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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339353/relationships-between-ambivalent-sexism-and-the-five-moral-foundations-in-domestic-violence-is-it-a-matter-of-fairness-and-authority
#1
Maria L Vecina, Raul Piñuela
Ambivalent sexism has served to justify and maintain patriarchy and traditional gender roles characterized by inequality and male domination in the intimate partner violence (IPV) literature; according to the Moral Foundation Theory (MFT) there are two specific moral foundations related to inequality and domination: fairness and authority. We connect these separate fields arguing that sexist attitudes can be related to specific patterns of endorsement of the five moral foundations. Our hypothesis is that ambivalent sexism in men convicted of violence against the partner may be rooted in at least these two moral foundations, and that at least these two moral foundations may also serve to predict intention to change the violent behavior against the partner...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300281/moral-hard-wiring-and-moral-enhancement
#2
Ingmar Persson, Julian Savulescu
We have argued for an urgent need for moral bioenhancement; that human moral psychology is limited in its ability to address current existential threats due to the evolutionary function of morality to maximize cooperation in small groups. We address here Powell and Buchanan's novel objection that there is an 'inclusivist anomaly': humans have the capacity to care beyond in-groups. They propose that 'exclusivist' (group-based) morality is sensitive to environmental cues that historically indicated out-group threat...
March 16, 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299587/how-sex-selection-undermines-reproductive-autonomy
#3
Tamara Kayali Browne
Non-medical sex selection is premised on the notion that the sexes are not interchangeable. Studies of individuals who undergo sex selection for non-medical reasons, or who have a preference for a son or daughter, show that they assume their child will conform to the stereotypical roles and norms associated with their sex. However, the evidence currently available has not succeeded in showing that the gender traits and inclinations sought are caused by a "male brain" or a "female brain". Therefore, as far as we know, there is no biological reason why parents cannot have the kind of parenting experience they seek with a child of any sex...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186861/stigma-by-prejudice-transfer
#4
Diana T Sanchez, Kimberly E Chaney, Sara K Manuel, Leigh S Wilton, Jessica D Remedios
In the current research, we posited the stigma-by-prejudice-transfer effect, which proposes that stigmatized group members (e.g., White women) are threatened by prejudice that is directed at other stigmatized group members (e.g., African Americans) because they believe that prejudice has monolithic qualities. While most stigma researchers assume that there is a direct correspondence between the attitude of prejudiced individuals and the targets (i.e., sexism affects women, racism affects racial minorities), the five studies reported here demonstrate that White women can be threatened by racism (Study 1, 3, 4, and 5) and men of color by sexism (Study 2)...
February 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124809/discourses-with-potential-to-disrupt-traditional-nursing-education-nursing-teachers-talk-about-norm-critical-competence
#5
Ellinor Tengelin, Elisabeth Dahlborg-Lyckhage
This paper describes the discourses underlying nursing teachers' talk about their own norm-critical competence. Norm criticism is an approach that promotes awareness and criticism of the norms and power structures that exert an excluding effect in society in general and in the healthcare encounter in particular. Given the unequal relationships that can exist in healthcare, for example relationships shaped by racism, sexism and classism, a norm-critical approach to nursing education would help illuminate these matters...
January 2017: Nursing Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124193/-not-brain-washed-but-heart-washed-a-qualitative-analysis-of-benevolent-sexism-in-the-anti-choice-stance
#6
Kari N Duerksen, Karen L Lawson
PURPOSE: In recent years, anti-choice dialog has shifted from a focus on the fetus to a focus on the woman. This new movement constructs itself as positive and pro-woman, while perpetuating harmful stereotypes about women and the effects of abortion. Research has shown a relationship between benevolent sexism (beliefs that women are morally pure creatures in need of protection and nurturing) and restrictive attitudes towards abortion, although no research has qualitatively explored this relationship...
January 25, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072938/welfare-of-anaesthesia-trainees-survey
#7
G B Downey, J M McDonald, R G Downey
This study was designed to investigate levels of stress, anxiety or depression and to identify factors compounding or relieving stress in anaesthesia trainees within the Australian and New Zealand College of Anaesthetists (ANZCA) training scheme. An electronic survey was sent to 999 randomly selected trainees and 428 responses were received. In addition to demographics, psychological wellbeing was assessed using the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10) and questions were asked about depression and anxiety, exacerbating factors, personal healthcare and strategies used to manage stress...
January 2017: Anaesthesia and Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032778/barriers-to-women-engaging-in-collective-action-to-overcome-sexism
#8
REVIEW
Helena R M Radke, Matthew J Hornsey, Fiona Kate Barlow
Over centuries women have fought hard to obtain increasing gender equality, but despite these successes absolute equality remains an elusive goal. Theoretically, women's numerical strength makes them well-placed to take effective collective action, and millions of women engage in feminist collective action every day. In this article, however, we argue that women also face barriers to engaging in feminist collective action; barriers that are associated with the social construction and experience of what it means to be a woman...
