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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320240/immunogenesis-of-preeclampsia-lessons-from-donor-gametes
#1
Richard P Porreco, Kent D Heyborne
BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia remains an important complication of pregnancy. It is associated with mortality and morbidity for both maternal and fetal/newborn patients. Although major inroads have been made in understanding the pathophysiology of preeclampsia in recent decades, the initial primary cause of its occurrence in some women and not others has escaped clarification. REVIEW: There have been a number of clinical clues pointing to an immune genesis of this disease, including most recently the use of donor gametes in assisted reproductive technology (ART)...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317860/gene-delivery-to-nile-tilapia-cells-for-transgenesis-and-the-role-of-pi3k-c2%C3%AE-in-angiogenesis
#2
Fernanda Maria Policarpo Tonelli, Samyra Maria Dos Santos Nassif Lacerda, Marcela Santos Procópio, Breno Luiz Sales Lemos, Luiz Renato de França, Rodrigo Ribeiro Resende
Microinjection is commonly performed to achieve fish transgenesis; however, due to difficulties associated with this technique, new strategies are being developed. Here we evaluate the potential of lentiviral particles to genetically modify Nile tilapia cells to achieve transgenesis using three different approaches: spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) genetic modification and transplantation (SC), in vivo transduction of gametes (GT), and fertilised egg transduction (ET). The SC protocol using larvae generates animals with sustained production of modified sperm (80% of animals with 77% maximum sperm fluorescence [MSF]), but is a time-consuming protocol (sexual maturity in Nile tilapia is achieved at 6 months of age)...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315349/diethylstilbestrol-induces-oxidative-dna-damage-resulting-in-apoptosis-of-spermatogonial-stem-cells-in-vitro
#3
Khaled Habas, Martin H Brinkworth, Diana Anderson
The spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) are the only germline stem cells in adults that are responsible for the transmission of genetic information from mammals to the next generation. SSCs play a very important role in the maintenance of progression of spermatogenesis and help provide an understanding of the reproductive biology of future gametes and a strategy for diagnosis and treatment of infertility and male reproductive toxicity. Androgens/oestrogens are very important for the suitable maintenance of male germ cells...
March 14, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306665/molecular-mechanisms-that-mediate-invasion-and-egress-of-malaria-parasites-from-red-blood-cells
#4
Aditi Alaganan, Pallavi Singh, Chetan E Chitnis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Malaria parasites invade and multiply in diverse host cells during their complex life cycle. Some blood stage parasites transform into male and female gametocytes that are transmitted by female anopheline mosquitoes. The gametocytes are activated in the mosquito midgut to form male and female gametes, which egress from RBCs to mate and form a zygote. Here, we will review our current understanding of the molecular mechanisms that mediate invasion and egress by malaria parasites at different life cycle stages...
March 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302378/hypothermic-storage-of-isolated-spermatogonia-and-oogonia-from-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#5
Bahram Falahatkar, Samaneh Poursaeid, Ryota Kitada, Goro Yoshizaki
A growing number of fish species are endangered due to human activities. A short- or long-time preservation of gametes could conserve genetic resources of threatened fish species. The aim of this study was to evaluate a hypothermic condition for short-term preservation of spermatogonia and oogonia cells isolated from immature transgenic rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, and to determine the maximum time point for further transplantation. Viability rate of germ cells was investigated after isolation and during storage at 4 °C up to 24 h...
March 13, 2017: Cryobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301534/the-spermatogenic-process-of-the-common-vampire-bat-desmodus-rotundus-under-a-histomorphometric-view
#6
Danielle Barbosa Morais, Luciano Carlos Heringer Porcaro Puga, Tarcízio Antônio Rêgo de Paula, Mariella Bontempo Duca Freitas, Sérgio Luis Pinto da Matta
Among all bat species, Desmodus rotundus stands out as one of the most intriguing due to its exclusively haematophagous feeding habits. However, little is known about their spermatogenic cycle. This study aimed at describing the spermatogenic process of common vampire bats through testicular histomorphometric characterization of adult specimens, spermatogenic production indexes, description of stages of the seminiferous epithelium cycle and estimative of the spermatogenic process duration. Morphometrical and immunohistochemical analyzes for bromodeoxiuridine were conducted under light microscopy and ultrastructural analyzes were performed under transmission electron microscopy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299861/patterns-and-mechanisms-in-instances-of-endosymbiont-induced-parthenogenesis
#7
REVIEW
Wen-Juan Ma, Tanja Schwander
Female-producing parthenogenesis can be induced by endosymbionts that increase their transmission by manipulating host reproduction. Our literature survey indicates that such endosymbiont-induced parthenogenesis is known or suspected in 124 host species from seven different arthropod taxa, with Wolbachia as the most frequent endosymbiont (in 56-75% of host species). Most host species (81%, 100 out of 124) are characterized by haplo-diploid sex determination, but a strong ascertainment bias likely underestimates the frequency of endosymbiont-induced parthenogenesis in hosts with other sex determination systems...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298425/gamete-fusion-gone-viral
#8
Jonathan J Miner
Enveloped virus infection may be linked to the origin of sexual reproduction.
