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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033970/spermine-regulates-pollen-tube-growth-by-modulating-ca-2-dependent-actin-organization-and-cell-wall-structure
#1
Iris Aloisi, Giampiero Cai, Claudia Faleri, Lorella Navazio, Donatella Serafini-Fracassini, Stefano Del Duca
Proper growth of the pollen tube depends on an elaborate mechanism that integrates several molecular and cytological sub-processes and ensures a cell shape adapted to the transport of gametes. This growth mechanism is controlled by several molecules among which cytoplasmic and apoplastic polyamines. Spermine (Spm) has been correlated with various physiological processes in pollen, including structuring of the cell wall and modulation of protein (mainly cytoskeletal) assembly. In this work, the effects of Spm on the growth of pear pollen tubes were analyzed...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029872/inhibition-of-deubiquitinases-alters-gamete-ubiquitination-states-and-sperm-oocyte-binding-ability-in-pigs
#2
Yang Wang, Lili Zhuang, Xuan Chen, Man Xu, Zuochen Li, Yi Jin
This study was undertaken to investigate the dynamics of protein ubiquitination in pig gametes and their micro-environments, as well as to explore the action of deubiquitinases (DUBs) in sperm-oocyte binding. Protein ubiquitination states were evaluated by in the ejaculated sperm, seminal plasma, epididymal sperm, oocytes, zona pellucida (ZP) and follicular fluid (FF) by western blotting. Different concentrations of PR-619, a non-selective inhibitor of DUBs, were used to treat oocytes during in vitro maturation (IVM), the maturation rate, amount of ubiquitinated ZP proteins, and ZP solubility were assessed...
October 7, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027584/the-ceratopteris-fern-developing-motile-gamete-walls-contain-diverse%C3%A2-polysaccharides-but-not-pectin
#3
Renee A Lopez, Karen S Renzaglia
Unlike most plant cell walls, the five consecutive walls laid down during spermatogenesis in the model fern Ceratopteris contain sparse cellulose, lack pectin and are enriched with callose and hemicelluloses. Seed-free plants like bryophytes and pteridophytes produce swimming male gametes for sexual reproduction. During spermatogenesis, unique walls are formed that are essential to the appropriate development and maturation of the motile gametes. Other than the detection of callose and general wall polysaccharides in scattered groups, little is known about the sequence of wall formation and the composition of these walls during sperm cell differentiation in plants that produce swimming sperm...
October 13, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021238/asy2-mer2-an-evolutionarily-conserved-mediator-of-meiotic-recombination-pairing-and-global-chromosome-compaction
#4
Sophie Tessé, Henri-Marc Bourbon, Robert Debuchy, Karine Budin, Emeline Dubois, Zhang Liangran, Romain Antoine, Tristan Piolot, Nancy Kleckner, Denise Zickler, Eric Espagne
Meiosis is the cellular program by which a diploid cell gives rise to haploid gametes for sexual reproduction. Meiotic progression depends on tight physical and functional coupling of recombination steps at the DNA level with specific organizational features of meiotic-prophase chromosomes. The present study reveals that every step of this coupling is mediated by a single molecule: Asy2/Mer2. We show that Mer2, identified so far only in budding and fission yeasts, is in fact evolutionarily conserved from fungi (Mer2/Rec15/Asy2/Bad42) to plants (PRD3/PAIR1) and mammals (IHO1)...
October 11, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017042/retrotransposons-stowaways-in-the-primordial-germline
#5
Erin S Kelleher
In order to succeed, retrotransposon transcripts must identify the subset of nuclei that will be transmitted to offspring. A new study reveals that the primordial germline is a hideout for retrotransposon transcripts, providing early access to future gametes.
October 9, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994181/age-associated-dysregulation-of-protein-metabolism-in-the-mammalian-oocyte
#6
Francesca E Duncan, Susmita Jasti, Ariel Paulson, John M Kelsh, Barbara Fegley, Jennifer L Gerton
Reproductive aging is characterized by a marked decline in oocyte quality that contributes to infertility, miscarriages, and birth defects. This decline is multifactorial, and the underlying mechanisms are under active investigation. Here, we performed RNA-Seq on individual growing follicles from reproductively young and old mice to identify age-dependent functions in oocytes. This unbiased approach revealed genes involved in cellular processes known to change with age, including mitochondrial function and meiotic chromosome segregation, but also uncovered previously unappreciated categories of genes related to proteostasis and organelles required for protein metabolism...
