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Mikel Zaragüeta, Pablo Acebes
Increased nutrient enrichment in Mediterranean standing waters has enhanced the risk of being affected by cyanobacterial blooms. Because phosphorus abatement is shaped as a crucial strategy for controlling eutrophication, this study introduces a structural thinking, experiential learning laboratory with animation dynamic model elaborated for Cazalegas Reservoir (Spain) to assess the feasibility of implementing a set of internal and external control measures and hydromorphological adjustments to meet the goal of oligotrophication...
January 13, 2017: Environmental Management
Y K Dasan, B H Guan, M H Zahari, L K Chuan
Lanthanum substituted Ni-Zn ferrite nanoparticles (Ni0.5Zn0.5LaxFe1-xO4; 0.00 ≤x≤ 1.00) synthesized by sol-gel method were presented. X-ray diffraction patterns reveal the typical single phase spinel cubic ferrite structure, with the traces of secondary phase for lanthanum substituted nanocrystals. In addition, the structural analysis also demonstrates that the average crystallite size varied in the range of 21-25 nm. FTIR spectra present the two prominent absorption bands in the range of 400 to 600 cm-1 which are the fingerprint region of all ferrites...
2017: PloS One
Kushal Singh, Rishu Kumar, Anirban Chowdhury
Over a period of last thirty years, use of ethanol has been historically reported for obtaining nanopowders with low agglomeration for various oxide systems. In addition to these benefits, we show for the first time that treatments in ethanol medium coupled with an ultrasonication step can impart crucial additional advantages in controlling the phase purity and stoichiometry/composition for such systems. This is an important issue especially for any complex multicationic oxide nanoparticles system and hence we selected one of the most popular catalyst systems of doped-ceria (CeO2) nanoparticles with very high (50%) level of rare-earth (lanthanum) doping for this case study...
May 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Miklós Poór, Balázs Németi, Zoltán Gregus
Arsenate (As(V)) and arsenite (As(III)) are typical sources of acute and chronic arsenic poisoning. Therefore, reducing inner exposure to these arsenicals is a rational objective. Because As(V) mimics phosphate, phosphate binder drugs may decrease the intestinal As(V) absorption. Indeed, lanthanum and aluminium salts and sevelamer removed As(V) from solution in vitro, especially at acidic pH. In mice gavaged with As(V), lanthanum chloride, lanthanum carbonate and aluminium hydroxide given orally also lowered the urinary excretion and tissue levels of As(V) and its metabolites, indicating that they decreased the gastrointestinal As(V) absorption...
January 3, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Hyeongseok Song, Woo-Jin Shin, Jong-Sik Ryu, Hyung Seon Shin, Heesun Chung, Kwang-Sik Lee
Rare earth elements (REE) consist of lanthanides (from La to Lu), together with yttrium and scandium, in which anthropogenic REE, such as gadolinium (Gd), lanthanum (La), and samarium (Sm), has emerged as micro-contaminants in natural waters in highly developed countries. Here, we collected water samples in the Han River (HR) and its tributaries flowing through Seoul Capital Area, the world's second largest metropolitan area in order to examine how and to what extent anthropogenic REE anomalies may occur. Water samples show higher light REE concentrations than heavy REE concentrations, while wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) samples display much higher heavy REE concentrations due to high Gd concentration...
December 29, 2016: Chemosphere
Binxin Xia, Zhaoguo Sun, Lihong Wang, Qing Zhou, Xiaohua Huang
Rare earth element (REE) pollution and acid rain are major global environmental concerns, and their spatial distributions overlap. Thus, both forms of pollution combine to act on plants. Nitrogen is important for plant growth, and nitrate reductase (NR) is a key plant enzyme that catalyzes nitrogen assimilation. Studying the combined effects of REEs and acid rain on plant nitrogen-based nutrients has important environmental significance. Here, soybean (Glycine max) plants, commonly used for toxicological studies, were exposed to lanthanum (La), a REE, and acid rain to study the NR activities and NR transcriptional levels in the roots...
January 2, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Synthia Maes, Wei-Qin Zhuang, Korneel Rabaey, Lisa Alvarez-Cohen, Tom Hennebel
Rare earth elements (REEs) have become increasingly important in modern day technologies. Unfortunately, their recycling is currently limited and the conventional technologies for their extraction and purification are exceedingly energy and chemical intensive. New sustainable technologies for REE extraction from both primary and secondary resources would be extremely beneficial. This research investigated a 2-stage recovery strategy focused on the recovery of neodymium (Nd) and lanthanum (La) from monazite ore, that combines microbially based leaching (using citric acid and spent fungal supernatant) with electrochemical extraction...
