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obese dosing

Kadri Altundag
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
Maryam Sohrabi, Mahdi Alahgholi-Hajibehzad, Zahra Gholami Mahmoodian, Sayed Ali Hosseini Siyar, Alireza Zamani
BACKGROUND: Studies have indicated that extraweight and obesity induce chronic inflammation, which can lead to other diseases such as cancers. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of two weight-lowering and anti-inflammatory agents including cinnamon, and turmeric, on serum levels of interleukin-17 (IL-17) as a pro-inflammatory cytokine. METHODS: In this study, 64 rats were designated in eight groups. The control group received normal diet. The other groups were fed with normal diet plus high cinnamon (3 mg/ml), high turmeric (3 mg/ml), high-fructose solution (30%), fructose solution with low (0...
March 2018: Iranian Journal of Immunology: IJI
Melissa Palmer, Lee Jennings, Debra G Silberg, Caleb Bliss, Patrick Martin
BACKGROUND: Accumulation of toxic free cholesterol in hepatocytes may cause hepatic inflammation and fibrosis. Volixibat inhibits bile acid reuptake via the apical sodium bile acid transporter located on the luminal surface of the ileum. The resulting increase in bile acid synthesis from cholesterol could be beneficial in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. This adaptive dose-finding study investigated the safety, tolerability, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacokinetics of volixibat...
March 16, 2018: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
Yan-Chuan Li, Chun-Long Li, Rui Li, Yang Chen, Meng Zhang, Pan-Pan Guo, Dan Shi, Xiao-Ning Ji, Ren-Nan Feng, Chang-Hao Sun
BACKGROUND: It has been established in RCTs that high dose of phytosterols can significantly reduce blood cholesterol. However, it was uncertain whether low dose of phytosterols from daily diets was effective. In this study, we evaluated the associations between dietary phytosterols and body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), blood glucose, serum lipid profiles and prevalence of overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity in healthy subjects. METHODS: Four hundred nine men and 503 women aged 18-60 years were included in this study...
March 16, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
Tristan Pascart, Frédéric Lioté
This review article summarizes the relevant English literature on gout from 2010 through April 2017. It emphasizes that the current epidemiology of gout indicates a rising prevalence worldwide, not only in Western countries but also in Southeast Asia, in close relationship with the obesity and metabolic syndrome epidemics. New pathogenic mechanisms of chronic hyperuricaemia focus on the gut (microbiota, ABCG2 expression) after the kidney. Cardiovascular and renal comorbidities are the key points to consider in terms of management...
March 13, 2018: Rheumatology
George Kunnackal John, Lin Wang, Julie Nanavati, Claire Twose, Rajdeep Singh, Gerard Mullin
Dietary alteration of the gut microbiome is an important target in the treatment of obesity. Animal and human studies have shown bidirectional weight modulation based on the probiotic formulation used. In this study, we systematically reviewed the literature and performed a meta-analysis to assess the impact of prebiotics, probiotics and synbiotics on body weight, body mass index (BMI) and fat mass in adult human subjects. We searched Medline (PubMed), Embase, the Cochrane Library and the Web of Science to identify 4721 articles, of which 41 were subjected to full-text screening, yielding 21 included studies with 33 study arms...
March 16, 2018: Genes
Tian-Xing Chen, Xiao-Ying Cheng, Yun Wang, Wu Yin
Toosendanin (TSN), a triterpenoid extracted from Melia toosendan, has been reported to possess anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, and anti-arthritic activities. However, its anti-adipogenic effect remains unknown. Here, we found that TSN dose-dependently attenuated lipid accumulation in preadipocytes 3T3-L1 as evidenced by Oil Red O staining. TSN also significantly downregulated mRNA and protein levels of adipocytokines (adiponectin and leptin), CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins α (C/EBP-α), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR-γ), fatty acid synthase, and acetyl-CoA carboxylase in adipocytes...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sudha S Shankar, R Ravi Shankar, Lori A Mixson, Deborah L Miller, Barnali Pramanik, Amy K O'Dowd, Donna M Williams, Clay B Frederick, Chan R Beals, S Aubrey Stoch, Helmut O Steinberg, David E Kelley
Oxyntomodulin (OXM), an enteroendocrine hormone, causes appetite suppression, increased energy expenditure, and weight loss in obese humans via activation of GLP-1 and glucagon receptors. However, the effects of OXM on glucose homeostasis remain ill-defined. To address this gap, we evaluated the effects of an intravenous (IV) infusion of native OXM on insulin secretory rates (ISR) and glycemic excursion in a graded glucose infusion (GGI) procedure in two separate randomized, placebo-controlled, single dose crossover trials in 12 overweight and obese subjects without diabetes, and in 12 obese subjects with Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) respectively, using the GLP-1 analog, liraglutide as a comparator in the T2DM...
