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perinatal infection and development outcome

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673373/chorioamnionitis-neuroinflammation-and-injury-timing-is-key-in-the-preterm-ovine-fetus
#1
Ruth Gussenhoven, Rob J J Westerlaken, Daan R M G Ophelders, Alan H Jobe, Matthew W Kemp, Suhas G Kallapur, Luc J Zimmermann, Per T Sangild, Stanislava Pankratova, Pierre Gressens, Boris W Kramer, Bobbi Fleiss, Tim G A M Wolfs
BACKGROUND: Antenatal infection (i.e., chorioamnionitis) is an important risk factor for adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes after preterm birth. Destructive and developmental disturbances of the white matter are hallmarks of preterm brain injury. Understanding the temporal effects of antenatal infection in relation to the onset of neurological injury is crucial for the development of neurotherapeutics for preterm infants. However, these dynamics remain unstudied. METHODS: Time-mated ewes were intra-amniotically injected with lipopolysaccharide at 5, 12, or 24 h or 2, 4, 8, or 15 days before preterm delivery at 125 days gestational age (term ~ 150 days)...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610829/association-of-histologic-chorioamnionitis-with-perinatal-brain-injury-and-early-childhood-neurodevelopmental-outcomes-among-preterm-neonates
#2
Daniel Bierstone, Nienke Wagenaar, Dawn L Gano, Ting Guo, Gregory Georgio, Floris Groenendaal, Linda S de Vries, Jojy Varghese, Hannah C Glass, Catherine Chung, Jefferson Terry, Maarten Rijpert, Ruth E Grunau, Anne Synnes, A James Barkovich, Donna M Ferriero, Manon Benders, Vann Chau, Steven P Miller
Importance: Understanding the role of chorioamnionitis, a major factor leading to preterm birth, in the pathogenesis of neonatal brain injury and adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes may help in identifying potentially modifiable perinatal variables affecting brain health and outcomes among children born preterm. Objective: To evaluate whether histologic chorioamnionitis among neonates born very preterm is associated with intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and punctate white matter injury (WMI) or with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes during early childhood...
April 2, 2018: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575302/underlying-maternal-and-pregnancy-related-conditions-account-for-a-substantial-proportion-of-neonatal-morbidity-in-late-preterm-infants
#3
Anna Bonnevier, Jana Brodszki, Lars J Björklund, Karin Källén
AIM: We studied the impact of maternal and pregnancy-related conditions, and the effect of gestational age itself, on the health of infants born late preterm. METHODS: Singletons born in gestational weeks 34+0 - 41+6 in 1995-2013 in the southern region of Sweden were identified from a perinatal register. We found 14,030 infants born late preterm and 294,814 born at term. A hierarchical system was developed to examine the impact of pregnancy complications. The outcomes studied were: neonatal death, central nervous system (CNS) or respiratory disease, infection, neonatal admission and respiratory support...
March 25, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560291/prevention-of-congenital-syphilis-through-antenatal-screenings-in-lusaka-zambia-a-systematic-review
#4
REVIEW
Faisal Akhtar, Sabah Rehman
Congenital syphilis is one of the preventable diseases caused by the gram-negative bacteria Treponema pallidum; yet, it imposes a serious global health and economic burden, with more than half of the cases resulting in serious adverse outcomes, including infant mortality. Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of syphilis is estimated at 3.6 million adjusted life years (DALYs) and around $309 million in medical costs. In 2006, an estimated 9.7 million children of age less than five years died in developing countries; almost four million were neonatal deaths...
January 16, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557357/glia-and-hemichannels-key-mediators-of-perinatal-encephalopathy
#5
REVIEW
Robert Galinsky, Joanne O Davidson, Justin M Dean, Colin R Green, Laura Bennet, Alistair J Gunn
Perinatal encephalopathy remains a major cause of disability, such as cerebral palsy. Therapeutic hypothermia is now well established to partially reduce risk of disability in late preterm/term infants. However, new and complementary therapeutic targets are needed to further improve outcomes. There is increasing evidence that glia play a key role in neural damage after hypoxia-ischemia and infection/inflammation. In this review, we discuss the role of astrocytic gap junction (connexin) hemichannels in the spread of neural injury after hypoxia-ischemia and/or infection/inflammation...
