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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913478/thrombosis-in-the-setting-of-obesity-or-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#1
Steven R Lentz
Obesity and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are systemic inflammatory disorders that predispose to arterial and venous thrombosis through similar prothrombotic mechanisms. Obesity and IBD are chronic risk factors that lead to a persistently elevated risk of thrombosis, although the thrombotic risk with IBD appears to wax and wane with disease severity. Because of the lack of high-quality evidence to guide management decisions, approaches to the prevention and treatment of thrombosis in patients with obesity or IBD are based on extrapolation from general guidelines for antithrombotic therapy...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913299/the-inhibitory-effect-of-beta-lapachone-on-rankl-induced-osteoclastogenesis
#2
Dong Ryun Gu, Joon No Lee, Gi-Su Oh, Hyung Jin Kim, Min Seuk Kim, Seoung Hoon Lee
β-lapachone (β-L) is a substrate of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH): quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1). NQO1 reduces quinones to hydroquinones using NADH as an electron donor and consequently increases the intracellular NAD+/NADH ratio. The activation of NQO1 by β-L has beneficial effects on several metabolic syndromes, such as obesity, hypertension, and renal injury. However, the effect of β-L on bone metabolism remains unclear. Here, we show that β-L might be a potent inhibitor of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis...
November 29, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911986/persistent-organic-pollutants-in-adipose-tissue-should-be-considered-in-obesity-research
#3
Y-M Lee, K-S Kim, D R Jacobs, D-H Lee
Although low doses of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), strong lipophilic chemicals with long half-lives, have been linked to various endocrine, immune, nervous and reproductive system diseases, few obesity studies have considered adipose tissue as an important POPs exposure source. Because the toxicodynamics of POPs relate directly to the dynamics of adiposity, POPs might explain puzzling findings in obesity research. In two people exposed to the same amounts of environmental POPs, the one having more adipose tissue may be advantaged because POPs storage in adipose tissue can reduce burden on other critical organs...
December 2, 2016: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909874/is-daily-low-dose-aspirin-safe-to-take-following-laparoscopic-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-for-obesity-surgery
#4
Xian Kang, Dennis Hong, Mehran Anvari, Maria Tiboni, Nalin Amin, Scott Gmora
BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) surgery is a safe and effective procedure for patients with severe obesity. One potential complication of LRYGB is the development of marginal ulcers (MUs). Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are known to significantly increase the likelihood of developing marginal ulcers after surgery. However, the risk associated with low-dose aspirin consumption is not well defined. We examined the impact of daily low-dose aspirin (81 mg) on the development of marginal ulcers following LRYGB...
December 1, 2016: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908391/prevalence-profile-and-prognosis-of-severe-obesity-in-contemporary-hospitalized-heart-failure-trial-populations
#5
Emer Joyce, Anuradha Lala, Susanna R Stevens, Lauren B Cooper, Omar F AbouEzzeddine, John D Groarke, Justin L Grodin, Eugene Braunwald, Kevin J Anstrom, Margaret M Redfield, Lynne W Stevenson
OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the prevalence, profile, and prognosis of severe obesity in a large contemporary acute heart failure (AHF) population. BACKGROUND: Better prognosis has been reported for obese heart failure (HF) patients than nonobese HF patients, but in other cardiovascular populations, this effect has not been demonstrated for severely obese patients. METHODS: A cohort of 795 participants with body mass index (BMI) measured at time of admission and complete follow-up were identified from enrollment in 3 contemporary AHF trials (DOSE [Diuretic Strategies Optimization Evaluation], CARRESS-HF [Cardiorenal Rescue Study in Acute Decompensated Heart Failure], and ROSE [Renal Optimization Strategies Evaluation in Acute Heart Failure])...
December 2016: JACC. Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906601/association-between-pre-operative-cefazolin-dose-and-surgical-site-infection-in-obese-patients
#6
William J Peppard, David G Eberle, Nathan W Kugler, Danielle M Mabrey, John A Weigelt
BACKGROUND: A fixed dose of cefazolin results in serum concentrations that decrease as body mass increases. Current national guidelines suggest a pre-operative cefazolin dose of two grams may be insufficient for patients ≥120 kg; thus a three gram dose is recommended. These recommendations, however, are based on pharmacokinetic rather than outcome data. We evaluate the efficacy of pre-operative cefazolin two gram and three gram doses as measured by the rate of surgical site infection (SSI)...
