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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820474/significance-of-resveratrol-in-clinical-management-of-chronic-diseases
#1
REVIEW
Awais Wahab, Kuo Gao, Caixia Jia, Feilong Zhang, Guihua Tian, Ghulam Murtaza, Jianxin Chen
Resveratrol could be beneficial to health and provides protection against a wide array of pathologies and age-associated problems, as evident from preclinical studies. However, a comparison of animal and human studies reveals that this dietary polyphenol cannot protect against metabolic diseases and their associated complications. The clinical outcomes are affected by many factors such as sample size. This article not only presents a comprehensive review of the current advances concerning the dose, the extent of absorption, interaction and toxicity of resveratrol in human studies, but also describes its therapeutic effects against several chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, cancer and aging and the related diseases...
August 18, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817167/body-mass-index-50-kg-m2-and-beyond-perioperative-care-of-pregnant-women-with-superobesity-undergoing-cesarean-delivery
#2
Marcela Carolina Smid, Sarah K Dotters-Katz, Robert M Silver, Jeffrey A Kuller
Importance: Superobesity, defined as body mass index 50 kg/m(2) or greater, is the fastest-growing obesity group in the United States. Currently, 2% of pregnant women in the United States are superobese, and 50% will deliver via cesarean delivery. Objective: To review evidence of perioperative care during cesarean delivery among superobese women. Evidence Acquisition: We performed an evidence-based review of maternal and neonatal risks of cesarean delivery and of intraoperative management and immediate postpartum care of superobese pregnant women...
August 2017: Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815425/methodological-study-of-vancomycin-dosing-in-elderly-patients-using-actual-serum-creatinine-versus-rounded-serum-creatinine
#3
Tramaine Young, Matt Daniel, Stephanie Baumhover, Duke Eidson, Jane Green
PURPOSE: The practice of intentional rounding up of serum creatinine (SCr) in elderly patients with low measured values can lead to an underestimation of creatinine clearance and subsequent inaccurate dosing of medications. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of vancomycin dose calculations for patients aged ≥65 years using an SCr rounded up to 1 mg/dL versus actual SCr. METHODS: This study compared the difference between measured steady-state vancomycin trough concentrations with predicted trough concentrations that have been calculated using rounded SCr and actual SCr...
August 16, 2017: Drugs in R&D
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814530/a-high-fat-diet-decreases-bone-mass-in-growing-mice-with-systemic-chronic-inflammation-induced-by-low-dose-slow-release-lipopolysaccharide-pellets
#4
Jay J Cao, Brian R Gregoire, Chwan-Li Shen
Background: Chronic inflammation is associated with increased bone resorption and is linked to osteopenia, or low bone mass. Obesity is also associated with low-grade chronic upregulation of inflammatory cytokines.Objective: This study investigated the effect of high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity on bone structure changes in growing mice with existing systemic chronic inflammation induced by low-dose, slow-release lipopolysaccharide (LPS).Methods: Forty-eight 6-wk-old female C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to 4 treatment groups (n = 12/group) in a 2 × 2 factorial design-control (placebo) or LPS treatment (1...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812029/expanded-normal-weight-obesity-and-insulin-resistance-in-us-adults-of-the-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey
#5
Keilah E Martinez, Larry A Tucker, Bruce W Bailey, James D LeCheminant
This study aims to expand the evaluation of normal weight obesity (NWO) and its association with insulin resistance using an NHANES (1999-2006) sample of US adults. A cross-sectional study including 5983 men and women (50.8%) was conducted. Body fat percentage (BF%) was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Expanded normal weight obesity (eNWO) categories, pairings of BMI and body fat percentage classifications, were created using standard cut-points for BMI and sex-specific median for BF%. Homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) levels were used to index insulin resistance...
