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Immunosuppressive therapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474531/subtherapeutic-infliximab-trough-levels-and-complete-mucosal-healing-are-associated-with-sustained-clinical-remission-after-infliximab-cessation-in-paediatric-onset-crohn-s-disease-patients-treated-with-combined-immunosuppressive-therapy
#1
Ben Kang, So Yoon Choi, Young Ok Choi, Min-Ji Kim, Kyunga Kim, Ji-Hyuk Lee, Yon Ho Choe
Background and aims: We aimed to investigate the outcome in paediatric-onset Crohn's disease patients who had discontinued infliximab after maintaining clinical remission with combined immunosuppression, and to determine factors associated with clinical relapse. Methods: We conducted a retrospective observational study of 63 paediatric-onset Crohn's disease patients who had stopped scheduled infliximab during sustained corticosteroid-free clinical remission for at least 1 year with infliximab and azathioprine, and were followed up for at least 1 year thereafter...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472690/cisplatin-enhances-hepatitis-b-virus-replication-and-pgc-1%C3%AE-expression-through-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress
#2
Xiaosong Li, E Pan, Junke Zhu, Lei Xu, Xuemei Chen, Jingjing Li, Li Liang, Yuan Hu, Jie Xia, Juan Chen, Wannan Chen, Jieli Hu, Kai Wang, Ni Tang, Ailong Huang
Chronic hepatitis B infection remains a serious public health issue worldwide. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation is commonly reported in patients receiving anticancer therapy, immunosuppressive therapy, or organ and tissue transplantation. However, the precise mechanisms underlying chemotherapeutic agent-related HBV reactivation remain unclear. Here, we report that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α) plays a central role in cisplatin-induced HBV transcription and replication...
February 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472141/t-cell-deficiencies-as-a-common-risk-factor-for-drug-associated-progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy
#3
REVIEW
Dejan Pavlovic, Mayur A Patel, Andriani C Patera, Ilse Peterson
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a disease of the central nervous system caused by neuropathogenic prototypes of ubiquitous community-acquired JC virus (JCV). The disease became of particular concern following its association with certain therapies that modulate immune system function without heavy immunosuppression. Due to lack of prophylactic/treatment options and poor outcomes, which often include severe disability or death, PML is a considerable concern for development of new drugs that interfere with immune system functions...
February 2, 2018: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471904/completion-of-isoniazid-preventive-therapy-among-human-immunodeficiency-virus-positive-adults-in-urban-malawi
#4
D Thindwa, P MacPherson, A T Choko, M Khundi, R Sambakunsi, L G Ngwira, T Kalua, E L Webb, E L Corbett
SETTING: Despite worldwide scale-up of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care services, relatively few countries have implemented isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT). Among other programmatic concerns, IPT completion tends to be low, especially when not fully integrated into HIV care clinics. OBJECTIVE: To estimate non-completion of 6-month IPT and its predictors among HIV-positive adults aged 16 years. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study nested within a cluster-randomised trial of TB prevention was conducted between February 2012 and June 2014...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469780/non-dermatomal-varicella-zoster-skin-infection-disseminated-cutaneous-herpes-zoster-without-dermatome-in-an-immunosuppressed-woman
#5
Lindsay P Osborn, Philip R Cohen
Disseminated herpes zoster is defined as the presence of more than 20 lesions outside the dermatome. This unusual presentation is more common in immunosuppressed patients. Complications such as hepatitis, encephalitis, and pneumonitis are more likely in individuals with disseminated varicella zoster virus infection.A 63-year-old woman being treated for breast cancer developed multiple pustules and vesicles days after starting doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy. Ten individual lesions appeared on her chest, abdomen, back, and leg...
October 15, 2017: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469742/unique-urticarial-presentation-of-minocycline-induced-lupus-erythematosus
#6
Ashley K Clark, Vivian Y Shi, Raja K Sivamani
The association between guttate psoriasis and infection with group A Streptococcus (GAS) has been well established in the medical literature. However, responses to treatments aimed at GAS eradication such as systemic antibiotics or tonsillectomy are inconsistent. Further complicating treatment recommendations for a disease with a suspected microbial trigger, the standard therapy for severe psoriasis is with systemic immunosuppressant medications. This case report illustrates the role of GAS as a trigger for acute onset severe psoriasis in a child whose skin disease initially worsened with a trial of methotrexate...
