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E Kamanga-Sollo, K J Thornton, M E White, W R Dayton
In feedlot steers, estradiol-17β (E2) and combined E2 and trenbolone acetate (a testosterone analog) implants enhance rate and efficiency of muscle growth; and, consequently, these compounds are widely used as growth promoters in several countries. Treatment with E2 stimulates protein synthesis rate and suppresses protein degradation rate in fused bovine satellite cell (BSC) cultures; however, the mechanisms involved in these effects are not known with certainty. Although the genomic effects of E2 mediated through the classical estrogen receptors have been characterized, recent studies indicate that binding of E2 to the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER)-1 mediates nongenomic effects of E2 on cellular function...
September 13, 2016: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
Andre M N Renzaho, Joseph Kihika Kamara, Gilbert Kamanga
BACKGROUND: While quality of life (QoL) has long been an explicit policy goal for international development programmes, no instruments have specifically been developed for measuring health-related QoL in resource-limited settings. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a QoL instrument for use in international aid and development programmes and to assess factors associated with QoL among youth participating in a civic engagement project in Kampala. DESIGN: Using systematic random sampling, data were collected on 663 participants aged between 13 and 24 years in Kampala...
2016: Global Health Action
Amy G Bryant, Gloria Hamela, Ann Gotter, Gretchen S Stuart, Gift Kamanga
The copper intrauterine device (IUD) is a safe, long-acting, and effective method of contraception that is under-utilized in many countries, including Malawi. A unique cohort of women who had enrolled in a trial of postpartum IUD use one year earlier gave insights into reasons for using, discontinuing, or not using the IUD. We conducted in-depth interviews with 18 women one year after they participated in a pilot study of a randomized controlled trial of postpartum IUD insertion, and 10 of their male partners...
December 2015: African Journal of Reproductive Health
K J Thornton, E Kamanga-Sollo, M E White, W R Dayton
Trenbolone acetate (TBA), a testosterone analog, increases protein synthesis and decreases protein degradation in fused bovine satellite cell (BSC) cultures. However, the mechanism through which TBA alters these processes remains unknown. Recent studies indicate that androgens improve rate and extent of muscle growth through a nongenomic mechanism involving G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR), matrix metalloproteinases (MMP), heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (hbEGF), the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), erbB2, and the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R)...
June 2016: Journal of Animal Science
Nora E Rosenberg, Christopher C Stanley, Sarah E Rutstein, Naomi Bonongwe, Gift Kamanga, Audrey Pettifor, Clement Mapanje, Francis Martinson, Irving F Hoffman, William C Miller
OBJECTIVES: To explore acceptability of recruiting social contacts for HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening in Lilongwe, Malawi. METHODS: In this observational study, three groups of 'seed' patients were enrolled: 45 HIV-infected patients with STI, 45 HIV-uninfected patients with STI and 45 community controls, who were also tested for HIV as part of the study. Each seed was given five coupons and asked to recruit up to five social contacts to the STI clinic...
May 13, 2016: Sexually Transmitted Infections
Mwanja Kakusa, Brown Kamanga, Owen Ngalamika, Soka Nyirenda
BACKGROUND: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is one of the commonly encountered diabetes mellitus emergencies. AIM: This study aimed at describing the clinical profiles and hospitalization outcomes of DKA patients at the University Teaching Hospital (UTH) in Lusaka, Zambia and to investigate the role of coma on mortality outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a cross-sectional analytical study of hospitalized DKA patients at UTH. The data collected included clinical presentation, precipitating factors, laboratory profiles, complications, and hospitalization outcomes...
March 2016: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
G Kamanga, L Brown, P Jawati, D Chiwanda, N Nyirenda
INTRODUCTION: HIV testing and counselling (HTC) is important to effect positive sexual behaviour change and is an entry point to treatment, care, and psychosocial support. One of the most practical initiatives to increase HTC is to encourage sexual partners of HIV-infected persons to test for HIV. However, partner notification strategies must be feasible in the healthcare setting and acceptable to the population. METHODS: We conducted a qualitative study during the pilot phase of an HIV partner notification trial to complement its assessment of feasibility and acceptability of methods of partner notification...
December 2015: Malawi Medical Journal: the Journal of Medical Association of Malawi
Sarah E Rutstein, Audrey E Pettifor, Sam Phiri, Gift Kamanga, Irving F Hoffman, Mina C Hosseinipour, Nora E Rosenberg, Dominic Nsona, Dana Pasquale, Gerald Tegha, Kimberly A Powers, Mcleod Phiri, Bisweck Tembo, Wairimu Chege, William C Miller
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Integrating acute HIV-infection (AHI) testing into clinical settings is critical to prevent transmission, and realize potential treatment-as-prevention benefits. We evaluated acceptability of AHI testing and compared AHI prevalence at sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics and HIV testing and counseling (HTC) clinics in Lilongwe, Malawi. METHODS: We conducted HIV RNA testing for HIV-seronegative patients visiting STI and HTC clinics...