January 5, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Md Anisuzzaman Mondal, Yuji Takagi, Shoji A Baba, Koh-Ichi Hamano
Thermotaxis that sperm migrate to higher temperature area has been confirmed in rabbit and human. In this study, we examined the migration ability of bull sperm in a temperature gradient to confirm thermotaxis and elucidate the involvement of calcium in such thermotaxis, as well as the relation between sperm capacitation and bull fertility. Thermotaxis was evaluated in a temperature gradient of 34-42ºC using a cross-type column 22-mm long, 40-mm wide, and 100-μm deep. Significantly more sperm migrated to the high-temperature area of 39ºC in a 2ºC temperature gradient, and to 40ºC in a 1ºC temperature gradient...
December 31, 2016: Journal of Reproduction and Development
J Verburg, T Bortfeld
PURPOSE: We present a new system to perform prompt gamma-ray spectroscopy during proton pencil-beam scanning treatments, which enables in vivo verification of the proton range. This system will be used for the first clinical studies of this technology. METHODS: After successful pre-clinical testing of prompt gamma-ray spectroscopy, a full scale system for clinical studies is now being assembled. Prompt gamma-rays will be detected during patient treatment using an array of 8 detector modules arranged behind a tungsten collimator...
June 2016: Medical Physics
Shinichi Ban, Syunji Suzuki, Kenji Kubota, Susumu Ohshima, Hideaki Satoh, Hiroki Imada, Yoshihiko Ueda
Lanthanum carbonate is a popular chemical which is administered for patients with end-stage kidney disease to reduce the absorption of phosphate, and lanthanum deposition in the gastroduodenal mucosa has recently been reported. The aim of this study was to assess whether any histologic changes of the gastric mucosa are related to the deposition of lanthanum. Twenty-four patients who revealed the histology of lanthanum deposition on gastroduodenal biopsy between 2011 and 2014 were included in the study, and their clinical records and gastroduodenal biopsies obtained from 2011 to 2015 were reviewed, adding the review of gastroduodenal biopsies before 2011 if possible...
February 2017: Annals of Diagnostic Pathology
Z Galazka, R Uecker, K Irmscher, D Klimm, R Bertram, A Kwasniewski, M Naumann, R Schewski, M Pietsch, U Juda, A Fiedler, M Albrecht, S Ganschow, T Markurt, C Guguschev, M Bickermann
We present the first-time growth of bulk BaSnO3 single crystals from the melt by direct solidification, their basic electrical and optical properties as well as their structural quality. Our measurement of the melting point (MP) of BaSnO3 amounts to 1855 °C  ±  25 K. At this temperature an intensive decomposition and non-stoichiometric evaporation takes place as the partial pressure of SnO(g) is about 90 times higher than that of BaO(g). X ray powder diffraction identified only the BaSnO3 perovskite phase, while narrow rocking curves having a full width at half maximum of 26 arcsec and etch pit densities below 10(6) cm(-2) confirm a high degree of structural perfection of the single crystals...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Sascha M B Krause, Timothy Johnson, Yasodara Samadhi Karunaratne, Yanfen Fu, David A C Beck, Ludmila Chistoserdova, Mary E Lidstrom
The utilization of methane, a potent greenhouse gas, is an important component of local and global carbon cycles that is characterized by tight linkages between methane-utilizing (methanotrophic) and nonmethanotrophic bacteria. It has been suggested that the methanotroph sustains these nonmethanotrophs by cross-feeding, because subsequent products of the methane oxidation pathway, such as methanol, represent alternative carbon sources. We established cocultures in a microcosm model system to determine the mechanism and substrate that underlay the observed cross-feeding in the environment...
December 27, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
M Skrzypski, N Khajavi, S Mergler, M Billert, D Szczepankiewicz, T Wojciechowicz, K W Nowak, M Z Strowski
Orexins A (OXA) and B (OXB) control energy homeostasis by regulating food intake, energy expenditure and sleep-wake cycle. Several studies showed that OXA stimulates insulin secretion and proliferation of beta cells. However, mechanisms of action are still not well understood. Here, we investigated whether ERK and transient receptor potential channels (TRPs) play a role in mediating the effect of OXA on cell growth, insulin production, and secretion using the established INS-1E cell line. Cell proliferation was measured using BrdU assay...
October 2016: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
Cheng-Xing Cui, Ya-Jun Liu, Yu-Ping Zhang, Ling-Bo Qu, Zhao-Pei Zhang
Bis-adducts of fullerenes are important for both material and biological science. The first added substituent greatly impacts the reactivity and regioselectivity of fullerene. What determines the bond reactivity and how to control the regioselectivity are two crucial questions in synthesizing bis-adduct of C70. Recently, an unexpected 12 o'clock isomer of anthracene bis-adduct of C70 was prepared with high yield by the Diels-Alder (DA) reaction although three possible isomers (12, 2, and 5 o'clock isomers) may be formed...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Jian Wang, Kathleen Lee, Kirill Kovnir
Two new zinc phosphides, La4Zn7P10 and La4Mg1.5Zn8.5P12, were synthesized via transport reactions, and their crystal structures were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. La4Zn7P10 and La4Mg1.5Zn8.5P12 are built from three-dimensional Zn-P and Zn-Mg-P anionic frameworks that encapsulate lanthanum atoms. The anionic framework of La4Zn7P10 is constructed from one-dimensional Zn4P6, Zn2P4, and ZnP4 chains. The Zn4P6 chains are also the main building units in La4Mg1.5Zn8.5P12. In La4Zn7P10, the displacement of a zinc atom from the origin of the unit cell causes the Zn4 position to split into two equivalent atomic sites, each with 50% occupancy...
