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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225074/the-wasp-arp2-3-complex-signal-cascade-is-involved-in-actin-dependent-sperm-nuclei-migration-during-double-fertilization-in-tobacco-and-maize
#1
Xiongbo Peng, Tingting Yan, Mengxiang Sun
Sperm nuclear migration during fertilization in Arabidopsis and rice has recently been found to be actin-dependent, but the driving force behind this actin cytoskeleton-dependent motion is unclear. Here, we confirmed that the actin-dependent sperm nuclei migration during fertilization is a conserved mechanism in plants. Using in vitro fertilization systems, we showed that a functional actin is also essential in maize and tobacco for sperm nuclei migration after gamete membrane fusion. Cytoskeleton depolymerization inhibitor treatments supported the view that sperm nuclei migration is actin-dependent but microtubule-independent in both egg cell and central cell during double fertilization...
February 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225073/high-mutation-rates-explain-low-population-genetic-divergence-at-copy-number-variable-loci-in-homo-sapiens
#2
Xin-Sheng Hu, Francis C Yeh, Yang Hu, Li-Ting Deng, Richard A Ennos, Xiaoyang Chen
Copy-number-variable (CNV) loci differ from single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) sites in size, mutation rate, and mechanisms of maintenance in natural populations. It is therefore hypothesized that population genetic divergence at CNV loci will differ from that found at SNP sites. Here, we test this hypothesis by analysing 856 CNV loci from the genomes of 1184 healthy individuals from 11 HapMap populations with a wide range of ancestry. The results show that population genetic divergence at the CNV loci is generally more than three times lower than at genome-wide SNP sites...
February 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223979/broadcast-spawning-coral-mussismilia-hispida-can-vertically-transfer-its-associated-bacterial-core
#3
Deborah C A Leite, Pedro Leão, Amana G Garrido, Ulysses Lins, Henrique F Santos, Débora O Pires, Clovis B Castro, Jan D van Elsas, Carla Zilberberg, Alexandre S Rosado, Raquel S Peixoto
The hologenome theory of evolution (HTE), which is under fierce debate, presupposes that parts of the microbiome are transmitted from one generation to the next [vertical transmission (VT)], which may also influence the evolution of the holobiont. Even though bacteria have previously been described in early life stages of corals, these early life stages (larvae) could have been inoculated in the water and not inside the parental colony (through gametes) carrying the parental microbiome. How Symbiodinium is transmitted to offspring is also not clear, as only one study has described this mechanism in spawners...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220606/lamarck-rises-from-his-grave-parental-environment-induced-epigenetic-inheritance-in-model-organisms-and-humans
#4
Yan Wang, Huijie Liu, Zhongsheng Sun
Organisms can change their physiological/behavioural traits to adapt and survive in changed environments. However, whether these acquired traits can be inherited across generations through non-genetic alterations has been a topic of debate for over a century. Emerging evidence indicates that both ancestral and parental experiences, including nutrition, environmental toxins, nurturing behaviour, and social stress, can have powerful effects on the physiological, metabolic and cellular functions in an organism...
February 20, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219264/we-are-not-gametes-distinguishing-between-abortion-and-contraception
#5
Toni Saad
It is sometimes argued that interruptions of the life's continuum which have the same end result are morally equivalent. In other words, abortion and contraception are ethically identical because both prevent birth and the development of persons. We will examine two major arguments in favour of this thesis: (1) all things that are potential persons have equal moral status. Hence preventing fertilisation of gametes is morally identical to destroying an embryo; (2) all interruptions of the continuous process which leads to the creation of a person are morally equivalent; abortion and contraception are morally indistinguishable...