February 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523447/adverse-outcomes-of-pregnancy-associated-zika-virus-infection
#6
REVIEW
William J Britt
The spread of Zika virus to the Americas was accompanied by surge in the number of infants with CNS abnormalities leading to a declaration of a health emergency by the WHO. This was accompanied by significant responses from governmental health agencies in the United States and Europe that resulted in significant new information described in the natural history of this perinatal infection in a very short period of time. Although much has been learned about Zika virus infection during pregnancy, limitations of current diagnostics and the challenges for accurate serologic diagnosis of acute Zika virus infection has restricted our understanding of the natural history of this perinatal infection to infants born to women with clinical disease during pregnancy and to Zika exposed infants with obvious clinical stigmata of disease...
March 6, 2018: Seminars in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467596/cost-effectiveness-of-antiviral-prophylaxis-during-pregnancy-for-the-prevention-of-perinatal-hepatitis-b-infection-in-south-korea
#7
Donghoon Lee, Hyun-Young Shin, Sang Min Park
Background: In Korea, hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection accounts for approximately 65-75% of HBV-related diseases, such as chronic hepatitis and liver cancer, and mother-to-child transmission is presumed to be a major source of the infection. To tackle this issue, the Korean government launched the national Perinatal Hepatitis B Prevention Program (PHBPP) in 2002. This study analyzed the cost-effectiveness of the PHBPP with antiviral prophylaxis compared with the current PHBPP and/or universal vaccination, as well as identified the optimal strategy to eliminate mother-to-child transmission of HBV in Korea...
2018: Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation: C/E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452361/iui-review-and-systematic-assessment-of-the-evidence-that-supports-global-recommendations
#8
Ben Cohlen, Aartjan Bijkerk, Sheryl Van der Poel, Willem Ombelet
BACKGROUND: IUI with or without ovarian stimulation (OS) has become a first-line treatment option for many infertile couples, worldwide. The appropriate treatment modality for couples and their clinical management through IUI or IUI/OS cycles must consider maternal and perinatal outcomes, most notably the clinical complication of higher-order multiple pregnancies associated with IUI-OS. With a current global emphasis to continue to decrease maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity, the World Health Organization (WHO) had established a multi-year project to review the evidence for the establishment of normative guidance for the implementation of IUI as a treatment to address fertility problems, and to consider its cost-effectiveness for lower resource settings...
February 14, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433366/mode-of-birth-in-twins-data-and-reflections
#9
A Reitter, B A Daviss, M J Krimphove, K C Johnson, R Schlößer, F Louwen, A Bisits
Our primary objective was to compare neonatal and maternal outcomes in women with twin pregnancies, beyond 32 weeks, having a planned vaginal birth or a planned caesarean section (CS). This was a retrospective cohort study from a single tertiary centre over nine years. 534 sets of twins ≥32 + 0 weeks of gestation were included. 401 sets were planned vaginally and 133 sets were planned by CS. We compared a composite adverse perinatal outcome (perinatal mortality or serious neonatal morbidity; five minute APGAR score ≤4, neurological abnormality and need for intubation) and a composite maternal adverse outcome (major haemorrhage, trauma or infection) between the groups...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405934/perinatal-and-infantile-hypophosphatasia-clinical-features-and-treatment
#10
G Baujat, C Michot, K H Le Quan Sang, V Cormier-Daire
Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is a rare hereditary disease characterized by defective skeletal mineralization, and with a broad severity spectrum. The perinatal forms, lethal and non-lethal, are associated with severe neonatal respiratory distress, potential seizures, hypotrophy and marked hypotonia. The diagnosis is rapidly suggested by a combination of typical radiological signs, hypercalcemia, hyperphosphatemia and low alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. In the infantile form, the clinical signs appear before the age of six months, but the patients usually have no or very mild signs at birth...
May 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29400261/psychosocial-outcomes-in-a-cohort-of-perinatally-hiv-infected-adolescents-in-western-jamaica
#11
Tracy Evans-Gilbert, Kazie Kasimbie, Gail Reid, Shelly Ann Williams
Background Psychosocial factors interact with adolescent development and affect the ability of HIV-infected adolescents to cope with and adhere to treatment. Aim To evaluate psychosocial outcomes in perinatally HIV-infected adolescents (PHIVAs) in Western Jamaica after psychosocial intervention. Methods The Bright Futures Paediatric Symptom Checklist (BF-PSC) was used for psychological screening of PHIVAs in Western Jamaica. Referred patients were evaluated using the Youth version of the Columbia Impairment Scale (CIS)...
