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Schizophrenia immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810663/different-properties-of-polysialic-acids-synthesized-by-the-polysialyltransferases-st8sia2-and-st8sia4
#1
Airi Mori, Masaya Hane, Yuki Niimi, Ken Kitajima, Chihiro Sato
Polysialic acid (polySia) is mainly found as a modification of neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) in whole embryonic brains, as well as restricted areas of adult vertebrate brains, including the hippocampus. PolySia shows not only repulsive effects on NCAM-involved cell-cell interactions due to its bulky and hydrated properties, but also attractive effects on the interaction with neurologically active molecules, which exerts a reservoir function. Two different polysialyltransferases, ST8SIA2 and ST8SIA4, are involved in the synthesis of polySia chains; however, to date, the differences of the properties between polySia chains synthesized by these two enzymes remain unknown...
September 1, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805697/multiple-sclerosis-and-schizophrenia
#2
REVIEW
Borros M Arneth
The psychiatric and neurological aspects of health may present methodological challenges in the diagnosis and treatment of disease. This is especially true for patients whose symptoms indicate the coexistence of multiple sclerosis (MS) and schizophrenia (SCZ). These cases raise critical questions regarding the relationship between the mind and the brain. Studies have noted that patients with MS have an increased risk of developing SCZ or bipolar disorder (BD). It is suggested here that MS and a subgroup of SCZ have similar etiologies...
August 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753980/transgenerational-social-stress-alters-immune-behavior-associations-and-the-response-to-vaccination
#3
Alexandria Hicks-Nelson, Gillian Beamer, Kursat Gurel, Rachel Cooper, Benjamin C Nephew
Similar to the multi-hit theory of schizophrenia, social behavior pathologies are mediated by multiple factors across generations, likely acting additively, synergistically, or antagonistically. Exposure to social adversity, especially during early life, has been proposed to induce depression symptoms through immune mediated mechanisms. Basal immune factors are altered in a variety of neurobehavioral models. In the current study, we assessed two aspects of a transgenerational chronic social stress (CSS) rat model and its effects on the immune system...
July 21, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742074/untargeted-screening-for-novel-autoantibodies-with-prognostic-value-in-first-episode-psychosis
#4
A Zandian, L Wingård, H Nilsson, E Sjöstedt, D X Johansson, D Just, C Hellström, M Uhlén, J M Schwenk, A Häggmark-Månberg, O Norbeck, B Owe-Larsson, P Nilsson, M A A Persson
Immunological and inflammatory reactions have been suggested to have a role in the development of schizophrenia, a hypothesis that has recently been supported by genetic data. The aim of our study was to perform an unbiased search for autoantibodies in patients with a first psychotic episode, and to explore the association between any seroreactivity and the development of a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV) disorder characterized by chronic or relapsing psychotic symptoms...
July 25, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694195/hemoglobins-emerging-roles-in-mental-disorders-metabolical-genetical-and-immunological-aspects
#5
REVIEW
Meric A Altinoz, Bahri Ince
Hemoglobin (Hb) expression in the central nervous system is recently shown. Cooccurences of mental disorders (mainly bipolar disorder (BD) and tic disorders) with β- or α-thalassemia trait or erythrocytosis were witnessed, which may be due to peripheral or central hypoxia/hyperoxia or haplotypal gene interactions. β-Globin genes reside at 11p15.5 close to tyrosine hydroxylase, dopamine receptor DRD4 and Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor, which involve in psychiatric diseases. α-Globin genes reside at 16p13...
July 8, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676105/antipsychotic-associated-psoriatic-rash-a-case-report
#6
Camelia-Eugenia Bujor, Torkel Vang, Jimmi Nielsen, Ole Schjerning
BACKGROUND: Antipsychotics are a heterogeneous group of drugs. Although, antipsychotics have been used for years, unexpected side effects may still occur. With this case report we focus on a possible association between psoriasis and antipsychotics. Data on the patient's course of psychiatric disease, onset of psoriasis and its evolution were extracted from the patient's medical files. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of a 21-year-old female diagnosed with schizophrenia...
July 4, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671614/endocannabinod-signal-dysregulation-in-autism-spectrum-disorders-a-correlation-link-between-inflammatory-state-and-neuro-immune-alterations
#7
REVIEW
Anna Lisa Brigida, Stephen Schultz, Mariana Cascone, Nicola Antonucci, Dario Siniscalco
Several studies highlight a key involvement of endocannabinoid (EC) system in autism pathophysiology. The EC system is a complex network of lipid signaling pathways comprised of arachidonic acid-derived compounds (anandamide, AEA) and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG), their G-protein-coupled receptors (cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2) and the associated enzymes. In addition to autism, the EC system is also involved in several other psychiatric disorders (i.e., anxiety, major depression, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia)...
