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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438852/the-use-of-proteomics-in-assisted-reproduction
#1
REVIEW
Ioanna Kosteria, Athanasios K Anagnostopoulos, Christina Kanaka-Gantenbein, George P Chrousos, George T Tsangaris
Despite the explosive increase in the use of Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART) over the last 30 years, their success rates remain suboptimal. Proteomics is a rapidly-evolving technology-driven science that has already been widely applied in the exploration of human reproduction and fertility, providing useful insights into its physiology and leading to the identification of numerous proteins that may be potential biomarkers and/or treatment targets of a successful ART pregnancy. Here we present a brief overview of the techniques used in proteomic analyses and attempt a comprehensive presentation of recent data from mass spectrometry-based proteomic studies in humans, regarding all components of ARTs, including the male and female gamete, the derived zygote and embryo, the endometrium and, finally, the ART offspring both pre- and postnatally...
May 2017: In Vivo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434146/differential-regulation-of-h3s10-phosphorylation-mitosis-progression-and-cell-fate-by-aurora-kinase-b-and-c-in-mouse-preimplantation-embryos
#2
Wenzhi Li, Peizhe Wang, Bingjie Zhang, Jing Zhang, Jia Ming, Wei Xie, Jie Na
Coordination of cell division and cell fate is crucial for the successful development of mammalian early embryos. Aurora kinases are evolutionarily conserved serine/threonine kinases and key regulators of mitosis. Aurora kinase B (AurkB) is ubiquitously expressed while Aurora kinase C (AurkC) is specifically expressed in gametes and preimplantation embryos. We found that increasing AurkC level in one blastomere of the 2-cell embryo accelerated cell division and decreasing AurkC level slowed down mitosis. Changing AurkB level had the opposite effect...
April 22, 2017: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432827/parenting-stress-and-its-association-with-perceived-agreement-about-the-disclosure-decision-in-parents-following-donor-conception
#3
Anja J Gebhardt, Gunilla Sydsjö, Agneta Skoog Svanberg, Astrid Indekeu, Claudia Lampic
For many donor-conceiving heterosexual parents, the process of deciding whether and what to tell children about their genetic origin is challenging. We hypothesized that incomplete couple agreement about disclosure could be associated with parenting stress. The aim of the study was to investigate (1) parenting stress levels among heterosexual parents of young children following gamete donation and (2) whether parenting stress is related to perceived agreement about disclosure of the donor conception to the children MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study is part of the longitudinal multicenter Swedish Study on Gamete Donation and included a total of 213 heterosexual parents with children age 1-4 years following oocyte donation (n = 103) and sperm donation (n = 110)...
April 22, 2017: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431857/modeling-human-infertility-with-pluripotent-stem-cells
#4
Di Chen, Joanna J Gell, Yu Tao, Enrique Sosa, Amander T Clark
Human fertility is dependent upon the correct establishment and differentiation of the germline. This is because no other cell type in the body is capable of passing a genome and epigenome from parent to child. Terminally differentiated germline cells in the adult testis and ovary are called gametes. However, the initial specification of germline cells occurs in the embryo around the time of gastrulation. Most of our knowledge regarding the cell and molecular events that govern human germline specification involves extrapolating scientific principles from model organisms, most notably the mouse...
April 13, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428215/blocked-transcription-through-kvdmr1-results-in-absence-of-methylation-and-gene-silencing-resembling-beckwith-wiedemann-syndrome
#5
Vir B Singh, Sirinapa Sribenja, Kayla E Wilson, Kristopher M Attwood, Joanna C Hillman, Shilpa Pathak, Michael J Higgins
The maternally methylated KvDMR1 ICR regulates imprinted expression of a cluster of maternally-expressed genes on human chromosome 11p15.5. Disruption of imprinting leads to Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS), an overgrowth and cancer predisposition condition. In the majority of BWS patients, maternal-specific methylation at KvDMR1 is absent and genes under its control are repressed. We analyzed a mouse model carrying a poly(A) truncation cassette inserted to prevent RNA transcripts from elongation through KvDMR1...
April 20, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423955/double-ovarian-stimulation-duostim-protocol-for-fertility-preservation-in-female-oncology-patients
#6
Nikolaos Tsampras, Della Gould, Cheryl T Fitzgerald
This article describes a revised ovarian stimulation protocol (DuoStim) for fertility preservation in female oncology patients which aims to maximise the number of gametes obtained with subsequent improvement in cumulative birth rate, without delaying cancer treatment. Ten patients diagnosed with malignancy between September 2014 and October 2015 were included. The patients were treated with the DuoStim protocol, undergoing two consecutive ovarian stimulation cycles and two oocyte retrievals. The primary outcome was the number of oocytes collected and vitrified during each oocyte retrieval and in total...