November 2016: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215683/effects-of-hormonal-stimulation-on-the-concentration-and-quality-of-excreted-spermatozoa-in-the-critically-endangered-panamanian-golden-frog-atelopus-zeteki
#6
Gina Della Togna, Vance L Trudeau, Brian Gratwicke, Matthew Evans, Lauren Augustine, Han Chia, Edward J Bronikowski, James B Murphy, Pierre Comizzoli
Knowledge of basic gamete biology is critical to better protect and propagate endangered amphibian species and also to develop reproductive technologies combined with germplasm cryopreservation. The objectives of the study were to test different hormonal stimulations and then characterize the quantity and quality of Panamanian golden frog (Atelopus zeteki) spermatozoa. Following intraperitoneal injection of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (des-Gly(10), D-Ala(6), Pro-NHEt(9-)-GnRH 1, 2 or 4 μg/g of body weight), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG; 5 or 10 IU/gbw), or Amphiplex™ (0...
March 15, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215675/basic-fibroblast-growth-factor-is-critical-to-reprogramming-buffalo-bubalus-bubalis-primordial-germ-cells-into-embryonic-germ-stem-cell-like-cells
#7
Caizhu Wang, Yanfei Deng, Feng Chen, Peng Zhu, Jingwei Wei, Chan Luo, Fenghua Lu, Sufang Yang, Deshun Shi
Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are destined to form gametes in vivo, and they can be reprogrammed into pluripotent embryonic germ (EG) cells in vitro. Buffalo PGC have been reported to be reprogrammed into EG-like cells, but the identities of the major signaling pathways and culture media involved in this derivation remain unclear. Here, the effects of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and downstream signaling pathways on the reprogramming of buffalo PGCs into EG-like cells were investigated. Results showed bFGF to be critical to buffalo PGCs to dedifferentiate into EG-like cells (20 ng/mL is optimal) with many characteristics of pluripotent stem cells, including alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity, expression of pluripotency marker genes such as OCT4, NANOG, SOX2, SSEA-1, CDH1, and TRA-1-81, and the capacity to differentiate into all three embryonic germ layers...
March 15, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214372/canonical-and-cellular-pathways-timing-gamete-release-in-acropora-digitifera-okinawa-japan
#8
Y Rosenberg, T Doniger, S Harii, F Sinniger, O Levy
Natural light cycles are important for synchronizing behavioral and physiological rhythms over varying time-periods in both plants and animals. An endogenous clock, regulated by positive and negative elements, interacting in feedback loops, control these rhythms. Many corals exhibit diel cycles of polyp expansion and contraction entrained by solar light patterns and monthly cycles of spawning or planulation that correspond to nocturnal lunar light cycles. However, despite considerable interest in studies of coral reproduction, there is currently not enough molecular information about the cellular pathways involved with synchronizing spawning/planulation in broadcast spawners and brooders...
February 18, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211057/reproductive-energy-expenditure-and-changes-in-body-morphology-for-a-population-of-chinook-salmon-oncorhynchus-tshawytscha-with-a-long-distance-migration
#9
T E Bowerman, A Pinson-Dumm, C A Peery, C C Caudill
Energetic demands of a long freshwater migration, extended holding period, gamete development and spawning were evaluated for a population of stream-type Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Female and male somatic mass decreased by 24 and 21%, respectively, during migration and by an additional 18 and 12% during holding. Between freshwater entry and death after spawning, females allocated 14% of initial somatic energy towards gonad development and 78% for metabolism (46, 25 and 7% during migration, holding and spawning, respectively)...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210479/pregnant-after-assisted-reproduction-a-risk-pregnancy-is-born-18-years-perinatal-outcome-results-from-a-population-based-registry-in-flanders-belgium
#10
W Ombelet, G Martens, L Bruckers
BACKGROUND: Although the increased risk for perinatal morbidity and mortality of babies born after ART is largely attributed to a higher rate of multiple gestations, a significantly worse perinatal outcome for singleton pregnancies following ART compared to pregnancies after natural conception has been reported as well. Most studies only include IVF/ICSI pregnancies; studies describing the perinatal outcome of pregnancies after non-IVF assisted reproduction are scarce. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Population-based cohort study with three exposure groups: a study group of pregnancies (1) after ovarian stimulation (OS), with or without artificial insemination (AI), (2) after IFV or ICSI and (3) a naturally conceived (NC) comparison group...
