a relatively well-recognized malignant phenomenon associated with lupus. The cause and effect relationships of lymphoma in SLE have been subject to extensive scrutiny with several studies reporting on clinic-pathologic characteristics and risk factors predicting lymphoma development in SLE. However, the pathogenic role of immunosuppressives in SLE-related lymphoma still remains unclear, and indices to help guide diagnosis, prognostication, therapy, and posttreatment monitoring are yet to be established...
2017: Case Reports in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427875/easl-2017-clinical-practice-guidelines-on-the-management-of-hepatitis-b-virus-infection
#11
Pietro Lampertico, Kosh Agarwal, Thomas Berg, Maria Buti, Harry L A Janssen, George Papatheodoridis, Fabien Zoulim, Frank Tacke
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains a global public health problem with changing epidemiology due to several factors including vaccination policies and migration. This Clinical Practice Guideline presents updated recommendations for the optimal management of HBV infection. Chronic HBV infection can be classified into five phases: (I) HBeAg-positive chronic infection, (II) HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis, (III) HBeAg-negative chronic infection, (IV) HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis and (V) HBsAg-negative phase...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427855/outcome-of-medical-management-of-intraabdominal-abscesses-in-children-with-crohn-s-disease
#12
Razan H Alkhouri, Gracielle Bahia, Ashley C Smith, Richard Thomas, Christine Finck, Wael Sayej
INTRODUCTION: Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal tract that is complicated by fistulas, strictures, and intraabdominal abscesses (IAA) in 10%-30% of patients. To avoid surgical resection of the bowel, medical therapy with antibiotics (Ab) with or without percutaneous drainage (PD) is first undertaken. Our objectives are to examine the outcome of IAA in CD patients treated with antibiotics alone vs antibiotics and PD, and to identify risk factors for medical therapy failure...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427519/a-comprehensive-review-of-immunotherapies-in-prostate-cancer
#13
REVIEW
Manuel Caitano Maia, Aaron R Hansen
Prostate cancer is the second most common malignant neoplasm in men worldwide and the fifth cause of cancer-related death. Although multiple new agents have been approved for metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer over the last decade, it is still an incurable disease. New strategies to improve cancer control are needed and agents targeting the immune system have shown encouraging results in many tumor types. Despite being attractive for immunotherapies due to the expression of various tumor associated antigens, the microenvironment in prostate cancer is relatively immunosuppressive and may be responsible for the failures of various agents targeting the immune system in this disease...
May 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426911/tbk1-ikke-blockade-inhibits-mutant-sting-mediated-inflammatory-response-in-patient-cells
#14
Marie-Louise Frémond, Carolina Uggenti, Lien Van Eyck, Isabelle Melki, Vincent Bondet, Naoki Kitabayashi, Christina Hertel, Adrian Hayday, Bénédicte Neven, Yoann Rose, Darragh Duffy, Yanick J Crow, Mathieu P Rodero
OBJECTIVE: Gain-of-function mutations in TMEM173 encoding STING (stimulator of interferon genes) underlie a novel type I interferonopathy, minimally responsive to conventional immunosuppressive therapies and associated with high childhood morbidity and mortality. STING gain-of-function causes constitutive over secretion of interferon (IFN). We determined the effects of a TBK1/IKKE inhibitor (BX795) on IFN secretion and signaling in primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from four patients...
April 20, 2017: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424759/antiangiogenesis-for-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-in-the-era-of-immunotherapy-and-personalized-medicine
#15
REVIEW
Samer Tabchi, Normand Blais
Over the past decade, patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have witnessed substantial advances in regards to therapeutic alternatives. Among newly developed agents, angiogenesis inhibitors were extensively tested in different settings and have produced some favorable outcomes despite several shortcomings. Bevacizumab is the most examined agent in this context and has demonstrated significant survival benefits when combined with standard chemotherapy in eligible patients. Preliminary results on the addition of bevacizumab to erlotinib in patients with EGFR-mutated NSCLC seem promising...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424557/vedolizumab-toward-a-personalized-therapy-paradigm-for-people-with-ulcerative-colitis
#16
REVIEW
Robin J Dart, Mark A Samaan, Nick Powell, Peter M Irving
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic relapsing and remitting inflammatory bowel disease, with a characteristic leukocytic infiltration of the mucosa. Immunosuppression including anti-TNF-α therapy is a mainstay of treatment for many; however, systemic immunosuppression is not universally effective and is associated with potential side effects. The gut-tropic integrin α4β7, which is expressed on leukocytes, mediates migration from the circulation to the intestinal mucosa. Vedolizumab is a monoclonal antibody which blocks the egress of leukocytes via α4β7, preventing accumulation in the mucosa, and attenuating inflammation without systemic immunosuppression...
