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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923170/prebiotics-in-the-management-of-components-of-the-metabolic-syndrome
#1
REVIEW
Sarah O'Connor, Sarah Chouinard-Castonguay, Claudia Gagnon, Iwona Rudkowska
Components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), including abdominal obesity, low-grade chronic systemic inflammation, altered glucose metabolism, dyslipidemia and high blood pressure, are major threats to healthy aging in modern societies. The connection between MetS components and gut microflora is now acknowledged and multiple therapeutic strategies have been proposed to change the composition of the gut microbiota in order to promote optimal metabolic health. Prebiotics have the ability to favour growth of beneficial bacteria, especially short-chain fatty-acids (SCFA) producers...
October 2017: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914862/-liver-diseases-the-pathogenetic-role-of-the-gut-microbiome-and-the-potential-of-treatment-for-its-modulation
#2
K A Aitbaev, I T Murkamilov, V V Fomin
The paper gives an update on the role of the gut microbiome (GM) in the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, alcoholic liver disease, liver cirrhosis (LC), and its complications, such as hepatic encephalopathy (HE) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and discusses the possibilities of its correction with prebiotics, probiotics, synbiotics, antibiotics, and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). The pathophysiology of the liver diseases in question demonstrates some common features that are characterized by pathogenic changes in the composition of the gastrointestinal tract microflora, by intestinal barrier impairments, by development of endotoxemia, by increased liver expression of proinflammatory factors, and by development of liver inflammation...
2017: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905280/enzymatic-synthesis-of-fucose-containing-galacto-oligosaccharides-using-%C3%AE-galactosidase-and-identification-of-novel-disaccharide-structures
#3
Anne Usvalampi, Hannu Maaheimo, Olli Tossavainen, Alexander D Frey
Fucosylated oligosaccharides have an important role in maintaining a healthy immune system and homeostatic gut microflora. This study employed a commercial β-galactosidase in the production of fucose-containing galacto-oligosaccharides (fGOS) from lactose and fucose. The production was optimized using experiment design and optimal conditions for a batch production in 3-liter scale. The reaction product was analyzed and the produced galactose-fucose disaccharides were purified. The structures of these disaccharides were determined using NMR and it was verified that one major product with the structure Galβ1-3Fuc and two minor products with the structures Galβ1-4Fuc and Galβ1-2Fuc were formed...
September 13, 2017: Glycoconjugate Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884952/soluble-dietary-fiber-reduces-trimethylamine-metabolism-via-gut-microbiota-and-co-regulates-host-ampk-pathways
#4
Qian Li, Tao Wu, Rui Liu, Min Zhang, Ruijun Wang
SCOPE: Evidence from animal experiments and clinical medicine suggest that high dietary fiber intake, followed by gut microbiota-mediated fermentation, decreases trimethylamine (TMA) metabolism, the mechanism of which, however, remains unclear. The objective of this analysis was to evaluate, using mice fed with red meat, the effects of soluble dietary fiber (SDF) intervention on TMA metabolism. METHODS AND RESULTS: Low- or high-dose soluble dietary fiber (SDF) from natural wheat bran (LN and HN, low- and high-dose natural SDF), fermented wheat bran (LF and HF, low- and high-dose fermented SDF), and steam-exploded wheat bran (LE and HE, low- and high-dose exploded SDF groups) were used to examine whether SDF interventions in mice fed with red meat can alter TMA and trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) metabolism by gut microbial communities in a diet-specific manner...
September 8, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882791/effects-of-organic-acids-and-essential-oils-blend-on-growth-gut-microbiota-immune-response-and-disease-resistance-of-pacific-white-shrimp-litopenaeus-vannamei-against-vibrio-parahaemolyticus
#5
Wangquan He, Samad Rahimnejad, Ling Wang, Kai Song, Kangle Lu, Chunxiao Zhang
An 8-week feeding trial was undertaken to evaluate supplemental effects of AviPlus(®) (AP), a blend of organic acids [citric acid, 25%; sorbic acid, 16.7%] and essential oils [thymol, 1.7%; vanillin, 1.0%], on growth, gut microbiota, innate immunity and disease resistance of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) against Vibrio parahaemolyticus. A basal experimental diet was formulated and supplemented with 0, 0.3, 0.6, 0.9 and 1.2 g kg(-1) AP to produce five test diets (Con, AP0.3, AP0.6, AP0.9 and AP1...
