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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636785/sperm-competition-suppresses-gene-drive-among-experimentally-evolving-populations-of-house-mice
#1
Andri Manser, Anna K Lindholm, Leigh W Simmons, Renée C Firman
Drive genes are genetic elements that manipulate the 50% ratio of Mendelian inheritance in their own favour, allowing them to rapidly propagate through populations. The action of drive genes is often hidden, making detection and identification inherently difficult. Yet drive genes can have profound evolutionary consequences for the populations that harbour them: most known drivers are detrimental to organismal gamete development, reproduction and survival. In this study, we identified the presence of a well-known drive gene called t haplotype post-hoc in eight replicate selection lines of house mice that had been evolving under enforced monandry or polyandry for 20 generations...
June 21, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636231/orchestration-at-the-beginning-mitosis-in-sea-urchin-embryo
#2
Giselle A Abruzzese, Nae Tanpradit, Renata S Tavares
Development of multicellular organisms is driven by a series of mitotic divisions after fertilization. Total cytoplasmic volume does not increase during this process, resulting in an increasing number of smaller daughter cells. Cell divisions are initially synchronous in an early embryo, but this ends at the 16-cell stage in the sea urchin. Orchesterated mitosis does, however, continue in subpopulations via the coordination of two different processes: karyokinesis and cytokinesis. Part of this asynchrony is due to the differentiation of lineages...
June 21, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636161/infinity-sperm-storage-the-gift-that-keeps-on-giving
#3
Gauthier Schang, Beatriz Fernandez-Fuertes, Samantha C Lean, Alexandra L Nguyen, Osvaldo Bogado Pascottini
Female Drosophila retain sperm for up to two weeks post-copulation in a network of storage organs includng the bursa, the seminal receptacle, and the spermathecae. This image shows the seminal receptacle of a Drosophila melanogaster female, 2-hrs post-copulation between a LHM (wild-type) female with a Protamine B (green), β-Tubulin (blue) fluorescently tagged male, whose sperm can be visualized within the female. This 'infinity' structure of the seminal receptacle resembles the tubular coil that allows for the storage of very long sperm relative to female body size -up to 20 times the length of the female in some Drosophila species...
June 21, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635412/gamete-donors-reasons-for-and-expectations-and-experiences-of-registration-with-a-voluntary-donor-linking-register
#4
Eric Blyth, Marilyn Crawshaw, Lucy Frith, Olga van den Akker
This paper reports on a study of the views and experiences of 21 sperm donors and five egg donors registered with UK DonorLink (UKDL), a voluntary DNA-based contact register established to facilitate contact between adults who wish to identify and locate others to whom they are genetically related following donor conception. Specifically, the paper examines donors' reasons for searching for, or making information about themselves available to donor-conceived offspring. Their expectations of registration with UKDL, experiences of being registered and finally, the experiences of those who had contacted donor-conceived offspring and other genetic relatives are investigated...
February 21, 2017: Human Fertility: Journal of the British Fertility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635408/assisted-reproductive-technologies-and-the-iranian-community-attitude-towards-infertility
#5
Aliyar Ahmadi, Sara Bamdad
Since the late 1990s, assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) have been legitimized in Iran through an official religious endorsement. Iran, under the dominant authority of the Shia sect, is now the most enthusiastic adopter of ARTs in the Muslim world, permitting all forms of treatments, including third party donation. This study examined the public perception of assisted conception and its influence on the adoption of these methods in Iran. The study was questionnaire-based and conducted in 2012 in Shiraz, the most populated city in the south of Iran...
February 7, 2017: Human Fertility: Journal of the British Fertility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632990/shortening-gametes-co-incubation-time-improves-live-birth-rate-for-couples-with-a-history-of-fragmented-embryos
#6
Anne Le Bras, Laetitia Hesters, Vanessa Gallot, Cathie Tallet, Gerard Tachdjian, Nelly Frydman
Short gamete co-incubation (SGCO) consists in decreasing the duration of contact between oocytes and sperm from the standard overnight insemination (SOI) toward 2 hours. However, the effectiveness of this technique to improve in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET) outcomes remains controversial. Our study was designed to evaluate the efficiency of SGCO in a poor prognosis population with a history of fragmented embryos defined by the presence of at least 50% of the embryos with more than 25% of cytoplasmic fragments...
June 20, 2017: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631612/wtf-genes-are-prolific-dual-poison-antidote-meiotic-drivers
#7
Nicole L Nuckolls, María Angélica Bravo Núñez, Michael T Eickbush, Janet M Young, Jeffrey J Lange, Jonathan S Yu, Gerald R Smith, Sue L Jaspersen, Harmit S Malik, Sarah E Zanders
Meiotic drivers are selfish genes that bias their transmission into gametes, defying Mendelian inheritance. Despite the significant impact of these genomic parasites on evolution and infertility, few meiotic drive loci have been identified or mechanistically characterized. Here, we demonstrate a complex landscape of meiotic drive genes on chromosome 3 of the fission yeasts Schizosaccharomyces kambucha and S. pombe. We identify S. kambucha wtf4 as one of these genes that acts to kill gametes (known as spores in yeast) that do not inherit the gene from heterozygotes...
