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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237241/the-p-patens-chromosome-scale-assembly-reveals-moss-genome-structure-and-evolution
#1
Daniel Lang, Kristian K Ullrich, Florent Murat, Jörg Fuchs, Jerry Jenkins, Fabian B Haas, Mathieu Piednoel, Heidrun Gundlach, Michiel Van Bel, Rabea Meyberg, Cristina Vives, Jordi Morata, Aikaterini Symeonidi, Manuel Hiss, Wellington Muchero, Yasuko Kamisugi, Omar Saleh, Guillaume Blanc, Eva L Decker, Nico van Gessel, Jane Grimwood, Richard D Hayes, Sean W Graham, Lee E Gunter, Stuart McDaniel, Sebastian N W Hoernstein, Anders Larsson, Fay-Wei Li, Pierre-Francois Perroud, Jeremy Phillips, Priya Ranjan, Daniel S Rokshar, Carl J Rothfels, Lucas Schneider, Shengqiang Shu, Dennis W Stevenson, Fritz Thümmler, Michael Tillich, Juan Carlos Villarreal A, Thomas Widiez, Gane Ka-Shu Wong, Ann Wymore, Yong Zhang, Andreas D Zimmer, Ralph S Quatrano, Klaus F X Mayer, David Goodstein, Josep M Casacuberta, Klaas Vandepoele, Ralf Reski, Andrew C Cuming, Jerry Tuskan, Florian Maumus, Jérome Salse, Jeremy Schmutz, Stefan A Rensing
The draft genome of the moss model, Physcomitrella patens, comprised approximately 2,000 unordered scaffolds. In order to enable analyses of genome structure and evolution we generated a chromosome-scale genome assembly using genetic linkage as well as (end) sequencing of long DNA fragments. We find that 57% of the genome comprises transposable elements (TEs), some of which may be actively transposing during the life cycle. Unlike in flowering plant genomes, gene- and TE-rich regions show an overall even distribution along the chromosomes...
December 13, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233211/toxicity-of-marine-pollutants-on-the-ascidian-oocyte-physiology-an-electrophysiological-approach
#2
Alessandra Gallo
In marine animals with external fertilization, gametes are released into seawater where fertilization and embryo development occur. Consequently, pollutants introduced into the marine environment by human activities may affect gametes and embryos. These xenobiotics can alter cell physiology with consequent reduction of fertilization success. Here the adverse effects on the reproductive processes of the marine invertebrate Ciona intestinalis (ascidian) of different xenobiotics: lead, zinc, an organic tin compound and a phenylurea herbicide were evaluated...
December 13, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230921/global-grass-poaceae-success-underpinned-by-traits-facilitating-colonization-persistence-and-habitat-transformation
#3
H P Linder, Caroline E R Lehmann, Sally Archibald, Colin P Osborne, David M Richardson
Poaceae (the grasses) is arguably the most successful plant family, in terms of its global occurrence in (almost) all ecosystems with angiosperms, its ecological dominance in many ecosystems, and high species richness. We suggest that the success of grasses is best understood in context of their capacity to colonize, persist, and transform environments (the "Viking syndrome"). This results from combining effective long-distance dispersal, efficacious establishment biology, ecological flexibility, resilience to disturbance and the capacity to modify environments by changing the nature of fire and mammalian herbivory...
December 12, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229188/plasmodium-p47-a-key-gene-for-malaria-transmission-by-mosquito-vectors
#4
REVIEW
Alvaro Molina-Cruz, Gaspar E Canepa, Carolina Barillas-Mury
Malaria is caused by infection with Plasmodium parasites that have a complex life cycle. The parasite protein P47 is critical for disease transmission. P47 mediates mosquito immune evasion in both Plasmodium berghei (Pbs47) and Plasmodium falciparum (Pfs47), and has been shown to be important for optimal female gamete fertility in P. berghei. Pfs47 presents strong geographic structure in natural P. falciparum populations, consistent with natural selection of Pfs47 haplotypes by the mosquito immune system as the parasite adapted to new vector species worldwide...