March 1, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Aniset Kamanga, Silvia Renn, Derek Pollard, Daniel J Bridges, Brian Chirwa, Jessie Pinchoff, David A Larsen, Anna M Winters
BACKGROUND: Defining the number and location of sprayable structures (houses) is foundational to plan and monitor indoor residual spray (IRS) implementation, a primary intervention used to control the transmission of malaria. Only by mapping the location and type of all sprayable structures can IRS operations be planned, estimates of spray coverage determined, and targeted delivery of IRS to specific locations be achieved. Previously, field-based enumeration has been used to guide IRS campaigns, however, this approach is costly, time-consuming and difficult to scale...
2015: Malaria Journal
M Anthony Moody, Feng Gao, Thaddeus C Gurley, Joshua D Amos, Amit Kumar, Bhavna Hora, Dawn J Marshall, John F Whitesides, Shi-Mao Xia, Robert Parks, Krissey E Lloyd, Kwan-Ki Hwang, Xiaozhi Lu, Mattia Bonsignori, Andrés Finzi, Nathan A Vandergrift, S Munir Alam, Guido Ferrari, Xiaoying Shen, Georgia D Tomaras, Gift Kamanga, Myron S Cohen, Noel E Sam, Saidi Kapiga, Elin S Gray, Nancy L Tumba, Lynn Morris, Susan Zolla-Pazner, Miroslaw K Gorny, John R Mascola, Beatrice H Hahn, George M Shaw, Joseph G Sodroski, Hua-Xin Liao, David C Montefiori, Peter T Hraber, Bette T Korber, Barton F Haynes
The third variable (V3) loop and the CD4 binding site (CD4bs) of the HIV-1 envelope are frequently targeted by neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) in infected individuals. In chronic infection, HIV-1 escape mutants repopulate the plasma, and V3 and CD4bs nAbs emerge that can neutralize heterologous tier 1 easy-to-neutralize but not tier 2 difficult-to-neutralize HIV-1 isolates. However, neutralization sensitivity of autologous plasma viruses to this type of nAb response has not been studied. We describe the development and evolution in vivo of antibodies distinguished by their target specificity for V3 and CD4bs epitopes on autologous tier 2 viruses but not on heterologous tier 2 viruses...
September 9, 2015: Cell Host & Microbe
Michael E Herce, Tiwonge Mtande, Frank Chimbwandira, Innocent Mofolo, Christine K Chingondole, Nora E Rosenberg, Kathy E Lancaster, Esmie Kamanga, Jacqueline Chinkonde, Wiza Kumwenda, Gerald Tegha, Mina C Hosseinipour, Irving F Hoffman, Francis E Martinson, Eva Stein, Charles M van der Horst
BACKGROUND: We established Safeguard the Family (STF) to support Ministry of Health (MoH) scale-up of universal antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV-infected pregnant and breastfeeding women (Option B+) and to strengthen the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) cascade from HIV testing and counseling (HTC) through maternal ART provision and post-delivery early infant HIV diagnosis (EID). To these ends, we implemented the following interventions in 5 districts: 1) health worker training and mentorship; 2) couples' HTC and male partner involvement; 3) women's psychosocial support groups; and 4) health and laboratory system strengthening for EID...
2015: BMC Infectious Diseases
Taha E Taha, Laura K Rusie, Alain Labrique, Mulinda Nyirenda, Dean Soko, Melvin Kamanga, Johnstone Kumwenda, Homayoon Farazadegan, Kenrad Nelson, Newton Kumwenda
Data on prevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in Malawi is limited. We tested blood samples from HIV-uninfected and -infected populations of women and men enrolled in research studies in Malawi during 1989-2008 to determine the seroprevalence of HEV, hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV). Samples were tested for IgG against HEV, total antibodies against HAV and HCV, and presence of HBV surface antigens. Of 800 samples tested, 16.5% were positive for HEV IgG, 99.6% were positive for HAV antibodies, 7...
July 2015: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Audrey Pettifor, Amy Corneli, Gift Kamanga, Kevin McKenna, Nora E Rosenberg, Xuesong Yu, San-San Ou, Cecilia Massa, Patricia Wiyo, Diana Lynn, Jenae Tharaldson, Carol Golin, Irving Hoffman
OBJECTIVE: We pilot tested a Motivational Interviewing (MI) -based counseling intervention for individuals with Acute HIV Infection (AHI) to reduce risky sexual behavior in Lilongwe, Malawi. METHODS: Twenty-eight individuals diagnosed with AHI were randomized to receive either brief education alone, or the brief education plus the MI-based intervention, called Uphungu Wanga. Participants in Uphungu Wanga received four sessions delivered on the day of diagnosis, three days later and at weeks 1 and 2 with a booster session at week 8; participants were followed for 24 weeks from diagnosis...