December 1, 2016: Surgical Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905403/infusion-with-human-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-improves-%C3%AE-cell-function-in-patients-and-non-obese-mice-with-severe-diabetes
#7
Lirong Li, Hui Hui, Xiaolei Jia, Jie Zhang, Ying Liu, Qianyue Xu, Dalong Zhu
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) transplantation is a promising therapeutic strategy for type 1 diabetes (T1D). However, little is known on whether MSC transplantation can benefit T1D patients with ketoacidosis and its potential actions. Here, we show that infusion with bone marrow MSCs preserves β-cell function in some T1D patients with ketoacidosis by decreasing exogenous insulin requirement and increasing plasma C-peptide levels up to 1-2 years. MSC transplantation increased plasma and islet insulin contents in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice with severe diabetes...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903748/hepatic-expression-of-adenovirus-36-e4orf1-improves-glycemic-control-and-promotes-glucose-metabolism-via-akt-activation
#8
Travis B McMurphy, Wei Huang, Run Xiao, Xianglan Liu, Nikhil V Dhurandhar, Lei Cao
Considering that impaired proximal insulin signaling is linked with diabetes, approaches that enhance glucose disposal independent of insulin signaling are attractive. In vitro data indicate that the E4ORF1 peptide derived from human adenovirus 36 (Ad36) interacts with cells from adipose tissue, skeletal muscle and liver to enhance glucose disposal, independent of proximal insulin signaling. Adipocyte-specific expression of Ad36E4ORF1 improved hyperglycemia in mice. To determine the hepatic interaction of Ad36E4ORF1 in enhancing glycemic control, we expressed E4ORF1 of Ad36 or adenovirus 5, or fluorescent tag alone using recombinant adeno-associated viral vector in the livers of three mouse models...
November 30, 2016: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903157/obesity-and-other-cancers
#9
Lin Yang, Bettina F Drake, Graham A Colditz
Purpose Evidence on overweight, obesity, and an increased risk of cancer continues to accumulate and was updated in the 2016 handbook on weight control from the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). The underlying primary data, together with dose-response meta-analysis and, finally, pooled analysis of individual participant data, add insight into the relation between obesity and cancer risk and prognosis. We summarize the evidence for mortality from prostate cancer, hematologic malignancies, and kidney cancer...
December 10, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903151/how-to-manage-the-obese-patient-with-cancer
#10
Andrew G Renehan, Michelle Harvie, Ramsey I Cutress, Michael Leitzmann, Tobias Pischon, Sacha Howell, Anthony Howell
Purpose Obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) is common among patients with cancer. We reviewed management issues in the obese patient with cancer, focusing on how obesity influences treatment selection (including chemotherapy dosing), affects chemotherapy toxicity and surgical complications, and might be a treatment effect modifier. Methods The majority of evidence is drawn from observational studies and secondary analyses of trial data, typically analyzed in N × 3 BMI categories (normal weight, overweight, and obese) matrix structures...
December 10, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901601/activation-of-estrogen-response-element-independent-er%C3%AE-signaling-protects-female-mice-from-diet-induced-obesity
#11
Ali Yasrebi, Janelle A Rivera, Elizabeth A Krumm, Jennifer A Yang, Troy A Roepke
17β-estradiol (E2) regulates central and peripheral mechanisms that control energy and glucose homeostasis predominantly through estrogen receptor α (ERα) acting via receptor binding to estrogen response elements (ERE). ERα signaling is also involved in mediating the effects of E2 on diet-induced obesity (DIO), although the roles of ERE-dependent and -independent ERα signaling in ameliorating the effects of DIO remain largely unknown. We hypothesize that ERE-dependent ERα signaling is necessary to ameliorate the effects of DIO...
November 30, 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900447/controversies-about-sugars-results-from-systematic-reviews-and-meta-analyses-on-obesity-cardiometabolic-disease-and-diabetes
#12
REVIEW
Tauseef A Khan, John L Sievenpiper
Fructose-containing sugars are a focus of attention as a public health target for their putative role in obesity and cardiometabolic disease including diabetes. The fructose moiety is singled out to be the primary driver for the harms of sugars due to its unique endocrine signal and pathophysiological role. However, this is only supported by ecological studies, animal models of overfeeding and select human intervention studies with supraphysiological doses or lack of control for energy. The highest level of evidence from systematic reviews and meta-analyses of controlled trials has not shown that fructose-containing sugars behave any differently from other forms of digestible carbohydrates...
November 30, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899808/autoimmunity-to-hsp60-during-diet-induced-obesity-in-mice
#13
M E Şelli, G Wick, D C Wraith, A C Newby
Adaptive immunity has been implicated in adipose tissue inflammation, obesity and its adverse metabolic consequences. No obesity-related autoantigen has yet been identified, although heat shock protein 60 (HSP60) has been implicated in other autoimmune diseases. We investigated whether feeding a high fat diet to C57BL/6J mice would cause autoimmunity to HSP60 and whether immunomodulation with peptides from HSP60 would reverse the resulting obesity or metabolic dysfunction. Obese mice had higher circulating levels of HSP60 associated with increased T-lymphocyte proliferation responses and the emergence of circulating IgG1 and IgG2c antibody levels against HSP60...
