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Schizophrenia immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646138/uniting-the-neuro-developmental-and-immunological-hypotheses-neuregulin-1-receptor-erbb-and-toll-like-receptor-activation-in-first-episode-schizophrenia
#1
Szabolcs Kéri, Csilla Szabó, Oguz Kelemen
Current pathophysiological models of schizophrenia focus on neurodevelopmental and immunological mechanisms. We investigated a molecular pathway traditionally linked to the neurodevelopmental hypothesis (neuregulin 1 - ErbB), and pathogen-associated pattern recognition receptors associated with the immune hypothesis (Toll-like receptors, TLRs). We recruited 42 first-episode, drug-naïve patients with schizophrenia and 42 matched healthy control subjects. In monocytes TLR4/TLR5 and ErbB expressions were measured with flow-cytometry...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617372/-characteristics-of-psychopathological-symptomatology-in-hiv-infection-schizophrenic-patients
#2
D A Polyanskiy, V V Kalinin
AIM: To study the psychopathological structure of psychotic syndromes in HIV-infected schizophrenic patients and in patients without HIV infection. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty HIV-infected patients, 23 women and 17 men, with confirmed diagnosis of schizophrenia were included in the study. The control group consisted of 40 patients without HIV infection, 23 women (48%) and 17 men (52%). The psychopathological state in all patients was assessed with the PANSS. Flow cytometry was used to measure immunological parameters in HIV-infected patients...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610803/catatonia-is-not-schizophrenia-and-it-is-treatable
#3
Francisco J Appiani, Gonzalo S Castro
Catatonia is a cluster of motor features that appears in many recognized psychiatric illnesses, that according to the DSM-5 it is not linked as a subtype to schizophrenia anymore. The classic signs are mutism, a rigid posture, fixed staring, stereotypic movements, and stupor, which are all part of a broad psychopathology that may be found in affective, thought, neurological, toxic, metabolic and immunological disorders. Despite the many etiologies, catatonia may be a life-threatening condition with a specific treatment...
June 10, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566947/immunological-aspects-of-the-treatment-of-depression-and-schizophrenia
#4
Norbert Müller
Schizophrenia and major depression (MD) have been associated with immune system dysfunction. One example of this is the altered level of cytokines-important inflammatory mediators-in blood, and a proinflammatory immune state has been described in some subgroups of patients. A knock to the immune system in early life might trigger a life-long increased immune reactivity, and infections and autoimmune disorders are now known to be risk factors for development of schizophrenia and MD. Pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines mediate indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity; this enzyme drives metabolism of tryptophan and kynurenin in the central nervous system and degrades serotonin...
March 2017: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557385/-telomere-telomerase-system-in-aging-norm-and-pathology-literature-review
#5
K I Pavlov, V N Mukhin, V M Klimenko, V N Anisimov
This literature review presents results of research showing association between functional activity of the telomere-telomerase system and mental cognitive and emotional processes in normal and various pathological states: chronic stress, depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, mild cognitive impairment and dementia in aging. It also refers to age-specific, psycho-social, economic, immunological, genetic and epigenetic factors that influence these relationships.
2017: Advances in Gerontology, Uspekhi Gerontologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488252/multiscale-modeling-in-the-clinic-diseases-of-the-brain-and-nervous-system
#6
REVIEW
William W Lytton, Jeff Arle, Georgiy Bobashev, Songbai Ji, Tara L Klassen, Vasilis Z Marmarelis, James Schwaber, Mohamed A Sherif, Terence D Sanger
Computational neuroscience is a field that traces its origins to the efforts of Hodgkin and Huxley, who pioneered quantitative analysis of electrical activity in the nervous system. While also continuing as an independent field, computational neuroscience has combined with computational systems biology, and neural multiscale modeling arose as one offshoot. This consolidation has added electrical, graphical, dynamical system, learning theory, artificial intelligence and neural network viewpoints with the microscale of cellular biology (neuronal and glial), mesoscales of vascular, immunological and neuronal networks, on up to macroscales of cognition and behavior...
May 9, 2017: Brain Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485731/differential-antibody-responses-to-gliadin-derived-indigestible-peptides-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#7
R T McLean, P Wilson, D St Clair, C J Mustard, J Wei
Gluten consumption has previously been implicated in the development of schizophrenia while an immunological link between gluten and schizophrenia was established by the detection of circulating antibodies against gliadin, a major component of wheat gluten. Several studies have reported an increase in circulating antibodies against native gliadin molecules that are unlikely to survive degradation in the digestive system. In this study, therefore, we measured plasma immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA antibodies against indigestible gliadin-derived peptide antigens using an in-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) among 169 patients with schizophrenia and 236 control subjects...
