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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143555/qualitative-and-quantitative-prediction-of-human-in-vivo-metabolic-pathways-in-a-human-hepatocyte-murine-stromal-cell-co-culture-model
#1
Kenneth C Cassidy, Ping Yi
1. This study assessed the value of a static in vitro human hepatocyte-murine stromal cell co-culture model to qualitatively and quantitatively predict human in vivo metabolic clearance pathways using (14)C-labeled test compounds and compared these results to an in vitro suspended human hepatocyte model and the in vivo human (14)C ADME studies. 2. Test compounds represented a diverse set of clearance pathways (Phase I and Phase II). Compounds were incubated for 4 h in suspended human hepatocytes and for 24 and 168 h in the human co-culture model...
November 16, 2017: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119101/effect-of-dual-infection-with-eimeria-tenella-and-subgroup-j-avian-leukosis-virus-on-the-cecal-microbiome-in-specific-pathogen-free-chicks
#2
Ning Cui, Xiuzhen Wang, Qi Wang, Hongmei Li, Fangkun Wang, Xiaomin Zhao
Understanding gut microflora alterations associated with gut parasites and other pathogens that drive these alterations may help to promote the understanding of intestinal flora's role in multiple-infected individuals. This study examined the effects of dual infection with Eimeria tenella and subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) on the chick cecal microbiome. Specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chicks were infected with either ALV-J strain NX0101 at 1 day of age or E. tenella at 14 days of age, another group was infected with both pathogens...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117187/the-green-tea-modulates-large-intestinal-microbiome-and-exo-endogenous-metabolome-altered-through-chronic-uvb-exposure
#3
Eun Sung Jung, Hye Min Park, Seung Min Hyun, Jong Cheol Shon, Digar Singh, Kwang-Hyeon Liu, Tae Woong Whon, Jin-Woo Bae, Jae Sung Hwang, Choong Hwan Lee
The attenuating effects of green tea supplements (GTS) against the ultraviolet (UV) radiation induced skin damages are distinguished. However, the concomitant effects of GTS on the large intestinal microbiomes and associated metabolomes are largely unclear. Herein, we performed an integrated microbiome-metabolome analysis to uncover the esoteric links between gut microbiome and exo/endogenous metabolome maneuvered in the large intestine of UVB-exposed mice subjected to dietary GTS. In UVB-exposed mice groups (UVB), class Bacilli and order Bifidobacteriales were observed as discriminant taxa with decreased lysophospholipid levels compared to the unexposed mice groups subjected to normal diet (NOR)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113654/the-role-of-intestinal-bacteria-in-the-development-and-progression-of-gastrointestinal-tract-neoplasms
#4
REVIEW
Kosuke Mima, Shuji Ogino, Shigeki Nakagawa, Hiroshi Sawayama, Koichi Kinoshita, Ryuichi Krashima, Takatsugu Ishimoto, Katsunori Imai, Masaaki Iwatsuki, Daisuke Hashimoto, Yoshifumi Baba, Yasuo Sakamoto, Yo-Ichi Yamashita, Naoya Yoshida, Akira Chikamoto, Takatoshi Ishiko, Hideo Baba
More than 100 trillion microorganisms inhabit the human intestinal tract and play important roles in health conditions and diseases, including cancer. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that specific bacteria and bacterial dysbiosis in the gastrointestinal tract can potentiate the development and progression of gastrointestinal tract neoplasms by damaging DNA, activating oncogenic signaling pathways, producing tumor-promoting metabolites such as secondary bile acids, and suppressing antitumor immunity. Other bacterial species have been shown to produce short-chain fatty acids such as butyrate, which can suppress inflammation and carcinogenesis in the gastrointestinal tract...