October 10, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992351/modification-of-meiotic-recombination-by-natural-variation-in-plants
#7
Emma J Lawrence, Catherine H Griffin, Ian R Henderson
Meiosis is a specialized cell division that produces haploid gametes required for sexual reproduction. During the first meiotic division, homologous chromosomes pair and undergo reciprocal crossing over, which recombines linked sequence variation. Meiotic recombination frequency varies extensively both within and between species. In this review, we will examine the molecular basis of meiotic recombination rate variation, with an emphasis on plant genomes. We first consider cis modification caused by polymorphisms at the site of recombination, or elsewhere on the same chromosome...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992199/retention-of-core-meiotic-genes-across-diverse-hymenoptera
#8
Eric S Tvedte, Andrew A Forbes, John M Logsdon
The cellular mechanisms of meiosis are critical for proper gamete formation in sexual organisms. Functional studies in model organisms have identified genes essential for meiosis, yet the extent to which this core meiotic machinery is conserved across non-model systems is not fully understood. Moreover, it is unclear whether deviation from canonical modes of sexual reproduction is accompanied by modifications in the genetic components involved in meiosis. We used a robust approach to identify and catalogue meiosis genes in Hymenoptera, an insect order typically characterized by haplodiploid reproduction...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990514/bisphenol-a-in-reproduction-epigenetic-effects
#9
Rosanna Chianese, Jacopo Troisi, Sean Richards, Marika Scafuro, Silvia Fasano, Maurizio Guida, Riccardo Pierantoni, Rosaria Meccariello
BACKGROUND: Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disrupting chemical widely used in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resin to produce a multitude of consumer products, food and drink containers, and medical devices. BPA is similar to estradiol in structure and thus interferes in steroid signalling with different outcomes on reproductive health depending on doses, life stage, mode, and timing of exposure. In this respect, it has an emerging and controversial role as a "reproductive toxicant" capable of inducing short and long-term effects including the modulation of gene expression through epigenetic modification (i...
October 9, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984187/new-statistical-methods-for-estimation-of-recombination-fractions-in-f2-population
#10
Yuan-De Tan, Xiang H F Zhang, Qianxing Mo
BACKGROUND: Dominant markers in an F2 population or a hybrid population have much less linkage information in repulsion phase than in coupling phase. Linkage analysis produces two separate complementary marker linkage maps that have little use in disease association analysis and breeding. There is a need to develop efficient statistical methods and computational algorithms to construct or merge a complete linkage dominant marker maps. The key for doing so is to efficiently estimate recombination fractions between dominant markers in repulsion phases...
October 3, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983410/paternal-pachytene-pirnas-are-not-required-for-fertilization-embryonic-development-and-sperm-mediated-epigenetic-inheritance-in-mice
#11
Shuiqiao Yuan, Chong Tang, Andrew Schuster, Ying Zhang, Huili Zheng, Wei Yan
Pachytene piRNAs are MIWI-/MILI-bound small RNAs abundantly expressed in pachytene spermatocytes and round spermatids in adult mouse testes. Miwi knockout (KO) male mice are sterile due to spermiogenic arrest. In Caenorhabditis elegans, sperm-borne piRNAs appear to have an epigenetic role during fertilization and development because progeny of individuals with piRNA-deficient gametes display a progressive loss of fertility after several generations. In mice, it remains unknown whether pachytene piRNA-deficient round spermatids can produce offspring, and whether the progeny of Miwi mutants also exhibits transgenerational, progressive fertility loss...
December 2016: Environmental Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982183/nima-related-kinase-1-nek1-regulates-meiosis-i-spindle-assembly-by-altering-the-balance-between-%C3%AE-adducin-and-myosin-x
#12
Miguel A Brieño-Enríquez, Stefannie L Moak, J Kim Holloway, Paula E Cohen
NIMA-related kinase 1 (NEK1) is a serine/threonine and tyrosine kinase that is highly expressed in mammalian germ cells. Mutations in Nek1 induce anemia, polycystic kidney and infertility. In this study we evaluated the role of NEK1 in meiotic spindle formation in both male and female gametes. Our results show that the lack of NEK1 provokes an abnormal organization of the meiosis I spindle characterized by elongated and/or multipolar spindles, and abnormal chromosome congression. The aberrant spindle structure is concomitant with the disruption in localization and protein levels of myosin X (MYO10) and α-adducin (ADD1), both of which are implicated in the regulation of spindle formation during mitosis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980244/estimating-disequilibrium-coefficients
#13
Maren Vens, Andreas Ziegler
Gametic phase disequilibrium is the nonrandom association of alleles within gametes. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) describes the special case of deviation from independence between alleles at two linked genetic loci. Estimation of allelic LD requires knowledge of haplotypes. Genotype-based LD measures dispense with the haplotype estimation step and avoid bias in LD estimation. In this chapter, the most important measures for allelic and genotypic LD are introduced. The use of software packages for LD estimation is illustrated...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978771/do-gametes-woo-evidence-for-their-nonrandom-union-at-fertilization
#14
REVIEW
Joseph H Nadeau
A fundamental tenet of inheritance in sexually reproducing organisms such as humans and laboratory mice is that gametes combine randomly at fertilization, thereby ensuring a balanced and statistically predictable representation of inherited variants in each generation. This principle is encapsulated in Mendel's First Law. But exceptions are known. With transmission ratio distortion, particular alleles are preferentially transmitted to offspring. Preferential transmission usually occurs in one sex but not both, and is not known to require interactions between gametes at fertilization...