November 30, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899248/unexplained-increases-in-serum-vancomycin-concentration-in-a-morbidly-obese-patient
#14
REVIEW
Sean P Kane, Scott D Hanes
INTRODUCTION: To report a case of increases in vancomycin concentrations without additional vancomycin doses being given. CASE STUDY: A 64 year-old morbidly obese female received three total doses of vancomycin for surgical prophylaxis and for ventilator-associated pneumonia. Subsequent vancomycin concentrations from the patient's central venous catheter (CVC) demonstrated increasing drug levels from 27.1 to 45.9mcg/mL despite no additional vancomycin being given and proper line flushing prior to sample collection...
November 26, 2016: Intensive & Critical Care Nursing: the Official Journal of the British Association of Critical Care Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899046/chili-pepper-as-a-body-weight-loss-food
#15
Sharon Varghese, Peter Kubatka, Luis Rodrigo, Katarina Gazdikova, Martin Caprnda, Julia Fedotova, Anthony Zulli, Peter Kruzliak, Dietrich Büsselberg
Chili has culinary as well as medical importance. Studies in humans, using a wide range of doses of chili intake (varying from a single meal to a continuous uptake for up to 12 weeks), concluded that it facilitates weight loss. In regard to this, the main targets of chili are fat metabolism, energy expenditure, and thermogenesis. To induce weight loss, the active substance of chili, capsaicin, activates Transient Receptor Potential Cation Channel sub-family V member 1 (TRPV1) channels) receptors causing an increase in intracellular calcium levels and triggering the sympathetic nervous system...
November 29, 2016: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895517/influence-of-curcumin-on-the-pharmacodynamics-and-pharmacokinetics-of-gliclazide-in-animal-models
#16
Leela Krishna Vatsavai, Eswar Kumar Kilari
PURPOSE: Patients suffering from obesity-related diseases use multiple prescription drugs to control their condition, and it is therefore essential to determine the safety and efficacy of any combination. Gliclazide is one of the most commonly used drug of choice for treatment of type 2 diabetes, and curcumin is a widely used herbal supplement to counter obesity condition. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of oral administration of curcumin on pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of gliclazide in rats and rabbits to further evaluate the safety and effectiveness of this combination...
2016: Journal of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886982/impact-of-norepinephrine-weight-based-dosing-compared-with-non-weight-based-dosing-in-achieving-time-to-goal-mean-arterial-pressure-in-obese-patients-with-septic-shock
#17
Nina Vadiei, Mitchell J Daley, Manasa S Murthy, Carrie S Shuman
BACKGROUND: Currently, a lack of standardization exists in norepinephrine dosing units, the first-line vasopressor for septic shock. Timely achievement of goal mean arterial pressure (MAP) is dependent on optimal vasopressor dosing. OBJECTIVE: To determine if weight-based dosing (WBD) of norepinephrine leads to earlier time to goal MAP compared with non-WBD in obese patients with septic shock. METHODS: This was a retrospective, multicenter cohort study...
November 24, 2016: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884128/a-randomised-controlled-demonstration-trial-of-multifaceted-nutritional-intervention-and-or-probiotics-the-healthy-mums-and-babies-humba-trial
#18
Karaponi Okesene-Gafa, Minglan Li, Rennae S Taylor, John M D Thompson, Caroline A Crowther, Christopher J D McKinlay, Lesley M E McCowan
BACKGROUND: Maternal obesity is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes and has lifelong negative implications for offspring health. The Institute of Medicine recommends limited gestational weight gain (GWG) in obese women for optimal maternal and infant outcomes. However, there is a gap regarding an effective and sustainable intervention strategy to achieve this goal. The aim of the healthy mums and babies (HUMBA) demonstration trial is to assess whether a multifaceted nutritional intervention and/or an oral probiotic treatment in obese pregnant women can reduce excessive GWG and optimise pregnancy outcomes...
November 24, 2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884047/childhood-obesity-prevention-cluster-randomized-trial-for-hispanic-families-outcomes-of-the-healthy-families-study
#19
P C Hull, M Buchowski, J R Canedo, B M Beech, L Du, T Koyama, R Zoorob
BACKGROUND: Obesity prevalence is disproportionately high among Hispanic children. OBJECTIVES: The Healthy Families Study assessed the efficacy of a culturally targeted, family-based weight gain prevention intervention for Hispanic immigrant families with children ages 5-7 years. METHODS: The study used a two-group, cluster randomized trial design, assigning 136 families (clusters) to the active intervention (weight gain prevention) and 136 families to attention control (oral health)...
November 24, 2016: Pediatric Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882410/a-review-of-recent-evidence-relating-to-sugars-insulin-resistance-and-diabetes
#20
REVIEW
I A Macdonald
The potential impact on health of diets rich in free sugars, and particularly fructose, is of major concern. The focus of this review is the impact of these sugars on insulin resistance and obesity, and the associated risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Much of the concern is focussed on specific metabolic effects of fructose, which are argued to lead to increased fat deposition in the liver and skeletal muscle with subsequent insulin resistance and increased risk of diabetes. However, much of the evidence underpinning these arguments is based on animal studies involving very large intakes of the free sugars...
November 23, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
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