February 9, 2017: Human Fertility: Journal of the British Fertility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421509/appendix-e-rapid-i-tm-closed-vitrification-device-by-vitrolife
#7
Mark G Larman
Cryopreservation of gametes and embryos is a growing technique in numerous reproductive fields including human-assisted reproduction. With improved understanding of embryo physiology and optimized culture conditions, there are now more embryos than ever to vitrify for potential use in subsequent cycles. Many gametes and embryos have been cryopreserved in open systems, but there are concerns with regard to contamination from the liquid nitrogen and also cross-contamination between patients' germplasm. The development of the Rapid-i™, a closed vitrification device that does not use direct contact with liquid nitrogen during vitrification or subsequent storage, will be discussed as well as clinical protocols for human oocytes and embryos...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421508/appendix-d-irvine-scientific-%C3%A2-vitrification-system
#8
Matthew VerMilyea, Amber Brewer
This chapter will describe the use of the Irvine Scientific(®) vitrification and warming solutions (Vit Kits(®)) along with a detailed protocol for the correct use of the CryoTip(®) vitrification device for human embryos and oocytes. Successful pregnancies have been reported after carrying out rapid vitrification methods of oocytes, cleavage stage embryos, and blastocysts using the CryoTip(®) (Popwell et al. Fertil Steril, 101:e20, 2014; Kuwayama et al. Reprod Biomed 11:608-614, 2005; Kuwayama et al. Fertil Steril 84:S187, 2005; Kuwayama et al...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421506/appendix-b-solid-surface-vitrification
#9
Mohan S Kamath, K Muthukumar
Solid surface vitrification method involves direct contact of carrier loaded with droplet containing gametes or embryos with precooled metal surface. Over the years, following certain modifications, solid surface vitrification has emerged as an efficient method for vitrifying human gametes and embryos. Here, we describe the principle and methodology of solid surface vitrification.
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421503/chapter-19-cryopreservation-effect-on-genetic-function-neonatal-outcomes
#10
Vanesa Robles, Marta F Riesco, David G Valcarce
Cryopreservation is a well-established technique commonly used in clinical practice. It is used widely for the conservation of gametes and embryos that will be used later for insemination or in vitro fertilization. However, several studies have shown that this technique can produce changes in messenger RNA levels, in the epigenome and induce DNA damage. Although the embryo has potent mechanisms for DNA repair, and molecular changes in spermatozoa are not necessarily reflected in the embryo, it is important to explore new molecular tests and diagnostic tools to design optimal cryopreservation protocols and avoid undesirable molecular alterations...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421502/chapter-18-vitrification-a-reliable-method-for-cryopreservation-of-animal-embryos
#11
B Singh, G Mal, S K Singla
The impact of cryopreservation in assisted reproduction is increasingly appreciated. Cells, oocytes, and embryos preserved under ultralow temperature can endure storage for indefinite time with almost no alteration in their metabolic and genetic components. Advances in cryopreservation and its applications to preserve cells, gametes, and embryos offer opportunities in conservation of biodiversity and dissemination of elite livestock germplasm. This chapter describes the vitrification for cryopreservation of livestock embryos...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421499/chapter-15-development-of-a-nationwide-network-for-ovarian-tissue-cryopreservation
#12
Jana Liebenthron, Markus Montag
Ovarian tissue cryopreservation is gaining much interest since the publication of the first live birth after retransplantation of frozen-thawed tissue in 2004 (Donnez et al., Lancet 364:1405-1410, 2004). In contrast to cryopreservation of gametes and embryos, ovarian tissue freezing is a complex requiring a proper approach in order to make this a viable option for fertility preservation of cancer patients. Due to the need in terms of laboratory space, equipment, personnel, and adequate logistics, an ovarian tissue cryobank is most economic if managed as a centralized service unit that interacts with numerous clinics covering the surgical part...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421485/chapter-1-historical-background-on-gamete-and-embryo-cryopreservation
#13
Jaffar Ali, Naif H AlHarbi, Nafisa Ali
This chapter describes the development of the science of cryopreservation of gametes and embryos of various species including human. It attempts to record in brief the main contributions of workers in their attempts to cryopreserve gametes and embryos. The initial difficulties faced and subsequent developments and triumphs leading to present-day state of the art are given in a concise manner. The main players and their contributions are mentioned and the authors' aim is to do justice to them. This work also attempts to ensure that credit is correctly attributed for significant advances in gamete and embryo cryopreservation...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416032/physiological-metabolic-and-transcriptional-postnatal-phenotypes-of-in-vitro-fertilization-ivf-in-the-mouse
#14
S K Feuer, P F Rinaudo
Approximately 1-4% of children today are conceived using assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs), including in vitro fertilization (IVF). IVF is considered safe and the great majority of these children are healthy, yet there is increasing physiological and molecular evidence from animal models that ART is associated with postnatal metabolic and cardiovascular alterations. Understanding the mechanisms underlying these changes and determining whether they have biological significance is of paramount importance for optimizing the design of culture conditions and improving the health of ART children across the life course...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410750/assessing-the-impact-of-diclofenac-ibuprofen-and-sildenafil-citrate-viagra-%C3%A2-on-the-fertilisation-biology-of-broadcast-spawning-marine-invertebrates
#15
Norlaila Binti Mohd Zanuri, Matthew G Bentley, Gary S Caldwell
Exposure to synthetic chemicals is a key environmental challenge faced by aquatic organisms. The time and dose effects of the pharmaceuticals diclofenac, ibuprofen, and sildenafil citrate on sperm motility and successful fertilisation are studied using the echinoderms, Asterias rubens and Psammechinus miliaris, and the polychaete worm Arenicola marina, all important components of the marine benthos. Motility was reduced for all species when exposed to diclofenac concentrations ≥0.1 μg/L. Exposure to ≥1...
