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Pediatric NAFLD

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785077/mediterranean-diet-and-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#1
REVIEW
Caterina Anania, Francesco Massimo Perla, Francesca Olivero, Lucia Pacifico, Claudio Chiesa
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is emerging as the most common chronic liver disease, and is characterized by a wide spectrum of fat-liver disorders that can result in severe liver disease and cirrhosis. Inflammation and oxidative stress are the major risk factors involved in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Currently, there is no consensus concerning the pharmacological treatment of NAFLD. However, lifestyle interventions based on exercise and a balanced diet for quality and quantity, are considered the cornerstone of NAFLD management...
May 21, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762096/us-time-harmonic-elastography-detection-of-liver-fibrosis-in-adolescents-with-extreme-obesity-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#2
Christian A Hudert, Heiko Tzschätzsch, Jing Guo, Birgit Rudolph, Hendrik Bläker, Christoph Loddenkemper, Werner Luck, Hans-Peter Müller, Daniel C Baumgart, Bernd Hamm, Jürgen Braun, Hermann-Georg Holzhütter, Susanna Wiegand, Ingolf Sack
Purpose To measure in vivo liver stiffness by using US time-harmonic elastography in a cohort of pediatric patients who were overweight to extremely obese with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and to evaluate the diagnostic value of time-harmonic elastography for differentiating stages of fibrosis associated with progressive disease. Materials and Methods In this prospective study, 67 consecutive adolescents (age range, 10-17 years; mean body mass index, 34.7 kg/m2 ; range, 21.4-50.4 kg/m2 ) with biopsy-proven NAFLD were enrolled...
May 15, 2018: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752170/treating-obstructive-sleep-apnea-and-chronic-intermittent-hypoxia-improves-the-severity-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-children
#3
Shikha S Sundaram, Ann C Halbower, Jelena Klawitter, Zhaoxing Pan, Kristen Robbins, Kelley E Capocelli, Ronald J Sokol
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of treating obstructive sleep apnea/nocturnal hypoxia on pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) severity and oxidative stress. STUDY DESIGN: Biopsy proven participants (n = 9) with NAFLD and obstructive sleep apnea/hypoxia were studied before and after treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for sleep disordered breathing, including laboratory testing and markers of oxidative stress, urine F(2)-isoprostanes...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740791/nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-children-not-a-small-matter
#4
REVIEW
Praveen Kumar Conjeevaram Selvakumar, Mohammad Nasser Kabbany, Naim Alkhouri
The prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has increased substantially in the past two decades and NAFLD has now become the most common cause of chronic liver disease in children and adolescents. NAFLD is a broad clinicopathologic spectrum ranging from simple steatosis to varying degrees of necroinflammation called nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), leading to fibrosis and subsequently to cirrhosis. Despite the increasing prevalence and progressive nature of NAFLD even among children, therapy for NAFLD in both adults and children are limited...
May 9, 2018: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728744/free-breathing-quantification-of-hepatic-fat-in-healthy-children-and-children-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-using-a-multi-echo-3-d-stack-of-radial-mri-technique
#5
Tess Armstrong, Karrie V Ly, Smruthi Murthy, Shahnaz Ghahremani, Grace Hyun J Kim, Kara L Calkins, Holden H Wu
BACKGROUND: In adults, noninvasive chemical shift encoded Cartesian magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and single-voxel magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy (SVS) accurately quantify hepatic steatosis but require breath-holding. In children, especially young and sick children, breath-holding is often limited or not feasible. Sedation can facilitate breath-holding but is highly undesirable. For these reasons, there is a need to develop free-breathing MRI technology that accurately quantifies steatosis in all children...
May 4, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707848/assessment-of-a-high-snr-chemical-shift-encoded-mri-with-complex-reconstruction-for-proton-density-fat-fraction-pdff-estimation-overall-and-in-the-low-fat-range
#6
Charlie C Park, Catherine Hooker, Jonathan C Hooker, Emily Bass, William Haufe, Alexandra Schlein, Yesenia Covarrubias, Elhamy Heba, Mark Bydder, Tanya Wolfson, Anthony Gamst, Rohit Loomba, Jeffrey Schwimmer, Diego Hernando, Scott B Reeder, Michael Middleton, Claude B Sirlin, Gavin Hamilton
BACKGROUND: Improving the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of chemical-shift-encoded MRI acquisition with complex reconstruction (MRI-C) may improve the accuracy and precision of noninvasive proton density fat fraction (PDFF) quantification in patients with hepatic steatosis. PURPOSE: To assess the accuracy of high SNR (Hi-SNR) MRI-C versus standard MRI-C acquisition to estimate hepatic PDFF in adult and pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) using an MR spectroscopy (MRS) sequence as the reference standard...