June 20, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631064/analysis-of-case-parent-trios-for-imprinting-effect-using-a-loglinear-model-with-adjustment-for-sex-of-parent-specific-transmission-ratio-distortion
#8
Lam Opal Huang, Claire Infante-Rivard, Aurélie Labbe
Transmission ratio distortion (TRD) is a phenomenon where parental transmission of disease allele to the child does not follow the Mendelian inheritance ratio. TRD occurs in a sex-of-parent-specific or non-sex-of-parent-specific manner. An offset computed from the transmission probability of the minor allele in control-trios can be added to the loglinear model to adjust for TRD. Adjusting the model removes the inflation in the genotype relative risk (RR) estimate and Type 1 error introduced by non-sex-of-parent-specific TRD...
June 19, 2017: Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630101/oviduct-extracellular-vesicles-protein-content-and-their-role-during-oviduct-embryo-cross-talk
#9
Carmen Alminana, Emilie Corbin, Guillaume Tsikis, Agostinho S Alcantara-Neto, Valérie Labas, Karine Reynaud, Laurent Galio, Rustem Uzbekov, Anastasiia S Garanina, Xavier Druart, Pascal Mermillod
Successful pregnancy requires an appropriate communication between the mother and the embryo. Recently, exosomes and microvesicles, both membrane-bound extracellular vesicles (EVs) present in the oviduct fluid have been proposed as key modulators of this unique cross-talk. However, little is known about their content and their role during oviduct-embryo dialogue. Given the known differences in secretions by in vivo and in vitro oviduct epithelial cells (OEC), we aimed at deciphering the oviduct EVs protein content from both sources...
June 19, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629655/protocols-for-sperm-cryopreservation-in-the-domestic-cat-a-review
#10
REVIEW
K Buranaamnuay
The main objectives of sperm cryopreservation in domestic cats are to preserve these gametes for future use, especially in valuable domestic cat breeds and to use knowledge-gained for developing sperm preservation techniques in wild felids that are threatened with extinction. To achieve acceptable quality of post-thaw sperm and results after insemination, sperm samples must be properly handled, cryopreserved and thawed by using appropriate protocols. In this paper, cryopreservation protocols of domestic cat sperm that have been reported previously are described...
June 13, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623811/residential-exposure-to-pesticides-as-risk-factor-for-childhood-and-young-adult-brain-tumors-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
REVIEW
Geneviève Van Maele-Fabry, Laurence Gamet-Payrastre, Dominique Lison
BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence suggests a positive association between exposure to non-agricultural pesticides and childhood brain tumors (CBT). OBJECTIVE: (1) To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies on the association between residential/household/domestic exposure to pesticides and childhood brain tumors. (2) To clarify variables that could impact the results. METHODS: Publications in English were identified from a MEDLINE search through 28 February 2017 and from the reference list of identified publications...
June 14, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622512/structural-basis-of-egg-coat-sperm-recognition-at-fertilization
#12
Isha Raj, Hamed Sadat Al Hosseini, Elisa Dioguardi, Kaoru Nishimura, Ling Han, Alessandra Villa, Daniele de Sanctis, Luca Jovine
Recognition between sperm and the egg surface marks the beginning of life in all sexually reproducing organisms. This fundamental biological event depends on the species-specific interaction between rapidly evolving counterpart molecules on the gametes. We report biochemical, crystallographic, and mutational studies of domain repeats 1-3 of invertebrate egg coat protein VERL and their interaction with cognate sperm protein lysin. VERL repeats fold like the functionally essential N-terminal repeat of mammalian sperm receptor ZP2, whose structure is also described here...
June 15, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622504/sex-at-atomic-resolution
#13
Jae Yeon Hwang, Jean-Ju Chung
Interspecies fertilization is rare, partly due to species separation enforced at the molecular level. In this issue, Raj et al. now reveal the crystal structures of mollusk egg coat protein, VERL, complexed with cognate sperm protein lysin. Given that VERL is structurally similar to mammalian ZP2, the mechanism elucidating species-specific gamete recognition likely exists in mammals.
June 15, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621958/-biomedical-perspective-of-the-surrogate-motherhood
#14
Nicolás Jouve de la Barreda
The subrogated motherhood takes place when an embryo created by in vitro fertilization (IVF) technology is implanted in a surrogate, sometimes called a gestational mother, by means a contract with her. It can imply to natural families (woman and man) with or without infertility problems, or to monoparental or biparental families of the same sex. Concerning the origin of the gametes used in the IVF emerges different implications on the genetic relationship of the resulting child with the surrogate and the future parents...