August 15, 2017: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469726/psoriasiform-mycosis-fungoides-a-rare-form-of-the-disease-with-review-of-the-literature
#7
Arghavan Azizpour, Alireza Ghanadan, Maryam Nasimi, Ifa Etesami
BACKGROUND: Mycosis fungoides (MF) typically presents as erythematous scaly patches or plaques that may progress to cutaneous tumors. Although MF may be presented like other dermatoses, initial presentation as psoriasiform plaques simulating psoriasis is rare. Differentiating MF from psoriasis is important because systemic therapies used for psoriasis can worsen MF. We describe a case of psoriasiform MF and we also review the clinicopathological features of similar cases in the literature...
September 15, 2017: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469724/oral-lesions-as-an-important-marker-for-hiv-progression
#8
Paulo Henrique Braz-Silva, Juliana Lucena Schussel, Karen López Ortega, Marina Gallottini
BACKGROUND: Oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL) is a benign lesion caused by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) replication in the oral epithelium affecting the borders of the tongue. It is strongly associated with immunosuppression, especially in HIV+ adults but is uncommon in pediatric population. The aim of the study is to show the importance of the correct diagnosis of OHL and its influence on HIV treatment.We report two cases of HIV+ adolescent patients that presented with leukoplakic lesions on the border of the tongue, suggestive of OHL...
September 15, 2017: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469716/associated-conditions-in-patients-with-multiple-dermatofibromas-case-reports-and-literature-review
#9
Surget V Beatrous, Ryan R Riahi, Stratton B Grisoli, Philip R Cohen
Dermatofibromas are benign, fibrohistiocytic, dermal tumors. Solitary dermatofibromas may be incidental findings, whereas multiple dermatofibromas may be associated with systemic conditions or previous therapies. Two women and one man with multiple dermatofibromas and an associated systemic condition, immunosuppression, or both, are described. Nine dermatofibromas developed in a woman with hypothyroidism, optic neuritis, and Arnold Chiari I malformation. Five dermatofibromas developed in a woman with breast cancer who had received several systemic antineoplastic therapies...
September 22, 2017: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469692/the-role-of-interleukin-17-in-the-pathogenesis-of-hidradenitis-suppurativa
#10
Yiqiu Yao, Simon Francis Thomsen
Hidradenitis suppurativa is a chronic inflammatory skin condition affecting primarily the axillary, perianal, and inguinal areas. Patients with hidradenitis suppurativa present with occlusion and subsequent rupture of follicular ducts, profound abscesses, fistulae, odorous discharge, fibrosis, and scar formation, causing significant morbidity. Knowledge of the pathogenesis of hidradenitis suppurativa is limited and treatment with antimicrobial drugs, immunosuppressants, and surgical procedures have shown varying results...
July 15, 2017: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468927/inducible-co-stimulator-icos-as-a-potential-therapeutic-target-for-anti-cancer-therapy
#11
Florent Amatore, Laurent Gorvel, Daniel Olive
The recent success of checkpoint-inhibitors in cancer treatment paved the way for the development of new strategies of agonist and antagonist agents against B7 superfamily members. Inducible Co-Stimulator (ICOS), a co-stimulatory receptor for T-cell enhancement, arouses interest. Areas covered: We performed an extensive literature search with PUBMED using the keywords 'ICOS' and 'cancer' to discuss its involvement in oncogenesis, its expression in different malignancies, and its targeting in relevant preclinical studies...
February 22, 2018: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468886/protective-effect-of-kolaviron-on-cyclophosphamide-induced-cardiac-toxicity-in-rats
#12
Joseph Gbenga Omole, Oladele Abiodun Ayoka, Quadri Kunle Alabi, Modinat Adebukola Adefisayo, Muritala Abiola Asafa, Babalola Olusegun Olubunmi, Benson Akinloye Fadeyi
BACKGROUND: Cyclophosphamide (CP) is a nitrogen mustard alkylating drug used for the treatment of chronic and acute malignant lymphomas, myeloma, leukemia, neuroblastoma, adenocarcinoma, retinoblastoma, breast carcinoma, and immunosuppressive therapy. Despite its vast therapeutic uses, it is known to cause severe cardiac toxicity. Kolaviron (KV), a Garcinia kola seed extract containing a mixture of flavonoids, is reputed for its antioxidant and membrane stabilizing properties. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the protective effect of KV on CP-induced cardiotoxicity in rats...
January 2018: J Evid Based Integr Med
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468816/the-cholinergic-anti-inflammatory-pathway-revisited
#13
REVIEW
K Murray, C Reardon
Inflammatory bowel disease negatively affects the quality of life of millions of patients around the world. Although the precise etiology of the disease remains elusive, aberrant immune system activation is an underlying cause. As such, therapies that selectively inhibit immune cell activation without broad immunosuppression are desired. Inhibition of immune cell activation preventing pro-inflammatory cytokine production through neural stimulation has emerged as one such treatment. These therapeutics are based on the discovery of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway, a reflex arc that induces efferent vagal nerve signaling to reduce immune cell activation and consequently mortality during septic shock...
