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H Ye, T Huang, Z F Ying, G L Li, Y C Che, Z M Zhao, J F Wang, X L Yang, L Shi, R J Jiang, X C Liu, Z J Mo, C G Li, J S Yang
Objective: To compare the safety and immunogenicity of two different sequential schedules of inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine made from Sabin strain (sIPV) followed by typeⅠ+Ⅲ bivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (bOPV) in Drug Candy (DC) form or liquid dosage form). Methods: This randomized, blinded, single center, parallel-group controlled trial was done from September 2015 to June 2016 in Liuzhou, Guangxi province. Healthy infants aged ≥2 months were eligible for enrollment and divided into 1sIPV+2bOPV or 2sIPV+1bOPV sequential schedules...
January 6, 2018: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
J Fernandez-Castanon, F Bomboi, F Sciortino
The proper design of DNA sequences allows for the formation of well-defined supramolecular units with controlled interactions via a consecution of self-assembling processes. Here, we benefit from the controlled DNA self-assembly to experimentally realize particles with well-defined valence, namely, tetravalent nanostars (A) and bivalent chains (B). We specifically focus on the case in which A particles can only bind to B particles, via appropriately designed sticky-end sequences. Hence AA and BB bonds are not allowed...
January 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Yuichiro Taira, Tomoya Uehara, Masao Tsuchiya, Hideaki Takemori, Yuki Mizuno, Shiori Takahashi, Hiroyuki Suzuki, Hirofumi Hanaoka, Hiromichi Akizawa, Yasushi Arano
In the synthesis of technetium-99m (99mTc) labeled target-specific ligands, the presence of a large excess of unlabeled ligands over 99mTc in the injectate hinders target accumulation of 99mTc-labeled ligands by competing for target molecules. To circumvent the problem, we recently developed a concept of the metal coordination-mediated multivalency, and proved the concept with a 99mTc-labeled trivalent compound [99mTc(CO)3(CN-RGD)3]+ In this study, D-penicillamine (Pen) was selected as a chelating molecule and a cyclic RGDfK peptide was conjugated to Pen via a hexanoic linkage (Pen-Ahx-c(RGDfK))...
January 10, 2018: Bioconjugate Chemistry
Yali Wang, Lu Wang, Xiaolei Chen, Cuirong Sun, Yixin Zhu, Yu Kang, Su Zeng
In this study, a mass spectrometry (MS)-based kinetic method (KM) is shown to be successful at analyzing a multi-chiral center drug stereoisomer, entecavir (ETV), both qualitatively and quantitatively. On the basis of the KM, the bivalent complex ion [MII (A)(ref*)2 ]2+ (MII =divalent metal ion, A=analyte, ref*=chiral reference) was set as precursor ion in MS/MS. The experiment results suggest strong chiral selectivity between ETV and its isomers when using ZnII coordinated with the chiral reference R-besivance (R-B)...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
Markus Hansch, Benjamin Hämisch, Ralf Schweins, Sylvain Prévost, Klaus Huber
The dilute solution behavior of sodium poly(styrene sulfonate) is studied in the presence of trivalent Al3+ and bivalent Ba2+ cations at various levels of excess NaCl. The study evaluates the phase behavior and the morphology of the polyelectrolyte chains with increasing extent of decoration with the Al3+ and Ba2+ cations and analyses the effect of temperature on these decorated chains. The phase behavior is presented in the form of the cation concentration versus the respective poly(styrene sulfonate) concentration, recorded at the onset of precipitation...
January 7, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Maria Teresa De Angelis, Elvira Immacolata Parrotta, Gianluca Santamaria, Giovanni Cuda
Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), including human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) derived from blastocyst and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) generated from somatic cells by ectopic expression of defined transcriptional factors, have both the ability to self-renew and to differentiate into all cell types. Here we explored the two antagonistic effects of retinoic acid (RA) on hiPSCs. Although RA has been widely described as a pharmacological agent with a critical role in initiating differentiation of pluripotent stem cells, we demonstrate that short-term RA exposure not only antagonizes cell differentiation and sustains pluripotency of hiPSCs, but it also boosts and improves their properties and characteristics...