July 3, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656540/human-endogenous-retrovirus-w-env-increases-nitric-oxide-production-and-enhances-the-migration-ability-of-microglia-by-regulating-the-expression-of-inducible-nitric-oxide-synthase
#8
Ran Xiao, Shan Li, Qian Cao, Xiuling Wang, Qiujin Yan, Xiaoning Tu, Ying Zhu, Fan Zhu
Human endogenous retrovirus W env (HERV-W env) plays a critical role in many neuropsychological diseases such as schizophrenia and multiple sclerosis (MS). These diseases are accompanied by immunological reactions in the central nervous system (CNS). Microglia are important immunocytes in brain inflammation that can produce a gasotransmitter-nitric oxide (NO). NO not only plays a role in the function of neuronal cells but also participates in the pathogenesis of various neuropsychological diseases. In this study, we reported increased NO production in CHME-5 microglia cells after they were transfected with HERV-W env...
June 2017: Virologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646138/uniting-the-neuro-developmental-and-immunological-hypotheses-neuregulin-1-receptor-erbb-and-toll-like-receptor-activation-in-first-episode-schizophrenia
#9
Szabolcs Kéri, Csilla Szabó, Oguz Kelemen
Current pathophysiological models of schizophrenia focus on neurodevelopmental and immunological mechanisms. We investigated a molecular pathway traditionally linked to the neurodevelopmental hypothesis (neuregulin 1 - ErbB), and pathogen-associated pattern recognition receptors associated with the immune hypothesis (Toll-like receptors, TLRs). We recruited 42 first-episode, drug-naïve patients with schizophrenia and 42 matched healthy control subjects. In monocytes TLR4/TLR5 and ErbB expressions were measured with flow-cytometry...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617372/-characteristics-of-psychopathological-symptomatology-in-hiv-infection-schizophrenic-patients
#10
D A Polyanskiy, V V Kalinin
AIM: To study the psychopathological structure of psychotic syndromes in HIV-infected schizophrenic patients and in patients without HIV infection. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty HIV-infected patients, 23 women and 17 men, with confirmed diagnosis of schizophrenia were included in the study. The control group consisted of 40 patients without HIV infection, 23 women (48%) and 17 men (52%). The psychopathological state in all patients was assessed with the PANSS. Flow cytometry was used to measure immunological parameters in HIV-infected patients...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610803/catatonia-is-not-schizophrenia-and-it-is-treatable
#11
Francisco J Appiani, Gonzalo S Castro
Catatonia is a cluster of motor features that appears in many recognized psychiatric illnesses, that according to the DSM-5 it is not linked as a subtype to schizophrenia anymore. The classic signs are mutism, a rigid posture, fixed staring, stereotypic movements, and stupor, which are all part of a broad psychopathology that may be found in affective, thought, neurological, toxic, metabolic and immunological disorders. Despite the many etiologies, catatonia may be a life-threatening condition with a specific treatment...
June 10, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566947/immunological-aspects-of-the-treatment-of-depression-and-schizophrenia
#12
Norbert Müller
Schizophrenia and major depression (MD) have been associated with immune system dysfunction. One example of this is the altered level of cytokines-important inflammatory mediators-in blood, and a proinflammatory immune state has been described in some subgroups of patients. A knock to the immune system in early life might trigger a life-long increased immune reactivity, and infections and autoimmune disorders are now known to be risk factors for development of schizophrenia and MD. Pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines mediate indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity; this enzyme drives metabolism of tryptophan and kynurenin in the central nervous system and degrades serotonin...
March 2017: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557385/-telomere-telomerase-system-in-aging-norm-and-pathology-literature-review
#13
K I Pavlov, V N Mukhin, V M Klimenko, V N Anisimov
This literature review presents results of research showing association between functional activity of the telomere-telomerase system and mental cognitive and emotional processes in normal and various pathological states: chronic stress, depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, mild cognitive impairment and dementia in aging. It also refers to age-specific, psycho-social, economic, immunological, genetic and epigenetic factors that influence these relationships.
2017: Advances in Gerontology, Uspekhi Gerontologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488252/multiscale-modeling-in-the-clinic-diseases-of-the-brain-and-nervous-system
#14
REVIEW
William W Lytton, Jeff Arle, Georgiy Bobashev, Songbai Ji, Tara L Klassen, Vasilis Z Marmarelis, James Schwaber, Mohamed A Sherif, Terence D Sanger
Computational neuroscience is a field that traces its origins to the efforts of Hodgkin and Huxley, who pioneered quantitative analysis of electrical activity in the nervous system. While also continuing as an independent field, computational neuroscience has combined with computational systems biology, and neural multiscale modeling arose as one offshoot. This consolidation has added electrical, graphical, dynamical system, learning theory, artificial intelligence and neural network viewpoints with the microscale of cellular biology (neuronal and glial), mesoscales of vascular, immunological and neuronal networks, on up to macroscales of cognition and behavior...