2017: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808492/assessment-of-anti-factor-xa-activity-of-enoxaparin-for-venous-thromboembolism-prophylaxis-in-morbidly-obese-surgical-patients
#6
Nouf Al Otaib, Zohour Bootah, Maha A Al Ammari, Tariq M Aldebasi, Abdulmalik M Alkatheri, Shmeylan A Al Harbi, Salah M AbuRuz, Abdulkareem M AlBekairy
BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) can be encountered by 60% of hospitalized patients. Anticoagulants have been recommended to reduce the risk of VTE in patients with risk factors. However, no specific dosing recommendations for obese patients are provided in the current practice guidelines. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy and safety of weight-based dosing of enoxaparin for VTE prophylaxis among morbidly obese patients undergoing surgery. METHODS: Adult patients were enrolled if they have a body mass index (BMI) of ≥35 kg/m(2) and were scheduled for surgery...
July 2017: Annals of Thoracic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807918/relationships-of-vancomycin-pharmacokinetics-to-body-size-and-composition-by-computed-tomography-analysis-a-novel-pharmacomorphomic-approach
#7
Manjunath P Pai, Brian A Derstine, Matt Lichty, Brian E Ross, June Sullivan, Grace L Su, Stewart C Wang
Antibiotics such as vancomycin are empirically dosed on body weight, which may not be optimal across the expanding adult body size distribution. Our aim was to compare the relationships between morphomic parameters generated from computed tomography images to conventional body size metrics as predictors of vancomycin pharmacokinetics (PK). This single center retrospective study included 300 patients with 1622 vancomycin concentration (52% trough) measurements. Bayesian estimation was used to compute individual vancomycin volume of distribution of the central compartment (Vc) and clearance (CL)...
August 14, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805670/appetite-and-gut-hormones-response-to-a-putative-%C3%AE-glucosidase-inhibitor-salacia-chinensis-in-overweight-obese-adults-a-double-blind-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
Lihong Hao, Yvette Schlussel, Krista Fieselmann, Stephen H Schneider, Sue A Shapses
Animal studies indicate Salacia reduces body weight, possibly due to its α-glucosidase inhibitor (α-GI) properties, but this has not been examined previously. In this study, a randomized, placebo-controlled, three-way cross-over design was used to evaluate whether Salacia Chinensis (SC) reduces appetite in healthy overweight/obese individuals (body mass index 28.8 ±3.6 kg/m²; 32 ± 12 years). Forty-eight participants were fasted overnight and consumed a dose of SC (300 or 500 mg) or placebo with a fixed breakfast meal at each visit...
August 12, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804947/periodontitis-and-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-a-population-based-cohort-investigation-in-the-study-of-health-in-pomerania
#9
Aderonke A Akinkugbe, Gary D Slade, A Sidney Barritt, Steven Offenbacher, Astrid Petersmann, Thomas Kocher, Markus M Lerch, Julia Mayerle, Henry Völzke, Gerardo Heiss, Birte Holtfreter
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) affects 20-30% of adults with risk factors like obesity and insulin resistance putatively acting through chronic low-grade inflammation. Because periodontitis elicits low-grade inflammation, we hypothesized that it could contribute to NAFLD occurrence. Objective To investigate epidemiologic associations between periodontitis and the incidence of NAFLD among 2,623 participants of the Study of Health in Pomerania METHODS: Periodontitis at baseline was defined as the percentage of sites (0%, 1-30%, ≥30%) with 1) clinical attachment level (CAL) ≥3mm; 2) probing pocket depth (PD) ≥4mm...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803880/vitamin-d-and-symptoms-of-depression-in-overweight-or-obese-adults-a-cross-sectional-study-and-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial
#10
Aya Mousa, Negar Naderpoor, Maximilian P J de Courten, Barbora de Courten
Recent evidence suggests that vitamin D deficiency may contribute to increased risk of depression. However, previous studies are limited by variability in participant characteristics including vitamin D deficiency status and presence of existing diseases, use of low doses of vitamin D supplementation for short durations, and use of co-interventions or psychotropic drugs. We examined whether 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations were associated with symptoms of depression, as well as whether vitamin D supplementation reduced symptoms of depression in overweight or obese and vitamin D-deficient, but otherwise healthy adults...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802901/effect-of-vertical-sleeve-gastrectomy-on-alcohol-consumption-and-preferences-in-dietary-obese-rats-and-mice-a-plausible-role-for-altered-ghrelin-signaling
#11
Elise R Orellana, Catherine Jamis, Nelli Horvath, Andras Hajnal
Vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) are the most common surgical options for the treatment of obesity and metabolic disorder. Whereas RYGB may result in greater and more durable weight loss, recent clinical and pre-clinical studies in rats have raised concerns that RYGB surgery may increase risk for alcohol use disorder (AUD). In contrast, recent clinical reports suggest a lesser risk for AUD following VSG, although no preclinical studies have been done to confirm that. Therefore, the present study sought to determine the effects of VSG on ethanol intake and preferences in rodent models using protocols similar to those previously used in animal studies for RYGB...
