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gut microflora

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895415/factoring-the-intestinal-microbiome-into-the-pathogenesis-of-autoimmune-hepatitis
#1
EDITORIAL
Albert J Czaja
The intestinal microbiome is a reservoir of microbial antigens and activated immune cells. The aims of this review were to describe the role of the intestinal microbiome in generating innate and adaptive immune responses, indicate how these responses contribute to the development of systemic immune-mediated diseases, and encourage investigations that improve the understanding and management of autoimmune hepatitis. Alterations in the composition of the intestinal microflora (dysbiosis) can disrupt intestinal and systemic immune tolerances for commensal bacteria...
November 14, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888334/capacity-of-lactic-acid-bacteria-in-immunity-enhancement-and-cancer-prevention
#2
REVIEW
Muhammad Shahid Riaz Rajoka, Junling Shi, Jing Zhu, Dongyan Shao, Qingsheng Huang, Hui Yang, Mingliang Jin
Lactic acid bacteria are associated with the human gastrointestinal tract. They are important for maintaining the balance of microflora in the human gut. An increasing number of published research reports in recent years have denoted the importance of producing interferon-gamma and IgA for treatment of disease. These agents can enhance the specific and nonspecific immune systems that are dependent on specific bacterial strains. The mechanisms of these effects were revealed in this investigation, where the cell walls of these bacteria were modulated by the cytokine pathways, while the whole bacterial cell mediated the host cell immune system and regulated the production of tumor necrosis factors and interleukins...
November 26, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883159/melatonin-and-hydroxytyrosol-rich-wines-influence-the-generation-of-dna-oxidation-catabolites-linked-to-mutagenesis-after-the-ingestion-of-three-types-of-wine-by-healthy-volunteers
#3
Javier Marhuenda, Sonia Medina, Pedro Martínez-Hernández, Simón Arina, Pilar Zafrilla, Juana Mulero, Hans-Gottfried Genieser, Federico Ferreres, Ángel Gil-Izquierdo
The Mediterranean Diet (MD) has been proved to exert benefits with respect to the maintenance of the redox balance, and wine is a representative component. Bioactive compounds such as polyphenols, melatonin and hydroxytyrosol act as radical scavengers and regulate the oxidation status of organisms. Oxidative damage to DNA yields a large range of end products. The repair of oxidized DNA entails the removal of the useless bases and/or nucleotides as well as the release of circulating nucleotides and nucleosides...
November 24, 2016: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876912/synbiotic-biomin-imbo-alters-gut-bacterial-microflora-of-russian-sturgeon-acipenser-guldenstadti-brandt-ratzeburg-1833-in-a-time-dependent-pattern
#4
Mahdi Vaezi, Hossein Khara, Alireza Shenavar
We investigated the efficiency of Synbiotic (Biomin imbo) in alternation and stabilization of gut microflora of Russian sturgeon, Acipenser guldenstadti. For this purpose, five experimental treatments and one control group with three replicates were considered. In treatment groups, fish were fed with diet containing 1 (T1), 1.5 (T2), 2 (T3), 2.5 (T4) and 3 (T5) g Synbiotic/kg diet. In control group, fish were fed without supplement of Synbiotic. Sampling for bacterial studies was conducted at days 20, 40 and 60 after the beginning of the experiment...
December 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876597/role-of-synbiotics-in-polysaccharide-assisted-colon-targeted-microspheres-of-mesalamine-for-the-treatment-of-ulcerative-colitis
#5
Rupinderjeet Kaur, Monica Gulati, Sachin Kumar Singh
The present study explains the effect of concomitant administration of synbiotics with the polysaccharide based colon targeted delivery system. As the gut microflora get deranged on administration of mesalamine, drug release from such delivery systems is expected to be jeopardised because the release trigger is dependent solely on the colonic microbiota. To overcome this limitation, mesalamine was formulated as microspheres with guar gum and xanthan gum (prebiotics). These were combined with probiotics containing Lactobacillus acidophilus, L...
