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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470426/surface-plasmon-resonance-and-bending-loss-based-u-shaped-plastic-optical-fiber-biosensors
#1
Ariadny da S Arcas, Fábio da S Dutra, Regina C S B Allil, Marcelo M Werneck
Escherichia coli ( E. coli ) is a large and diverse bacteria group that inhabits the intestinal tract of many mammals. Most E. coli strains are harmless, however some of them are pathogenic, meaning they can make one sick if ingested. By being in the feces of animals and humans, its presence in water and food is used as indicator of fecal contamination. The main method for this microorganism detection is the bacterial culture medium that is time-consuming and requires a laboratory with specialized personnel...
February 22, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469532/-a-comparison-of-knowledge-awareness-rates-and-influencing-factors-of-clonorchiasis-among-residents-in-4-counties-cities-of-hunan-province
#2
Wei Xuan-Dong, Wei Mo, Lv Yuan, Yi Shang-Hui, Liu Tao-Cheng, Luo Chun-Xiang, Zha Wen-Ting, Luo Qing-Hong
OBJECTIVE: To understand the status of knowledge awareness rates and influencing factors of clonorchiasis among the residents in 4 counties (cities) of Hunan Province, so as to provide the references for formulating the prevention and control strategy of clonorchiasis in the province. METHODS: A total of 1 224 subjects were selected by the multi-stage cluster sampling method and investigated with questionnaires and face-to-face interviews. RESULTS: The clonorchiasis knowledge awareness rates of the residents were 15...
May 5, 2017: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458420/effects-of-pharmacological-and-nonpharmacological-treatments-on-brain-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-alzheimer-s-disease-and-mild-cognitive-impairment-a-critical-review
#3
REVIEW
Elisa Canu, Elisabetta Sarasso, Massimo Filippi, Federica Agosta
BACKGROUND: A growing number of pharmacological and nonpharmacological trials have been performed to test the efficacy of approved or experimental treatments in Alzheimer disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). In this context, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) may be a good candidate to detect brain changes after a short period of treatment. MAIN BODY: This critical review aimed to identify and discuss the available studies that have tested the efficacy of pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatments in AD and MCI cases using task-based or resting-state fMRI measures as primary outcomes...
February 20, 2018: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458114/severity-dependent-influence-of-isocapnic-hypoxia-on-reaction-time-is-independent-of-neurovascular-coupling
#4
Hannah G Caldwell, Geoff B Coombs, Michael M Tymko, Daniela Nowak-Flück, Philip N Ainslie
With exposure to acute normobaric hypoxia, global cerebral oxygen delivery is maintained via increases in cerebral blood flow (CBF); therefore, regional and localized changes in oxygen tension may explain neurocognitive impairment. Neurovascular coupling (NVC) is the close temporal and regional relationship of CBF to changes in neural activity and may aid in explaining the localized CBF response with cognitive activation. High-altitude related cognitive impairment is likely affected by hypocapnic cerebral vasoconstriction that may influence regional CBF regulation independent of hypoxia...
February 16, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455719/community-engagement-and-venue-based-sampling-in-adolescent-male-sexually-transmitted-infection-prevention-research
#5
Mary A Ott, Julianne Campbell, Teresa M Imburgia, Ziyi Yang, Wanzhu Tu, Colette L Auerswald
OBJECTIVES: Middle adolescent males are a difficult group to recruit for community sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention research. We describe a process of community engagement, and venue-based sampling of 14-17-year-old adolescent males, and compare rates of STIs and STI risk behaviors by venue. METHODS: Community engagement consisted of (1) informational meetings with organizations; (2) participation in community meetings and events; (3) hiring community members as study personnel; and (4) an adolescent advisory board recruited from the community...
March 2018: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453895/cross-sectional-studies-what-are-they-good-for
#6
Ulrik Schiøler Kesmodel
Cross-sectional studies serve many purposes, and the cross-sectional design is the most relevant design when assessing the prevalence of disease, attitudes and knowledge among patients and health personnel, in validation studies comparing e.g. different measurement instruments, and in reliability studies. This paper describes the use and provides examples within obstetrics and gynecology. Caveats are also described; for example, when cross-sectional data is used for analytical purposes of associations between an exposure and an outcome, authors and readers should be careful not to make causal inferences, unless the exposure may safely be assumed to be stable over time and not influenced by experiencing the outcome...
February 17, 2018: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452684/evaluation-of-the-safety-tolerability-and-efficacy-of-pimavanserin-versus-placebo-in-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease-psychosis-a-phase-2-randomised-placebo-controlled-double-blind-study
#7
Clive Ballard, Carol Banister, Zunera Khan, Jeffrey Cummings, George Demos, Bruce Coate, James M Youakim, Randall Owen, Srdjan Stankovic
BACKGROUND: Pimavanserin is a selective 5-HT 2A receptor inverse agonist and antagonist approved in the USA for the treatment of hallucinations and delusions associated with Parkinson's disease psychosis. No safe or effective pharmacological treatment is approved for psychosis in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of pimavanserin versus placebo in patients with Alzheimer's disease psychosis. METHODS: We did a phase 2, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-centre (with multiple affiliated nursing home sites across the UK) study...