March 15, 2018: Diabetes
Sophie Vincent, Nicholas Czuzoj-Shulman, Andrea R Spence, Haim A Abenhaim
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and neonatal respiratory-related outcomes among women who underwent an elective cesarean section (CS). METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)'s 2009-2013 period linked birth/infant death dataset. Women who had elective CSs at term were categorized by their pre-pregnancy BMI as normal, overweight, obese or morbidly obese...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
Ayako Uchinaka, Yuri Kawashima, Yuki Sano, Shogo Ito, Yusuke Sano, Kai Nagasawa, Natsumi Matsuura, Mamoru Yoneda, Yuichiro Yamada, Toyoaki Murohara, Kohzo Nagata
Melatonin regulates circadian rhythms but also has antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects that ameliorate metabolic disorders. We investigated the effects of the selective melatonin agonist ramelteon on cardiac and adipose tissue pathology in the DahlS.Z-Leprfa /Leprfa (DS/obese) rat, a model of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Rats were treated with a low (0.3 mg/kg per day) or high (8 mg/kg per day) dose of ramelteon from 9 to 13 weeks of age. Ramelteon treatment at either dose attenuated body weight gain, left ventricular fibrosis, and diastolic dysfunction, as well as cardiac oxidative stress and inflammation, without affecting hypertension or insulin resistance...
March 15, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Cindy Feng, Nathaniel D Osgood, Roland F Dyck
Background: Obesity history may provide a better understanding of the contribution of obesity to T2DM risk. Methods: 17,634 participants from the 1958 National Child Development Study were followed from birth to 50 years. Cumulative obesity dose, a measure of obesity history, was calculated by subtracting the upper cut-off of the normal BMI from the actual BMI at each follow-up and summing the areas under the obesity dose curve. Hazard ratios (HRs) for diabetes were calculated using Cox regression analysis...
2018: Journal of Diabetes Research
Pernille Wismann, Søren L Pedersen, Gitte Hansen, Karin Mannerstedt, Philip J Pedersen, Palle B Jeppesen, Niels Vrang, Keld Fosgerau, Jacob Jelsing
AIM: Analogues of several gastrointestinal peptide hormones have been developed into effective medicines for treatment of diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), obesity and short bowel syndrome (SBS). In this study, we aimed to explore whether the combination of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) into a potent co-agonist could provide additional benefits compared to existing monotherapies. METHODS: A short-acting (GUB09-123) and a half-life extended (GUB09-145) GLP-1/GLP-2 co-agonist were generated using solid-phase peptide synthesis and tested for effects on food intake, body weight, glucose homeostasis, and gut proliferation in lean mice and in diabetic db/db mice...
March 11, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Fred Stephen Sarfo, Osei Sarfo-Kantanka, Sheila Adamu, Vida Obese, Jennifer Voeks, Raelle Tagge, Vipin Sethi, Bruce Ovbiagele
BACKGROUND: There is an unprecedented rise in the prevalence of stroke in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Secondary prevention guidelines recommend that antihypertensive, statin and antiplatelet therapy be initiated promptly after ischemic stroke and adhered to in a persistent fashion to achieve optimal vascular-risk reduction. However, these goals are seldom realized in routine clinical care settings in SSA due to logistical challenges. We seek to assess whether a polypill containing fixed doses of three antihypertensive agents, a statin and antiplatelet therapy taken once daily per os for 12 months among recent stroke survivors would result in carotid intimal thickness regression compared with usual care (UC)...
March 14, 2018: Trials
Changting Xiao, Satya Dash, Priska Stahel, Gary F Lewis
The effects of intranasal insulin on the regulation of endogenous glucose production (EGP) in individuals with insulin resistance were assessed in a single-blind, crossover study. Overweight or obese insulin resistant men (n=7; BMI 35.4 +/- 4.4 kg/m2 ; HOMA-IR 5.6+/-1.6) received intranasal spray of either 40 IU insulin lispro or placebo in 2 randomized visits. Acute systemic spillover of intranasal insulin into the circulation was matched with a 30-min intravenous infusion of insulin lispro in the nasal placebo arm...