February 5, 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382352/the-global-maternal-sepsis-study-and-awareness-campaign-gloss-study-protocol
#12
Mercedes Bonet, Joao Paulo Souza, Edgardo Abalos, Bukola Fawole, Marian Knight, Seni Kouanda, Pisake Lumbiganon, Ashraf Nabhan, Ruta Nadisauskiene, Vanessa Brizuela, A Metin Gülmezoglu
BACKGROUND: Maternal sepsis is the underlying cause of 11% of all maternal deaths and a significant contributor to many deaths attributed to other underlying conditions. The effective prevention, early identification and adequate management of maternal and neonatal infections and sepsis can contribute to reducing the burden of infection as an underlying and contributing cause of morbidity and mortality. The objectives of the Global Maternal Sepsis Study (GLOSS) include: the development and validation of identification criteria for possible severe maternal infection and maternal sepsis; assessment of the frequency of use of a core set of practices recommended for prevention, early identification and management of maternal sepsis; further understanding of mother-to-child transmission of bacterial infection; assessment of the level of awareness about maternal and neonatal sepsis among health care providers; and establishment of a network of health care facilities to implement quality improvement strategies for better identification and management of maternal and early neonatal sepsis...
January 30, 2018: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328393/paediatric-virology-and-its-interaction-between-basic-science-and-clinical-practice-review
#13
Ioannis N Mammas, Anne Greenough, Maria Theodoridou, Anna Kramvis, Maria Rusan, Angeliki Melidou, Paraskevi Korovessi, Georgia Papaioannou, Alexia Papatheodoropoulou, Chryssie Koutsaftiki, Maria Liston, George Sourvinos, Demetrios A Spandidos
The 3rd Workshop on Paediatric Virology, which took place on October 7th, 2017 in Athens, Greece, highlighted the role of breast feeding in the prevention of viral infections during the first years of life. Moreover, it focused on the long-term outcomes of respiratory syncytial virus and rhinovirus infections in prematurely born infants and emphasised the necessity for the development of relevant preventative strategies. Other topics that were covered included the vaccination policy in relation to the migration crisis, mother‑to‑child transmission of hepatitis B and C viruses, vaccination against human papilloma viruses in boys and advances on intranasal live‑attenuated vaccination against influenza...
March 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280758/changes-in-insulin-sensitivity-over-time-and-associated-factors-in-hiv-infected-adolescents
#14
Mitchell E Geffner, Kunjal Patel, Denise L Jacobson, Julia Wu, Tracie L Miller, Rohan Hazra, Mariana Gerschenson, Tanvi Sharma, Margarita Silio, Jennifer Jao, Jody K Takemoto, Russell B Van Dyke, Linda A DiMeglio
OBJECTIVE: To compare prevalence of insulin resistance between perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV+) and perinatally HIV-exposed, but uninfected adolescents (PHEU), determine incidence of and contributory factors to new and resolved cases of insulin resistance in PHIV+, and evaluate glucose metabolism. DESIGN: Cross-sectional design for comparison of prevalence among PHIV+ and PHEU. Longitudinal design for incidence and resolution of insulin resistance among PHIV+ at risk for these outcomes...
March 13, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227462/psychiatric-disorders-antiretroviral-medication-adherence-and-viremia-in-a-cohort-of-perinatally-hiv-infected-adolescents-and-young-adults
#15
Amelia Bucek, Cheng-Shiun Leu, Stephanie Benson, Patricia Warne, Elaine J Abrams, Katherine S Elkington, Curtis Dolezal, Andrew Wiznia, Claude Ann Mellins
BACKGROUND: Perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV+) adolescents and young adults (AYA) are at risk for sub-optimal antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence, and mental health and substance use problems that, in HIV-infected adults, predict non-adherence. Studies on the relationship between psychiatric and substance use disorders (SUD) and adherence among PHIV+ AYA are limited, but may be important to informing evidence-based interventions to promote adherence. METHODS: Data were analyzed from three annual follow-up interviews (FU2-4, N=179) in a longitudinal study of PHIV+ AYA...
December 8, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190037/routine-antibiotic-prophylaxis-after-normal-vaginal-birth-for-reducing-maternal-infectious-morbidity
#16
REVIEW
Mercedes Bonet, Erika Ota, Chioma E Chibueze, Olufemi T Oladapo
BACKGROUND: Infectious morbidities contribute to considerable maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality, including women at no apparent increased risk of infection. To reduce the incidence of infections, antibiotics are often administered to women after uncomplicated childbirth, particularly in settings where women are at higher risk of puerperal infectious morbidities. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether routine administration of prophylactic antibiotics to women after normal (uncomplicated) vaginal birth, compared with placebo or no antibiotic prophylaxis, reduces postpartum maternal infectious morbidities and improves outcomes...