November 19, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832762/tryptophan-metabolism-its-relation-to-inflammation-and-stress-markers-and-association-with-psychological-and-cognitive-functioning-tasmanian-chronic-kidney-disease-pilot-study
#6
Naama Karu, Charlotte McKercher, David S Nichols, Noel Davies, Robert A Shellie, Emily F Hilder, Matthew D Jose
BACKGROUND: Adults with chronic kidney disease (CKD) exhibit alterations in tryptophan metabolism, mainly via the kynurenine pathway, due to higher enzymatic activity induced mainly by inflammation. Indoles produced by gut-microflora are another group of tryptophan metabolites related to inflammation and conditions accompanying CKD. Disruptions in tryptophan metabolism have been associated with various neurological and psychological disorders. A high proportion of CKD patients self-report symptoms of depression and/or anxiety and decline in cognitive functioning...
November 10, 2016: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822878/to-flush-or-not-to-flush-%C3%A2-that-is-a-question
#7
Bernard Perbal
The human gut microflora has drawn a lot of attention as a potent therapeutic tool for many decades. More recently, efforts have been developed to devise efficient ways of complementing or replacing deficient intestinal microflora associated with intestinal diseases that are resistant to conventional medical treatments. Aside from the medical and industrial applications that emerged from the use of gut microbiota, the complex constitution of this ecosystem raises fascinating questions regarding host-cell communication and host response mechanisms to the ever changing environment...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821455/incfii-conjugative-plasmid-mediated-transmission-of-blandm-1-elements-among-animal-borne-e-coli-strains
#8
Dachuan Lin, Miaomiao Xie, Ruichao Li, Kaichao Chen, Edward Wai-Chi Chan, Sheng Chen
This study aims to investigate the prevalence and transmission dynamics blaNDM-1 gene in animal E coli strains. Two IncFII blaNDM-1-encodingplasmids, pHNEC46-NDM and pHNEC55-NDM, with only minor structural variation in the MDR region were found to be responsible for the transmission of blaNDM-1 in these strains. The blaNDM-1 gene can be incorporated into plasmids and stably inherited in animal-borne E. coli strains that can be maintained in animal gut microflora even without carbapenem selection pressure.
November 7, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792839/influence-of-intestinal-microbiota-on-the-catabolism-of-flavonoids-in-mice
#9
Weiqun Lin, Wenting Wang, Hai Yang, Dongliang Wang, Wenhua Ling
Although in vitro studies have shown that flavonoids are metabolized into phenolic acids by the gut microbiota, the biotransformation of flavonoids by intestinal microbiota is seldom studied in vivo. In this study, we investigated the impact of the gut microbiota on the biotransformation of 3 subclasses of flavonoids (flavonols, flavones, and flavanones). The ability of intestinal microbiota to convert flavonoids was confirmed with an in vitro fermentation model using mouse gut microflora. Simultaneously, purified flavonoids were administered to control and antibiotic-treated mice by gavage, and the metabolism of these flavonoids was evaluated...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773823/short-chain-fatty-acids-induce-ucp2-mediated-autophagy-in-hepatic-cells
#10
Liliana F Iannucci, Jingfeng Sun, Brijesh K Singh, Jin Zhou, Vincent A Kaddai, Antonia Lanni, Paul M Yen, Rohit A Sinha
Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are gut microbial fermentation products derived from dietary fiber sources. Although depletion of gut microflora has been linked to the development of liver disease, the direct effects of SCFAs on intracellular hepatic processes are not well understood. In this study, we demonstrated that the SCFAs, propionate and butyrate, regulated autophagic flux in hepatic cells in a cell-autonomous manner. Induction of autophagy by SCFAs required PPARγ stimulation of Uncoupling Protein 2 (UCP2) expression that was associated with reduced intracellular ATP levels and activation of PRKAA1/AMPK (protein kinase, AMP-activated, alpha 1 catalytic subunit)...