December 2016: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940501/predicting-sexual-harassment-from-hostile-sexism-and-short-term-mating-orientation-relative-strength-of-predictors-depends-on-situational-priming-of-power-versus-sex
#9
Charlotte Diehl, Jonas Rees, Gerd Bohner
Previous research has shown that short-term mating orientation (STMO) and hostile sexism (HS) selectively predict different types of sexual harassment. In a priming experiment, we studied the situational malleability of those effects. Male participants could repeatedly send sexist jokes (gender harassment), harassing remarks (unwanted sexual attention), or nonharassing messages to a (computer-simulated) female target. Before entering the laboratory, participants were unobtrusively primed with the concepts of either sexuality or power...
December 9, 2016: Violence Against Women
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890032/ageism-we-are-our-own-worst-enemy
#10
Kerry Sargent-Cox
In 1969, Butler (1969) first coined the term "ageism" to confront "prejudice by one age group toward other age groups" (pp. 243). As with other "isms," such as racism and sexism, ageism leads to bigotry and discrimination, though it is a very distinct beast in that, for the most part, other "isms" refer to those different from ourselves: distinct, mutually exclusive, and impervious groups. Conversely, age is a fluid social construct in which we are all intimately bound as we move through the lifespan, transitioning in and out of different age-groups...
January 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872665/if-stigmatized-self-esteem-is-not-enough-effects-of-sexism-self-esteem-and-social-identity-on-leadership-aspiration
#11
Angela Fedi, Chiara Rollero
Ambivalent sexism has many pernicious consequences. Since gender stereotypes also affect leadership roles, the present research investigated the effects of ambivalent sexism on envisioning oneself as a leader. Our studies tested the influence of sexist attitudes (toward women - Study 1 - and men - Study 2) on leadership aspiration, taking into account the interaction among ambivalent attitudes, personal characteristics (e.g. self-esteem), and group processes (e.g. level of identification with gender). Specifically, the current study used a 3 (sexism: hostile, benevolent, control) x 2 (social identification: high, low) x 2 (self-esteem: high, low) factorial design...
November 2016: Europe's journal of psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867318/the-power-of-affirming-group-values-group-affirmation-buffers-the-self-esteem-of-women-exposed-to-blatant-sexism
#12
Julie Spencer-Rodgers, Brenda Major, Daniel Forster, Kaiping Peng
Extending the group affirmation literature to the domain of prejudice, this study investigated whether group affirmation buffers the self-esteem of women exposed to blatant sexism. In accordance with Self-Affirmation Theory (Steele, 1988) and group affirmation research (Sherman et al., 2007), we hypothesized that when one aspect of the collective self is threatened (gender identity), self-esteem can be maintained via the affirmation of an alternative aspect of the collective self. In a 2×2 between-participants design, female students were randomly assigned to read about discrimination directed toward women or a non-self-relevant disadvantaged group (the Inuit)...
2016: Self and Identity: the Journal of the International Society for Self and Identity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861479/-gender-based-relations-and-mistreatment-in-medical-schools-a-pending-agenda-in-mexico-and-the-world
#13
Luz María Ángela Moreno-Tetlacuilo, Harumi Quezada-Yamamoto, Elsa Susana Guevara-Ruiseñor, Nora Ibarra-Araujo, Nora Liliana Martínez-Gatica, Roberto Pedraza-Moreno
The purpose of this review is to describe and analyze the status of gender violence in medical schools around the world, and its consequences in undergraduate students' health and academic development, mainly on female students. The different modalities reported in the literature are presented: gender discrimination, sexism, and sexual harassment, among others. The increase of women in medical schools has not transcendentally improved their condition in these institutions, where androcentrism and gender regimes that favor gender violence reproduce...
November 2016: Gaceta Médica de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842623/ambivalent-sexism-inventory-adaptation-to-basque-population-and-sexism-as-a-risk-factor-of-dating-violence
#14
Izaskun Ibabe, Ainara Arnoso, Edurne Elgorriaga
There is currently a consensus that sexism is one of the most important causes of intimate partner violence, but this has yet to be empirically demonstrated conclusively. The key objective of the study was to adapt Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (ASI) and to validate it to the Basque language. It also aims to analyze the prevalence of violence in dating relationships and verify if ambivalent sexism in young men and women is a valid predictor of perpetration and/or victimization in their dating relationships. Ambivalent Sexism Inventory and Dating Relationship Questionnaire were administered to 1378 undergraduate students (66% women and 45% Basque), aged between 17 and 30...
