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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890032/ageism-we-are-our-own-worst-enemy
#1
Kerry Sargent-Cox
In 1969, Butler (1969) first coined the term "ageism" to confront "prejudice by one age group toward other age groups" (pp. 243). As with other "isms," such as racism and sexism, ageism leads to bigotry and discrimination, though it is a very distinct beast in that, for the most part, other "isms" refer to those different from ourselves: distinct, mutually exclusive, and impervious groups. Conversely, age is a fluid social construct in which we are all intimately bound as we move through the lifespan, transitioning in and out of different age-groups...
November 28, 2016: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872665/if-stigmatized-self-esteem-is-not-enough-effects-of-sexism-self-esteem-and-social-identity-on-leadership-aspiration
#2
Angela Fedi, Chiara Rollero
Ambivalent sexism has many pernicious consequences. Since gender stereotypes also affect leadership roles, the present research investigated the effects of ambivalent sexism on envisioning oneself as a leader. Our studies tested the influence of sexist attitudes (toward women - Study 1 - and men - Study 2) on leadership aspiration, taking into account the interaction among ambivalent attitudes, personal characteristics (e.g. self-esteem), and group processes (e.g. level of identification with gender). Specifically, the current study used a 3 (sexism: hostile, benevolent, control) x 2 (social identification: high, low) x 2 (self-esteem: high, low) factorial design...
November 2016: Europe's journal of psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867318/the-power-of-affirming-group-values-group-affirmation-buffers-the-self-esteem-of-women-exposed-to-blatant-sexism
#3
Julie Spencer-Rodgers, Brenda Major, Daniel Forster, Kaiping Peng
Extending the group affirmation literature to the domain of prejudice, this study investigated whether group affirmation buffers the self-esteem of women exposed to blatant sexism. In accordance with Self-Affirmation Theory (Steele, 1988) and group affirmation research (Sherman et al., 2007), we hypothesized that when one aspect of the collective self is threatened (gender identity), self-esteem can be maintained via the affirmation of an alternative aspect of the collective self. In a 2×2 between-participants design, female students were randomly assigned to read about discrimination directed toward women or a non-self-relevant disadvantaged group (the Inuit)...
2016: Self and Identity: the Journal of the International Society for Self and Identity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861479/-gender-based-relations-and-mistreatment-in-medical-schools-a-pending-agenda-in-mexico-and-the-world
#4
Luz María Ángela Moreno-Tetlacuilo, Harumi Quezada-Yamamoto, Elsa Susana Guevara-Ruiseñor, Nora Ibarra-Araujo, Nora Liliana Martínez-Gatica, Roberto Pedraza-Moreno
The purpose of this review is to describe and analyze the status of gender violence in medical schools around the world, and its consequences in undergraduate students' health and academic development, mainly on female students. The different modalities reported in the literature are presented: gender discrimination, sexism, and sexual harassment, among others. The increase of women in medical schools has not transcendentally improved their condition in these institutions, where androcentrism and gender regimes that favor gender violence reproduce...
November 2016: Gaceta Médica de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842623/ambivalent-sexism-inventory-adaptation-to-basque-population-and-sexism-as-a-risk-factor-of-dating-violence
#5
Izaskun Ibabe, Ainara Arnoso, Edurne Elgorriaga
There is currently a consensus that sexism is one of the most important causes of intimate partner violence, but this has yet to be empirically demonstrated conclusively. The key objective of the study was to adapt Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (ASI) and to validate it to the Basque language. It also aims to analyze the prevalence of violence in dating relationships and verify if ambivalent sexism in young men and women is a valid predictor of perpetration and/or victimization in their dating relationships. Ambivalent Sexism Inventory and Dating Relationship Questionnaire were administered to 1378 undergraduate students (66% women and 45% Basque), aged between 17 and 30...
November 15, 2016: Spanish Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805266/sexualization-reduces-helping-intentions-towards-female-victims-of-intimate-partner-violence-through-mediation-of-moral-patiency
#6
Maria Giuseppina Pacilli, Stefano Pagliaro, Steve Loughnan, Sarah Gramazio, Federica Spaccatini, Anna Costanza Baldry
This paper examines the influence of female sexualization on people's willingness to provide help in cases of intimate partner violence (IPV). We examined how sexualization may make women seem lacking moral patiency and moral virtue both of which may lead to a reduced willingness to help. In the first study, participants read a fictitious newspaper article describing an IPV incident. They were then presented with a picture of the ostensible victim depicting the woman with either a sexualized or non-sexualized appearance...
November 2, 2016: British Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784300/experiences-of-the-gender-climate-in-clinical-training-a-focus-group-study-among-swedish-medical-students
#7
Emelie Kristoffersson, Jenny Andersson, Carita Bengs, Katarina Hamberg
BACKGROUND: Research shows that medical education is characterized by unequal conditions for women and men, but there is a lack of qualitative studies investigating the social processes that enable and maintain gender inequalities that include both male and female students. In this focus group study, we therefore explored male as well as female medical students' experiences of the gender climate - i.e., how beliefs, values, and norms about gender were communicated - during clinical training and how the students dealt with these experiences...