January 5, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Elizabeth B Brickley, Carolyn B Strauch, Wendy F Wieland-Alter, Ruth I Connor, Shu Lin, Joshua A Weiner, Margaret E Ackerman, Minetaro Arita, M Steven Oberste, William C Weldon, Xavier Sáez-Llorens, Ananda S Bandyopadhyay, Peter F Wright
Background: The impact of inactivated polio vaccines (IPVs) on intestinal mucosal immune responses to live poliovirus is poorly understood. Methods: In a 2014 phase 2 clinical trial, Panamanian infants were immunized at 6, 10, and 14 weeks of age with bivalent oral polio vaccine (bOPV) and randomized to receive either a novel monovalent high-dose type 2-specific IPV (mIPV2HD) or a standard trivalent IPV at 14 weeks. Infants were challenged at 18 weeks with a monovalent type 2 oral polio vaccine (mOPV2)...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Sidhartha Giri, Nirmal Kumar, Pavithra Dhanapal, Jayalakshmi Venkatesan, Anand Kasirajan, Miren Iturriza-Gomara, Jacob John, Asha Mary Abraham, Nicholas C Grassly, Gagandeep Kang
Replication of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) in the intestine (vaccine 'take') is associated with seroconversion and protection against poliomyelitis. We used quantitative PCR to measure vaccine shedding in 300 seronegative infants aged 6-11 months and in 218 children aged 1-4 years 7 days after administration of monovalent or bivalent OPV. We found the quantity of shedding correlated with the magnitude of the serum neutralizing antibody response measured at 21 or 28 days respectively. This suggests the immune response to OPV is on a continuum, rather than an all-or-nothing phenomenon, that depends on efficient vaccine virus replication...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Srabani Karmakar, Kali P Das
α-Crystallin, the major eye lens protein in mammals is known to behave as a molecular chaperone. It is a member of the small heat shock protein family and is known to be linked with aging and cataract. Copper homeostasis, oxidative stress and interaction of Cu+2+ with α-crystallin are related to aging related neurodegenerative diseases. In order to understand the role of such interaction, we have studied the chaperone function and stability of α-crystallin by spectroscopic methods and detected the binding of Cu2+ by MALDI TOF mass spectrometry...
December 29, 2017: Protein and Peptide Letters
Bin-Sin Liu, Wen-Guey Wu, Min-Han Lin, Chi-Han Li, Bo-Rong Jiang, Suh-Chin Wu, Chih-Hsiang Leng, Wang-Chou Sung
Assessing the neutralization capability of nonlethal but medically relevant toxins in venom has been a challenging task. Nowadays, neutralization efficacy is evaluated based simply on the survival rates of animals injected with antivenom together with a predefined dose of venom, which can determine potency against neurotoxicity but not validate the capability to neutralize cytotoxin-induced complications. In this study, a high correlation with in-vivo and in-vitro neutralization assays was established using the immunoreactive peptides identified from short-chain neurotoxin and cytotoxin A3...
December 25, 2017: Toxins
Liuyang Yang, Heng Zhou, Ping Cheng, Yun Yang, Yanan Tong, Qianfei Zuo, Jiao Luo, Qiang Feng, Quanming Zou, Hao Zeng
With more and more drug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains emerging in hospitals, there is an urgent need to develop an effective vaccine to combat S. aureus infection. In this study, we constructed a novel bivalent fusion vaccine, SpA-DKKAA-FnBPA37-507 (SF), based on the D domain of staphylococcal protein A (SpA) and the A domain of fibronectin-binding protein A (FnBPA). Immunisation with SF induced a more ideal protective effect compared with the single components alone in a sepsis model. It also showed broad immunoprotection against seven FnBPA isotypes...
December 28, 2017: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
Anastasia Phillips, Cyra Patel, Alexis Pillsbury, Julia Brotherton, Kristine Macartney
Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines are now included in immunisation programmes in 71 countries. Unfortunately, uptake has been impacted in some countries by reduced confidence in the safety of the HPV vaccine. In 2013, we published an extensive review demonstrating a reassuring safety profile for bivalent (2vHPV) and quadrivalent (4vHPV) vaccines. A nonavalent (9vHPV) vaccine is now available and HPV immunisation programmes have been extended to males in 11 countries. The aim of this updated narrative review was to examine the evidence on HPV vaccine safety, focusing on the 9vHPV vaccine, special populations and adverse events of special interest (AESI)...