March 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468619/outcome-of-myasthenia-gravis-treated-with-high-dose-prednisolone-and-azathioprine-a-single-centre-ambispective-study-from-india
#14
Mukesh Dube, Ajoy Sodani, Dinesh Chouksey
PURPOSE: Myasthenia gravis (MG) is treated with many disease modifying therapies, namely corticosteroids, thymectomy and immunosuppressants, alone or in various combinations. But still, till today no consensus over the optimum therapy for MG has been made. METHODS: Out of total 101 patients with MG, 37 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria and in them we ambispectively studied factors affecting the outcome in MG treated, to induce leukopenia, with prednisolone (PSL) plus azathioprine(AZA), from January 1993 through July 2014...
September 15, 2017: Acta Neurologica Taiwanica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467548/epidemiology-determinants-and-management-of-aids-cholangiopathy-a-review
#15
REVIEW
Maliha Naseer, Francis E Dailey, Alhareth Al Juboori, Sami Samiullah, Veysel Tahan
Diseases of the liver and biliary tree have been described with significant frequency among patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and its advanced state, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Through a variety of mechanisms, HIV/AIDS has been shown to affect the hepatic parenchyma and biliary tree, leading to liver inflammation and biliary strictures. One of the potential hepatobiliary complications of this viral infection is AIDS cholangiopathy, a syndrome of biliary obstruction and liver damage due to infection-related strictures of the biliary tract...
February 21, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466918/multiple-sclerosis-and-hiv-a-case-of-multiple-sclerosis-immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome-associated-with-antiretroviral-therapy-initiation
#16
Pria Anand, Deanna Saylor
Studies have suggested that the incidence of multiple sclerosis (MS) in HIV-infected (HIV+) patients is lower than that of the general population. Here, we present a case of MS in an HIV+ patient with a relatively suppressed CD4 cell count who developed clinical and radiographic disease worsening in the setting of antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation. A 47-year-old HIV+ woman (CD4 cell count 216 cells/µl) presented with decreased vision in her right eye. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed optic nerve enhancement and open ring-enhancing lesions in the brain concerning for demyelinating disease...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466539/management-of-recurrent-vestibular-neuritis-in-a-patient-treated-for-rheumatoid-arthritis
#17
Richard A Roberts
Purpose: This clinical report is presented to describe how results of vestibular function testing were considered along with other medical history to develop a management plan that was ultimately successful. Method: The patient underwent audio-vestibular assessment including comprehensive audiogram, videonystagmography, cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential, and postural stability testing. Results: Results from initial testing were most consistent with uncompensated peripheral vestibular dysfunction affecting the right superior vestibular nerve...
February 19, 2018: American Journal of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465465/pneumonia-as-a-systemic-illness
#18
Charles Feldman, Ronald Anderson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The manuscript reviews the recent literature describing the occurrence, risk factors, recognition and treatment of sepsis, respiratory failure, and multiple organ dysfunction in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). RECENT FINDINGS: CAP may present with varying degrees of disease severity ranging from an almost asymptomatic infection to a fulminant systemic disease with both respiratory failure and multiple organ dysfunction. Severe sepsis occurs early in the course of the infection in more than 30% of cases...
February 19, 2018: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465439/intestinal-re-transplantation-indications-techniques-and-outcomes
#19
Armando Ganoza, Neslihan Celik, George V Mazariegos
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The field of intestinal transplantation has shown significant growth and has become the gold standard therapy for patients that suffer from the complications of total parenteral nutrition due to irreversible intestinal failure. In the early years of intestinal transplant, retransplantation was associated with extremely high morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this review is to summarize recent encouraging reports, showing significant improvement in outcomes after intestinal retransplantation...
February 19, 2018: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465037/risk-factors-of-peritonitis-during-early-peritoneal-dialysis-in-patients-with-anca-associated-systemic-vasculitis
#20
Guangjian Liu, Jinhai Chen
This study investigated the risk factors of peritonitis during early peritoneal dialysis for renal failure in patients with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated systemic vasculitis (AASV). This study enrolled hospitalized AASV patients with renal failure who underwent peritoneal dialysis at the Department of Nephrology of our hospital between 2008 and 2015. The primary aim of this study was to perform a retrospective analysis to characterize peritonitis during the early period (≤ 8 weeks) of dialysis, and to compare the differences in initial clinical manifestations, vasculitis activity, immunosuppressive therapies prior to the renal replacement therapy, and prognosis between patients with or without peritonitis...
February 21, 2018: Clinical Nephrology
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