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Sandra G Sosa-Rubi, Biani Saavedra-Avendano, Claudia Piras, S Janae Van Buren, Sergio Bautista-Arredondo
Dating violence is a significant problem in Mexico. National survey data estimated 76 % of Mexican youth have been victims of psychological aggression in their relationships; 15.5 % have experienced physical violence; and 16.5 % of women have been the victims of sexual violence. Female adolescents perpetrate physical violence more frequently than males, while perpetration between genders of other types of violence is unclear. Furthermore, poor, marginalized youth are at a higher risk for experiencing dating violence...
October 14, 2016: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
Behzad S Khorashad, Zahra Aghili, Baudewijntje P C Kreukels, Mehran Hiradfar, Ghasem M Roshan, Mozhgan Afkhamizadeh, Mohammad Reza Abbaszadegan, Nosrat Ghaemi, Behnaz Khazai, Peggy Cohen Kettenis
INTRODUCTION: Few studies exist on the psychosexual outcome of homogeneous groups of individuals with 5α-reductase deficiency type 2 (5α-RD-2) and the relation between gender changes and parental hostile and benevolent sexism, which are two components of ambivalent sexism that assume a stereotypical approach toward women in an overtly negative way or a chivalrous, seemingly positive way. AIM: To report on the psychosexual outcome of individuals with 5α-RD-2 and to investigate its relation to the level of parental sexism in a relatively large sample of Iranians with 5α-RD-2...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Sexual Medicine
Laura C Wilson, Katherine E Miller, Emma K Leheney, Alesha D Ballman, Angela Scarpa
OBJECTIVE: Although the majority of rape survivors do not label their experiences as rape (i.e., unacknowledged rape), the literature is mixed in terms of how this affects survivors' psychological functioning. To elucidate the discrepancies, the present study examined the interaction between rape acknowledgement and ambivalent sexism in relation to depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. METHOD: The analyzed sample included 128 female rape survivors who were drawn from a larger college sample of 1,595 participants...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychology
Alexander J Colbow, Erin Cannella, Walter Vispoel, Carrie A Morris, Charles Cederberg, Mandy Conrad, Alexander J Rice, William M Liu
Despite increasing interest in social class issues within psychology, there are a limited number of theoretically rooted instruments to measure subjective social class, particularly related to classism. The purpose of this project was to create a brief, psychometrically sound, and theoretically grounded instrument, called the Classism Attitudinal Profile (CAP), designed to measure 2 aspects of classism (downward and upward) defined in Liu's (2011) Social Class World View Model Revised (SCWM-R). Data from 2 independent samples (n = 608, n = 199) provided evidence in support of the consistency (alpha and test-retest coefficients), anticipated factor structure, and convergent/discriminant validity of CAP subscale scores...
October 2016: Journal of Counseling Psychology
Courtland S Hyatt, Danielle S Berke, Joshua D Miller, Amos Zeichner
Although independent lines of research have identified misogynistic lyrical content and traditional gender role beliefs as reliable predictors of men's female-directed aggression, more research is needed to understand the extent to which these variables may function in synthesis to potentiate aggression. In the current study, men (N = 193), who completed questionnaires relevant to their conformity to masculine norms and level of hostile and benevolent sexism, were exposed to either misogynistic or neutral lyrics before having the opportunity to shock an ostensible female confederate in a bogus reaction time task that, in effect, measured aggression...
August 16, 2016: Aggressive Behavior
Lindsey A Cary, Alison L Chasteen, Jessica Remedios
PURPOSE: Much like sexism, ageism is a multifaceted prejudice; it involves benevolent and hostile attitudes toward older adults. There are many scales designed to measure hostile ageism, yet none dedicated to measuring benevolent ageism. In the current studies, we developed and validated a 13-item measure: the Ambivalent Ageism Scale (AAS). DESIGN AND METHODS: We employed four stages of scale development and validation. In Stage 1, we created 41 benevolent ageist items adapted from existing ageism measures...