April 29, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29699915/dyslipidemia-is-associated-with-pediatric-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#7
Shima Dowla, Stella Aslibekyan, Amy Goss, Kevin Fontaine, Ambika P Ashraf
BACKGROUND: With the increasing prevalence of childhood obesity, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has emerged as the most common cause of pediatric chronic liver disorder. Factors underlying the pathophysiology of NAFLD remain poorly defined. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to describe the metabolic characteristics of children with NAFLD differing in race/ethnicity and to test associations between dyslipidemia and NAFLD. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was conducted at a tertiary referral university hospital among 309 children with a diagnosis of NAFLD...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607635/estimated-prevalence-of-adolescents-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-korea
#8
Yunkoo Kang, Sowon Park, Seung Kim, Hong Koh
BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become prevalent worldwide in the last decade. However, the recent prevalence of NAFLD in adolescents has not yet been investigated in Korea. METHODS: Data were obtained from 1,416 participants aged 10-18 years from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted in 2010 and 2015. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), height, weight, waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), fasting glucose, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), and pediatric NAFLD fibrosis index (PNFI) were analyzed...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601441/the-membrane-bound-o-acyltransferase7-rs641738-variant-in-pediatric-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#9
Anna Di Sessa, Giuseppina Rosaria Umano, Grazia Cirillo, Angela Del Prete, Roberta Iacomino, Pierluigi Marzuillo, Emanuele Miraglia Del Giudice
BACKGROUND: The rs641738 polymorphism in the membrane-bound O-acyltransferase domain containing protein 7 (MBOAT7) gene has been associated with increased risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between the MBOAT7 rs641738 polymorphism and both hepatic steatosis and biochemical markers of liver damage and to evaluate the potential additive effect of this variant and the I148M patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing 3 (PNPLA3) and the rs58542926 transmembrane 6 superfamily member 2 (TM6SF2) polymorphisms...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547047/pediatric-visceral-adiposity-index-adaptation-correlates-with-homa-ir-matsuda-and-transaminases
#10
María José Garcés Hernández, Miguel Klünder, Nayely Garibay Nieto, Juan Carlos López Alvarenga, Jenny Vilchis Gil, Samuel Flores Huerta, Rosa Quispe Siccha, Joselin Hernandez
OBJECTIVE: Visceral adiposity index (VAI) is a mathematical model associated with cardiometabolic risk in adults, but studies on children failed to support this association. Our group has proposed a pediatric VAI model using pediatric ranges, but it has not yet been evaluated and needs further adjustments. The objective of this study was to further adjust the proposed pediatric VAI by age, creating a new pediatric metabolic index (PMI), and assess the correlation of the PMI with insulin resistance indexes and hepatic enzymes...
March 2018: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538359/gut-microbiota-in-adolescents-and-the-association-with-fatty-liver-the-epoch-study
#11
Maggie A Stanislawski, Catherine A Lozupone, Brandie D Wagner, Merete Eggesbø, Marci K Sontag, Nichole M Nusbacher, Mercedes Martinez, Dana Dabelea
BackgroundRecent evidence supports that the gut microbiota may be involved in the pathophysiology of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and may also offer avenues for treatment or prevention.MethodsWe investigated the associations among gut microbiota, diet, and hepatic fat fraction (HFF) in 107 adolescents. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to assess HFF, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing was performed on collected fecal samples. Dietary intake was assessed using Food Frequency Questionnaires. We examined the association between gut microbiota alpha diversity and HFF, and assessed the predictive accuracy for HFF of (1) taxonomic composition, (2) dietary intake, (3) demographic and comorbid conditions, and (4) the combination of these...
April 18, 2018: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527255/glycogenic-hepatopathy-a-narrative-review
#12
REVIEW
Jagannath M Sherigar, Joline De Castro, Yong Mei Yin, Debra Guss, Smruti R Mohanty
Glycogenic hepatopathy (GH) is a rare complication of the poorly controlled diabetes mellitus characterized by the transient liver dysfunction with elevated liver enzymes and associated hepatomegaly caused by the reversible accumulation of excess glycogen in the hepatocytes. It is predominantly seen in patients with longstanding type 1 diabetes mellitus and rarely reported in association with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Although it was first observed in the pediatric population, since then, it has been reported in adolescents and adults with or without ketoacidosis...