December 2016: Facts, Views & Vision in ObGyn
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208750/the-consequences-of-chromosome-segregation-errors-in-mitosis-and-meiosis
#11
REVIEW
Tamara Potapova, Gary J Gorbsky
Mistakes during cell division frequently generate changes in chromosome content, producing aneuploid or polyploid progeny cells. Polyploid cells may then undergo abnormal division to generate aneuploid cells. Chromosome segregation errors may also involve fragments of whole chromosomes. A major consequence of segregation defects is change in the relative dosage of products from genes located on the missegregated chromosomes. Abnormal expression of transcriptional regulators can also impact genes on the properly segregated chromosomes...
February 8, 2017: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205220/comprehensive-genome-profiling-of-single-sperm-cells-by-multiple-annealing-and-looping-based-amplification-cycles-and-next-generation-sequencing-from-carriers-of-robertsonian-translocation
#12
Yanwei Sha, Yankun Sha, Zhiyong Ji, Lu Ding, Qing Zhang, Honggen Ouyang, Shaobin Lin, Xu Wang, Lin Shao, Chong Shi, Ping Li, Yueqiang Song
Robertsonian translocation (RT) is a common cause for male infertility, recurrent pregnancy loss, and birth defects. Studying meiotic recombination in RT-carrier patients helps decipher the mechanism and improve the clinical management of infertility and birth defects caused by RT. Here we present a new method to study spermatogenesis on a single-gamete basis from two RT carriers. By using a combined single-cell whole-genome amplification and sequencing protocol, we comprehensively profiled the chromosomal copy number of 88 single sperms from two RT-carrier patients...
March 2017: Annals of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202061/in-vitro-generation-of-sertoli-like-and-haploid-spermatid-like-cells-from-human-umbilical-cord-perivascular-cells
#13
Ekaterina Shlush, Leila Maghen, Sonja Swanson, Shlomit Kenigsberg, Sergey Moskovtsev, Tanya Barretto, Andrée Gauthier-Fisher, Clifford L Librach
BACKGROUND: First trimester (FTM) and term human umbilical cord-derived perivascular cells (HUCPVCs), which are rich sources of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), can give rise to Sertoli cell (SC)-like as well as haploid germ cell (GC)-like cells in vitro using culture conditions that recapitulate the testicular niche. Gamete-like cells have been produced ex vivo using pluripotent stem cells as well as MSCs. However, the production of functional gametes from human stem cells has yet to be achieved...
February 15, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202046/highly-predictive-snp-markers-for-efficient-selection-of-the-wheat-leaf-rust-resistance-gene-lr16
#14
Mulualem T Kassa, Frank M You, Colin W Hiebert, Curtis J Pozniak, Pierre R Fobert, Andrew G Sharpe, James G Menzies, D Gavin Humphreys, Nicole Rezac Harrison, John P Fellers, Brent D McCallum, Curt A McCartney
BACKGROUND: Lr16 is a widely deployed leaf rust resistance gene in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) that is highly effective against the North American Puccinia triticina population when pyramided with the gene Lr34. Lr16 is a seedling leaf rust resistance gene conditioning an incompatible interaction with a distinct necrotic ring surrounding the uredinium. Lr16 was previously mapped to the telomeric region of the short arm of wheat chromosome 2B. The goals of this study were to develop numerous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for the Lr16 region and identify diagnostic gene-specific SNP marker assays for marker-assisted selection (MAS)...