August 9, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801938/factors-in-variability-of-serial-gabapentin-concentrations-in-elderly-patients-with-epilepsy
#12
Jeannine M Conway, Lynn E Eberly, Joseph F Collins, Flavia M Macias, R Eugene Ramsay, Ilo E Leppik, Angela K Birnbaum
OBJECTIVES: To characterize and quantify the variability of serial gabapentin concentrations in elderly patients with epilepsy. METHODS: This study included 83 patients (age ≥60 years) from an 18-center, randomized, double-blind, double dummy, parallel study from the Veterans Affairs Cooperative 428 Study. All patients were taking 1500 mg/day of gabapentin. Within-person coefficient of variation (CV) in gabapentin concentrations, measured weekly to bimonthly for up to 52 weeks, then quarterly, was computed...
August 12, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798230/association-of-bmi-with-propofol-dosing-and-adverse-events-in-children-with-cancer-undergoing-procedural-sedation
#13
Colin M Rogerson, Kamal Abulebda, Michael J Hobson
OBJECTIVES: Obesity increases the risk of complications during pediatric procedural sedation. The risk of being underweight has not been evaluated in this arena. We therefore investigated the association of BMI with sedation dosing and adverse events in children across a range of BMIs. METHODS: A total of 1976 patients ages 2 to 21 years old with oncologic diagnoses underwent lumbar punctures and/or bone marrow aspirations. All children received a standard adjunctive dose of ketamine before sedation with propofol...
August 10, 2017: Hospital Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796857/association-of-systemic-inflammation-and-sarcopenia-with-survival-in-nonmetastatic-colorectal-cancer-results-from-the-c-scans-study
#14
Elizabeth M Cespedes Feliciano, Candyce H Kroenke, Jeffrey A Meyerhardt, Carla M Prado, Patrick T Bradshaw, Marilyn L Kwan, Jingjie Xiao, Stacey Alexeeff, Douglas Corley, Erin Weltzien, Adrienne L Castillo, Bette J Caan
Importance: Systemic inflammation and sarcopenia are easily evaluated, predict mortality in many cancers, and are potentially modifiable. The combination of inflammation and sarcopenia may be able to identify patients with early-stage colorectal cancer (CRC) with poor prognosis. Objective: To examine associations of prediagnostic systemic inflammation with at-diagnosis sarcopenia, and determine whether these factors interact to predict CRC survival, adjusting for age, ethnicity, sex, body mass index, stage, and cancer site...
August 10, 2017: JAMA Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796038/clomiphene-citrate-is-associated-with-favorable-cycle-characteristics-but-impaired-outcomes-of-obese-women-with-polycystic-ovarian-syndrome-undergoing-ovarian-stimulation-for-in-vitro-fertilization
#15
Shutian Jiang, Yanping Kuang
The aim of this study was to explore the effect of clomiphene citrate (CC) on the cycle characteristics and outcomes of obese women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) undergoing ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization (IVF).This is a retrospective cohort study, and it was conducted at the tertiary-care academic medical center.This study included 174 obese PCOS patients undergoing IVF.In the study group (n = 90), CC and human menopausal gonadotropin (HMG) were administered simultaneously beginning on cycle day 3, while in control group (n = 84) HMG was used only...