September 4, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870405/gut-microbiota-dependent-trimethylamine-n-oxide-is-associated-with-long-term-all-cause-mortality-in-patients-with-exacerbated-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#6
Manuel Ottiger, Manuela Nickler, Christian Steuer, Luca Bernasconi, Andreas Huber, Mirjam Christ-Crain, Christoph Henzen, Claus Hoess, Robert Thomann, Werner Zimmerli, Beat Mueller, Philipp Schuetz
OBJECTIVES: The gut, microflora-dependent metabolite trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) has emerged as a dietary-associated risk factor for incident cardiovascular events. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a prevalent disease worldwide with a high associated risk for cardiovascular disease and death due to an infectious cause. AIMS: To study whether TMAO is predictive for adverse clinical outcomes in patients with exacerbated COPD. METHODS: A total of 189 patients with COPD exacerbation were prospectively followed for a median of 6...
July 6, 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869285/microbiota-a-mediator-to-transform-glucosinolate-precursors-in-cruciferous-vegetables-to-the-active-isothiocyanates
#7
REVIEW
Sicong Tian, Peng Lei, Xiaodong Liu, Xiaohong Zhang, Yujuan Shan
Isothiocyanates (ITCs), such as sulforaphane (SFN), exhibit powerful biological functions in fighting cancers, and cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. They normally exist as glucosinolates (GLSs) in cruciferous vegetables, which are not themselves bioactive until they are degraded by myrosinase to form the ITCs. Myrosinase co-exists in the same plants but is normally kept apart from GLSs in different apparatus. A key point is that myrosinase is temperature-sensitive and can be inactivated upon exposure to temperatures over 60°C, as typically occurs during cooking...
September 4, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867793/diet-gut-microbiome-and-epigenetics-emerging-links-with-inflammatory-bowel-diseases-and-prospects-for-management-and-prevention
#8
REVIEW
Krasimira Aleksandrova, Beatriz Romero-Mosquera, Vicent Hernandez
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) represent a growing public health concern due to increasing incidence worldwide. The current notion on the pathogenesis of IBD is that genetically susceptible individuals develop intolerance to dysregulated gut microflora (dysbiosis) and chronic inflammation develops as a result of environmental triggers. Among the environmental factors associated with IBD, diet plays an important role in modulating the gut microbiome, influencing epigenetic changes, and, therefore, could be applied as a therapeutic tool to improve the disease course...
August 30, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861741/probiotics-and-the-gut-immune-system-indirect-regulation
#9
REVIEW
Giorgio La Fata, Peter Weber, M Hasan Mohajeri
The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) represents the largest interface between the human organism and the external environment. In the lumen and upper part of the mucus layer, this organ hosts an enormous number of microorganisms whose composition affects the functions of the epithelial barrier and the gut immune system. Consequentially, the microorganisms in the GIT influence the health status of the organism. Probiotics are living microorganisms which, in specific conditions, confer a health benefit to the host...
August 31, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861559/dietary-fucoidan-of-acaudina-molpadioides-alters-gut-microbiota-and-mitigates-intestinal-mucosal-injury-induced-by-cyclophosphamide
#10
Hongjie Shi, Yaoguang Chang, Yuan Gao, Xiong Wang, Xin Chen, Yuming Wang, Changhu Xue, Qingjuan Tang
Cyclophosphamide (cy) is a widely used cancer drug. Many researchers have focused on the prevention and alleviation of its side effects, particularly damage to the intestinal mucosal barrier. In this study, we examined the effects of fucoidan, isolated from Acaudina molpadioides, on mice with intestinal mucosal damage induced by cyclophosphamide. Our results showed that fucoidan intervention could relieve injury such as decreasing inflammation and increasing the expression of tight junction proteins, and 50 kDa fucoidan significantly increased the abundance of short chain fatty acid (SCFA) producer Coprococcus, Rikenella, and Butyricicoccus (p < 0...