December 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227750/genetic-polymorphisms-in-prm1-prm2-and-ybx2-genes-are-associated-with-male-factor-infertility
#5
Oya Sena E Aydos, Yalda Hekmatshoar, Buket Altınok, Tülin Özkan, Onur Şakirağaoğlu, Aynur Karadağ, Fuat Kaplan, Seda Ilgaz, Mehmet Taşpınar, Işıl Yükselen, Asuman Sunguroğlu, Kaan Aydos
AIMS: The etiology of infertility is still unknown in almost half of all male infertility patients. In sperm, DNA condensation differs from somatic and female gamete cells, with the protamine (PRM) gene and its transcription factor, Y-box binding protein 2 (YBX2), playing key roles in making the structure more compact. Protamine polymorphisms have been studied in different populations, but various results have been acquired. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In our study, we examined, for the first time in a Turkish population, the association between protamine gene alleles (PRM1 c...
December 11, 2017: Genetic Testing and Molecular Biomarkers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226264/generation-of-viable-progeny-from-dead-brooders-of-endangered-catfish-clarias-magur-hamilton-1822
#6
Sullip Kumar Majhi, Santosh Kumar
The obligatory air-breathing catfish Clarias magur is a prime candidate for aquaculture owing to its unique taste, high growth rate, and hardy nature. However, recently the IUCN has listed the species under the endangered category because the population has critically declined in the wild. The sexually mature C. magur brooders are often collected from their natural habitats for seed production in captivity. In many cases, the brooder dies due to handling injuries or confinement stress. In this study, we demonstrated that viable progeny could be generated from freshly dead sexually mature C...
October 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222434/embryonic-lethality-and-defective-male-germ-cell-development-in-mice-lacking-utf1
#7
Seth D Kasowitz, Mengcheng Luo, Jun Ma, N Adrian Leu, P Jeremy Wang
The germ cell lineage is specified early in embryogenesis and undergoes complex developmental programs to generate gametes. Here, we conducted genetic studies to investigate the role of Utf1 (Undifferentiated embryonic cell transcription factor 1) in mouse germ cell development. Utf1 is expressed in pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells and regulates ES cell differentiation. In a proteomics screen, we identified UTF1 among 38 proteins including DNMT3L and DND1 that associate with chromatin in embryonic testes...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221680/paradorippe-granulata-a-crab-with-external-fertilization-and-a-novel-type-of-sperm-storage-organ-challenges-prevalent-ideas-on-the-evolution-of-reproduction-in-eubrachyura-crustacea-brachyura-dorippidae
#8
Juliane Vehof, Gerhard Scholtz, Carola Becker
Two fundamentally different sperm storage organs occur in Brachyura. The probably paraphyletic podotremes show intersegmental spermathecae, which are distant from oviducts and coxal gonopores. Hence, fertilization is external. In contrast to this, the seminal receptacles of Eubrachyura are directly connected with the ovaries. Thus, at least initial fertilization is internal. This pattern has been interpreted as an apomorphy of Eubrachyura. To test this hypothesis, we studied the morphology of the reproductive organs of Paradorippe granulata, a representative of the putatively early diverging eubrachyuran lineage Dorippoidea...
December 5, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218423/early-intraocular-pressure-change-after-peripheral-iridotomy-with-ultralow-fluence-pattern-scanning-laser-and-nd-yag-laser-in-primary-angle-closure-suspect-kowloon-east%C3%A2-pattern-scanning-laser-study-report-no-3
#9
Jeffrey Chi Wang Chan, Bonnie Nga Kwan Choy, Orlando Chia Chieh Chan, Kenneth Kai Wang Li
PURPOSE: Our purpose was to assess the early intraocular pressure (IOP) changes of ultralow fluence laser iridotomy using pattern scanning laser followed by neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-gamet (Nd:YAG) laser. METHODS: This is a prospective interventional study. Thirty-three eyes of 33 adult Chinese primary angle-closure suspect subjects were recruited for prophylactic laser peripheral iridotomy. Sequential laser peripheral iridotomy was performed using pattern scanning laser followed by Nd:YAG laser...
December 7, 2017: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217755/pollen-differentiation-as-well-as-pollen-tube-guidance-and-discharge-are-independent-of-the-presence-of-gametes
#10
Barbara Glöckle, Wojciech J Urban, Shiori Nagahara, Ellen D Andersen, Tetsuya Higashiyama, Paul E Grini, Arp Schnittger
After meiosis, an unequal cell division generates the male gamete lineage in flowering plants. The generative cell will undergo a second division, giving rise to the two gametes, i.e. the sperm cells. The other cell will develop into the vegetative cell that plays a crucial role in pollen tube formation and sperm delivery. Recently, the vegetative cell has been implicated to be important for programming of the chromatin state in sperm cells and/or the resulting fertilization products. Blocking the initial unequal division genetically, we first highlight that the default differentiation state after male meiosis is a vegetative fate consistent with earlier work...