March 2018: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444802/building-support-for-adolescent-sexuality-and-reproductive-health-education-and-responding-to-resistance-in-conservative-contexts-cases-from-pakistan
#8
Venkatraman Chandra-Mouli, Marina Plesons, Sheena Hadi, Qadeer Baig, Iliana Lang
BACKGROUND: Despite international recommendations and supportive evidence, there are few examples of scaled-up and sustained programs to provide adolescents with sexuality education. Moreover, despite acknowledgment that building community support and responding to resistance are key challenges, there is a lack of detailed discussion on specific programmatic strategies to address these issues. OBJECTIVES: This article reviews the work of 2 organizations-Aahung and Rutgers Pakistan-that are successfully implementing large-scale sexuality education programs in Pakistan, collectively reaching more than 500,000 students...
February 13, 2018: Global Health, Science and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439424/a-cots-based-portable-system-to-conduct-accurate-substance-concentration-measurements
#9
Juan Aznar-Poveda, Jose Antonio Lopez-Pastor, Antonio-Javier Garcia-Sanchez, Joan Garcia-Haro, Toribio Fernández Otero
Traditionally, electrochemical procedures aimed at determining substance concentrations have required a costly and cumbersome laboratory environment. Specialized equipment and personnel obtain precise results under complex and time-consuming settings. Innovative electrochemical-based sensors are emerging to alleviate this difficulty. However, they are generally scarce, proprietary hardware and/or software, and focused only on measuring a restricted range of substances. In this paper, we propose a portable, flexible, low-cost system, built from commercial off-the-shelf components and easily controlled, using open-source software...
February 10, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430809/morbidity-and-mortality-meetings-gold-silver-or-bronze
#10
REVIEW
Thomas D Vreugdenburg, Deanne Forel, Nicholas Marlow, Guy J Maddern, John Quinn, Richard Lander, Stephen Tobin
BACKGROUND: Morbidity and mortality (M&M) meetings contribute to surgical education and improvements in patient care through the review of surgical outcomes; however, they often lack defined structure, objectives and resource support. The aim of this study was to investigate the factors that impact the effective conduct of M&M meetings. METHODS: We conducted a rapid systematic literature review. Three biomedical databases (PubMed, the Cochrane Library and the University of York Centre for Reviews and Dissemination), clinical practice guideline clearinghouses and grey literature sources were searched from May 2009 to September 2016...
February 11, 2018: ANZ Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430622/prehospital-stroke-scales-and-large-vessel-occlusion-a-systematic-review
#11
S Vidale, E Agostoni
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Time sensitivity for pharmacological and mechanical arterial recanalization in acute ischemic stroke influences the choice of the reference hospital. The accurate selection and identification of patients with high probability of a large vessel occlusion (LVO) in the prehospital setting improve the rationalization of the transport in the more suitable centers. Aim of this analysis was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of prehospital stroke scales detecting LVO...
February 11, 2018: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427769/ideal-cardiovascular-health-in-the-southern-cone-of%C3%A2-latin-america
#12
P Seron, V Irazola, A Rubinstein, M Calandrelli, J Ponzo, H Olivera, L Gutierrez, N Elorriaga, R Poggio, F Lanas
OBJECTIVE: The American Heart Association developed the concept of 'Ideal Cardiovascular Health', which is based on the presence of ideal levels across seven health factors. The goal of this study is to assess the prevalence of Ideal Cardiovascular Health in the Southern Cone of Latin America. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis as part of CESCAS I cohort. METHODS: This report included 5458 participants aged between 35 and 75 years who were selected using stratified multistage probability sampling in Argentina, Chile and Uruguay...
February 7, 2018: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425310/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-a-military-hearing-conservation-program
#13
Seth L Garcia, Kenneth J Smith, Catherine Palmer
Introduction: Occupational noise threatens U.S. worker health and safety and commands a significant financial burden on state and federal government worker compensation programs. Previous studies suggest that hearing conservation programs have contributed to reduced occupational hearing loss for noise-exposed workers. Many military personnel are overexposed to noise and are provided hearing conservation services. Select military branches require all active duty personnel to follow hearing conservation program guidelines, regardless of individual noise exposure...