December 2017: Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113344/polysaccharides-from-chrysanthemum-morifolium-ramat-ameliorate-colitis-rats-by-modulating-the-intestinal-microbiota-community
#5
Jin-Hua Tao, Jin-Ao Duan, Shu Jiang, Nan-Nan Feng, Wen-Qian Qiu, Yong Ling
The gut microflora dysbiosis has been closely related with the inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In this study, the effect of polysaccharides from Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat on the gut microbiota was evaluated by ulcerative colitis (UC) rat model. Physiological and pathological analyses suggested that Chrysanthemum polysaccharides possessed notably protective effects on UC in vivo. Based on the Illumina MiSeq platform, 16S rRNA sequencing of the rat colonic contents indicated that the intestinal flora structure remarkably changed in the model rats and the tendency was alleviated to a certain degree by treatment with different dosages of Chrysanthemum polysaccharides...
October 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111356/effects-of-antibiotics-on-biological-activity-of-cry1ac-in-bt-susceptible-and-bt-resistant-helicoverpa-armigera-strains
#6
Myint Myint Khaing, Xianming Yang, Man Zhao, Wanna Zhang, Bingjie Wang, Jizhen Wei, Gemei Liang
In this study, the results showed that the population of midgut bacteria and larval mortality due to Cry1Ac are significantly reduced in antibiotic-treated larvae from Bt-susceptible, -resistant and field-collected strains (96S, BtR, FS respectively) of Helicoverpa armigera. The percentage reduction of larval mortality with increasing concentrations of antibiotics was significantly different among strains with the smallest effect observed in FS. It has been suggested that antibiotics could influence the toxicity of Cry1Ac, possibly by eliminating gut bacteria, hence gut bacteria might be playing essential roles in Bt-induced killing of H...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110118/microrna-in-gastrointestinal-cell-signalling
#7
REVIEW
Priyanka Mishra, Divya Singh, Lilly Ganju, Bhuvnesh Kumar
Our gut forms an important organ and its formation, functioning and homeostasis are maintained by several factors including cell signalling pathways and commensal microflora. These factors affect pathological, physiological and immunological parameters to maintain gut health and prevent its inflammation. Among these, different intracellular signalling pathways play an important role in regulating gut homeostasis. These pathways are in turn regulated by various microRNAs that play a key role in maintaining the balance between tolerance and inflammation...
November 6, 2017: Inflammopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075787/salicylic-acid-metabolites-and-derivatives-inhibit-cdk-activity-novel-insights-into-aspirin-s-chemopreventive-effects-against-colorectal-cancer
#8
Rakesh Dachineni, D Ramesh Kumar, Eduardo Callegari, Siddharth S Kesharwani, Ranjini Sankaranarayanan, Teresa Seefeldt, Hemachand Tummala, G Jayarama Bhat
Aspirin's potential as a drug continues to be evaluated for the prevention of colorectal cancer (CRC). Although multiple targets for aspirin and its metabolite, salicylic acid, have been identified, no unifying mechanism has been proposed to clearly explain its chemopreventive effects. Our goal here was to investigate the ability of salicylic acid metabolites, known to be generated through cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes, and its derivatives as cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors to gain new insights into aspirin's chemopreventive actions...
December 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053809/comparative-effects-of-two-multi-enzyme-combinations-and-a-bacillus-probiotic-on-growth-performance-digestibility-of-energy-and-nutrients-disappearance-of-non-starch-polysaccharides-and-gut-microflora-in-broiler-chickens
#9
A L Wealleans, M C Walsh, L F Romero, V Ravindran
The efficacy of two exogenous enzyme combinations and a multi-strain Bacillus probiotic (DFM) on the growth performance, nutrient digestibility, disappearance of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) and gut microbial composition was investigated in broilers. One-day old Ross 308 chicks were assigned to 36 pens with 22 birds/pen and 6 pens/treatment (Experiment 1) or 36 cages with 8 birds/cage and 6 cages/treatment (Experiment 2). Treatment additives were added to nutritionally complete corn/soy based starter (d 1 to 21) and finisher (d 22 to 42) diets...
October 5, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051252/draft-genome-sequence-of-vibrio-sp-strain-v1b-isolated-from-the-gut-microflora-of-the-scallop-argopecten-purpuratus
#10
Wilbert Serrano, Ulrike I Tarazona, Raul M Olaechea, Michael W Friedrich
A new Vibrio strain, V1B, was isolated from the intestinal tract of the scallop Argopecten purpuratus Strain V1B is closely related to the species Vibrio inhibens BFLP-10, which has been characterized as showing antagonistic activity against pathogenic Vibrio sp. We report here the draft genome of the isolated Vibrio sp. strain V1B.