December 7, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217127/epigenome-in-early-mammalian-development-inheritance-reprogramming-and-establishment
#11
REVIEW
Qianhua Xu, Wei Xie
Drastic epigenetic reprogramming takes place during preimplantation development, leading to the conversion of terminally differentiated gametes to a totipotent embryo. Deficiencies in remodeling of the epigenomes can cause severe developmental defects, including embryonic lethality. However, how chromatin modifications and chromatin organization are reprogrammed upon fertilization in mammals has long remained elusive. Here, we review recent progress in understanding how the epigenome is dynamically regulated during early mammalian development...
December 4, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216335/introgression-of-aegilops-speltoides-segments-in-triticum-aestivum-and-the-effect-of-the-gametocidal-genes
#12
Julie King, Surbhi Grewal, Cai-Yun Yang, Stella Hubbart Edwards, Duncan Scholefield, Stephen Ashling, John A Harper, Alexandra M Allen, Keith J Edwards, Amanda J Burridge, Ian P King
Background and Aims: Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) has been through a severe genetic bottleneck as a result of its evolution and domestication. It is therefore essential that new sources of genetic variation are generated and utilized. This study aimed to generate genome-wide introgressed segments from Aegilops speltoides. Introgressions generated from this research will be made available for phenotypic analysis. Methods: Aegilops speltoides was crossed as the male parent to T...
December 5, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215767/exposure-to-levonorgestrel-increases-nest-acquisition-success-and-decreases-sperm-motility-in-the-male-fathead-minnow-pimephales-promelas
#13
Tyler Frankel, Lance Yonkos, Franklin Ampy, Jack Frankel
Progestins are utilized as a component of human contraceptives, and enter the environment via wastewater treatment plant effluent. Certain progestins activate fish androgen receptors and cause decreases in fecundity and masculinization of females. In this study, a nest acquisition assay and computer assisted sperm analysis (CASA) was used to examine the effects of levonorgestrel (LNG) on male fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) reproductive fitness. Males were exposed to 0, 10, or 100ng/L LNG for 14d. Combinations of a control male and a male from one of the treatments were placed into a competitive nesting assay, and time each male spent holding the nest and time spent exhibiting aggressive behaviors were analyzed at 48hrs post-exposure...
December 7, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213142/the-attitudes-of-ivf-patients-treated-in-the-czech-republic-towards-informing-children-born-after-gamete-donation
#14
Tatana Rumpikova, Ivana Oborna, Silvie Belaskova, Hana Konecna, David Rumpik
BACKGROUND: In recent decades gamete donation has received growing attention. Data from the Czech National Registry of Assisted Reproduction show that the number of cycles using donated oocytes has been increasing every year. According to Czech law, gamete donation is anonymous. Since 2011, some members of the Czech parliament have repeatedly made requests to revoke the anonymity but anonymity is one of the preconditions for such donation in this country. The aim of this study was to find out how the gamete recipients feel towards informing their child about the circumstances of their conception and their access to the identity of the donor...
December 4, 2017: Biomedical Papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacký, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212032/targeting-the-conserved-fusion-loop-of-hap2-inhibits-the-transmission-of-plasmodium-berghei-and-falciparum
#15
Fiona Angrisano, Katarzyna A Sala, Dari F Da, Yanjie Liu, Jimin Pei, Nick V Grishin, William J Snell, Andrew M Blagborough
Inhibiting transmission of Plasmodium is a central strategy in malarial eradication, and the biological process of gamete fusion during fertilization is a proven target for this approach. The lack of a structure or known molecular function of current anti-malarial vaccine targets has previously been a hindrance in the development of transmission-blocking vaccines. Structure/function studies have indicated that the conserved gamete membrane fusion protein HAP2 is a class II viral fusion protein. Here, we demonstrate that targeting a function-critical site of the fusion/cd loop with species-specific antibodies reduces Plasmodium berghei transmission in vivo by 58...
