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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773630/draft-genome-sequence-of-a-new-vibrio-strain-with-the-potential-to-produce-bacteriocin-like-inhibitory-substances-isolated-from-the-gut-microflora-of-scallop-argopecten-purpuratus
#1
Wilbert Serrano, Ulrike I Tarazona, Raul M Olaechea, Michael W Friedrich
A new Vibrio strain, V7A, was isolated from the intestinal tract of the Peruvian scallop ( Argopecten purpuratus ). Strain V7A clusters within the Mediterranei clade of the genus Vibrio and has the potential to produce bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances (BLIS). Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Vibrio mediterranei strain V7A.
May 17, 2018: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772494/effects-of-ceftriaxone-induced-intestinal-dysbacteriosis-on-regulatory-t-cells-validated-by-anaphylactic-mice
#2
Xia Luo, Zengfeng Pan, Shuang Luo, Qi Liu, Shaowei Huang, Guanghua Yang, Feifei Nong, Yajun Fu, Xiangliang Deng, Lian Zhou
Both probiotics and pathogens in the human gut express pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and die with the release of endotoxin and bacterial DNA, which can stimulate our immune system and cause immune reaction. However, it's interesting and fascinating to address why the normal intestinal flora will not generate immunological rejection like the pathogen does. By investigating the changes in cells and molecules relevant to immune tolerance in mice with ceftriaxone-induced dysbacteriosis, our study discovered that both the Evenness indexes and Shannon Wiener index of intestinal flora showed a decrease in dysbacteriosis mice...
May 14, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767160/effects-of-yeast-cell-wall-on-growth-performance-immune-responses-and-intestinal-short-chain-fatty-acid-concentrations-of-broilers-in-an-experimental-necrotic-enteritis-model
#3
Guang-Da Xue, Shu-Biao Wu, Mingan Choct, Robert A Swick
Subclinical necrotic enteritis (NE) causes devastating economic losses in the broiler chicken industry, especially in birds raised free of in-feed antibiotics. Prebiotics are potential alternatives to in-feed antibiotics. Yeast cell wall extract (YCW) derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a prebiotic with known immune modulating effects. This study examined the effects of YCW and antibiotics (AB) during subclinical NE on broiler growth performance, intestinal lesions, humoral immune response and gut microflora metabolites...
December 2017: Animal nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765359/comparing-microbiome-sampling-methods-in-a-wild-mammal-fecal-and-intestinal-samples-record-different-signals-of-host-ecology-evolution
#4
Melissa R Ingala, Nancy B Simmons, Claudia Wultsch, Konstantinos Krampis, Kelly A Speer, Susan L Perkins
The gut microbiome is a community of host-associated symbiotic microbes that fulfills multiple key roles in host metabolism, immune function, and tissue development. Given the ability of the microbiome to impact host fitness, there is increasing interest in studying the microbiome of wild animals to better understand these communities in the context of host ecology and evolution. Human microbiome research protocols are well established, but wildlife microbiome research is still a developing field. Currently, there is no standardized set of best practices guiding the collection of microbiome samples from wildlife...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761483/epithelial-barrier-dysfunctions-in-atopic-dermatitis-a-skin-gut-lung-model-linking-microbiome-alteration-and-immune-dysregulation
#5
REVIEW
T H Zhu, T R Zhu, K A Tran, R K Sivamani, V Y Shi
Atopic dermatitis is a systemic disorder characterized by abnormal barrier function across multiple organ sites. Initial disruption in the skin epidermal barrier permits allergen sensitization and colonization by pathogens. This induces TH 2 inflammatory response and a thymic stromal lymphopoietin mediated pathway that further promotes barrier breakdown at distant sites including the intestinal and respiratory tract. Clinically, atopic dermatitis can progress from skin disease to food allergy, allergic rhinitis, and later asthma, a phenomenon commonly known as the atopic march...
