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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533980/mitochondrial-complex-i-deficiency-leads-to-the-retardation-of-early-embryonic-development-in-ndufs4-knockout-mice
#1
Mei Wang, Ya-Ping Huang, Han Wu, Ke Song, Cong Wan, A-Ni Chi, Ya-Mei Xiao, Xiao-Yang Zhao
BACKGROUND: The NDUFS4 gene encodes an 18-kD subunit of mitochondria complex I, and mutations in this gene lead to the development of a severe neurodegenerative disease called Leigh syndrome (LS) in humans. To investigate the disease phenotypes and molecular mechanisms of Leigh syndrome, the Ndufs4 knockout (KO) mouse has been widely used as a novel animal model. Because the homozygotes cannot survive beyond child-bearing age, whether Ndufs4 and mitochondrial complex I influence early embryonic development remains unknown...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533904/-this-is-where-it-all-started-the-pivotal-role-of-plc%C3%AE-within-the-sophisticated-process-of-mammalian-reproduction-a-systemic-review
#2
Itai Gat, Raoul Orvieto
Mammalian reproduction is one of the most complex and fascinating biological phenomenon, which aims to transfer maternal and paternal genetic material to the next generation. At the end of oogenesis and spermatogenesis, both haploid gametes contain a single set of chromosomes ready to form the zygote, the first cell of the newly developing individual. The mature oocyte and spermatozoa remain in a quiescent state, during which the oocyte is characterized by nuclear and cytoplasmic arrest, while the spermatozoa necessitates further maturation within the epididymis and female reproductive track prior to egg fertilization...
2017: Basic and Clinical Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533361/healthy-offspring-from-freeze-dried-mouse-spermatozoa-held-on-the-international-space-station-for-9-months
#3
Sayaka Wakayama, Yuko Kamada, Kaori Yamanaka, Takashi Kohda, Hiromi Suzuki, Toru Shimazu, Motoki N Tada, Ikuko Osada, Aiko Nagamatsu, Satoshi Kamimura, Hiroaki Nagatomo, Eiji Mizutani, Fumitoshi Ishino, Sachiko Yano, Teruhiko Wakayama
If humans ever start to live permanently in space, assisted reproductive technology using preserved spermatozoa will be important for producing offspring; however, radiation on the International Space Station (ISS) is more than 100 times stronger than that on Earth, and irradiation causes DNA damage in cells and gametes. Here we examined the effect of space radiation on freeze-dried mouse spermatozoa held on the ISS for 9 mo at -95 °C, with launch and recovery at room temperature. DNA damage to the spermatozoa and male pronuclei was slightly increased, but the fertilization and birth rates were similar to those of controls...
May 22, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532845/characterization-of-undifferentiated-spermatogonia-and-the-spermatogonial-niche-in-the-lambari-fish-astyanax-altiparanae
#4
Marília de Paiva Camargo, Mônica Cassel, Lázaro Wender Oliveira de Jesus, Rafael Henrique Nóbrega, Maria Inês Borella
Undifferentiated type A spermatogonia are the foundation of fish spermatogenesis. This cell population includes the spermatogonial stem cell population, which is able to either self-renew or differentiate into cells that will generate the male gamete - the spermatozoa. Spermatogonia stem cells are located in a specific region of the testes known as the spermatogonial niche, which regulates spermatogonial stem cell function. This study characterizes undifferentiated type A spermatogonia and their S-phase label-retaining cell properties in Astyanax altiparanae testes...
July 1, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527703/sperm-oocyte-contact-induces-outside-in-signaling-via-pyk2-activation
#5
Huizhen Wang, Jinping Luo, Carol Carlton, Lynda K McGinnis, William H Kinsey
Fertilization is a multi-step process that begins with plasma membrane interactions that enable sperm - oocyte binding followed by fusion of the sperm and oocyte plasma membranes. Once membrane fusion has occurred, sperm incorporation involves actin remodeling events within the oocyte cortex that allow the sperm head to penetrate the cortical actin layer and gain access to the ooplasm. Despite the significance for reproduction, the control mechanisms involved in gamete binding, fusion, and sperm incorporation are poorly understood...
May 17, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526652/retinoic-acid-induces-differentiation-of-buffalo-bubalus-bubalis-embryonic-stem-cells-into-germ-cells
#6
Syed Mohmad Shah, Suresh Kumar Singla, Prabhat Palta, Radhey Sham Manik, Manmohan Singh Chauhan
Development of precise and reproducible culture system for in vitro differentiation of embryonic stem (ES) cells into germ cells counts as a major leap forward for understanding not only the remarkable process of gametogenesis, otherwise obscured by limited availability of precursor primordial germ cells (PGCs), but in finally treating the catastrophic infertility. Taking into account the significant role of retinoic acid (RA) during in vivo gametogenesis, we designed the present study to investigate the effects of its stimulation on directing the differentiation of ES cells into germ cells...