October 26, 2016: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762440/group-differences-in-the-legitimization-of-inequality-questioning-the-role-of-social-dominance-orientation
#8
Samuel Pehrson, Héctor Carvacho, Chris G Sibley
Social dominance orientation (SDO) is conceived as an individual's level of support for group-based hierarchy in general that causes support for more specific group hierarchies. According to social dominance theory, group differences in SDO underpin ideological and behavioural group differences related to specific group hierarchies. Using representative 5-year longitudinal panel data from New Zealand (N = 3,384), we test whether SDO mediates effects of sex and ethnicity on legitimizing myths (LMs) relating to gender and ethnic hierarchy over time...
October 20, 2016: British Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27758897/adaptation-of-the-domestic-violence-myth-acceptance-scale-to-portuguese-and-tests-of-its-convergent-divergent-and-predictive-validities
#9
Jean-Christophe Giger, Gabriela Gonçalves, Ana Susana Almeida
The Domestic Violence Myth Acceptance Scale was adapted to Portuguese (PDVMAS). The PDVMAS displayed reasonable fit indices (Study 1); was positively correlated with right-wing authoritarianism, social dominance orientation, belief in a just world (Study 2), and ambivalent sexism (Study 3); and negatively correlated with empathetic tendencies (Study 4). PDVMAS significantly predicted victim blame and aggressor exoneration in scenarios of coercion (Study 5) and physical assault (Study 6). Victims and non-victims of domestic violence equally endorsed domestic violence myths...
October 6, 2016: Violence Against Women
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738783/true-love-effectiveness-of-a-school-based-program-to-reduce-dating-violence-among-adolescents-in-mexico-city
#10
Sandra G Sosa-Rubi, Biani Saavedra-Avendano, Claudia Piras, S Janae Van Buren, Sergio Bautista-Arredondo
Dating violence is a significant problem in Mexico. National survey data estimated 76 % of Mexican youth have been victims of psychological aggression in their relationships; 15.5 % have experienced physical violence; and 16.5 % of women have been the victims of sexual violence. Female adolescents perpetrate physical violence more frequently than males, while perpetration between genders of other types of violence is unclear. Furthermore, poor, marginalized youth are at a higher risk for experiencing dating violence...
October 14, 2016: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693263/psychosexual-outcome-among-iranian-individuals-with-5%C3%AE-reductase-deficiency-type-2-and-its-relationship-with-parental-sexism
#11
Behzad S Khorashad, Zahra Aghili, Baudewijntje P C Kreukels, Mehran Hiradfar, Ghasem M Roshan, Mozhgan Afkhamizadeh, Mohammad Reza Abbaszadegan, Nosrat Ghaemi, Behnaz Khazai, P T Cohen-Kettenis
INTRODUCTION: Few studies exist on the psychosexual outcome of homogeneous groups of individuals with 5α-reductase deficiency type 2 (5α-RD-2) and the relation between gender changes and parental hostile and benevolent sexism, which are two components of ambivalent sexism that assume a stereotypical approach toward women in an overtly negative way or a chivalrous, seemingly positive way. AIM: To report on the psychosexual outcome of individuals with 5α-RD-2 and to investigate its relation to the level of parental sexism in a relatively large sample of Iranians with 5α-RD-2...
November 2016: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27611856/examining-the-psychological-effect-of-rape-acknowledgment-the-interaction-of-acknowledgment-status-and-ambivalent-sexism
#12
Laura C Wilson, Katherine E Miller, Emma K Leheney, Alesha D Ballman, Angela Scarpa
OBJECTIVE: Although the majority of rape survivors do not label their experiences as rape (i.e., unacknowledged rape), the literature is mixed in terms of how this affects survivors' psychological functioning. To elucidate the discrepancies, the present study examined the interaction between rape acknowledgement and ambivalent sexism in relation to depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. METHOD: The analyzed sample included 128 female rape survivors who were drawn from a larger college sample of 1,595 participants...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27598041/development-of-the-classism-attitudinal-profile-cap
#13
Alexander J Colbow, Erin Cannella, Walter Vispoel, Carrie A Morris, Charles Cederberg, Mandy Conrad, Alexander J Rice, William M Liu
Despite increasing interest in social class issues within psychology, there are a limited number of theoretically rooted instruments to measure subjective social class, particularly related to classism. The purpose of this project was to create a brief, psychometrically sound, and theoretically grounded instrument, called the Classism Attitudinal Profile (CAP), designed to measure 2 aspects of classism (downward and upward) defined in Liu's (2011) Social Class World View Model Revised (SCWM-R). Data from 2 independent samples (n = 608, n = 199) provided evidence in support of the consistency (alpha and test-retest coefficients), anticipated factor structure, and convergent/discriminant validity of CAP subscale scores...