May 15, 2018: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740541/anti-biofilm-properties-of-the-fecal-probiotic-lactobacilli-against-vibrio-spp
#6
Sumanpreet Kaur, Preeti Sharma, Namarta Kalia, Jatinder Singh, Sukhraj Kaur
Diarrheal disease caused by Vibrio cholerae is endemic in developing countries including India and is associated with high rate of mortality especially in children. V. cholerae is known to form biofilms on the gut epithelium, and the biofilms once formed are resistant to the action of antibiotics. Therefore agents that prevent the biofilm formation and disperse the preformed biofilms are associated with therapeutic benefits. The use of antibiotics for the treatment of cholera is associated with side effects such as gut dysbiosis due to depletion of gut microflora, and the increasing problem of antibiotic resistance...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730287/light-exposure-influences-the-diurnal-oscillation-of-gut-microbiota-in-mice
#7
Guangyan Wu, Wenli Tang, Yan He, Jingjuan Hu, Shenhai Gong, Zhanke He, Guoquan Wei, Liyi Lv, Yong Jiang, Hongwei Zhou, Peng Chen
The gut microbiota exhibit diurnal compositional and functional oscillations that influence the host homeostasis. However, the upstream factors that affect the microbial oscillations remain elusive. Here, we focused on the potential impact of light exposure, the main factor that affects the host circadian oscillation, on the diurnal oscillations of intestinal microflora to explore the upstream factor that governs the fluctuations of the gut microbes. The gut microbiota of the mice that were underwent regular light/dark (LD) cycles exhibited a robust rhythm at both compositional and functional level, in all parts of the intestine...
May 3, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722812/antibiotics-in-ibd-still-a-role-in-the-biological-era
#8
Oren Ledder, Dan Turner
Despite compelling evidence pointing to a critical role of gut microflora in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) pathogenesis, the role of antibiotics in clinical practice remains limited, largely due to heterogeneous trials with often conflicting evidence. In this review, we revisit previous randomized controlled trials and high-quality uncontrolled studies in an effort to better elucidate the role of antibiotics in contemporary treatment algorithms. The most established role of antibiotics is in perianal Crohn's disease (CD), utilizing ciprofloxacin with or without metronidazole often as an adjunct to biological therapy...
May 2, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720851/role-of-bile-acids-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#9
REVIEW
Elisa Tiratterra, Placido Franco, Emanuele Porru, Konstantinos H Katsanos, Dimitrios K Christodoulou, Giulia Roda
Bile acids (BAs) are the end product of cholesterol catabolism. Their synthesis is regulated by the nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor, also involved in the control of their enterohepatic circulation. Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), which include Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), are multifactorial diseases characterized by diarrhea. The pathogenesis of diarrhea in IBD is still debated. The most important factor is the inflammatory process of the intestinal wall, causing alterations of solute and water absorption/secretion, deterioration of epithelial cell integrity, disruption of the intestinal microflora homeostasis, and impairment of specific transport mechanisms within the gut (including that of BAs)...
May 2018: Annals of Gastroenterology: Quarterly Publication of the Hellenic Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682678/more-protection-of-lactobacillus-acidophilus-than-bifidobacterium-bifidum-probiotics-on-azoxymethane-induced-mouse-colon-cancer
#10
Shahram Agah, Ali Mohammad Alizadeh, Maryam Mosavi, Peyman Ranji, Hossein Khavari-Daneshvar, Farnaz Ghasemian, Sahar Bahmani, Abbas Tavassoli
Based on the ability of the probiotics in the gut microflora modification, they can have the beneficial effects on diseases in the short and/or the long term. In previous study, we revealed that unlike Bifidobacterium bifidum, the amount of Lactobacillus acidophilus remained almost unchanged in mice gut microflora in the long term, indicating more stability of L. acidophilus than B. bifidum which can be used to prevent some incurable diseases such as cancer. Thirty-eight male BALB/c mice were divided into four groups, control, azoxymethane (AOM), L...