October 19, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050432/dietary-sugarcane-bagasse-and-coarse-particle-size-of-corn-are-beneficial-to-performance-and-gizzard-development-in-broilers-fed-normal-and-high-sodium-diets
#11
S K Kheravii, R A Swick, M Choct, Shu-Biao Wu
An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of sugarcane bagasse (SB) and particle size on broiler performance, gizzard development, ileal microflora, litter quality, and bird welfare under a wet litter challenge model. A total of 672 one-day-old Ross 308 male broilers was allocated to 48 pens using a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments with corn particle size-coarse 3,576 μm (CC) or fine 1,113 μm (FC) geometric mean diameter, SB - 0 or 2% and sodium (Na) - 0.16 or 0.40% with increased Na level to induce wet litter...
September 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048369/effect-of-curcumin-on-the-diversity-of-gut-microbiota-in-ovariectomized-rats
#12
Zhiguo Zhang, Yanjing Chen, Lihua Xiang, Zhen Wang, Gary Guishan Xiao, Jingqing Hu
Curcumin has been proven to have a weight-loss effect in a menopausal rat model induced by ovariectomy. However, the effects of curcumin on gut microfloral communities of ovariectomized (OVX) rats remains unclear. Here, we used high-throughput 16S rDNA sequencing to explore the effects of curcumin on microbial diversity in the gut of OVX rats. Female Wistar rats were subjected to either ovariectomy or a sham operation (SHAM group). The OVX rats were treated with vehicle (OVX group) or curcumin (CUR group) by oral gavage...
October 19, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018435/lactobacillus-plantarum-bsgp201683-isolated-from-giant-panda-feces-attenuated-inflammation-and-improved-gut-microflora-in-mice-challenged-with-enterotoxigenic-escherichia-coli
#13
Qian Liu, Xueqin Ni, Qiang Wang, Zhirong Peng, Lili Niu, Hengsong Wang, Yi Zhou, Hao Sun, Kangcheng Pan, Bo Jing, Dong Zeng
In this work, we searched for an effective probiotic that can help control intestinal infection, particularly enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88 (ETEC) invasion, in giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). As a potential probiotic strain, Lactobacillus plantarum BSGP201683 (L. plantarum G83) was isolated from the feces of giant panda and proven beneficial in vitro. This study was aimed to evaluate the protective effect of L. plantarum G83 in mice challenged with ETEC. The mice were orally administered with 0...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990804/effects-of-a-blend-of-essential-oils-and-overcrowding-stress-on-the-growth-performance-meat-quality-and-heat-shock-protein-gene-expression-of-broilers
#14
S M Hosseini, H Farhangfar, R Nourmohammadi
1. Overcrowding stress is common in the poultry industry. Chickens exposed to long-term stressful situations are characterised by welfare impairment and immunosuppression. The present study evaluated the effects of a blend of essential oils (EOB; cinnamaldehyde and thymol) and stocking density on the performance, gut microflora, meat quality, and physiological stress markers of broilers. One-day-old Ross 308 male broiler chickens (n = 360) were allocated to 4 experimental groups from d 22 to 42. Each treatment had 6 replicates of 15 chicks...
October 9, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958445/potential-testing-of-reprocessing-procedures-by-real-time-polymerase-chain-reaction-a-multicenter-study-of-colonoscopy-devices
#15
Federica Valeriani, Antonella Agodi, Beatrice Casini, Maria Luisa Cristina, Marcello Mario D'Errico, Gianluca Gianfranceschi, Giorgio Liguori, Renato Liguori, Nicolina Mucci, Ida Mura, Cesira Pasquarella, Andrea Piana, Giovanni Sotgiu, Gaetano Privitera, Carmela Protano, Annalisa Quattrocchi, Giancarlo Ripabelli, Angelo Rossini, Anna Maria Spagnolo, Manuela Tamburro, Stefano Tardivo, Licia Veronesi, Matteo Vitali, Vincenzo Romano Spica
BACKGROUND: Reprocessing of endoscopes is key to preventing cross-infection after colonoscopy. Culture-based methods are recommended for monitoring, but alternative and rapid approaches are needed to improve surveillance and reduce turnover times. A molecular strategy based on detection of residual traces from gut microbiota was developed and tested using a multicenter survey. METHODS: A simplified sampling and DNA extraction protocol using nylon-tipped flocked swabs was optimized...