2015: PloS One
Florence Wambugu, Silas Obukosia, Jim Gaffney, Daniel Kamanga, Ping Che, Marc C Albertsen, Zuo-Yu Zhao, Lonnetta Ragland, Mary Yeye, Esther Kimani, Daniel Aba, Rose Gidado, B O Solomon, Michael Njuguna
The focus of the review paper is to discuss how biotechnological innovations are opening new frontiers to mitigate nutrition in key agricultural crops with potential for large-scale health impact to people in Africa. The general objective of the Africa Biofortified Sorghum (ABS) project is to develop and deploy sorghum with enhanced pro-vitamin A to farmers and end-users in Africa to alleviate vitamin A-related micronutrient deficiency diseases. To achieve this objective the project technology development team has developed several promising high pro-vitamin A sorghum events...
November 2015: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Feng Gao, Mattia Bonsignori, Hua-Xin Liao, Amit Kumar, Shi-Mao Xia, Xiaozhi Lu, Fangping Cai, Kwan-Ki Hwang, Hongshuo Song, Tongqing Zhou, Rebecca M Lynch, S Munir Alam, M Anthony Moody, Guido Ferrari, Mark Berrong, Garnett Kelsoe, George M Shaw, Beatrice H Hahn, David C Montefiori, Gift Kamanga, Myron S Cohen, Peter Hraber, Peter D Kwong, Bette T Korber, John R Mascola, Thomas B Kepler, Barton F Haynes
Development of strategies for induction of HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) by vaccines is a priority. Determining the steps of bnAb induction in HIV-1-infected individuals who make bnAbs is a key strategy for immunogen design. Here, we study the B cell response in a bnAb-producing individual and report cooperation between two B cell lineages to drive bnAb development. We isolated a virus-neutralizing antibody lineage that targeted an envelope region (loop D) and selected virus escape mutants that resulted in both enhanced bnAb lineage envelope binding and escape mutant neutralization-traits associated with increased B cell antigen drive...
July 31, 2014: Cell
Steve M Mphonda, Nora E Rosenberg, Esmie Kamanga, Innocent Mofolo, Gertrude Mwale, Edson Boa, Mwawi Mwale, Francis Martinson, Irving Hoffman, Mina C Hosseinipour
In sub-Saharan Africa, although male involvement in antenatal care is associated with positive outcomes for HIV-infected women and their infants, men rarely accompany female partners. We implemented a project to increase the number of male partners attending an antenatal clinic at Bwaila Hospital in Lilongwe, Malawi. We evaluated changes in the proportion of women who came with a partner over three periods. During period 1 (January 2007 - June 2008) there was didactic peer education. During period 2 (July 2008 - September 2009) a peer-led male-involvement drama was introduced into patient waiting areas...
June 2014: African Journal of Reproductive Health
E Kamanga-Sollo, K J Thornton, M E White, W R Dayton
In feedlot steers, estradiol-17β (E2) and combined E2 and trenbolone acetate (a testosterone analog) implants enhance rate and efficiency of muscle growth; and, consequently, these compounds are widely used as growth promoters. Although the positive effects of E2 on rate and efficiency of bovine muscle growth are well established, the mechanisms involved in these effects are not well understood. Combined E2 and trenbolone acetate implants result in significantly increased muscle satellite cell number in feedlot steers...
October 2014: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
David Nygren, Cristina Stoyanov, Clemens Lewold, Fredrik Månsson, John Miller, Aniset Kamanga, Clive J Shiff
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium falciparum transmission has decreased significantly in Zambia in the last decade. The malaria transmission is influenced by environmental variables. Incorporation of environmental variables in models of malaria transmission likely improves model fit and predicts probable trends in malaria disease. This work is based on the hypothesis that remotely-sensed environmental factors, including nocturnal dew point, are associated with malaria transmission and sustain foci of transmission during the low transmission season in the Southern Province of Zambia...
2014: Malaria Journal
B C Reiter, E Kamanga-Sollo, M S Pampusch, M E White, W R Dayton
The objective of this study was to assess the role of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in estradiol-17β (E2)-stimulated proliferation of cultured bovine satellite cells (BSCs). Treatment of BSC cultures with AG1478 (a specific inhibitor of EGFR tyrosine kinase activity) suppresses E2-stimulated BSC proliferation (P < 0.05). In addition, E2-stimulated proliferation is completely suppressed (P < 0.05) in BSCs in which EGFR expression is silenced by treatment with EGFR small interfering RNA (siRNA)...
July 2014: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
Gloria Hamela, Charity Kabondo, Tapiwa Tembo, Chifundo Zimba, Esmie Kamanga, Innocent Mofolo, Bertha Bulla, Christopher Sellers, R C Nakanga, Clara Lee, Francis Martinson, Irving Hoffman, Charles van der Horst, Mina C Hosseinipour
The objective of our intervention was to examine the benefits of incorporating traditional birth attendants (TBA) in HIV Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission (PMTCT) service delivery. We developed a training curriculum for TBAs related to PMTCT and current TBA roles in Malawi. Fourteen TBAs and seven TBA assistants serving 4 urban health centre catchment areas were assessed, trained and supervised. Focus group discussions with the TBAs were conducted after implementation of the program. From March 2008 to August 2009, a total of 4017 pregnant women visited TBAs, out of which 2133 (53...
March 2014: African Journal of Reproductive Health
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