February 7, 2018: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423606/identification-of-symptoms-of-autism-spectrum-disorders-in-the-second-year-of-life-at-day-care-centres-by-day-care-staff-step-one-in-the-development-of-a-short-observation-list
#14
Kenneth Larsen, Astrid Aasland, Trond H Diseth
Early symptoms of ASD develop through the second year of life, making a stable ASD diagnosis possible at 24 months of age. However, in general, children with ASD have their diagnosis at an older age. This retrospective study, including 30 children with ASD and 30 control children aged 3-6 years, explored the possibility of developing a short observation list to be used in day care settings for children 12-24 months of age. From 73 symptoms selected from published screeners and observation tools, we were able to construct a list of six symptoms that retrospectively differentiated children with ASD from typically developing children at 12-24 months of age when recalled by day-care personnel...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422045/evaluating-organizational-change-in-health-care-the-patient-centered-hospital-model
#15
Carlo V Fiorio, Mara Gorli, Stefano Verzillo
BACKGROUND: An increasing number of hospitals react to recent demographic, epidemiological and managerial challenges moving from a traditional organizational model to a Patient-Centered (PC) hospital model. Although the theoretical managerial literature on the PC hospital model is vast, quantitative evaluations of the performance of hospitals that moved from the traditional to the PC organizational structure is scarce. However, quantitative analysis of effects of managerial changes is important and can provide additional argument in support of innovation...
February 8, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417000/trends-and-complications-of-ear-piercing-among-selected-nigerian-population
#16
Olajide Toye Gabriel, Olajuyin Oyebanji Anthony, Eletta Adebisi Paul, Sogebi Olusola Ayodele
Background: The reported health and socioeconomic consequences of ear piercing, especially in modern day society, underscore the need to further research into this subject. In this study, we determine the trends and complications of ear piercing among selected Nigerian population. Aim and Objectives: The aim and objective of this study was to draw attention to the trends and complications of ear piercing with a view to prevent its associated complications. Methodology: It is a descriptive cross-sectional study carried out between February and May 2015 among selected Nigerian population from two of its six geo-political zones...
July 2017: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413157/strategies-to-promote-infection-prevention-and-control-in-acute-care-hospitals-with-the-help-of-infection-control-link-nurses-a-systematic-literature-review
#17
REVIEW
Daniel Peter, Michael Meng, Christiane Kugler, Frauke Mattner
BACKGROUND: Infection control link nurses (ICLNs) are important backup personnel for the prevention and control of infections in hospitals. To identify facilitators and barriers for the implementation of and long-term collaboration with ICLNs. METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature review, following the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses guidelines. Inclusion criteria were defined as description of de novo implementation of an ICLN system, strengthening of an existing ICLN system, or analysis of an ICLN system...
February 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411037/guidelines-for-inclusion-of-patient-reported-outcomes-in-clinical-trial-protocols-the-spirit-pro-extension
#18
Melanie Calvert, Derek Kyte, Rebecca Mercieca-Bebber, Anita Slade, An-Wen Chan, Madeleine T King, Amanda Hunn, Andrew Bottomley, Antoine Regnault, An-Wen Chan, Carolyn Ells, Daniel O'Connor, Dennis Revicki, Donald Patrick, Doug Altman, Ethan Basch, Galina Velikova, Gary Price, Heather Draper, Jane Blazeby, Jane Scott, Joanna Coast, Josephine Norquist, Julia Brown, Kirstie Haywood, Laura Lee Johnson, Lisa Campbell, Lori Frank, Maria von Hildebrand, Michael Brundage, Michael Palmer, Paul Kluetz, Richard Stephens, Robert M Golub, Sandra Mitchell, Trish Groves
Importance: Patient-reported outcome (PRO) data from clinical trials can provide valuable evidence to inform shared decision making, labeling claims, clinical guidelines, and health policy; however, the PRO content of clinical trial protocols is often suboptimal. The SPIRIT (Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Interventional Trials) statement was published in 2013 and aims to improve the completeness of trial protocols by providing evidence-based recommendations for the minimum set of items to be addressed, but it does not provide PRO-specific guidance...
February 6, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29403623/explaining-the-role-of-organizational-culture-on-succession-planning-at-the-ministry-of-health-and-medical-education-a-qualitative-study
#19
Mohammad Mehrtak, Esmaeil Farzaneh, Shahram Habibzadeh, Aziz Kamran, Hamed Zandian, Abdollah Mahdavi
Background: Developing and guiding new knowledge are futile unless the organizational culture can also be transformed. Future leaders cannot emerge out of an organizational environment that is not conducive to the accumulation of experiences. Objective: The aim of this study was to explore the role of organizational culture in creating a succession-planning system at the Ministry of Health and Medical Education in 2014. Methods: The present qualitative framework analysis held interviews with 23 director generals, administrative directors and deputies from the headquarters of the Iranian Ministry of Health and Medical Education in 2014 who were selected through snowball sampling...
November 2017: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399382/epidemiological-review-of-francisella-tularensis-a-case-study-in-the-complications-of-dual-diagnoses
#20
Ralph Anthony Stidham, David B Freeman, Robert L von Tersch, Peter J Sullivan, Samantha D Tostenson
Introduction: Tularemia is a rare but potentially fatal disease that develops in numerous wild and domestic animals, including lagomorphs, rodents, cats, and humans.  Francisella tularensis bacterium, the causative agent of tularemia, was identified by veterinary personnel at Fort Riley, Kansas during a routine post-mortum evaluation of a domestic feline. However, before formal diagnosis was confirmed, the sample was sent and prepared for rabies testing at the Department of Defense (DoD) U...
January 18, 2018: PLoS Currents
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