September 25, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950281/effects-of-synbiotics-to-prevent-postoperative-infectious-complications-in-highly-invasive-abdominal-surgery
#16
Yukihiro Yokoyama, Takashi Asahara, Koji Nomoto, Masato Nagino
Postoperative infectious complication (POIC) is one of the most common complications following highly invasive abdominal surgeries, such as hepatectomy, esophagectomy, and pancreatoduodenectomy. The surgical stress temporarily deteriorates the intestinal microenvironment, and the fecal concentrations of beneficial bacteria such as Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus decrease following highly invasive abdominal surgery. In parallel with these changes, the concentrations of fecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) such as acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid also decrease after surgery...
2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948462/prebiotic-oligosaccharides-special-focus-on-fructooligosaccharides-its-biosynthesis-and-bioactivity
#17
Sudhir P Singh, Jyoti Singh Jadaun, Lokesh K Narnoliya, Ashok Pandey
The bacterial groups in the gut ecosystem play key role in the maintenance of host's metabolic and structural functionality. The gut microbiota enhances digestion processing, helps in digestion of complex substances, synthesizes beneficial bioactive compounds, enhances bioavailability of minerals, impedes growth of pathogenic microbes, and prevents various diseases. It is, therefore, desirable to have an adequate intake of prebiotic biomolecules, which promote favorable modulation of intestinal microflora. Prebiotics are non-digestible and chemically stable structures that significantly enhance growth and functionality of gut microflora...
October 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942844/comparative-genomics-of-lactobacillus-salivarius-strains-focusing-on-their-host-adaptation
#18
Jun-Yeong Lee, Geon Goo Han, Eun Bae Kim, Yun-Jaie Choi
Lactobacillus salivarius is an important member of the animal gut microflora and is a promising probiotic bacterium. However, there is a lack of research on the genomic diversity of L. salivarius species. In this study, we generated 21 L. salivarius draft genomes, and investigated the pan-genome of L. salivarius strains isolated from humans, pigs and chickens using all available genomes, focusing on host adaptation. Phylogenetic clustering showed a distinct categorization of L. salivarius strains depending on their hosts...
December 2017: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923170/prebiotics-in-the-management-of-components-of-the-metabolic-syndrome
#19
REVIEW
Sarah O'Connor, Sarah Chouinard-Castonguay, Claudia Gagnon, Iwona Rudkowska
Components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), including abdominal obesity, low-grade chronic systemic inflammation, altered glucose metabolism, dyslipidemia and high blood pressure, are major threats to healthy aging in modern societies. The connection between MetS components and gut microflora is now acknowledged and multiple therapeutic strategies have been proposed to change the composition of the gut microbiota in order to promote optimal metabolic health. Prebiotics have the ability to favour growth of beneficial bacteria, especially short-chain fatty-acids (SCFA) producers...
October 2017: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914862/-liver-diseases-the-pathogenetic-role-of-the-gut-microbiome-and-the-potential-of-treatment-for-its-modulation
#20
K A Aitbaev, I T Murkamilov, V V Fomin
The paper gives an update on the role of the gut microbiome (GM) in the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, alcoholic liver disease, liver cirrhosis (LC), and its complications, such as hepatic encephalopathy (HE) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and discusses the possibilities of its correction with prebiotics, probiotics, synbiotics, antibiotics, and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). The pathophysiology of the liver diseases in question demonstrates some common features that are characterized by pathogenic changes in the composition of the gastrointestinal tract microflora, by intestinal barrier impairments, by development of endotoxemia, by increased liver expression of proinflammatory factors, and by development of liver inflammation...
2017: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
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