May 16, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523637/the-invention-of-artificial-fertilization-in-the-eighteenth-and-nineteenth-century
#7
Barbara Orland
Artificial insemination and other fertilization techniques are today considered central to the history of reproductive medicine. The medical treatment of infertile couples, however, constitutes just a small part of the whole story of artificial fertilization. Lazzaro Spallanzani (1729-1799) in particular, said to have been the inventor of artificial insemination, did not develop this method for medical purposes. He belonged to a generation of naturalists to whom artificial insemination was part of a heterogeneous series of investigations that were undertaken to explore the natural history of animal generation...
June 2017: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514186/apc-c-cdc20-mediates-deprotection-of-centromeric-cohesin-at-meiosis-ii-in-yeast
#8
Katarzyna Jonak, Ievgeniia Zagoriy, Tugce Oz, Peter Graf, Julie Rojas, Valentina Mengoli, Wolfgang Zachariae
Cells undergoing meiosis produce haploid gametes through one round of DNA replication followed by two rounds of chromosome segregation. This requires that cohesin complexes, which establish sister chromatid cohesion during S phase, are removed in a stepwise manner. At meiosis I, the separase protease triggers the segregation of homologous chromosomes by cleaving cohesin's Rec8 subunit on chromosome arms. Cohesin persists at centromeres because the PP2A phosphatase, recruited by the shugoshin protein, dephosphorylates Rec8 and thereby protects it from cleavage...
May 17, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513410/-what-if-the-sperm-donor-has-a-hereditary-disease-informed-consent-needed-for-sharing-medical-information
#9
J J van der Smagt, L C Govaerts, S G M Frints
There are no regulations in the Netherlands regarding the exchange of important genetic information that has become available after the birth of a child conceived with donor gametes. This may lead to difficult situations such as when the gamete donor is found to suffer from a genetic cancer-predisposition disorder. Genetic information about the donor that becomes available later may be of great importance to donor offspring. Genetic information uncovered in the donor child may likewise be of importance to legal offspring of the gamete donor...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512086/two-loci-contribute-epistastically-to-heterospecific-pollen-rejection-a-postmating-isolating-barrier-between-species
#10
Jennafer A P Hamlin, Natasha A Sherman, Leonie C Moyle
Recognition and rejection of heterospecific male gametes occurs in a broad range of taxa, although the complexity of mechanisms underlying these components of postmating cryptic female choice is poorly understood. In plants, the arena for postmating interactions is the female reproductive tract (pistil), within which heterospecific pollen tube growth can be arrested via active molecular recognition and rejection. Unilateral incompatibility (UI) is one such postmating barrier in which pollen arrest occurs in only one direction of an interspecific cross...
May 16, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507350/amplification-of-mitochondrial-dna-for-detection-of-plasmodiumvivax-in-balochistan
#11
Muhammad Naeem Shahwani, Samia Nisar, Abdul Aleem, Marina Panezai, Sarwat Afridi, Shaukat Iqbal Malik
OBJECTIVE: To access a new step using PCR to amplify the targeted mtDNA sequence for detecting specifically Plasmodium vivax and its co-infections, false positive and false negative results with Plasmodium falciparum. METHODS: In this study we have standardized a new technical approach in which the target mitochondrial DNA sequence (mtDNA) was amplified by using a PCR technique as a tool to detect Plasmodium spp. Species specific primers were designed to hybridize with cytochrome c oxidase gene of P...
May 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506992/reduced-mad2-levels-dampen-apoptotic-response-to-non-exchange-sex-chromosomes-and-lead-to-sperm-aneuploidy
#12
Imrul Faisal, Liisa Kauppi
In meiosis, non-exchange homologous chromosomes are at risk for missegregation and should be monitored by the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) to avoid formation of aneuploid gametes. Sex chromosome missegregation is particularly common and can lead to sterility or to aneuploid offspring (e.g. individuals with Turner or Klinefelter syndrome). Despite major implications for health and reproduction, modifiers of meiotic SAC robustness and the subsequent apoptotic response in male mammals remain obscure. Levels of SAC proteins, e...
May 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506326/a-model-to-infer-the-demographic-structure-evolution-of-endangered-donkey-populations
#13
F J Navas, J Jordana, J M León, C Barba, J V Delgado
Stemming from The Worldwide Donkey Breeds Project, an initiative aiming at connecting international researchers and entities working with the donkey species, molecularly tested pedigree analyses were carried out to study the genetic diversity, structure and historical evolution of the Andalusian donkey breed since the 1980s to infer a model to study the situation of international endangered donkey breeds under the remarkably frequent unknown genetical background status behind them. Demographic and genetic variability parameters were evaluated using ENDOG (v4...