March 14, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Sandra Ventura, Márcio Rodrigues, Amílcar Falcão, Gilberto Alves
Paullinia cupana-containing preparations are being consumed worldwide for weight reduction. As obesity and epilepsy are common comorbidities and lamotrigine (LTG) is a broad-spectrum antiepileptic drug, it is likely to find epilepsy patients taking P. cupana and LTG simultaneously. Thus, this work aimed to investigate the potential interaction between P. cupana extract and LTG in rats. In a study, rats were orally co-administered with a single-dose of P. cupana extract (821 mg/kg) and LTG (10 mg/kg). In another study, rats were orally pre-treated for 14 days with P...
March 10, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Cathy Hardalo, Thomas P Lodise, Monique Bidell, Shawn Flanagan, Carisa De Anda, Steven Anuskiewicz, Philippe Prokocimer
BACKGROUND: We evaluated safety and tolerability of tedizolid phosphate at the 200-mg once-daily dose approved for 6-day treatment of skin and skin-structure infections. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Clinical adverse event (AE) and laboratory data were pooled across completed clinical studies (13 phase 1, two phase 2, and two phase 3), for all participants who received ≥1 dose of tedizolid 200 mg, linezolid 600 mg (phase 3 only), or placebo (phase 1 only). RESULTS: 1280 participants received tedizolid (phase 1: n = 355; phase 2/3: n = 925)...
March 12, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
Arwa M Amin, Lim Sheau Chin, Chin-Hoe Teh, Hamza Mostafa, Dzul Azri Mohamed Noor, Muhamad Ali S K Abdul Kader, Yuen Kah Hay, Baharudin Ibrahim
Dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) of clopidogrel and aspirin is crucial for coronary artery disease (CAD) patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, some patients may endure clopidogrel high on treatment platelets reactivity (HTPR) which may cause thromboembolic events. Clopidogrel HTPR is multifactorial with some genetic and non-genetic factors contributing to it. We aimed to use nuclear magnetic resonance (1 H NMR) pharmacometabolomics analysis of plasma to investigate this multifactorial and identify metabolic phenotypes and pathways associated with clopidogrel HTPR...
March 8, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Yang Zhao, Hui Guo, Ying Zhao, Bingyin Shi
Ectopic adrenal adenoma causing chronic Cushing's syndrome (CS) is a rare phenomenon. Diagnosis is usually made years after disease onset because of the insidious nature of the ectopic adrenal gland and because it overlaps with common symptoms, such as overweight and hypertension, in the general population (Kreitschmann-Andermahr et al., 2015). Here, we report the case of a 46-year-old male with a 15-year history of severe hypertension, facial plethora, and centripetal obesity. During treatment for herpes zoster, the patient presented with severe hypokalemia and flaccid paralysis, characteristic changes associated with CS...
March 7, 2018: Annales D'endocrinologie
Kimberly R Warren, Heidi J Wehring, Fang Liu, Robert P McMahon, Shuo Chen, Charlene Chester, Deanna L Kelly
Overweight and obesity in schizophrenia are prevalent, affecting half to three-quarters of people with schizophrenia. Hyperphagia and increased meal size have also been implicated as significant contributors to the weight gain problem. Oxytocin has shown to play a role in appetite control in humans and is considered an anorexigenic peptide. This two-day, within-subjects, challenge study involved the examination of satiety after administration of 24 IU oxytocin (intranasal) vs. placebo in participants with a DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia (N = 16)...
March 7, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Takeshi Omae, Eiichi Inada
New-onset atrial fibrillation (NOAF) is the most common perioperative complication of heart surgery, typically occurring in the perioperative period. NOAF commonly occurs in patients who are elderly, or have left atrial enlargement, or left ventricular hypertrophy. Various factors have been identified as being involved in the development of NOAF, and numerous approaches have been proposed for its prevention and treatment. Risk factors include diabetes, obesity, and metabolic syndrome. For prevention of NOAF, β-blockers and amiodarone are particularly effective and are recommended by guidelines...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Anesthesia
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