February 27, 2018: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29517271/the-search-for-noninvasive-methods-to-identify-liver-fibrosis-in-children-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#13
Chetan Mandelia, Mohammad Nasser Kabbany, Praveen Kumar Conjeevaram Selvakumar, Naim Alkhouri
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the hepatic manifestation of the obesity epidemic. Recent studies have clearly shown that the stage of fibrosis in adults with NAFLD is the most important histological feature in long-term outcomes and the development of liver-related complications. Despite the paucity of data regarding the natural history of pediatric NAFLD, its progression to cirrhosis and end-stage liver disease requiring liver transplantation is well documented. Given the high prevalence of NAFLD in children and adults, there is an urgent need to find safe and cost-effective alternatives to biopsy to determine the stage of liver fibrosis...
March 2018: Biomarkers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471561/nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-children
#14
Jake P Mann, Luca Valenti, Eleonora Scorletti, Christopher D Byrne, Valerio Nobili
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, a progressive form of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), is one of the most common hepatic diseases in children who present with particular risk factors including obesity, sedentary lifestyle, and/or a predisposing genetic background. The worldwide prevalence of NAFLD in children is a worrying phenomenon because this disease is closely associated with the development of both cirrhosis and cardiometabolic syndrome in adulthood. To date, the etiopathogenesis of primary NAFLD in children is unknown...
February 2018: Seminars in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471012/paediatric-fatty-liver-disease-pefld-all-is-not-nafld-pathophysiological-insights-and-approach-to-management
#15
REVIEW
Robert Hegarty, Maesha Deheragoda, Emer Fitzpatrick, Anil Dhawan
The recognition of a pattern of steatotic liver injury where histology mimicked alcoholic liver disease, but alcohol consumption was denied, led to the identification of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease has since become the most common chronic liver disease in adults owing to the global epidemic of obesity. However, in paediatrics, the term NAFLD seems incongruous: alcohol consumption is largely not a factor and inherited metabolic disorders can mimic or co-exist with a diagnosis of NAFLD...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452135/evidence-based-exercise-recommendations-to-reduce-hepatic-fat-content-in-youth-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
REVIEW
María Medrano, Cristina Cadenas-Sanchez, Celia Álvarez-Bueno, Iván Cavero-Redondo, Jonatan R Ruiz, Francisco B Ortega, Idoia Labayen
The main purposes of this study were to elucidate the effects of supervised-exercise training (ET) interventions on hepatic fat content and on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) prevalence in children and adolescents and to provide information about the optimal ET prescription (type, intensity, volume, and frequency) needed to reduce hepatic fat content in youths. Supervised-ET interventions performed in children and adolescents (6-19 years) that provided results of exercise effects on hepatic fat content or NAFLD prevalence were included...
February 13, 2018: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29366420/predictors-of-non-alcoholic-liver-disease-in-ethnically-diverse-overweight-children-and-adolescents
#17
Pamela Botero, Elizabeth M. Hoy, Maria C. Jimenez, Tulay Koru-Sengul, Sarah E. Messiah
OBJECTIVES: To study the relationship between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and sleep, physical activity (PA), and screen-time habits/behaviors among a multiethnic sample of overweight children/adolescents. METHODS: A retrospective medical chart review (6/2013-7/2014) identified 209 patients (7-21 years old) who were overweight/obese (BMI > 85th% for age/sex). A follow-up telephone survey was completed among 130 of these patients' parents to obtain information on sleep, screen-time, PA habits, and socio-demographics...
January 23, 2018: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356764/pediatric-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-current-thinking
#18
Valerio Nobili, Piotr Socha
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), an increasingly prevalent paediatric disorder, is diagnosed and managed not only by both pediatric gastroenterologists/hepatologists but also frequently by the general pediatrician. This article updates recent advances in diagnostic and therapeutic approach, which may be applied to everyday practice. Diagnosis of NAFLD takes into account the risk factor profile and is a diagnosis of exclusion. Techniques such as transient elastography and specific biomarkers aimed at improving diagnosis and monitoring of NAFLD need further validation in the pediatric population...
February 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249967/-psoralea-corylifolia-l-attenuates-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-in-juvenile-mouse
#19
Lishan Zhou, Jianqiao Tang, Xiaoli Xiong, Hui Dong, Juan Huang, Shunchang Zhou, Lingling Zhang, Huan Qin, Suqi Yan
Psoralea corylifolia L. (PC) is a traditional Chinese herb used to treat yang deficiency of the spleen and kidney in pediatric disease. Recent studies have shown its liver protection and anti-oxidative effects. The aim of this study was to explore the effect and mechanism of PC on nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in juvenile mice. The juvenile mouse model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease/nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NAFLD/NASH) was established by being fed a high-fat diet in maternal-offspring manner. PC granules were prepared and the quality was assessed...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199148/do-zones-of-hepatic-steatosis-associate-with-subtypes-and-progression-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-children
#20
EDITORIAL
Veeral Ajmera, Rohit Loomba
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
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