May 16, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503871/subcellular-distribution-of-calcium-during-spermatogenesis-of-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#14
Amin Golpour, Martin Pšenička, Hamid Niksirat
Calcium plays a variety of vital regulatory functions in many physiological and biochemical events in the cell. The aim of this study was to describe the ultrastructural distribution of calcium during different developmental stages of spermatogenesis in a model organism, the zebrafish (Danio rerio), using a combined oxalate-pyroantimonate technique. Samples were treated by potassium oxalate and potassium pyroantimonate during two fixation stages and examined using transmission electron microscopy to detect electron dense intracellular calcium...
May 14, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501370/gamete-donation-current-practices-public-opinion-and-unanswered-questions
#15
EDITORIAL
Leena Nahata, Nathanael Stanley, Gwendolyn Quinn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 10, 2017: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497913/role-of-antioxidants-in-assisted-reproductive-techniques
#16
REVIEW
Ashok Agarwal, Ahmad Majzoub
Oxidative stress (OS) has been recognized as a significant cause of suboptimal assisted reproductive outcome. Many of the sperm preparation and manipulation procedures that are necessary in the in vitro environment can result in excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) thereby exposing the gametes and growing embryos to significant oxidative damage. Antioxidants have long been utilized in the management of male subfertility as they can counterbalance the elevated levels of ROS inducing a high state of OS...
April 30, 2017: World Journal of Men's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495501/semen-modulated-secretory-activity-of-oviductal-epithelial-cells-is-linked-to-cellular-proteostasis-network-remodeling-proteomic-insights-into-the-early-phase-of-interaction-in-the-oviduct-in-vivo
#17
Birgit Steinberger, Hans Yu, Theodor Brodmann, Daniela Milovanovic, Ursula Reichart, Urban Besenfelder, Konstantin Artemenko, Ebrahim Razzazi-Fazeli, Gottfried Brem, Corina Mayrhofer
The oviductal epithelium is crucial for the integrity of the female organ. Previously we got evidence that the surface proteome of oviductal epithelial cells (Oecs) is promptly altered in response to insemination and thus suggested that this early phase plays a notable regulatory role in maintaining cellular function. This study further aimed to assess the effect of semen on the cellular and molecular mechanisms in rabbit Oecs. A quantitative gel-based proteomic approach was applied to analyze changes at three time points (0h, 1h, 2h) after intrauterine insemination (IUI) compared to time matched controls...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491120/microscopy-of-physcomitrella-patens-sperm-cells
#18
Nelly A Horst, Ralf Reski
BACKGROUND: Archegoniates (bryophytes, ferns and gymnosperms), such as the moss Physcomitrella patens, possess freely motile sperm cells (spermatozoids) which reach the egg cell via surface water. Although these motile flagellated sperm cells are a traditional botanical subject, they have not been thoroughly analysed in the flagship non-seed plant model species P. patens. Protocols are required to determine the behaviour of wild type sperms as a prerequisite for future research such as the characterization of mutants or factors that influence sperm number, morphology, viability and motility...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486372/pregnancy-outcomes-after-fertility-preservation-in-transgender-men
#19
Susan Maxwell, Nicole Noyes, David Keefe, Alan S Berkeley, Kara N Goldman
BACKGROUND: Transgender individuals, individuals whose gender identity does not align with their sex assigned at birth, undergoing gender-affirming hormonal or surgical therapies may experience loss of fertility. Assisted reproductive technologies have expanded family-building options for transgender men who were assigned female at birth. CASES: Three transgender men underwent oocyte cryopreservation before gender-affirming hormonal therapy. One patient underwent fertility preservation as an adolescent...
June 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483876/reproductive-barriers-in-indica-japonica-rice-hybrids-are-uncovered-by-transcriptome-analysis
#20
Yanfen Zhu, Yiming Yu, Ke Cheng, Yidan Ouyang, Jia Wang, Liang Gong, Qinghua Zhang, Xianghua Li, Jinghua Xiao, Qifa Zhang
In rice (Oryza sativa L.), hybrids between indica and japonica subspecies are usually highly sterile, which provides a model system for studying postzygotic reproductive isolation. A killer-protector system S5 composed of three adjacent genes, ORF3, ORF4 and ORF5, regulates female gamete fertility of indica-japonica hybrids. To characterize the processes underlying this system, we performed transcriptomic analyses of pistils from rice variety Balilla (BL), Balilla with transformed ORF5+ (BL5+) producing sterile female gametes, and Balilla with transformed ORF3+ and ORF5+ (BL3+5+) producing fertile gametes...
May 8, 2017: Plant Physiology
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