August 12, 2016: Gerontologist
Laurel B Watson, Cirleen DeBlaere, Kimberly J Langrehr, David G Zelaya, Mirella J Flores
In this study, we examined the relations between multiple forms of oppressive experiences (i.e., racism, sexism, and sexual objectification) and trauma symptoms among Women of Color (WOC). In addition, self-esteem was explored as a partial mediating variable in these links, and ethnic identity strength was proposed to buffer the negative relationship between multiple forms of oppression and self-esteem, and the positive relationship between oppressive experiences and trauma symptoms. Results suggested that self-esteem partially mediated the positive relationship between racist experiences and trauma symptoms, such that racism was related to lower self-esteem, which was then related to more trauma symptoms...
August 8, 2016: Journal of Counseling Psychology
Susan Morgan, Odile Plaisant, Baptiste Lignier, Bernard J Moxham
Two hundred and eight professional anatomists responded to a questionnaire inviting them to address the possibility that social/gender factors hinder the dispassionate representation of anatomy. Ethical approval for the study was obtained from Cardiff University. The results of the survey provided comparisons with the attitudes of medical students that have previously been reported (Morgan et al., 2014). Although a few differences were discerned between females and males in our surveys and between anatomists and medical students, overall our findings suggest that, while both professional anatomists and medical students recognize the importance of gender issues and do not wish to associate with sexism, most are unaware of the possible negative aspects of sexism within anatomy...
October 2016: Clinical Anatomy
Ivona Hideg, D Lance Ferris
Although sexist attitudes are generally thought to undermine support for employment equity (EE) policies supporting women, we argue that the effects of benevolent sexism are more complex. Across 4 studies, we extend the ambivalent sexism literature by examining both the positive and the negative effects benevolent sexism has for the support of gender-based EE policies. On the positive side, we show that individuals who endorse benevolent sexist attitudes on trait measures of sexism (Study 1) and individuals primed with benevolent sexist attitudes (Study 2) are more likely to support an EE policy, and that this effect is mediated by feelings of compassion...
July 14, 2016: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Mónica Romero-Sánchez, Hugo Carretero-Dios, Jesús L Megías, Miguel Moya, Thomas E Ford
Three experiments examined the effect of sexist humor on men's self-reported rape proclivity (RP). Pilot study demonstrated that people differentiate the five rape scenarios of Bohner et al.'s. RP Scale based on the degree of physical violence perpetrated against the victim. Experiment 1 demonstrated that men higher in hostile sexism report greater RP upon exposure to sexist jokes when a woman (vs. a man) delivers them, and that this effect is limited to rape scenarios depicting a moderate versus a high level of physical violence...
July 6, 2016: Violence Against Women
Kathleen Custers, Jenna McNallie
Rape affects a large proportion of women in the United States but is one of the most underreported crimes. It is believed that rape myth acceptance contributes to low reporting rates. We tested whether television sports exposure was indirectly related to higher acceptance of rape myth beliefs. An online survey involving 465 undergraduate students showed that viewing TV sports was positively related to hostile sexism, benevolent sexism, and sexual objectification of women. Through these variables, TV sports was indirectly and positively associated with rape myth acceptance...
June 30, 2016: Violence Against Women
Emily Ann Harris, Matthew J Hornsey, Fiona Kate Barlow
Previous research on subclinical orgasmic difficulties among women has focused on intrapsychic and interpersonal variables, but little attention has been paid to the more distal ideological factors that might indirectly constrain sexual pleasure. We hypothesized that women's endorsement of a benevolently sexist worldview would be negatively associated with orgasm frequency. Specifically, we predicted that benevolent sexism would be associated with increased perceptions of male sexual selfishness. This perception of men as interested in their own sexual pleasure would then predict decreased willingness to ask a partner for sexual pleasure, which in turn would be associated with less frequent orgasms...