December 5, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210255/the-legalisation-of-gamete-donation-in-italy
#16
Andrea Boggio
Since 2004, the regulation of assisted reproduction in Italy has undergone substantial reform as an effect of key judicial intervention. Limitations on embryo production, screening and transfer, the prohibition against engaging in preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) and embryo selection, and the ban on gamete donation have all been removed by courts. In this article, I discuss how judicial intervention has improved the ability of Italian couples to access assisted reproduction technologies (ARTs), and how the expansion of reproductive rights is, however, still incomplete...
March 2017: European Journal of Health Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209081/low-number-of-fixed-somatic-mutations-in-a-long-lived-oak-tree
#17
Emanuel Schmid-Siegert, Namrata Sarkar, Christian Iseli, Sandra Calderon, Caroline Gouhier-Darimont, Jacqueline Chrast, Pietro Cattaneo, Frédéric Schütz, Laurent Farinelli, Marco Pagni, Michel Schneider, Jérémie Voumard, Michel Jaboyedoff, Christian Fankhauser, Christian S Hardtke, Laurent Keller, John R Pannell, Alexandre Reymond, Marc Robinson-Rechavi, Ioannis Xenarios, Philippe Reymond
Because plants do not possess a defined germline, deleterious somatic mutations can be passed to gametes, and a large number of cell divisions separating zygote from gamete formation may lead to many mutations in long-lived plants. We sequenced the genome of two terminal branches of a 234-year-old oak tree and found several fixed somatic single-nucleotide variants whose sequential appearance in the tree could be traced along nested sectors of younger branches. Our data suggest that stem cells of shoot meristems in trees are robustly protected from the accumulation of mutations...
December 2017: Nature Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204720/effect-of-mercury-on-pollen-germination-and-tube-growth-in-lilium-longiflorum
#18
Thomas Sawidis, Gülriz Baycu, Gül Cevahir-Öz, Elzbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska
Pollen development and germination were adversely affected by the presence of mercury, whereas low-concentrations stimulated the whole procedure. Mercury caused morphological anomalies during the tube growth, characterized by irregularly increasing diameters and swelling tips. The main effect was the anomalous cell wall formation at the tip where a substantial number of organelles were found reducing the secretory vesicles. The dense organelle concentration caused a significant reduction of cytoplasmic movement integrity, and the cytosol streaming was gradually reduced or stopped completely...
December 4, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201526/male-infertility-associated-with-de-novo-pericentric-inversion-of-chromosome-1
#19
Özgür Balasar, Ayşe Gül Zamani, Mehmet Balasar, Hasan Acar
Inversion occurs after two breaks in a chromosome have happened and the segment rotates 180° before reinserting. Inversion carriers have produced abnormal gametes if there is an odd number crossing- over between the inverted and the normal homologous chromosomes causing a duplication or deletion. Reproductive risks such as infertility, abortion, stillbirth and birth of malformed child would be expected in that case. A 54-year- old male patient was consulted to our clinic for primary infertility. The routine chromosome study were applied using peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures and analyzed by giemsa-trypsin-giemsa (GTG) banding, and centromer banding (C-banding) stains...
December 2017: Turkish Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199274/recent-developments-in-genetics-and-medically-assisted-reproduction-from-research-to-clinical-applications
#20
REVIEW
J C Harper, K Aittomäki, P Borry, M C Cornel, G de Wert, W Dondorp, J Geraedts, L Gianaroli, K Ketterson, I Liebaers, K Lundin, H Mertes, M Morris, G Pennings, K Sermon, C Spits, S Soini, A P A van Montfoort, A Veiga, J R Vermeesch, S Viville, M Macek
Two leading European professional societies, the European Society of Human Genetics and the European Society for Human Reproduction and Embryology, have worked together since 2004 to evaluate the impact of fast research advances at the interface of assisted reproduction and genetics, including their application into clinical practice. In September 2016, the expert panel met for the third time. The topics discussed highlighted important issues covering the impacts of expanded carrier screening, direct-to-consumer genetic testing, voiding of the presumed anonymity of gamete donors by advanced genetic testing, advances in the research of genetic causes underlying male and female infertility, utilisation of massively parallel sequencing in preimplantation genetic testing and non-invasive prenatal screening, mitochondrial replacement in human oocytes, and additionally, issues related to cross-generational epigenetic inheritance following IVF and germline genome editing...
December 4, 2017: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
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