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Laura Merlini, Bita Khalili, Omaya Dudin, Laetitia Michon, Vincent Vincenzetti, Sophie G Martin
In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe , pheromone signaling engages a signaling pathway composed of a G protein-coupled receptor, Ras, and a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade that triggers sexual differentiation and gamete fusion. Cell-cell fusion requires local cell wall digestion, which relies on an initially dynamic actin fusion focus that becomes stabilized upon local enrichment of the signaling cascade on the structure. We constructed a live-reporter of active Ras1 (Ras1-guanosine triphosphate [GTP]) that shows Ras activity at polarity sites peaking on the fusion structure before fusion...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
Marc Yeste, Miriam Castillo-Martín, Sergi Bonet, Joan E Rodríguez-Gil
Light irradiation has been demonstrated to exert positive effects on gametes, and particularly on sperm. In effect, a high number of studies conducted in several species, including humans, mice, pigs, cattle and sheep, and using different light sources (such as lasers and light-emitting diodes) have demonstrated that photo-stimulation increases sperm motility. In addition, other works have shown that sperm fertilizing ability both in vitro and in vivo can be increased following light irradiation; there are also some evidences pointing out to an extend of lifespan of preserved semen...
February 9, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
Yuxia He, Haiying Liu, Haiyan Zheng, Li Li, Xin Fu, Jianqiao Liu
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this retrospective study was to evaluate clinical outcomes of early cumulus cells removal and early rescue intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in high-risk patients of fertilization failure during human in vitro fertilization (IVF). METHODS: A total of 5,518 patients were enrolled between January 2014 to December 2016. Of which 505 couples performed short insemination with >30% fertilization rate were included in short-term IVF group, 102 patients detected total fertilization failure (TFF) were treated with early rescue ICSI (R-ICSI group), and 4911 couples underwent conventional IVF with overnight co-incubation of gametes (traditional IVF group)...
February 15, 2018: Gynecological Endocrinology
Heidi Mertes, Steven R Lindheim, Guido Pennings
Although current screening methods of gamete donors are capable of reducing the incidence of genetic anomalies in donor offspring below general population levels, targeted screening for a large number of conditions (expanded carrier screening or ECS) could be considered as part of the routine selection procedure for gamete donors. There are, however, important drawbacks to its practical implementation. Excluding all carriers of severe recessive monogenic pediatric disorders would disqualify virtually all donors, and other approaches negatively affect cost (and therefore access), present dilemmas in regard to disclosure of genetic findings, and/or overburden the intended parents...
February 2018: Fertility and Sterility
Carla Tatone, Giovanna Di Emidio, Arcangelo Barbonetti, Gaspare Carta, Alberto M Luciano, Stefano Falone, Fernanda Amicarelli
BACKGROUND: Sirtuins (SIRT1-7) are a family of NAD+-dependent deacetylases that catalyze post-translational modifications of proteins. Together, they respond to metabolic challenges, inflammatory signals or hypoxic/oxidative stress, and are associated with aging and longevity. The role of Sirtuins in the regulation of fertility emerged in 2003 when a defective reproductive phenotype was observed in SIRT1-null mice. Although studies on Sirtuins in reproductive biology have been increasing in the last years, a recent comprehensive update on this issue is still lacking...
February 13, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
Annalisa Falace, Sara Kaleb, Gina De La Fuente, Valentina Asnaghi, Mariachiara Chiantore
Due to multiple impacts, Cystoseira forests are experiencing a significant decline, which is affecting the ecosystem services they provide. Despite conservation efforts, there is an urgent need to develop best practices and large-scale restoration strategies. To implement restoration actions, we developed an ex situ protocol for the cultivation of Cystoseira. amentacea var. stricta, aimed at reducing the time needed for laboratory culture, thus avoiding prolonged maintenance and minimizing costs. Specifically, we tested the effects of temperature, light and substratum on settlement and growth of early life stages using a factorial experiment...