June 15, 2016: Archives of Sexual Behavior
Felicity H Hawker
OBJECTIVE: Women are under-represented in the intensive care medicine (ICM) specialist workforce. I aimed to better understand the challenges these women face so they can be considered in the training and support of ICM specialists. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: All female Fellows of the College of Intensive Care Medicine (CICM) of Australia and New Zealand were surveyed using an online questionnaire. The study was approved by the Cabrini Human Research Ethics Committee...
June 2016: Critical Care and Resuscitation: Journal of the Australasian Academy of Critical Care Medicine
Yanshu Huang, Paul G Davies, Chris G Sibley, Danny Osborne
Although Benevolent Sexism (BS)-an ideology that highly reveres women who conform to traditional gender roles-is cloaked in a superficially positive tone, being placed upon a pedestal is inherently restrictive. Accordingly, because the paternalistic beliefs associated with BS are based on the idealization of traditional gender roles (which include motherhood), BS should predict people's attitudes toward women's reproductive rights. Using data from a nationwide longitudinal panel study (N = 12,299), Study 1 showed that BS (but not Hostile Sexism) had cross-lagged effects on opposition to both elective and traumatic abortion...
July 2016: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Juan Herrero, Francisco J Rodríguez, Andrea Torres
Sexist attitudes have been claimed to play an important role in acceptability of intimate partner violence (IPV). Empirical evidence suggests that sexist individuals are also more accepting of violence in social relationships than non-sexist individuals. Results from multilevel regression models of data from 72,730 respondents of 51 countries around the world showed that (a) both sexism and acceptability of general violence in social relationships were positively related to acceptability of IPV and (b) the highest levels of acceptability of IPV were found among those sexist individuals who also present positive attitudes toward the use of violence in social relationships...
April 27, 2016: Violence Against Women
Tricia Serio
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 28, 2016: Nature
Gemma Sáez, Inmaculada Valor-Segura, Francisca Expósito
Sexual objectification as a form of sexist discrimination accounts for the higher prevalence of psychological problems among women. More specifically, sexual objectification manifests itself in different ways with different intensities, in turn affecting women's psychological well-being differently. On one hand, experiences of body evaluation are more subtle and work by perpetuating sexist attitudes among women themselves. On the other hand, more explicit forms of sexual objectification (unwanted explicit sexual advances) are linked to higher levels of anxiety and lower levels of self-esteem...
April 27, 2016: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Kathryn R Klement, Brad J Sagarin, Ellen M Lee
With the recent national focus on rates of sexual violence, many interventions have been proposed, including those that focus on affirmative consent (e.g., "Yes Means Yes" campaign). The goal of the present study was to test whether individuals within a subculture with long-standing norms of affirmative consent-the bondage and discipline/dominance and submission/sadism and masochism (BDSM) community-report lower rape-supportive attitudes compared to individuals not from within this subculture. BDSM practitioner participants, adult participants from Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk), and college student participants completed measures of hostile sexism, benevolent sexism, rape myth acceptance, victim blaming, expectation of sexual aggression, and acceptance of sexual aggression...
April 27, 2016: Journal of Sex Research
Roberto Martinez-Pecino, Mercedes Durán
Cyberbullying is attracting social, political, and academic interest as the use of electronic devices such as computers and mobile phones by young people has increased dramatically. However, little is known about the factors involved in their perpetration, particularly in the context of college students' dating relationships. The aim of this study is to examine the involvement of college students in cyberbullying in the context of their dating relationships and to explore the impact of sexism on males' cyberbullying of their girlfriends...
April 25, 2016: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Chris McVittie, Andy McKinlay, Vania Ranjbar
Significant challenges remain in tackling the global HIV/AIDS epidemic. Effective action requires both appropriate policy at a global level and informed practice on the local level. Here, we report how workers in a project in Johannesburg, South Africa, make sense of HIV transmission. Discourse analysis of data from interviews with 63 participants shows that project workers routinely attribute transmission to men's sexual relationships with multiple female partners. This explanation is so pervasive that it renders invisible other routes to transmission...
April 19, 2016: Journal of Health Psychology
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