May 9, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467611/risk-of-developing-psoriasis-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-a-nationwide-retrospective-cohort-study
#8
Sebastian Yu, Chu-Ling Yu, Yu-Chi Huang, Hung-Pin Tu, Cheng-Che E Lan
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is a complex disease proceeds from an interaction between genetic background and environmental factors. Recent studies showed T helper 17 (Th17) signaling, which is the main downstream immune response of psoriasis, is activated in schizophrenia. OBJECTIVE: To investigate if patients with schizophrenia have higher risk of psoriasis. METHODS: In this nationwide retrospective cohort study, we analyzed the 1-million-enroll cohort from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database...
May 3, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393621/a-review-on-the-relationship-between-gluten-and-schizophrenia-is-gluten-the-cause
#9
Can Ergün, Murat Urhan, Ahmet Ayer
INTRODUCTION: Schizophrenia is a chronic disease that possesses various clinical manifestations. It presents rather heterogeneous characteristics with respect to onset type, symptoms, and the course of the disease. Although the lifetime prevalence is as low as 1%, it can cause serious disability. Thus, it is very important to develop efficient treatment methods. In some studies, it is hypothesized that removing gluten from the diet leads to a significant improvement in disease symptoms...
April 9, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285148/acute-variations-of-cytokine-levels-after-antipsychotic-treatment-in-drug-na%C3%A3-ve-subjects-with-a-first-episode-psychosis-a-meta-analysis
#10
REVIEW
Enrico Capuzzi, Francesco Bartoli, Cristina Crocamo, Massimo Clerici, Giuseppe Carrà
Schizophrenia is likely to be associated with immunological abnormalities. However, antipsychotics may induce immunomodulatory effects, by influencing plasma cytokines. In order to distinguish these influences, we carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis exploring the acute effect of antipsychotics on candidate cytokines plasma levels (IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-17, IFN-γ, TNF-α) among drug-naïve subjects with first episode psychosis. We searched main Electronic Databases, identifying eight studies meeting our inclusion criteria...
June 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259864/-an-attempt-to-identify-22q11-2-microdeletions-in-samples-of-the-hungarian-schizophrenia-dna-bank-by-multiplex-ligation-based-probe-amplification-mlpa-literature-review-methodology-and-results
#11
Izabella Klein, Katalin Szocs, Katalin Vincze, Judit Benkovits, Szilvia Somogyi, Levente Herman, Janos M Rethelyi
Schizophrenia is a severe debilitating psychiatric disorder, with a typical onset in adolescence or early adulthood. This condition is characterized by heterogeneous symptoms (hallucinations, delusions, disorganized behaviour, affective flattening, and social isolation) and a life-time prevalence of 0.5-1.2%. In spite of the efforts to uncover the etiology of the disorder, its pathogenesis and neurobiological background are poorly understood. Given the high heritability in schizophrenia, genetic research remains an important area of focus...
December 2016: Neuropsychopharmacologia Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255578/neuropil-pruning-in-early-course-schizophrenia-immunological-clinical-and-neurocognitive-correlates
#12
Konasale M Prasad, Ashley M Burgess, Matcheri S Keshavan, Vishwajit L Nimgaonkar, Jeffrey A Stanley
INTRODUCTION: Neuropathological studies suggest neuropil reduction in schizophrenia. Altered synaptic pruning is proposed to underlie neuropil reduction. Underlying factors and clinical correlates of synaptic pruning are poorly understood. Using phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((31)P MRS), it is feasible to assess membrane phospholipid (MPL) metabolites in the brain that specifically and sensitively reflect neuropil expansion (elevated MPL precursors) or contraction (elevated MPL catabolites)...
November 2016: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228737/schizophrenia-associated-with-epileptiform-discharges-without-seizures-successfully-treated-with-levetiracetam
#13
Dominique Endres, Evgeniy Perlov, Bernd Feige, Dirk-Matthias Altenmüller, Nils Venhoff, Ludger Tebartz van Elst
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia-like disorders can be divided into endogenic or primary, idiopathic, polygenetic forms, and different secondary, organic subgroups [e.g., (para)epileptic, immunological, degenerative]. Epileptic and paraepileptic explanatory approaches have a long tradition due to the high rate of electroencephalography (EEG) alterations in patients with schizophrenia. CASE PRESENTATION: We present the case of a 23-year-old female patient suffering, since the age of 14 years, from a fluctuating paranoid-hallucinatory syndrome with formal thought disorder, fear, delusions of persecution, auditory, visual, and tactile hallucinations, as well as negative and cognitive symptoms...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117000/vasopressin-and-related-peptides-potential-value-in-diagnosis-prognosis-and-treatment-of-clinical-disorders
#14
Ewa Szczepanska-Sadowska, Tymoteusz Zera, Piotr Sosnowski, Agnieszka Cudnoch-Jedrzejewska, Anna Puszko, Aleksandra Misicka
Vasopressin (AVP) and its receptors play a pivotal role in maintaining body homeostasis under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. As a consequence, the vasopressin system has emerged as an important target for both diagnostic and therapeutic applications in a number of medical conditions. Stoichiometric generation of AVP with copeptin, which is relatively accessible in the blood for measurements, makes copeptin a valuable surrogate of AVP. In this review, we present the regulation of release of AVP and activation of V1a, V1b, and V2 vasopressin receptors under physiological and pathological conditions...