November 13, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156049/management-of-pregnant-women-and-children-focusing-on-preventing-mother-to-infant-transmission
#17
Huey-Ling Chen, Wan-Hsin Wen, Mei-Hwei Chang
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) immunization has been effectively preventing chronic HBV infection with >90% efficacy in countries with universal neonatal immunization. Perinatal mother-to-infant transmission of HBV remains the major cause of chronic HBV infection despite immunization. Maternal hepatitis B e-antigen (HBeAg) and high viral load have been noted to be the most important risk factors for transmission. In recent years, short-term antiviral therapy for pregnant women in the third trimester has been shown to be highly effective in reducing 90% of vaccine failure in children...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117328/maternal-disease-with-group-b-streptococcus-and-serotype-distribution-worldwide-systematic-review-and-meta-analyses
#18
Jennifer Hall, Nadine Hack Adams, Linda Bartlett, Anna C Seale, Theresa Lamagni, Fiorella Bianchi-Jassir, Joy E Lawn, Carol J Baker, Clare Cutland, Paul T Heath, Margaret Ip, Kirsty Le Doare, Shabir A Madhi, Craig E Rubens, Samir K Saha, Stephanie Schrag, Ajoke Sobanjo-Ter Meulen, Johan Vekemans, Michael G Gravett
Background: Infections such as group B Streptococcus (GBS) are an important cause of maternal sepsis, yet limited data on epidemiology exist. This article, the third of 11, estimates the incidence of maternal GBS disease worldwide. Methods: We conducted systematic literature reviews (PubMed/Medline, Embase, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature [LILACS], World Health Organization Library Information System [WHOLIS], and Scopus) and sought unpublished data on invasive GBS disease in women pregnant or within 42 days postpartum...
November 6, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117323/group-b-streptococcal-disease-worldwide-for-pregnant-women-stillbirths-and-children-why-what-and-how-to-undertake-estimates
#19
Joy E Lawn, Fiorella Bianchi-Jassir, Neal J Russell, Maya Kohli-Lynch, Cally J Tann, Jennifer Hall, Lola Madrid, Carol J Baker, Linda Bartlett, Clare Cutland, Michael G Gravett, Paul T Heath, Margaret Ip, Kirsty Le Doare, Shabir A Madhi, Craig E Rubens, Samir K Saha, Stephanie Schrag, Ajoke Sobanjo-Ter Meulen, Johan Vekemans, Anna C Seale
Improving maternal, newborn, and child health is central to Sustainable Development Goal targets for 2030, requiring acceleration especially to prevent 5.6 million deaths around the time of birth. Infections contribute to this burden, but etiological data are limited. Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is an important perinatal pathogen, although previously focus has been primarily on liveborn children, especially early-onset disease. In this first of an 11-article supplement, we discuss the following: (1) Why estimate the worldwide burden of GBS disease? (2) What outcomes of GBS in pregnancy should be included? (3) What data and epidemiological parameters are required? (4) What methods and models can be used to transparently estimate this burden of GBS? (5) What are the challenges with available data? and (6) How can estimates address data gaps to better inform GBS interventions including maternal immunization? We review all available GBS data worldwide, including maternal GBS colonization, risk of neonatal disease (with/without intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis), maternal GBS disease, neonatal/infant GBS disease, and subsequent impairment, plus GBS-associated stillbirth, preterm birth, and neonatal encephalopathy...
November 6, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083107/increased-mir-223-expression-in-foetal-organs-is-a-signature-of-acute-chorioamnionitis-with-systemic-consequences
#20
JoonHo Lee, Chong Jai Kim, Jung-Sun Kim, Deug-Chan Lee, Sejin Ahn, Bo Hyun Yoon
Acute chorioamnionitis, frequently observed in preterm placentas, is a major risk factor for the development of infection and non-infection-related adverse perinatal outcomes. MicroRNAs play important roles in immune cell development and function as well as in the development of cancers and neurologic diseases. We sought to investigate the changes in microRNA-223 (miR-223) expression and the functional significance of the changes in miR-223 expression in foetal organs in the presence of acute chorioamnionitis...
February 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
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