April 22, 2018: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682508/a-three-ring-circus-metabolism-of-the-three-proteogenic-aromatic-amino-acids-and-their-role-in-the-health-of-plants-and-animals
#11
REVIEW
Anutthaman Parthasarathy, Penelope J Cross, Renwick C J Dobson, Lily E Adams, Michael A Savka, André O Hudson
Tyrosine, phenylalanine and tryptophan are the three aromatic amino acids (AAA) involved in protein synthesis. These amino acids and their metabolism are linked to the synthesis of a variety of secondary metabolites, a subset of which are involved in numerous anabolic pathways responsible for the synthesis of pigment compounds, plant hormones and biological polymers, to name a few. In addition, these metabolites derived from the AAA pathways mediate the transmission of nervous signals, quench reactive oxygen species in the brain, and are involved in the vast palette of animal coloration among others pathways...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675845/genome-sequence-and-description-of-gracilibacillus-timonensis-sp-nov-strain-marseille-p2481-t-a-moderate-halophilic-bacterium-isolated-from-the-human-gut-microflora
#12
Awa Diop, El Hadji Seck, Gregory Dubourg, Nicholas Armstrong, Caroline Blanc-Tailleur, Didier Raoult, Pierre-Edouard Fournier
Microbial culturomics represents an ongoing revolution in the characterization of the human gut microbiota. By using three culture media containing high salt concentrations (10, 15, and 20% [w/v] NaCl), we attempted an exhaustive exploration of the halophilic microbial diversity of the human gut and isolated strain Marseille-P2481 (= CSUR P2481 =  DSM 103076), a new moderately halophilic bacterium. This bacterium is a Gram-positive, strictly aerobic, spore-forming rod that is motile by use of a flagellum and exhibits catalase, but not oxidase activity...
April 19, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669931/targeting-the-gut-microbiome-to-treat-the-osteoarthritis-of-obesity
#13
Eric M Schott, Christopher W Farnsworth, Alex Grier, Jacquelyn A Lillis, Sarah Soniwala, Gregory H Dadourian, Richard D Bell, Madison L Doolittle, David A Villani, Hani Awad, John P Ketz, Fadia Kamal, Cheryl Ackert-Bicknell, John M Ashton, Steven R Gill, Robert A Mooney, Michael J Zuscik
Obesity is a risk factor for osteoarthritis (OA), the greatest cause of disability in the US. The impact of obesity on OA is driven by systemic inflammation, and increased systemic inflammation is now understood to be caused by gut microbiome dysbiosis. Oligofructose, a nondigestible prebiotic fiber, can restore a lean gut microbial community profile in the context of obesity, suggesting a potentially novel approach to treat the OA of obesity. Here, we report that - compared with the lean murine gut - obesity is associated with loss of beneficial Bifidobacteria, while key proinflammatory species gain in abundance...
April 19, 2018: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660761/interactions-of-dihydromyricetin-a-flavonoid-from-vine-tea-ampelopsis-grossedentata-with-gut-microbiota
#14
Li Fan, Xinyuan Zhao, Qing Tong, Xiya Zhou, Jing Chen, Wei Xiong, Jianguo Fang, Wenqing Wang, Chunyang Shi
Dihydromyricetin (DMY) is the main bioactive constituent in vine tea (Ampelopsis grossedentata), which was predominantly distributed in the gastrointestinal tract and showed poor oral bioavailability. Our aim was to systematically investigate the interactions of DMY with gut microbiota. Through the metabolism study of DMY by fecal microflora in vitro, it was found that DMY could be metabolized into three metabolites by fecal microflora via reduction and dehydroxylation pathways, and the dehydroxylation metabolite was the dominant one...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651173/in-vitro-anticancer-activity-of-staphyloxanthin-pigment-extracted-from-staphylococcus-gallinarum-kx912244-a-gut-microbe-of-bombyx-mori
#15
Delicia Avilla Barretto, Shyam Kumar Vootla
The present study reports the in vitro biological nature of the pigment produced by Staphylococcus gallinarum KX912244, isolated as the gut microflora bacterium of the insect Bombyx mori . The purified pigment was characterized as Staphyloxanthin based on bio-physical characterization techniques like Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography, Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1 H NMR), Liquid chromatography-Mass spectroscopy and Gas chromatography-Mass spectroscopy...