August 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794822/overview-of-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonists-for-the-treatment-of-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#16
Kelvin Lingjet Tran, Young In Park, Shalin Pandya, Navin John Muliyil, Brandon David Jensen, Kovin Huynh, Quang T Nguyen
BACKGROUND: It is estimated that 29.1 million people or 9.3% of the US population have diabetes, which contributes to considerable medical and financial burden. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterized by insulin resistance and insulin secretion impairment leading to hyperglycemia. The presence of insulin resistance is strongly correlated with obesity. OBJECTIVE: This article reviews the available glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists and their role in the management of patients with diabetes, to help guide the selection of the most suitable agent for the individualized treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes...
June 2017: American Health & Drug Benefits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794470/endocrine-disruptors-induce-perturbations-in-endoplasmic-reticulum-and-mitochondria-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cell-derivatives
#17
Uthra Rajamani, Andrew R Gross, Camille Ocampo, Allen M Andres, Roberta A Gottlieb, Dhruv Sareen
Persistent exposure to man-made endocrine disrupting chemicals during fetal endocrine development may lead to disruption of metabolic homeostasis contributing to childhood obesity. Limited cellular platforms exist to test endocrine disrupting chemical-induced developmental abnormalities in human endocrine tissues. Here we use an human-induced pluripotent stem cell-based platform to demonstrate adverse impacts of obesogenic endocrine disrupting chemicals in the developing endocrine system. We delineate the effects upon physiological low-dose exposure to ubiquitous endocrine disrupting chemicals including, perfluoro-octanoic acid, tributyltin, and butylhydroxytoluene, in endocrine-active human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived foregut epithelial cells and hypothalamic neurons...
August 9, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792056/anthocyanins-in-black-rice-soybean-and-purple-corn-increase-fecal-butyric-acid-and-prevent-liver-inflammation-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-mice
#18
Tao Wu, Xueqi Guo, Min Zhang, Lu Yang, Rui Liu, Jinjin Yin
Epidemiological evidence indicates that anthocyanin consumption reduces the incidence of chronic and degenerative diseases. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine whether black rice anthocyanin (BRA), black soybean anthocyanin (BSA), and purple corn anthocyanin (PCA) could mitigate oxidative stress and inflammation associated obesity in C57BL/6 mice fed with a high-fat diet. BRA, BSA, or PCA was administered at doses of 200 mg kg(-1) throughout the 12-week experiment and reduced the bodyweight by 9...
August 9, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790167/chemoprotective-effects-of-butanol-fraction-of-buchholzia-coriacea-capparidaceae-against-type-2-diabetes-and-oxidative-stress-in-male-wistar-rats
#19
Amanda Chikaosolu Okolie, Oluwafemi Ezekiel Kale, Odutola Osilesi
Recent studies have shown that Type 2 diabetes (T2D) in rats can result through a synergy that link obesity to insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction. This present study achieved T2D via high fructose (20%(w/v), p.o.), streptozotocin single dose (40 mg/kg, i.p.) (HFSTZ) in rats. Also, chemoprotective potential of butanol fraction of buchholzia coriacea (BFBC) was demonstrated. Control normal and diabetic untreated (HFSTZ-induced T2D) rats received carboxymethyl cellulose (1 mg/kg, p.o.). Diabetic rats received intragastric BFBC (20, 200, 400 mg/kg), glibenclamide (0...
August 8, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782224/prokineticin-1-is-up-regulated-by-insulin-in-decidualizing-human-endometrial-stromal-cells
#20
Dorina Ujvari, Ivika Jakson, Cecilia Oldmark, Sanaz Attarha, Twana Alkasalias, Daniel Salamon, Sebastian Gidlöf, Angelica Lindén Hirschberg
Prokineticin 1 (PROK1), a hypoxia-regulated angiogenic factor, has emerged as a crucial regulator of embryo implantation and placentation. Dysregulation of PROK1 has been linked to recurrent pregnancy loss, pre-eclampsia, foetal growth restriction and preterm birth. These pregnancy complications are common in women with obesity and polycystic ovary syndrome, i.e. conditions associated with insulin resistance and compensatory hyperinsulinaemia. We investigated the effect of insulin on PROK1 expression during in vitro decidualization...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
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