May 2017: Cuadernos de Bioética: Revista Oficial de la Asociación Española de Bioética y Ética Médica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621664/post-meiotic-dna-double-strand-breaks-occur-in-tetrahymena-and-require-topoisomerase-ii-and-spo11
#15
Takahiko Akematsu, Yasuhiro Fukuda, Jyoti Garg, Jeffrey S Fillingham, Ronald E Pearlman, Josef Loidl
Based on observations of markers for DNA lesions, such as phosphorylated histone H2AX (γH2AX) and open DNA ends, it has been suggested that post-meiotic DNA double-strand breaks (PM-DSBs) enable chromatin remodeling during animal spermiogenesis. However, the existence of PM-DSBs is unconfirmed, and the mechanism responsible for their formation is unclear. Here, we report the first direct observation of programmed PM-DSBs via the electrophoretic separation of DSB-generated DNA fragments in the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila...
June 16, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618065/cold-interferes-with-male-meiotic-cytokinesis-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-independently-of-the-ahk2-3-ahp2-3-5-cytokinin-signaling-module
#16
Bing Liu, Nico De Storme, Danny Geelen
Previously we have shown that low temperature stress in Arabidopsis causes defects in microtubule organization and cytokinesis in male meiocytes, which leads to the formation of diploid pollen. Because cytokinin (CK) mediates multiple physiological responses to cold stress, we investigated whether CK signaling is involved in cold-induced diploid pollen formation. To this end, we monitored male sporogenesis in a series of mutants defective in CK metabolism and signalling. Arabidopsis plants with altered CK homeostasis, i...
June 15, 2017: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615006/brief-temperature-stress-during-reproductive-stages-alters-meiotic-recombination-and-somatic-mutation-rates-in-the-progeny-of-arabidopsis
#17
Ramswaroop Saini, Amit Kumar Singh, Shanmuhapreya Dhanapal, Thoufeequl Hakeem Saeed, Geoffrey J Hyde, Ramamurthy Baskar
BACKGROUND: Plants exposed to environmental stresses draw upon many genetic and epigenetic strategies, with the former sometimes modulated by the latter. This can help the plant, and its immediate progeny, at least, to better endure the stress. Some evidence has led to proposals that (epi) genetic changes can be both selective and sustainably heritable, while other evidence suggests that changes are effectively stochastic, and important only because they induce genetic variation. One type of stress with an arguably high level of stochasticity in its effects is temperature stress...
June 14, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613231/melatonin-scavenger-properties-against-oxidative-and-nitrosative-stress-impact-on-gamete-handling-and-in-vitro-embryo-production-in-humans-and-other-mammals
#18
REVIEW
Pía Loren, Raúl Sánchez, María-Elena Arias, Ricardo Felmer, Jennie Risopatrón, Carolina Cheuquemán
Oxidative and nitrosative stress are common problems when handling gametes in vitro. In vitro development in mammalian embryos is highly affected by culture conditions, especially by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS), because their absence or overproduction causes embryo arrest and changes in gene expression. Melatonin in gamete co-incubation during in vitro fertilization (IVF) has deleterious or positive effects, depending on the concentration used in the culture medium, demonstrating the delicate balance between antioxidant and pro-oxidant activity...
June 14, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612727/-topovil%C3%A2-a-molecular-scissor-essential-for-reproduction
#19
Thomas Robert, Bernard de Massy, Mathilde Grelon
During sexual reproduction haploid gametes are generated out of diploid mother cells. This ploidy reduction is accomplished during meiosis and, in most species, relies on the occurrence of homologous recombination that is triggered by the induction of a large number of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). The mechanism by which such DSBs are generated without provoking massive DNA breakdown in gamete mother cells is still poorly understood. However, the recent characterisation, in plants and in mammals, of a new component of the meiotic DSB forming machinery, defining a meiotic-specific TOPOVIB-Like protein family, has established a clear connection between the meiotic DSB activity and topoisomerases, enzymes that modify the DNA topology by introducing transient DSBs...
May 2017: Médecine Sciences: M/S
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612505/set-domain-containing-protein-5-is-required-for-expression-of-primordial-germ-cell-specification-associated-genes-in-murine-embryonic-stem-cells
#20
Seung Eun Yu, Min Seong Kim, Su Hyung Park, Byong Chul Yoo, Kyung Hee Kim, Yeun Kyu Jang
Primordial germ cell (PGC) specification is one of the most fundamental processes in developmental biology. Because PGCs are a common source of both gametes, generation of PGCs from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) is a useful model for analysing the germ line lineage. Although several studies focused on the role of epigenetic regulation on PGC differentiation from ESCs in vitro have been published, germ line commitment remains poorly understood. Here, we show that SET domain-containing protein (Setd5), which has a previously unknown function, is essential for regulating germ cell-associated genes in murine ESCs (mESCs)...
June 13, 2017: Cell Biochemistry and Function
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