June 2018: Indian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650256/impact-of-route-and-adequacy-of-nutritional-intake-on-outcomes-of-allogeneic-haematopoietic-cell-transplantation-for-haematologic-malignancies
#16
Julie Beckerson, Richard M Szydlo, Mary Hickson, Catriona E Mactier, Andrew J Innes, Ian H Gabriel, Renuka Palanicawandar, Edward J Kanfer, Donald H Macdonald, Dragana Milojkovic, Amin Rahemtulla, Aristeidis Chaidos, Anastasios Karadimitris, Eduardo Olavarria, Jane F Apperley, Jiri Pavlu
BACKGROUND: Allogeneic haematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is often associated with poor oral intake due to painful mucositis and gastrointestinal sequalae that occur following a preparative regimen of intensive chemotherapy and/or total body radiation. Although attractive to assume that optimal nutrition improves HCT outcomes, there are limited data to support this. It is also unclear whether artificial nutrition support should be provided as enteral tube feeding or parenteral nutrition (PN)...
March 28, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649517/effect-of-nisin-on-microbiome-brain-gut-axis-neurochemicals-by-escherichia-coli-induced-diarrhea-in-mice
#17
Zhifeng Jia, Aorigele Chen, Fuxiang Bao, Meiling He, Siming Gao, Jin Xu, Xin Zhang, Puchun Niu, Chunjie Wang
The effects of nisin on the neurochemicals, Aquaporin-3 (AQP-3) and intestinal microorganisms in the brain-gut axis of mice were analyzed by using enzyme linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA) and high throughput sequencing in this investigation, to further revealed the relationship between intestinal flora abundance in mice and neurochemicals in the brain-gut axis. Using HE staining found damage of structure of small intestine villi in the model group (Escherichia coli O1 , E. coli O1 ). Compared with normal control and ciprofloxacin groups, using ELISA showed that nisin increased the highest norepinephrine (NE) expression in the brain, expression of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) in the duodenum, and increased the expression of AQP-3 in jejunum...
April 9, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648971/anti-inflammatory-effects-of-a-mixture-of-lactic-acid-bacteria-and-sodium-butyrate-in-atopic-dermatitis-murine-model
#18
Jeong A Kim, Sung-Hak Kim, In Sung Kim, Da Yoon Yu, Sung Chan Kim, Seung Ho Lee, Sang Suk Lee, Cheol-Heui Yun, In Soon Choi, Kwang Keun Cho
Atopic dermatitis is a chronic and recurrent inflammatory skin disease. Recently, probiotics have been shown to suppress allergic symptoms through immunomodulatory responses. In the present study, combinatorial effects on allergic symptoms were identified in BALB/c mice fed with a mixture of four species of probiotics, Bifidobacterium lactis, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and Lactobacillus plantarum, and sodium butyrate. Following sensitization with whey protein, the mice were challenged and divided into two groups: (1) mice administered with phosphate-buffered saline as a control and (2) mice administered with the probiotic mixture and sodium butyrate...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629422/can-diet-influence-our-health-by-altering-intestinal-microbiota-derived-fecal-metabolites
#19
Qiang Lyu, Cheng-Chih Hsu
The human gastrointestinal tract harbors a diverse, highly mutualistic microbial flora which could produce a myriad of specialized metabolites. These specialized metabolites are the chemical cellphones that gut microflora use to communicate with their human host and could potentially be used to cure diseases. Chemical compounds in diet also shape the gut flora. In order to understand which and how the gut microbe-derived specialized metabolites affect human health, the "gut microbiome-metabolomic-human health axis" is thus proposed...
March 2018: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627471/anti-colon-cancer-effects-of-polysaccharides-a-mini-review-of-the-mechanisms
#20
REVIEW
Xiaolong Ji, Qiang Peng, Min Wang
Polysaccharides are an important class of functional phytochemicals, and various studies have demonstrated the beneficial pharmacological effects of polysaccharides, including against colorectal cancer and colitis. Numerous studies have shown that natural polysaccharides display anti-colon cancer activity through a variety of mechanisms. Our research group undertook a comprehensive review of the literature to summarize the studies reported in 2012-2017, and assessed the apoptogenic mechanisms of polysaccharide-rich extracts in colon cancer tumor cells...
April 5, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
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