September 1, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858913/when-nutrition-and-allergy-collide-the-rise-of-anaphylaxis-to-plant-foods
#11
Isabel J Skypala
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Interest in nutrition is increasing, but in the world of internet health gurus, whilst the nutritional benefits of fruits and vegetables are extolled, wheat is often vilified. This review will assess the positive nutritional effects of plant foods in relation to allergy prevention, the effectiveness of gluten-avoidance and the likelihood of anaphylaxis to fruits and vegetables. RECENT FINDINGS: Although the numbers of people who report gluten sensitivity is rising, hard evidence of mass sensitivity to gluten is scant...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857085/enteric-dysbiosis-linked-gut-barrier-disruption-triggers-early-renal-injury-induced-by-chronic-high-salt-feeding-in-mice
#12
Jingjuan Hu, Haihua Luo, Jieyan Wang, Wenli Tang, Junqi Lu, Shan Wu, Zhi Xiong, Guizhi Yang, Zhenguo Chen, Tian Lan, Hongwei Zhou, Jing Nie, Yong Jiang, Peng Chen
Chronic high-salt diet-associated renal injury is a key risk factor for the development of hypertension. However, the mechanism by which salt triggers kidney damage is poorly understood. Our study investigated how high salt (HS) intake triggers early renal injury by considering the 'gut-kidney axis'. We fed mice 2% NaCl in drinking water continuously for 8 weeks to induce early renal injury. We found that the 'quantitative' and 'qualitative' levels of the intestinal microflora were significantly altered after chronic HS feeding, which indicated the occurrence of enteric dysbiosis...
August 25, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829923/high-intake-of-dairy-during-energy-restriction-does-not-affect-energy-balance-or-the-intestinal-microflora-compared-to-low-dairy-intake-in-overweight-individuals-in-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
Line Quist Bendtsen, Trine Blædel, Jacob Bak Holm, Janne Kunchel Lorenzen, Alicja Budek Mark, Pia Kiilerich, Karsten Kristiansen, Arne Astrup, Lesli Hingstrup Larsen
During weight loss, dairy calcium is proposed to accelerate weight and fat mass loss through increased fecal fat excretion. The primary objective was to investigate if a high-dairy energy-restricted diet is superior to low-dairy in terms of changes in body weight, body composition and fecal fat excretion over 24 weeks. Secondary objectives included fecal energy and calcium excretion, resting energy expenditure, blood pressure, lipid metabolism and gut microbiota. In a randomized, parallel-arm intervention study 11 men and 69 women (BMI 30...
August 22, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823095/methanobrevibacter-smithii-a-methanogen-consistently-colonising-the-newborn-stomach
#14
G Grine, M A Boualam, M Drancourt
Methanobrevibacter smithii is the main human methanogen almost always found in the digestive tract of adults. Yet, the age at which M. smithii establishes itself as part of the developing intestinal microflora remains unknown. In order to gain insight into this, we developed a polyphasic approach, including microscopic observation by fluorescence in situ hybridisation, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) sequencing detection, identification and culture, to isolate and genotype M. smithii in one-day-old newborns' gastric juice specimens...