November 15, 2016: Spanish Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805266/sexualization-reduces-helping-intentions-towards-female-victims-of-intimate-partner-violence-through-mediation-of-moral-patiency
#15
Maria Giuseppina Pacilli, Stefano Pagliaro, Steve Loughnan, Sarah Gramazio, Federica Spaccatini, Anna Costanza Baldry
This paper examines the influence of female sexualization on people's willingness to provide help in cases of intimate partner violence (IPV). We examined how sexualization may make women seem lacking moral patiency and moral virtue both of which may lead to a reduced willingness to help. In the first study, participants read a fictitious newspaper article describing an IPV incident. They were then presented with a picture of the ostensible victim depicting the woman with either a sexualized or non-sexualized appearance...
November 2, 2016: British Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784300/experiences-of-the-gender-climate-in-clinical-training-a-focus-group-study-among-swedish-medical-students
#16
Emelie Kristoffersson, Jenny Andersson, Carita Bengs, Katarina Hamberg
BACKGROUND: Research shows that medical education is characterized by unequal conditions for women and men, but there is a lack of qualitative studies investigating the social processes that enable and maintain gender inequalities that include both male and female students. In this focus group study, we therefore explored male as well as female medical students' experiences of the gender climate - i.e., how beliefs, values, and norms about gender were communicated - during clinical training and how the students dealt with these experiences...
October 26, 2016: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762440/group-differences-in-the-legitimization-of-inequality-questioning-the-role-of-social-dominance-orientation
#17
Samuel Pehrson, Héctor Carvacho, Chris G Sibley
Social dominance orientation (SDO) is conceived as an individual's level of support for group-based hierarchy in general that causes support for more specific group hierarchies. According to social dominance theory, group differences in SDO underpin ideological and behavioural group differences related to specific group hierarchies. Using representative 5-year longitudinal panel data from New Zealand (N = 3,384), we test whether SDO mediates effects of sex and ethnicity on legitimizing myths (LMs) relating to gender and ethnic hierarchy over time...
March 2017: British Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27758897/adaptation-of-the-domestic-violence-myth-acceptance-scale-to-portuguese-and-tests-of-its-convergent-divergent-and-predictive-validities
#18
Jean-Christophe Giger, Gabriela Gonçalves, Ana Susana Almeida
The Domestic Violence Myth Acceptance Scale was adapted to Portuguese (PDVMAS). The PDVMAS displayed reasonable fit indices (Study 1); was positively correlated with right-wing authoritarianism, social dominance orientation, belief in a just world (Study 2), and ambivalent sexism (Study 3); and negatively correlated with empathetic tendencies (Study 4). PDVMAS significantly predicted victim blame and aggressor exoneration in scenarios of coercion (Study 5) and physical assault (Study 6). Victims and non-victims of domestic violence equally endorsed domestic violence myths...
October 6, 2016: Violence Against Women
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738783/true-love-effectiveness-of-a-school-based-program-to-reduce-dating-violence-among-adolescents-in-mexico-city
#19
Sandra G Sosa-Rubi, Biani Saavedra-Avendano, Claudia Piras, S Janae Van Buren, Sergio Bautista-Arredondo
Dating violence is a significant problem in Mexico. National survey data estimated 76 % of Mexican youth have been victims of psychological aggression in their relationships; 15.5 % have experienced physical violence; and 16.5 % of women have been the victims of sexual violence. Female adolescents perpetrate physical violence more frequently than males, while perpetration between genders of other types of violence is unclear. Furthermore, poor, marginalized youth are at a higher risk for experiencing dating violence...
October 14, 2016: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693263/psychosexual-outcome-among-iranian-individuals-with-5%C3%AE-reductase-deficiency-type-2-and-its-relationship-with-parental-sexism
#20
Behzad S Khorashad, Zahra Aghili, Baudewijntje P C Kreukels, Mehran Hiradfar, Ghasem M Roshan, Mozhgan Afkhamizadeh, Mohammad Reza Abbaszadegan, Nosrat Ghaemi, Behnaz Khazai, P T Cohen-Kettenis
INTRODUCTION: Few studies exist on the psychosexual outcome of homogeneous groups of individuals with 5α-reductase deficiency type 2 (5α-RD-2) and the relation between gender changes and parental hostile and benevolent sexism, which are two components of ambivalent sexism that assume a stereotypical approach toward women in an overtly negative way or a chivalrous, seemingly positive way. AIM: To report on the psychosexual outcome of individuals with 5α-RD-2 and to investigate its relation to the level of parental sexism in a relatively large sample of Iranians with 5α-RD-2...
November 2016: Journal of Sexual Medicine
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