October 20, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761923/biotransformation-and-metabolic-profile-of-anemoside-b4-with-rat-small-and-large-intestine-microflora-by-ultra-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#11
Jin-Yi Wan, Yu-Zhen Zhang, Jin-Bin Yuan, Feng-Qing Yang, Yan Chen, Lian-Di Zhou, Qi-Hui Zhang
Pulsatilla chinensis (Bunge) Regel has been commonly used in Asia, and Anemoside B4 conducted as its major saponin with diverse pharmaceutical effects. Previous studies showed that intestinal flora plays an important role in the metabolism of herbs administered orally. In this study, the metabolic profile of AB4 with microflora in rat small and large intestine in vitro was investigated. Gut microflora was collected from different intestinal segments and anaerobically incubated with AB4 at 37 °C for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h, respectively...
October 19, 2016: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756004/design-of-a-potentially-prebiotic-and-responsive-encapsulation-material-for-probiotic-bacteria-based-on-chitosan-and-sulfated-%C3%AE-glucan
#12
Cigdem Yucel Falco, Javier Sotres, Ana Rascón, Jens Risbo, Marité Cárdenas
HYPOTHESIS: Chitosan and sulfated oat β-glucan are materials suitable to create a prebiotic coating for targeted delivery to gastrointestinal system, using the layer by layer technology. EXPERIMENT: Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D), spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to assess the multilayer formation capacity and characterize the resulting coatings in terms of morphology and material properties such as structure and rigidity...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753624/biological-fate-of-low-calorie-sweeteners
#13
Bernadene A Magnuson, Michael C Carakostas, Nadia H Moore, Sylvia P Poulos, Andrew G Renwick
With continued efforts to find solutions to rising rates of obesity and diabetes, there is increased interest in the potential health benefits of the use of low- and no-calorie sweeteners (LNCSs). Concerns about safety often deter the use of LNCSs as a tool in helping control caloric intake, even though the safety of LNCS use has been affirmed by regulatory agencies worldwide. In many cases, an understanding of the biological fate of the different LNSCs can help health professionals to address safety concerns...
November 2016: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746034/role-of-oxidative-stress-and-antioxidants-in-daily-nutrition-and-human-health
#14
REVIEW
Geir Bjørklund, Salvatore Chirumbolo
Diet may be defined as a complex process that should involve a deeper comprehension of metabolism, energy balance, and the molecular pathways involved in cellular stress response and survival, gut microflora genetics, enzymatic polymorphism within the human population, and the role of plant-derived polyphenols in this context. Metabolic syndrome, encompassing pathologies with a relatively high morbidity, such as type 2 diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease, is a bullet point of the big concern about how daily dietary habits should promote health and prevent metabolic impairments to prevent hospitalization and the need for health care...
January 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729904/functional-characteristics-of-the-gut-microbiome-in-c57bl-6-mice-differentially-susceptible-to-plasmodium-yoelii
#15
Joshua M A Stough, Stephen P Dearth, Joshua E Denny, Gary R LeCleir, Nathan W Schmidt, Shawn R Campagna, Steven W Wilhelm
C57BL/6 mice are widely used for in vivo studies of immune function and metabolism in mammals. In a previous study, it was observed that when C57BL/6 mice purchased from different vendors were infected with Plasmodium yoelii, a causative agent of murine malaria, they exhibited both differential immune responses and significantly different parasite burdens: these patterns were reproducible when gut contents were transplanted into gnotobiotic mice. To gain insight into the mechanism of resistance, we removed whole ceca from mice purchased from two vendors, Taconic Biosciences (low parasitemia) and Charles River Laboratories (high parasitemia), to determine the combined host and microflora metabolome and metatranscriptome...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720803/the-gut-microbiota-contributes-to-a-mouse-model-of-spontaneous-bile-duct-inflammation