April 8, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410129/epigenetics-of-reproductive-infertility
#16
Laxmidhar Das, Sabnam Parbin, Nibedita Pradhan, Chahat Kausar, Samir K Patra
Infertility is a complex pathophysiological condition. It may caused by specific or multiple physical and physiological factors, including abnormalities in homeostasis, hormonal imbalances and genetic alterations. In recent times various studies implicated that, aberrant epigenetic mechanisms are associated with reproductive infertility. There might be transgenerational effects associated with epigenetic modifications of gametes and studies suggest the importance of alterations in epigenetic modification at early and late stages of gametogenesis...
June 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410126/fertilization-failure-and-gamete-health-is-there-a-link
#17
Snehil Budhwar, Vertika Singh, Priyanka Verma, Kiran Singh
Fertilization is a hallmark event of sexual reproduction marked by the fusion of male and female gamete to form zygote. It is a highly complex, yet a robust process that is intricately regulated by various signalling molecules. A healthy fertilization is determined by the quality of zygote which is contingent on the health of egg and sperm. The relationship between infertility and gametic health can be reciprocal. On one hand gametogenesis has to be dynamic and unremitting to sustain the reproductive health, while on the other hand it has to be error free for proper embryonic development...
June 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409310/asymmetries-and-symmetries-in-the-mouse-oocyte-and-zygote
#18
Agathe Chaigne, Marie-Emilie Terret, Marie-Hélène Verlhac
Mammalian oocytes grow periodically after puberty thanks to the dialogue with their niche in the follicle. This communication between somatic and germ cells promotes the accumulation, inside the oocyte, of maternal RNAs, proteins and other molecules that will sustain the two gamete divisions and early embryo development up to its implantation. In order to preserve their stock of maternal products, oocytes from all species divide twice minimizing the volume of their daughter cells to their own benefit. For this, they undergo asymmetric divisions in size where one main objective is to locate the division spindle with its chromosomes off-centred...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408472/the-sweet-side-of-the-cell-cycle
#19
REVIEW
Ee Phie Tan, Francesca E Duncan, Chad Slawson
Cell division (mitosis) and gamete production (meiosis) are fundamental requirements for normal organismal development. The mammalian cell cycle is tightly regulated by different checkpoints ensuring complete and precise chromosomal segregation and duplication. In recent years, researchers have become increasingly interested in understanding how O-GlcNAc regulates the cell cycle. The O-GlcNAc post-translation modification is an O-glycosidic bond of a single β-N-acetylglucosamine sugar to serine/threonine residues of intracellular proteins...
April 15, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404936/systematic-identification-and-comparison-of-expressed-profiles-of-lncrnas-and-circrnas-with-associated-co-expression-and-cerna-networks-in-mouse-germline-stem-cells
#20
Xiaoyong Li, Junping Ao, Ji Wu
Accumulating evidence indicates that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) and circular RNAs (circRNAs) involve in germ cell development. However, little is known about the functions and mechanisms of lncRNAs and circRNAs in self-renewal and differentiation of germline stem cells. Therefore, we explored the expression profiles of mRNAs, lncRNAs, and circRNAs in male and female mouse germline stem cells by high-throughput sequencing. We identified 18573 novel lncRNAs and 18822 circRNAs in the germline stem cells and further confirmed the existence of these lncRNAs and circRNAs by RT-PCR...
February 25, 2017: Oncotarget
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