March 15, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295378/calcium-control-of-the-sign-of-phototaxis-in-brown-algal-gametes-of-mutimo-cylindricus
#9
Nana Kinoshita, Chikako Nagasato, Taizo Motomura
Brown algal swarmers usually exhibit positive or negative phototaxis. Such behaviours influence the increasing or decreasing dispersal distance or colonization on the new substratum. We confirmed that the sign of phototaxis (negative or positive) in male gametes of Mutimo cylindricus was affected by extracellular Ca(2+) influx through Ca(2+) channels. Under the control condition (10(-2) M [Ca(2+) ]), male gametes swimming with a helical rotation of their cell body mostly showed positive phototaxis. At 10(-3) M [Ca(2+) ], more than half of the male gametes showed positive phototaxis, whereas the others showed negative phototaxis...
March 15, 2017: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289567/hard-time-to-be-parents-sea-urchin-fishery-shifts-potential-reproductive-contribution-of-population-onto-the-shoulders-of-the-young-adults
#10
Barbara Loi, Ivan Guala, Rodrigo Pires da Silva, Gianni Brundu, Maura Baroli, Simone Farina
BACKGROUND: In Sardinia, as in other regions of the Mediterranean Sea, sustainable fisheries of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus have become a necessity. At harvesting sites, the systematic removal of large individuals (diameter ≥ 50 mm) seriously compromises the biological and ecological functions of sea urchin populations. Specifically, in this study, we compared the reproductive potential of the populations from Mediterranean coastal areas which have different levels of sea urchin fishing pressure...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288558/genetic-diversity-of-a-new-zealand-multi-breed-sheep-population-and-composite-breeds-history-revealed-by-a-high-density-snp-chip
#11
Luiz F Brito, John C McEwan, Stephen P Miller, Natalie K Pickering, Wendy E Bain, Ken G Dodds, Flávio S Schenkel, Shannon M Clarke
BACKGROUND: Knowledge about the genetic diversity of a population is a crucial parameter for the implementation of successful genomic selection and conservation of genetic resources. The aim of this research was to establish the scientific basis for the implementation of genomic selection in a composite Terminal sheep breeding scheme by providing consolidated linkage disequilibrium (LD) measures across SNP markers, estimating consistency of gametic phase between breed-groups, and assessing genetic diversity measures, such as effective population size (Ne), and population structure parameters, using a large number of animals (n = 14,845) genotyped with a high density SNP chip (606,006 markers)...
March 14, 2017: BMC Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285951/potential-role-of-green-tea-catechins-in-the-management-of-oxidative-stress-associated-infertility
#12
REVIEW
Shubhadeep Roychoudhury, Ashok Agarwal, Gurpriya Virk, Chak-Lam Cho
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are present in low concentrations in the genital tracts of males and females. Excessive ROS lead to oxidative stress, which damages DNA, lipids and proteins. Such molecular changes result in compromised vitality, increased morphological defects and decreased sperm motility in the male. In the female, oxidative stress interferes with oocyte maturation, and may inhibit in-vitro maturation of the oocyte. Recently, green tea supplementation has been reported to possess properties that may improve the quality of male and female gametes largely due to the ability of catechin polyphenols to quench ROS...
February 27, 2017: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283429/editorial-fish-gametes
#13
EDITORIAL
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 7, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279974/ethics-of-stem-cell-derived-gametes-made-in-a-dish-fertility-for-everyone
#14
Annelien L Bredenoord, Insoo Hyun
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 9, 2017: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278497/true-nondisjunction-of-whole-bivalents-in-oocytes-with-attachment-and-congression-defects
#15
Martin Sodek, Kristina Kovacovicova, Martin Anger
Chromosome segregation in mammalian oocytes is prone to errors causing aneuploidy with consequences such as precocious termination of development or severe developmental disorders. Aneuploidy also represents a serious problem in procedures utilizing mammalian gametes and early embryos in vitro. In our study, we focused on congression defects during meiosis I and observed whole nondisjoined bivalents in meiosis II as a direct consequence, together with a substantially delayed first polar body extrusion. We also show that the congression defects are accompanied by less stable attachments of the kinetochores...