January 19, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003154/antipsychotics-influence-toll-like-receptor-tlr-expression-and-its-relationship-with-cognitive-functions-in-schizophrenia
#15
Szabolcs Kéri, Csilla Szabó, Oguz Kelemen
Increasing evidence suggests that altered immune functions are related to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Relatively little information is available on Toll-like receptors (TLRs), which are implicated in the recognition of molecular patterns associated with pathogens and internal cellular damage signals. By using immunophenotyping and flow cytometry, we investigated TLRs in CD14+ monocytes, CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Treg), and CD3+CD4+CD25+ activated T cells (Tact) in 35 drug-naïve patients with schizophrenia before and after an 8-week period of antipsychotic treatment with risperidone or olanzapine...
December 19, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984197/chronic-nicotine-treatment-decreases-lps-signaling-through-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-tlr-4-modulation-in-the-hippocampus
#16
Cecília Cerqueira Café-Mendes, Humberto Miguel Garay-Malpartida, Marília Brinati Malta, Cristóforo Scavone, Zulma S Ferreira, Regina P Markus, Tania Marcourakis
The hippocampus is a brain region that is rich in nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), especially the α7 subtype. The hippocampus is severely affected in disorders that have a neuroinflammatory component, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and schizophrenia. Previous studies demonstrated both in vivo and in vitro that nicotine inhibits immunological responses, including those that are triggered by the inflammatory agent lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the endotoxin of Gram-negative bacteria...
October 28, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921323/the-application-of-strand-invasion-phenomenon-directed-by-peptide-nucleic-acid-pna-and-single-stranded-dna-binding-protein-ssb-for-the-recognition-of-specific-sequences-of-human-endogenous-retroviral-herv-w-family
#17
Grzegorz Machnik, Łukasz Bułdak, Jarosław Ruczyński, Tomasz Gąsior, Małgorzata Huzarska, Dariusz Belowski, Magdalena Alenowicz, Piotr Mucha, Piotr Rekowski, Bogusław Okopień
The HERV-W family of human endogenous retroviruses represents a group of numerous sequences that show close similarity in genetic composition. It has been documented that some members of HERV-W-derived expression products are supposed to play significant role in humans' pathology, such as multiple sclerosis or schizophrenia. Other members of the family are necessary to orchestrate physiological processes (eg, ERVWE1 coding syncytin-1 that is engaged in syncytiotrophoblast formation). Therefore, an assay that would allow the recognition of particular form of HERV-W members is highly desirable...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Molecular Recognition: JMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920282/nmda-receptor-encephalitis-and-other-antibody-mediated-disorders-of-the-synapse-the-2016-cotzias-lecture
#18
REVIEW
Josep Dalmau
Investigations during the last 10 years have revealed a group of disorders mediated by antibodies against ion channels and synaptic receptors, which cause both neurologic and psychiatric symptoms. In this review, I discuss the process of discovery and immunologic triggers of these disorders, and use anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis to emphasize the importance of understanding the underlying physiopathologic mechanisms in those diseases. A better knowledge of these mechanisms reveals points of convergence with other disorders (e...
December 6, 2016: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900676/functional-implications-of-the-il-23-il-17-immune-axis-in-schizophrenia
#19
REVIEW
Monojit Debnath, Michael Berk
The aetiology of schizophrenia seems to stem from complex interactions amongst environmental, genetic, metabolic, immunologic and oxidative components. Chronic low-grade inflammation has been persistently linked to schizophrenia, and this has primarily been based on the findings derived from Th1/Th2 cytokine balance. While the IL-23/IL-17 axis plays crucial role in the pathogenesis of several immune-mediated disorders, it has remained relatively unexplored in neuropsychiatric disorders. Altered levels of cytokines related to IL-23/IL-17 axis have been observed in schizophrenia patients in a few studies...
November 29, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847927/family-association-study-of-transforming-growth-factor-beta1-gene-polymorphisms-in-schizophrenia
#20
Paweł Kapelski, Maria Skibińska, Małgorzata Maciukiewicz, Dorota Zaremba, Maria Jasiak, Joanna Hauser
OBJECTIVES: Schizophrenia is a serious mental illness with chronic symptoms and significant impairment in psychosocial functioning. An etiopathological role for immunologic abnormalities in schizophrenia was hypothesized. Inflammatory markers are well-known etiological factors for psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. Several studies have investigated the possible effects of antipsychotics on inflammation and neurogenesis. Additionally, antiinflammatory adjuvant therapy has been under investigation as a treatment option for schizophrenia...
2016: Psychiatria Polska
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