August 19, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771569/disruption-in-the-cecal-microbiota-of-chickens-challenged-with-clostridium-perfringens-and-other-factors-was-alleviated-by-bacillus-licheniformis-supplementation
#15
Yicen Lin, Shuai Xu, Dong Zeng, Xueqin Ni, Mengjia Zhou, Yan Zeng, Hesong Wang, Yi Zhou, Hui Zhu, Kangcheng Pan, Guangyao Li
Clostridium perfringens can induce necrotic enteritis of chickens, which causes large economic losses every year. Bacillus licheniformis, a probiotic, can inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria such as Clostridium perfringens, thereby improving the health status of chickens. However, from a microbial ecology perspective, the mechanisms by which alterations to the gut microbiota improve health remain unknown. In this study, we used Illumina MiSeq sequencing to investigate the cecal microbiota of a negative control group (NC), a C...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764082/biotransformation-and-metabolism-of-three-mulberry-anthocyanin-monomers-by-rat-gut-microflora
#16
Yao Chen, Qian Li, Ting Zhao, Zhen Zhang, Guanghua Mao, Weiwei Feng, Xiangyang Wu, Liuqing Yang
Anthocyanins (ACNs) are naturally occurring components of human diet. Evidence has accumulated regarding the positive association of their intake with chronic disease. Because microbiota has been considered as a metabolic organ, the bacterial-dependent metabolisms of three types of ACNs from mulberry fruits (cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G), cyanidin-3-rutinoside (C3R), delphinidin-3-rutinoside (D3R)) during a simulation of large intestine conditions were investigated. ACNs and metabolites were analysed and characterized by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrum (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS)...
December 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757024/16s-rrna-genes-illumina-sequencing-revealed-differential-cecal-microbiome-in-specific-pathogen-free-chickens-infected-with-different-subgroup-of-avian-leukosis-viruses
#17
Xinxin Ma, Qi Wang, Hongmei Li, Chuantian Xu, Ning Cui, Xiaomin Zhao
Intestinal flora play important roles in the pathogenisis of many pathogens. This study examined the cecal microbiome of chickens infected with avian leukosis virus (ALV) using 16S rRNA genes Illumina sequencing. One-day-old specific pathogen free chicks were inoculated in the abdomen with subgroup J or K of ALV. At 21-day-old, chickens positive for ALV viremia were selected and their cecal contents were extracted and examined for the composition of gut microflora by illumina sequencing of the V3+V4 region of the 16S rRNA genes...
August 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754012/intra-amniotic-administration-gallus-gallus-of-cicer-arietinum-and-lens-culinaris-prebiotics-extracts-and-duck-egg-white-peptides-affects-calcium-status-and-intestinal-functionality
#18
Tao Hou, Nikolai Kolba, Raymond P Glahn, Elad Tako
Calcium (Ca) is one of the most abundant inorganic elements in the human body and has many important physiological roles. Prebiotics and bioactive peptides are two important substances used to promote calcium uptake. However, the difference in mechanisms of the calcium uptake from these two supplements is not clear. By using the Gallus gallus model and the intra-amniotic administration procedure, the aim of this study was to investigate whether Ca status, intestinal functionality, and health-promoting bacterial populations were affected by prebiotics extracted from chickpea and lentil, and duck egg white peptides (DPs)...
July 21, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744281/age-related-variations-in-intestinal-microflora-of-free-range-and-caged-hens
#19
Yizhe Cui, Qiuju Wang, Shengjun Liu, Rui Sun, Yaqiang Zhou, Yue Li
Free range feeding pattern puts the chicken in a mixture of growth materials and enteric bacteria excreted by nature, while it is typically unique condition materials and enteric bacteria in commercial caged hens production. Thus, the gastrointestinal microflora in two feeding patterns could be various. However, it remains poorly understood how feeding patterns affect development and composition of layer hens' intestinal microflora. In this study, the effect of feeding patterns on the bacteria community in layer hens' gut was investigated using free range and caged feeding form...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743928/effect-of-probiotics-on-the-meat-flavour-and-gut-microbiota-of-chicken
#20
Yan Wang, Jing Sun, Hang Zhong, Nianzhen Li, Hengyong Xu, Qing Zhu, Yiping Liu
To date, no report has demonstrated the use of beneficial microbes for contributing to the flavour characteristics and gut microbiota diversity of chicken. Here, we selected six probiotics obtained from our laboratory and supplemented them in six different combinations to 420 newborn male Qingjiaoma chickens under the same controlled living environment (60 birds, no probiotic supplements). The results showed that chicken supplemented with Bacillus species showed beneficial effects in body weight. Acetate is the major fermentation production in the chicken caecum, and chicken supplemented with Pediococcus pentosaceus had the average higher short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) contents...
July 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
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