2017: Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424453/comorbid-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-and-muscle-specific-kinase-musk-myasthenia-gravis-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#17
Michael Sherpa, Ravi K Metai, Viki Kumar, Tinu Hirachan, Kawser U Ahmed, Sharon J Atkinson
BACKGROUND HIV infections with concomitant immunologically-mediated disorders have been frequently described but there has been little research on the association between HIV and myasthenia gravis. MuSK myasthenia gravis coexisting with HIV is an even a rarer entity and can occur as a part of immune restoration disease. We report the case of a patient with asymptomatic HIV infection who presented with new-onset MuSK myasthenia gravis. CASE REPORT A 44-year-old African-American woman with HIV since 2004 and on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) presented to the ED with complains of double vision and difficulty swallowing for 2 weeks...
April 20, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423552/enhanced-antitumor-effects-by-combining-an-il-12-anti-dna-fusion-protein-with-avelumab-an-anti-pd-l1-antibody
#18
Jonathan K Fallon, Amanda J Vandeveer, Jeffrey Schlom, John W Greiner
The combined therapeutic potential of an immunocytokine designed to deliver IL-12 to the necrotic regions of solid tumors with an anti-PD-L1 antibody that disrupts the immunosuppressive PD-1/PD-L1 axis yielded a combinatorial benefit in multiple murine tumor models. The murine version of the immunocytokine, NHS-muIL12, consists of an antibody (NHS76) recognizing DNA/DNA-histone complexes, fused with two molecules of murine IL-12 (NHS-muIL12). By its recognition of exposed DNA, NHS-muIL12 targets IL-12 to the necrotic portions of tumors; it has a longer plasma half-life and better antitumor efficacy against murine tumors than recombinant murine IL-12...
March 28, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423464/high-clinical-suspicion-of-donor-derived-disease-leads-to-timely-recognition-and-early-intervention-to-treat-solid-organ-transplant-transmitted-lymphocytic-choriomeningitis-virus
#19
Gagan Mathur, Kunal Yadav, Bradley Ford, Ilana J Schafer, Shridhar V Basavaraju, Barbara Knust, Wun-Ju Shieh, Sam Hill, Garret D Locke, Patricia Quinlisk, Shelley Brown, Ardith Gibbons, Deborah Cannon, Matthew Kuehnert, Stuart T Nichol, Pierre E Rollin, Ute Ströher, Rachel Miller
Despite careful donor screening, unexpected donor-derived infections continue to occur in organ transplant recipients (OTRs). Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) is one such transplant-transmitted infection that in previous reports has resulted in a high mortality among the affected OTRs. We report a LCMV case cluster that occurred 3 weeks post-transplant in three OTRs who received allografts from a common organ donor in March 2013. Following confirmation of LCMV infection at Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, immunosuppression was promptly reduced and ribavirin and/or intravenous immunoglobulin therapy were initiated in OTRs...
April 19, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423296/eltrombopag-added-to-standard-immunosuppression-for-aplastic-anemia
#20
Danielle M Townsley, Phillip Scheinberg, Thomas Winkler, Ronan Desmond, Bogdan Dumitriu, Olga Rios, Barbara Weinstein, Janet Valdez, Jennifer Lotter, Xingmin Feng, Marie Desierto, Harshraj Leuva, Margaret Bevans, Colin Wu, Andre Larochelle, Katherine R Calvo, Cynthia E Dunbar, Neal S Young
Background Acquired aplastic anemia results from immune-mediated destruction of bone marrow. Immunosuppressive therapies are effective, but reduced numbers of residual stem cells may limit their efficacy. In patients with aplastic anemia that was refractory to immunosuppression, eltrombopag, a synthetic thrombopoietin-receptor agonist, led to clinically significant increases in blood counts in almost half the patients. We combined standard immunosuppressive therapy with eltrombopag in previously untreated patients with severe aplastic anemia...
April 20, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
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