February 15, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199673/local-signalling-pathways-regulate-the-arabidopsis-root-developmental-response-to-mesorhizobium-loti-inoculation
#15
A Poitout, A Martinière, B Kucharczyk, N Queruel, J Silva-Andia, S Mashkoor, L Gamet, F Varoquaux, N Paris, H Sentenac, B Touraine, G Desbrosses
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 11, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197913/wrestling-with-chromosomes-the-roles-of-sumo-during-meiosis
#16
Amanda C Nottke, Hyun-Min Kim, Monica P Colaiácovo
Meiosis is a specialized form of cell division required for the formation of haploid gametes and therefore is essential for successful sexual reproduction. Various steps are exquisitely coordinated to ensure accurate chromosome segregation during meiosis, thereby promoting the formation of haploid gametes from diploid cells. Recent studies are demonstrating that an important form of regulation during meiosis is exerted by the post-translational protein modification known as sumoylation. Here, we review and discuss the various critical steps of meiosis in which SUMO-mediated regulation has been implicated thus far...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194463/improved-bovine-embryo-production-in-an-oviduct-on-a-chip-system-prevention-of-poly-spermic-fertilization-and-parthenogenic-activation
#17
Marcia A M M Ferraz, Heiko H W Henning, Pedro F Costa, Jos Malda, Ferry P Melchels, R Wubbolts, Tom A E Stout, Peter L A M Vos, Bart M Gadella
The oviduct provides the natural micro-environment for gamete interaction, fertilization and early embryo development in mammals, such as the cow. In conventional culture systems, bovine oviduct epithelial cells (BOEC) undergo a rapid loss of essential differentiated cell properties; we aimed to develop a more physiological in vitro oviduct culture system capable of supporting fertilization. U-shaped chambers were produced using stereo-lithography and mounted with polycarbonate membranes, which were used as culture inserts for primary BOECs...
February 14, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191011/oxidative-stress-promotes-asexual-reproduction-and-apogamy-in-the-red-seaweed-pyropia-yezoensis
#18
Megumu Takahashi, Koji Mikami
The marine red seaweed Pyropia yezoensis has a haploid-diploid life cycle wherein two heteromorphic generations, a haploid gametophyte and a diploid sporophyte, are reciprocally generated from conchospores and carpospores, respectively. When we treated gametophytic blades of P. yezoensis with H2O2, discharge of asexual monospores was accelerated, resulting in increased numbers of gametophytic clones. Production of sporophytes without fertilization of male and female gametes was also observed. These findings indicate that oxidative stress can induce vegetative cells to develop into monospores that produce gametophytes asexually and can sometimes prompt carpospores to develop into sporophytes...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190776/regulators-of-alternative-polyadenylation-operate-at-the-transition-from-mitosis-to-meiosis
#19
Lingjuan Shan, Chan Wu, Di Chen, Lei Hou, Xin Li, Lixia Wang, Xiao Chu, Yifeng Hou, Zhaohui Wang
In the sexually reproductive organisms, gametes are produced by meiosis following a limited mitotic amplification. However, the intrinsic program switching cells from mitotic to meiotic cycle is unclear. Alternative polyadenylation (APA) is a highly conserved means of gene regulation and is achieved by the RNA 3'-processing machinery to generate diverse 3'UTR profiles. In Drosophila spermatogenesis, we observed distinct profiles of transcriptome-wide 3'UTR between mitotic and meiotic cells. In mutant germ cells stuck in mitosis, 3'UTRs of hundreds of genes were consistently shifted...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Genetics and Genomics, Yi Chuan Xue Bao
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188480/sexual-reproduction-and-sex-determination-in-green-algae
#20
Hiroyuki Sekimoto
The sexual reproductive processes of some representative freshwater green algae are reviewed. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a unicellular volvocine alga having two mating types: mating type plus (mt(+)) and mating type minus (mt(-)), which are controlled by a single, complex mating-type locus. Sexual adhesion between the gametes is mediated by sex-specific agglutinin molecules on their flagellar membranes. Cell fusion is initiated by an adhesive interaction between the mt(+) and mt(-) mating structures, followed by localized membrane fusion...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
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