October 2016: Journal of Counseling Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27527124/do-beliefs-about-gender-roles-moderate-the-relationship-between-exposure-to-misogynistic-song-lyrics-and-men-s-female-directed-aggression
#14
Courtland S Hyatt, Danielle S Berke, Joshua D Miller, Amos Zeichner
Although independent lines of research have identified misogynistic lyrical content and traditional gender role beliefs as reliable predictors of men's female-directed aggression, more research is needed to understand the extent to which these variables may function in synthesis to potentiate aggression. In the current study, men (N = 193), who completed questionnaires relevant to their conformity to masculine norms and level of hostile and benevolent sexism, were exposed to either misogynistic or neutral lyrics before having the opportunity to shock an ostensible female confederate in a bogus reaction time task that, in effect, measured aggression...
August 16, 2016: Aggressive Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27520730/the-ambivalent-ageism-scale-developing-and-validating-a-scale-to-measure-benevolent-and-hostile-ageism
#15
Lindsey A Cary, Alison L Chasteen, Jessica Remedios
PURPOSE: Much like sexism, ageism is a multifaceted prejudice; it involves benevolent and hostile attitudes toward older adults. There are many scales designed to measure hostile ageism, yet none dedicated to measuring benevolent ageism. In the current studies, we developed and validated a 13-item measure: the Ambivalent Ageism Scale (AAS). DESIGN AND METHODS: We employed four stages of scale development and validation. In Stage 1, we created 41 benevolent ageist items adapted from existing ageism measures...
August 12, 2016: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27505284/the-influence-of-multiple-oppressions-on-women-of-color-s-experiences-with-insidious-trauma
#16
Laurel B Watson, Cirleen DeBlaere, Kimberly J Langrehr, David G Zelaya, Mirella J Flores
In this study, we examined the relations between multiple forms of oppressive experiences (i.e., racism, sexism, and sexual objectification) and trauma symptoms among Women of Color (WOC). In addition, self-esteem was explored as a partial mediating variable in these links, and ethnic identity strength was proposed to buffer the negative relationship between multiple forms of oppression and self-esteem, and the positive relationship between oppressive experiences and trauma symptoms. Results suggested that self-esteem partially mediated the positive relationship between racist experiences and trauma symptoms, such that racism was related to lower self-esteem, which was then related to more trauma symptoms...
August 8, 2016: Journal of Counseling Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27501163/sexism-within-anatomy-as-perceived-by-professional-anatomists-and-in-comparison-with-the-perceptions-of-medical-students
#17
Susan Morgan, Odile Plaisant, Baptiste Lignier, Bernard J Moxham
Two hundred and eight professional anatomists responded to a questionnaire inviting them to address the possibility that social/gender factors hinder the dispassionate representation of anatomy. Ethical approval for the study was obtained from Cardiff University. The results of the survey provided comparisons with the attitudes of medical students that have previously been reported (Morgan et al., 2014). Although a few differences were discerned between females and males in our surveys and between anatomists and medical students, overall our findings suggest that, while both professional anatomists and medical students recognize the importance of gender issues and do not wish to associate with sexism, most are unaware of the possible negative aspects of sexism within anatomy...
October 2016: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27414234/the-compassionate-sexist-how-benevolent-sexism-promotes-and-undermines-gender-equality-in-the-workplace
#18
Ivona Hideg, D Lance Ferris
Although sexist attitudes are generally thought to undermine support for employment equity (EE) policies supporting women, we argue that the effects of benevolent sexism are more complex. Across 4 studies, we extend the ambivalent sexism literature by examining both the positive and the negative effects benevolent sexism has for the support of gender-based EE policies. On the positive side, we show that individuals who endorse benevolent sexist attitudes on trait measures of sexism (Study 1) and individuals primed with benevolent sexist attitudes (Study 2) are more likely to support an EE policy, and that this effect is mediated by feelings of compassion...
July 14, 2016: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27386879/sexist-humor-and-rape-proclivity-the-moderating-role-of-joke-teller-gender-and-severity-of-sexual-assault
#19
Mónica Romero-Sánchez, Hugo Carretero-Dios, Jesús L Megías, Miguel Moya, Thomas E Ford
Three experiments examined the effect of sexist humor on men's self-reported rape proclivity (RP). Pilot study demonstrated that people differentiate the five rape scenarios of Bohner et al.'s. RP Scale based on the degree of physical violence perpetrated against the victim. Experiment 1 demonstrated that men higher in hostile sexism report greater RP upon exposure to sexist jokes when a woman (vs. a man) delivers them, and that this effect is limited to rape scenarios depicting a moderate versus a high level of physical violence...
July 6, 2016: Violence Against Women
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27370943/the-relationship-between-television-sports-exposure-and-rape-myth-acceptance-the-mediating-role-of-sexism-and-sexual-objectification-of-women
#20
Kathleen Custers, Jenna McNallie
Rape affects a large proportion of women in the United States but is one of the most underreported crimes. It is believed that rape myth acceptance contributes to low reporting rates. We tested whether television sports exposure was indirectly related to higher acceptance of rape myth beliefs. An online survey involving 465 undergraduate students showed that viewing TV sports was positively related to hostile sexism, benevolent sexism, and sexual objectification of women. Through these variables, TV sports was indirectly and positively associated with rape myth acceptance...
June 30, 2016: Violence Against Women
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