December 26, 2017: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
N Maspi, F Ghaffarifar, Z Sharifi, A Dalimi, S Z Khademi
Vaccination would be the most important strategy for the prevention and elimination of leishmaniasis. The aim of the present study was to compare the immune responses induced following DNA vaccination with LACK (Leishmania analogue of the receptor kinase C), TSA (Thiol-specific-antioxidant) genes alone or LACK-TSA fusion against cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Cellular and humoral immune responses were evaluated before and after challenge with Leishmania major (L. major). In addition, the mean lesion size was also measured from 3th week post-infection...
December 2017: Malaysian Journal of Pathology
Ziping Zhang, Cancan Tao, Jungang Yin, Yunhui Wang, Yanshen Li
Electrochemical aptamer (EA) sensors based on aptamer-cDNA duplex probes (cDNA: complementary DNA) and target induced strand displacement (TISD) recognition are sensitive, selective and capable of detecting a wide variety of target analytes. While substantial research efforts have focused on engineering of new signaling mechanisms for the improvement of sensor sensitivity, little attention was paid to the enhancement of sensor response rate. Typically, the previous TISD based EA sensors exhibited relatively long response times larger than 30min, which mainly resulted from the suboptimal aptamer-cDNA probe structure in which most of aptamer bases were paired to the cDNA bases...
December 20, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Antoine Vallot, Ioanna Leontiou, Damien Cladière, Warif El Yakoubi, Susanne Bolte, Eulalie Buffin, Katja Wassmann
Cell division with partitioning of the genetic material should take place only when paired chromosomes named bivalents (meiosis I) or sister chromatids (mitosis and meiosis II) are correctly attached to the bipolar spindle in a tension-generating manner. For this to happen, the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) checks whether unattached kinetochores are present, in which case anaphase onset is delayed to permit further establishment of attachments. Additionally, microtubules are stabilized when they are attached and under tension...
December 16, 2017: Current Biology: CB
Jose M Martin, Elisabeth Mateo, Dolores Ramón
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 20, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
Mary K Morris, Dawn Bowers, John Williamson, Kenneth M Heilman
To learn if a right temporal lobectomy altered a patient's autonomic and cognitive responses to aversive and appetitive pictures, we investigated a man whose right anterior temporal lobe and amygdala had been resected to remove an arteriovenous malformation. This patient revealed unusually low self-reports of arousal with a lack of heightened skin conductance responses to aversive pictures. For pleasant pictures, his self-reports of arousal and his physiological responses were similar to healthy men. This patient's responses are consistent with a bivalent model of emotional processing, with a right temporal lobectomy compromising the activation of his defensive action response system...
December 20, 2017: Neurocase
Bingyi Yang, Fengfeng Liu, Qiaohong Liao, Peng Wu, Zhaorui Chang, Jiao Huang, Lu Long, Li Luo, Yu Li, Gabriel M Leung, Benjamin J Cowling, Hongjie Yu
IntroductionHand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is usually caused by several serotypes from human enterovirus A species, including enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16). Two inactivated monovalent EV-A71 vaccines have been recently licensed in China and monovalent CV-A16 vaccine and bivalent EV-A71 and CV-A16 vaccine are under development. Methods: Using notifications from the national surveillance system, we describe the epidemiology and dynamics of HFMD in the country, before the introduction of EV-A71 vaccination, from 2008 through 2015...
December 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
Kristien Van Reeth, José Carlos Mancera Gracia, Ivan Trus, Lieve Sys, Gerwin Claes, Han Versnaeyen, Eric Cox, Florian Krammer, Yu Qiu
The emergence of multiple novel lineages of H1 and H3 influenza A viruses in swine has confounded control by inactivated vaccines. Because of substantial genetic and geographic heterogeneity among circulating swine influenza viruses, one vaccine strain per subtype cannot be efficacious against all of the current lineages. We have performed vaccination-challenge studies in pigs to examine whether priming and booster vaccinations with antigenically distinct H3N2 swine influenza viruses could broaden antibody responses and protection...
2017: NPJ Vaccines
Teresa Lehnert, Marc Thilo Figge
Mathematical modeling and computer simulations have become an integral part of modern biological research. The strength of theoretical approaches is in the simplification of complex biological systems. We here consider the general problem of receptor-ligand binding in the context of antibody-antigen binding. On the one hand, we establish a quantitative mapping between macroscopic binding rates of a deterministic differential equation model and their microscopic equivalents as obtained from simulating the spatiotemporal binding kinetics by stochastic agent-based models...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
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