December 22, 2016: Inorganic Chemistry
David M Weekes, Caterina F Ramogida, Maria de Guadalupe Jaraquemada-Peláez, Brian O Patrick, Chirag Apte, Thomas I Kostelnik, Jacqueline F Cawthray, Lisa Murphy, Chris Orvig
Three dipicolinic acid amine-derived compounds functionalized with a carboxylate (H3dpaa), phosphonate (H4dppa), and bisphosphonate (H7dpbpa), as well as their nonfunctionalized analogue (H2dpa), were successfully synthesized and characterized. The 1:1 lanthanum(III) complexes of H2dpa, H3dpaa, and H4dppa, the 1:2 lanthanum(III) complex of H2dpa, and the 1:1 gallium(III) complex of H3dpaa were characterized, including via X-ray crystallography for [La4(dppa)4(H2O)2] and [Ga(dpaa)(H2O)]. H2dpa, H3dpaa, and H4dppa were evaluated for their thermodynamic stability with lanthanum(III) via potentiometric and either UV-vis spectrophotometric (H3dpaa) or NMR spectrometric (H2dpa and H4dppa) titrations, which showed that the carboxylate (H3dpaa) and phosphonate (H4dppa) containing ligands enhanced the lanthanum(III) complex stability by 3-4 orders of magnitude relative to the unfunctionalized ligand (comparing log βML and pM values) at physiological pH...
December 19, 2016: Inorganic Chemistry
Franziska L Lederer, Susan B Curtis, Stefanie Bachmann, W Scott Dunbar, Ross T A MacGillivray
As components of electronic scrap, rare earth minerals are an interesting but little used source of raw materials that are highly important for the recycling industry. Currently, there exists no cost-efficient technology to separate rare earth minerals from an electronic scrap mixture. In this study, phage surface display has been used as a key method to develop peptides with high specificity for particular inorganic targets in electronic scrap. Lanthanum phosphate doped with cerium and terbium as part of the fluorescent phosphors of spent compact fluorescent lamps (CFL) was used as a target material of economic interest to test the suitability of the phage display method to the separation of rare earth minerals...
December 17, 2016: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
Hassan Ali, Fehmida K Kanodarwala, Imran Majeed, John Arron Stride, Muhammad Arif Nadeem
High activity, a low rate of CO poisoning, and long-term stability of Pd electro-catalysts are necessary for practical use as an anode material in direct formic acid fuel cells. Achieving a high degree of Pd nanoparticle dispersion on a carbon support, without agglomeration, while maintaining a facile electron transfer through the catalyst surface are two challenging tasks to be overcome in fulfilling this aim. Herein, we report the effect of addition of La/La-oxides on the efficiency of Pd nanoparticles supported on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) for formic acid electro-oxidation reaction...
November 30, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Yu-Ming Chang, Shih-Ching Tsai, Chih-Chung Shiao, Hung-Hsiang Liou, Chuan-Lan Yang, Nai-Yu Tung, Kua-Sui Hsu, I-Ling Chen, Mei-Chyn Liu, Jsun-Liang Kao, Rong-Na Jhen, Ya-Ting Huang
BACKGROUND: Phosphate binders have an impact on fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23); however, the effect of phosphate binders on serum hepcidin has not been explored. We conducted a 24-week multicenter randomized controlled trial to investigate the effects of lanthanum carbonate or calcium carbonate monotherapy on serum phosphate, FGF23, and hepcidin levels in chronic hemodialysis patients. METHODS: Forty-six patients were recruited, and daily dietary phosphorus was controlled between 600-800 mg...
December 7, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
Yuanwei Chen, Ying Wang, Xi Liu, Mai Lu, Jiangwei Cao, Tao Wang
Magnetic hyperthermia with the treating temperature range of 41-46 °C is an alternative therapy for cancer treatment. In this article, lanthanum strontium manganates (La1-x Sr x MnO3, 0.25 ≤ × ≤ 0.35) magnetic nanoparticles coated by hyaluronic acid (HA) which possesses the ability of targeting tumor cells were prepared by a simple hydrothermal method combined with a high-energy ball milling technique. The crystal structure, morphology, magnetic properties of the HA-coated magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), and their heating ability under alternating magnetic field were investigated...
December 2016: Nanoscale Research Letters
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