October 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977556/programming-sites-of-meiotic-crossovers-using-spo11-fusion-proteins
#15
Roberta Sarno, Yoan Vicq, Norio Uematsu, Marine Luka, Clement Lapierre, Dana Carroll, Giacomo Bastianelli, Alexandre Serero, Alain Nicolas
Meiotic recombination shapes the genetic diversity transmitted upon sexual reproduction. However, its non-random distribution along the chromosomes constrains the landscape of potential genetic combinations. For a variety of purposes, it is desirable to expand the natural repertoire by changing the distribution of crossovers in a wide range of eukaryotes. Toward this end, we report the local stimulation of meiotic recombination at a number of chromosomal sites by tethering the natural Spo11 protein to various DNA-binding modules: full-length DNA binding proteins, zinc fingers (ZFs), transcription activator-like effector (TALE) modules, and the CRISPR-Cas9 system...
August 24, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976972/the-creation-and-selection-of-mutations-resistant-to-a-gene-drive-over-multiple-generations-in-the-malaria-mosquito
#16
Andrew M Hammond, Kyros Kyrou, Marco Bruttini, Ace North, Roberto Galizi, Xenia Karlsson, Nace Kranjc, Francesco M Carpi, Romina D'Aurizio, Andrea Crisanti, Tony Nolan
Gene drives have enormous potential for the control of insect populations of medical and agricultural relevance. By preferentially biasing their own inheritance, gene drives can rapidly introduce genetic traits even if these confer a negative fitness effect on the population. We have recently developed gene drives based on CRISPR nuclease constructs that are designed to disrupt key genes essential for female fertility in the malaria mosquito. The construct copies itself and the associated genetic disruption from one homologous chromosome to another during gamete formation, a process called homing that ensures the majority of offspring inherit the drive...
October 4, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976837/human-embryos-from-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-gametes-ethical-and-quality-considerations
#17
Dusko Ilic, Caroline Ogilvie, Laila Noli, Nikola Kolundzic, Yacoub Khalaf
Protocols for successful differentiation of male and female gametes from induced pluripotent stem cells have been published. Although culture of precursor cells in a natural microenvironment remains necessary to achieve terminal differentiation, the creation of human preimplantation embryos from induced pluripotent stem cell-derived gametes is technically feasible. Such embryos could provide a solution to the scarcity of human cleavage-stage embryos donated for research. Here, we discuss current technology, major research-related ethical concerns and propose the norms that would assure the quality and reliability of such embryos...
September 2017: Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976495/population-assignment-in-autopolyploids
#18
D L Field, L M Broadhurst, C P Elliott, A G Young
Understanding the patterns of contemporary gene dispersal within and among populations is of critical importance to population genetics and in managing populations for conservation. In contrast to diploids, there are few studies of gene dispersal in autopolyploids, in part due to complex polysomic inheritance and genotype ambiguity. Here we develop a novel approach for population assignment for codominant markers for autotetraploids and autohexaploids. This method accounts for polysomic inheritance, unreduced gametes and unknown allele dosage...
October 4, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975611/ejaculate-evolution-in-external-fertilizers-influenced-by-sperm-competition-or-sperm-limitation
#19
Wen Bo Liao, Yan Huang, Yu Zeng, Mao Jun Zhong, Yi Luo, Stefan Lüpold
The evolution of sperm quality and quantity is shaped by various selective processes, with sperm competition generally considered the primary selective agent. Particularly in external fertilizers, however, sperm limitation through gamete dispersal can also influence gamete investments, but empirical data examining this effect are limited. Here, we studied the relative importance of sperm competition and the spawning conditions in explaining the macroevolutionary patterns of sperm size and number within two taxa with external fertilization but differences in their reproductive biology...
October 4, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971895/dyslipidemia-alters-sperm-maturation-and-capacitation-in-lxr-null-mice
#20
Marjorie Whitfield, Rachel Guiton, Jeremie Rispal, Niyazi Acar, Ayhan Kocer, Joël R Drevet, Fabrice Saez
Lipid metabolism disorders (dyslipidemia) are causes of male infertility, but little is known about their impact on male gametes when considering post-testicular maturation events, given that studies concentrate most often on endocrine dysfunctions and testicular consequences. In this study, three-month-old wild type (wt) and Liver-X-Receptors knock out (Lxrα;β-/-) males were fed four weeks with a control or a lipid-enriched diet containing 1.25% cholesterol (High Cholesterol Diet - HCD). The HCD triggered a dyslipidemia leading to sperm post-testicular alterations and infertility...
October 2, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
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