March 10, 2017: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275885/development-of-polyspermic-zygote-and-possible-contribution-of-polyspermy-to-polyploid-formation-in-angiosperms
#16
Takashi Okamoto, Yukinosuke Ohnishi, Erika Toda
Fertilization is a general feature of eukaryotic uni- and multicellular organisms to restore a diploid genome from female and male gamete haploid genomes. In angiosperms, polyploidization is a common phenomenon, and polyploidy would have played a major role in the long-term diversification and evolutionary success of plants. As for the mechanism of formation of autotetraploid plants, the triploid-bridge pathway, crossing between triploid and diploid plants, is considered as a major pathway. For the emergence of triploid plants, fusion of an unreduced gamete with a reduced gamete is generally accepted...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271338/phototaxis-and-chemotaxis-of-brown-algal-swarmers
#17
Nana Kinoshita, Chikako Nagasato, Taizo Motomura
Brown algae exhibit three patterns of sexual reproduction: isogamy, anisogamy, and oogamy. Unicellular swarmers including gametes and zoospores bear two heterogenous flagella, an anterior flagellum with mastigonemes (fine tripartite hairs) and a posterior one. In seawater, these flagellates usually receive physico-chemical signals for finding partners and good habitats. It is well known that brown algal swarmers change their swimming direction depending on blue light (phototaxis), and male gametes do so, based on the sex pheromones from female gametes (chemotaxis)...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270625/gametophyte-development-needs-mitochondrial-coproporphyrinogen-iii-oxidase-function
#18
Pritu Pratibha, Sunil Kumar Singh, Ramamurthy Srinivasan, Shripad Ramchandra Bhat, Yelam Sreenivasulu
Tetrapyrrole biosynthesis is one of the most essential metabolic pathways in almost all organisms. Coproporphyrinogen III oxidase (CPO) catalyzes the conversion of Coproporphyrinogen III into Protoporphyrinogen IX in this pathway. Here we report that mutation in the Arabidopsis thaliana CPO coding gene At5g63290 (AtHEMN1) adversely affects silique length, ovule number and seed set. Athemn1 mutant alleles were transmitted via both male and female gametes but homozygous mutants were never recovered. Plants carrying Athemn1 mutant allele showed defects in gametophyte development including non-viable pollen and embryo sacs with unfused polar nuclei...
March 7, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270108/identification-and-analysis-of-the-stigma-and-embryo-sac-preferential-specific-genes-in-rice-pistils
#19
Li Yu, Tengfei Ma, Yuqin Zhang, Ying Hu, Ke Yu, Yueyue Chen, Haoli Ma, Jie Zhao
BACKGROUND: In rice, the pistil is the female reproductive organ, and it consists of two stigmas and an ovary. The stigma is capable of receiving pollen grains and guiding pollen tube growth. The ovary holds the embryo sac, which is fertilized with male gametes to produce seed. However, little is known about the gene function and regulatory networks during these processes in rice. RESULTS: Here, using the RNA-Seq technique, we identified 3531 stigma-preferential genes and 703 stigma-specific genes within the rice pistils, and we verified 13 stigma-specific genes via qRT-PCR and in situ hybridization...
March 7, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267957/germline-development-and-fertilization-mechanisms-in-maize
#20
REVIEW
Liang-Zi Zhou, Martina Juranić, Thomas Dresselhaus
Maize is the most important agricultural crop used for food, feed, and biofuel as well as a raw material for industrial products such as packaging material. To increase yield and to overcome hybridization barriers, studies of maize gamete development, the pollen tube journey, and fertilization mechanisms were initiated more than a century ago. In this review, we summarize and discuss our current understanding of the regulatory components for germline development including sporogenesis and gametogenesis, the progamic phase of pollen germination and pollen tube growth and guidance, as well as fertilization mechanisms consisting of pollen tube arrival and reception, sperm cell release, fusion with the female gametes, and egg cell activation...
March 6, 2017: Molecular Plant
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