2018: PloS One
Yohei Koide, Atsushi Ogino, Takanori Yoshikawa, Yuki Kitashima, Nozomi Saito, Yoshitaka Kanaoka, Kazumitsu Onishi, Yoshihiro Yoshitake, Takuji Tsukiyama, Hiroki Saito, Masayoshi Teraishi, Yoshiyuki Yamagata, Aiko Uemura, Hiroki Takagi, Yoriko Hayashi, Tomoko Abe, Yoshimichi Fukuta, Yutaka Okumoto, Akira Kanazawa
Understanding the genetic basis of reproductive barriers between species has been a central issue in evolutionary biology. The S 1 locus in rice causes hybrid sterility and is a major reproductive barrier between two rice species, Oryza sativa and Oryza glaberrima The O. glaberrima -derived allele (denoted S 1 g ) on the S 1 locus causes preferential abortion of gametes with its allelic alternative (denoted S 1 s ) in S 1 g / S 1 s heterozygotes. Here, we used mutagenesis and screening of fertile hybrid plants to isolate a mutant with an allele, S 1 mut , which does not confer sterility in the S 1 mut / S 1 g and S 1 mut / S 1 s hybrids...
February 14, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Jill A Jenkins, Michael R Rosen, Rassa O Draugelis-Dale, Kathy R Echols, Leticia Torres, Carla M Wieser, Constance A Kersten, Steven L Goodbred
Lake Mead National Recreational Area (LMNRA) serves as critical habitat for several federally listed species and supplies water for municipal, domestic, and agricultural use in the Southwestern U.S. Contaminant sources and concentrations vary among the sub-basins within LMNRA. To investigate whether exposure to environmental contaminants is associated with alterations in male common carp (Cyprinus carpio) gamete quality and endocrine- and reproductive parameters, data were collected among sub-basins over 7 years (1999-2006)...
February 10, 2018: Environmental Research
Sayan Chakraborty, Haiyun Pan, Qingyu Tang, Colin Woolard, Guozhou Xu
During reproduction in flowering plants, the male gametophyte delivers an immotile male gamete to the female gametophyte in the pistil by formation of pollen tubes. In Arabidopsis thaliana, two synergid cells situated on either side of the egg cell produce cysteine-rich chemoattractant peptide LURE that guides the pollen tube to the female gametophyte for sexual reproduction. Recently, in Arabidopsis thaliana, Pollen Receptor Kinase 3 (PRK3), along with PRK1, PRK6, and PRK8, have been predicted to be the receptors responsible for sensing LURE...
February 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Dominik Müller, Pascal Schopp, Albrecht E Melchinger
Genomic selection (GS) offers the possibility to estimate the effects of genome-wide molecular markers, which can be used to calculate genomic estimated breeding values (GEBVs) for individuals without phenotypes. GEBVs can serve as a selection criterion in recurrent GS, maximizing single-cycle but not necessarily long-term genetic gain. As simple genome-wide sums, GEBVs do not take into account other genomic information, such as the map positions of loci and linkage phases of alleles. Therefore, we herein propose a novel selection criterion called expected maximum haploid breeding value (EMBV)...
February 6, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Marco Conti, Federica Franciosi
Infertility affects ~7% of couples of reproductive age with little change in incidence in the last two decades. ART, as well as other interventions, have made major strides in correcting this condition. However, and in spite of advancements in the field, the age of the female partner remains a main factor for a successful outcome. A better understanding of the final stages of gamete maturation yielding an egg that can sustain embryo development and a pregnancy to term remains a major area for improvement in the field...
February 8, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
Mengdi Tian, Yuan Zhang, Yan Liu, Xiangyang Kang, Pingdong Zhang
High temperature exposure is widely used as a physical mutagenic agent to induce 2n gametes in Populus. However, whether high temperature exposure affects induced 2n pollen viability remains unknown. To clarify whether high temperature exposure affected the induced 2n pollen viability, 2n pollen induced by 38°C and 41°C temperatures, pollen morphology, 2n pollen germination in vitro, and crossing induced 2n pollen with normal gametes to produce a triploid was, based on observations of meiosis, conducted in Populus canescens...
February 11, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Daniel Kaser
Recurrent pregnancy loss is often idiopathic, but numerical and structural chromosomal abnormalities constitute an important cause. Numerical chromosomal abnormalities in the conceptus are primarily due to meiotic nondisjunction; the rate and complexity of embryonic aneuploidy are driven by female age. Structural chromosomal abnormalities (balanced translocations or inversions) can lead to unbalanced gametes depending on specific recombination and segregation patterns during meiosis. The attendant reproductive risk depends on the type of rearrangement and its parental origin...