May 9, 2017: Brain Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485731/differential-antibody-responses-to-gliadin-derived-indigestible-peptides-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#15
R T McLean, P Wilson, D St Clair, C J Mustard, J Wei
Gluten consumption has previously been implicated in the development of schizophrenia while an immunological link between gluten and schizophrenia was established by the detection of circulating antibodies against gliadin, a major component of wheat gluten. Several studies have reported an increase in circulating antibodies against native gliadin molecules that are unlikely to survive degradation in the digestive system. In this study, therefore, we measured plasma immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA antibodies against indigestible gliadin-derived peptide antigens using an in-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) among 169 patients with schizophrenia and 236 control subjects...
May 9, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467611/risk-of-developing-psoriasis-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-a-nationwide-retrospective-cohort-study
#16
Sebastian Yu, Chu-Ling Yu, Yu-Chi Huang, Hung-Pin Tu, Cheng-Che E Lan
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is a complex disease proceeds from an interaction between genetic background and environmental factors. Recent studies showed T helper 17 (Th17) signaling, which is the main downstream immune response of psoriasis, is activated in schizophrenia. OBJECTIVE: To investigate if patients with schizophrenia have higher risk of psoriasis. METHODS: In this nationwide retrospective cohort study, we analyzed the 1-million-enroll cohort from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database...
May 3, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393621/a-review-on-the-relationship-between-gluten-and-schizophrenia-is-gluten-the-cause
#17
Can Ergün, Murat Urhan, Ahmet Ayer
INTRODUCTION: Schizophrenia is a chronic disease that possesses various clinical manifestations. It presents rather heterogeneous characteristics with respect to onset type, symptoms, and the course of the disease. Although the lifetime prevalence is as low as 1%, it can cause serious disability. Thus, it is very important to develop efficient treatment methods. In some studies, it is hypothesized that removing gluten from the diet leads to a significant improvement in disease symptoms...
April 9, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285148/acute-variations-of-cytokine-levels-after-antipsychotic-treatment-in-drug-na%C3%A3-ve-subjects-with-a-first-episode-psychosis-a-meta-analysis
#18
REVIEW
Enrico Capuzzi, Francesco Bartoli, Cristina Crocamo, Massimo Clerici, Giuseppe Carrà
Schizophrenia is likely to be associated with immunological abnormalities. However, antipsychotics may induce immunomodulatory effects, by influencing plasma cytokines. In order to distinguish these influences, we carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis exploring the acute effect of antipsychotics on candidate cytokines plasma levels (IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-17, IFN-γ, TNF-α) among drug-naïve subjects with first episode psychosis. We searched main Electronic Databases, identifying eight studies meeting our inclusion criteria...
June 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259864/-an-attempt-to-identify-22q11-2-microdeletions-in-samples-of-the-hungarian-schizophrenia-dna-bank-by-multiplex-ligation-based-probe-amplification-mlpa-literature-review-methodology-and-results
#19
Izabella Klein, Katalin Szocs, Katalin Vincze, Judit Benkovits, Szilvia Somogyi, Levente Herman, Janos M Rethelyi
Schizophrenia is a severe debilitating psychiatric disorder, with a typical onset in adolescence or early adulthood. This condition is characterized by heterogeneous symptoms (hallucinations, delusions, disorganized behaviour, affective flattening, and social isolation) and a life-time prevalence of 0.5-1.2%. In spite of the efforts to uncover the etiology of the disorder, its pathogenesis and neurobiological background are poorly understood. Given the high heritability in schizophrenia, genetic research remains an important area of focus...
December 2016: Neuropsychopharmacologia Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255578/neuropil-pruning-in-early-course-schizophrenia-immunological-clinical-and-neurocognitive-correlates
#20
Konasale M Prasad, Ashley M Burgess, Matcheri S Keshavan, Vishwajit L Nimgaonkar, Jeffrey A Stanley
INTRODUCTION: Neuropathological studies suggest neuropil reduction in schizophrenia. Altered synaptic pruning is proposed to underlie neuropil reduction. Underlying factors and clinical correlates of synaptic pruning are poorly understood. Using phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((31)P MRS), it is feasible to assess membrane phospholipid (MPL) metabolites in the brain that specifically and sensitively reflect neuropil expansion (elevated MPL precursors) or contraction (elevated MPL catabolites)...
November 2016: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
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