#16
Elisabeth Schrumpf, Martin Kummen, Laura Valestrand, Thomas U Greiner, Kristian Holm, Velmurugesan Arulampalam, Henrik M Reims, John Baines, Fredrik Bäckhed, Tom H Karlsen, Richard S Blumberg, Johannes R Hov, Espen Melum
BACKGROUND & AIMS: A strong association between human inflammatory biliary diseases and gut inflammation has led to the hypothesis that gut microbes and lymphocytes activated in the intestine play a role in biliary inflammation. The NOD.c3c4 mouse model develops spontaneous biliary inflammation in extra- and intrahepatic bile ducts. We aimed to clarify the role of the gut microbiota in the biliary disease of NOD.c3c4 mice. METHODS: We sampled cecal content and mucosa from conventionally raised (CONV-R) NOD...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713992/in-vitro-bioaccessibility-transepithelial-transport-and-antioxidant-activity-of-urtica-dioica-l-phenolic-compounds-in-nettle-based-food-products
#17
Gianpiero Bonetti, Paola Tedeschi, Giuseppe Meca, Davide Bertelli, Jordi Mañes, Vincenzo Brandolini, Annalisa Maietti
Nettle (Urtica dioica L.) is a well-known plant with a wide historical background use of stems, roots and leaves. Nettle leaves are an excellent source of phenolic compounds, principally 3-caffeoylquinic acid (3-CQA), caffeoylmalic acid (CMA) and rutin. The aim of this work was to evaluate the bioaccessibility (BAC), the bioavailability (BAV) and the antioxidant activity of nettle phenolic compounds present in foods and supplements. The BAC of nettle phenolics was evaluated with an in vitro dynamic digestion of real food matrices: the type of food matrix and chemical characteristic affected the kinetics of release and solubilization, with the highest BAC after duodenal digestion...
October 12, 2016: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695915/amoxicillin-clavulanic-acid-and-ciprofloxacin-treated-spf-mice-as-gnotobiotic-model
#18
Miroslav Popper, Soňa Gancarčíková, Marián Maďar, Dagmar Mudroňová, Gabriela Hrčková, Radomíra Nemcová
The experiment was carried out on 24 SPF BALB/c female mice and lasted for 15 days with a 5-day antibiotic (ATB) treatment and then 10 days without ATB treatment. The aim of our study was to acquire an animal model with reduced and controlled microflora and, at the same time, to ensure that the good health of these animals is maintained. Per oral administration of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium in Amoksiklav (Sandoz, Slovenia) at a dose of 387.11 mg/kg body weight (0.2 ml of dilution per mouse) and subcutaneous administration of ciprofloxacin in Ciloxan (Alcon, Spain) at a dose of 18...
October 1, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694039/the-effects-of-konjac-oligosaccharide-on-tnbs-induced-colitis-in-rats
#19
Ruixue Liu, Yongchao Li, Bo Zhang
The purpose of the study was to assess the effects and the protective mechanism of konjac oligosaccharide (KOS) on the ulcerative colitis (UC) model induced by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) in rats. KOS (1.0 and 4.0g/kg/day) was administered for 14days after the induction of colitis with TNBS. The status of the rats was assessed by morphological and biochemical methods. The effect of KOS on the colonic microflora was also assessed by studying the bacteria profile and short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) production in feces by standard culture techniques and gas chromatography, respectively...
September 29, 2016: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688016/probiotics-for-the-prevention-of-pediatric-antibiotic-associated-diarrhea
#20
Shelby R Hayes, Ashley J Vargas
: Goldenberg JZ, Lytvyn L, Steurich J, Parkin P, Mahant S, Johnston BC. Probiotics for the prevention of pediatric antibiotic-associated diarrhea.Cochrane Database Syst Rev2015, Issue 12. Art. No.: CD004827. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD004827.pub4. BACKGROUND: Antibiotics are frequently prescribed in children. They alter the microbial balance within the gastrointestinal tract, commonly resulting in antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD). Probiotics may prevent AAD via restoration of the gut microflora...
August 26, 2016: Explore: the Journal of Science and Healing
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