March 2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America
David J Amor, Annabelle Kerr, Nandini Somanathan, Alison McEwen, Marianne Tome, Jan Hodgson, Sharon Lewis
BACKGROUND: Gamete and embryo donors undergo genetic screening procedures in order to maximise the health of donor-conceived offspring. In the era of genomic medicine, expanded genetic screening may be offered to donors for the purpose of avoiding transmission of harmful genetic mutations. The objective of this study was to explore the attitudes of donors and recipients toward the expanded genetic screening of donors. METHODS: Qualitative interview study with thematic analysis, undertaken in a tertiary fertility centre...
February 9, 2018: Reproductive Health
Xiaorong Huang, Xiongbo Peng, Fei Xie, Wanying Mao, Hong Chen, Meng-Xiang Sun
During male gametogenesis in cereals, the generative cell undergoes a positioning process that parallels the dynamics of the central vacuole, which is believed to be associated with generative cell movement in the male gametophyte. However, the impact of the generative cell positioning and the central vacuole dynamics on male gametogenesis has remained poorly understood. Here, we report that OsGCD1 (GAMETE CELLS DEFECTIVE1) dysfunction influenced pollen development and disrupted pollen germination. Loss of function of OsGCD1 altered the central vacuole dynamics and the generative cell was mispositioned...
February 9, 2018: New Phytologist
Jae Yong Han, Young Hyun Park
Transgenesis and genome editing in birds are based on a unique germline transmission system using primordial germ cells (PGCs), which is quite different from the mammalian transgenic and genome editing system. PGCs are progenitor cells of gametes that can deliver genetic information to the next generation. Since avian PGCs were first discovered in nineteenth century, there have been numerous efforts to reveal their origin, specification, and unique migration pattern, and to improve germline transmission efficiency...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Brian Burke
Meiosis is a key processes of sexual reproduction in eukaryotes. By combining two cell division cycles with a single round of DNA replication meiosis provides a mechanism to generate haploid gametes. Coincidentally, processes involved in ensuring appropriate segregation of homologous chromosomes also result in genetic recombination and shuffling of genes between each generation. During the first meiotic prophase, rapid telomere-led chromosome movements facilitate alignment and pairing of homologous chromosomes...
January 29, 2018: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
Ting Zou, Mingxing Liu, Qiao Xiao, Tao Wang, Dan Chen, Tao Luo, Guoqiang Yuan, Qiao Li, Jun Zhu, Yueyang Liang, Qiming Deng, Shiquan Wang, Aiping Zheng, Lingxia Wang, Ping Li, Shuangcheng Li
OsPKS2, the rice orthologous gene of Arabidopsis PKSB/LAP5, encodes a polyketide synthase that is involved in pollen wall formation in rice. In flowering plants, the pollen wall protects male gametes from various environmental stresses and pathogen attacks, as well as promotes pollen germination. The biosynthesis of sporopollenin in tapetal cell is critical for pollen wall formation. Recently, progress has been made in understanding sporopollenin metabolism during pollen wall development in Arabidopsis. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism that underlies the sporopollenin synthesis in pollen wall formation in rice (Oryza sativa)...
February 6, 2018: Plant Cell Reports
Yongquan Shen, Ronald E Ellis
A new study shows that the nematode Auanema rhodensis manipulates X chromosome segregation in surprising ways that depend on both the sex of the parent and the type of gamete. The result is a complex mating system that produces unusual sex ratios and inheritance patterns.
February 5, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Raquel A F Neves, Mariana Contins, Silvia M Nascimento
Blooms of the benthic dinoflagellate Ostreopsis cf. ovata have been recorded with increasing frequency, intensity and geographic distribution. This dinoflagellate produces potent toxins that may cause mortality of marine invertebrates. Adults of sea urchins are commonly affected by O. cf. ovata exposure with evidence of spines loss and high mortality during periods of high dinoflagellate abundances. Here, we report on the effects of the toxic dinoflagellate O. cf. ovata on fertilization and early development of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus, a key ecological herbivore...
February 2, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
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