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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155775/mapping-genome-wide-accessible-chromatin-in-primary-human-t-lymphocytes-by-atac-seq
#1
Ivana Grbesa, Miriam Tannenbaum, Avital Sarusi-Portuguez, Michal Schwartz, Ofir Hakim
Assay for Transposase-Accessible Chromatin with high-throughput sequencing (ATAC-seq) is a method used for the identification of open (accessible) regions of chromatin. These regions represent regulatory DNA elements (e.g., promoters, enhancers, locus control regions, insulators) to which transcription factors bind. Mapping the accessible chromatin landscape is a powerful approach for uncovering active regulatory elements across the genome. This information serves as an unbiased approach for discovering the network of relevant transcription factors and mechanisms of chromatin structure that govern gene expression programs...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154772/endogenous-peroxidases-in-sputum-interfere-with-horse-radish-peroxidase-based-elisas
#2
Lisa Ha-Yeon Kim, Karin Plaza, Sruthi R Thomas, Christina Draijer, Katherine Radford, Marc Peters-Golden, Manali Mukherjee, Parameswaran Nair
Peroxidase-based immunoassays are commonly used for detecting inflammatory mediators in biological samples. We suggest caution while interpreting assays particularly in sputum samples that have endogenous peroxidases like eosinophil peroxidase (EPX), which may interact with a horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-based ELISA. Using IL-8 as an example, we demonstrate that values generated with an HRP-ELISA (n=47) show significant positive correlation with the sputum EPX content (r=0.6, P=0.0004), which can be misconstrued to be affiliated with an eosinophilic event...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Immunological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138085/in-silico-design-cloning-expression-and-immunologic-evaluation-of-ed-fusion-protein-of-nt-h-influenzae
#3
Ava Behrouzi, Saeid Bouzari, Mana Oloomi, Abolfaz Fateh, Farzam Vaziri, Parviz Afrough, Amir Amanzadeh, Seyed Davar Siadat
Infections due to nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) are important causes of child mortality throughout the world. Given the lack of effective vaccines for these strains and the spread and prevalence of these infections in the world, it is necessary to design novel vaccine candidates against these strains. D and E proteins are conserved membrane-specific lipoproteins among encapsulated and non-encapsulated H. influenza strains, which, according to the exposure surface and conservation degree between both strains, can be considered as vaccine candidates suitable for studies...
November 11, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137272/immunological-cytokine-profiling-identifies-tnf-%C3%AE-as-a-key-molecule-dysregulated-in-autistic-children
#4
Jiang Xie, Li Huang, Xiaohong Li, Hua Li, Yongmei Zhou, Hua Zhu, Tianying Pan, Keith M Kendrick, Wenming Xu
Recent studies have suggested that the etiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may be caused by immunological factors, particularly abnormalities in the innate immune system. However, it is still unclear which specific cytokines may be of most importance. The current study therefore investigated which cytokines showed altered concentrations in blood in ASD compared with healthy control children and which were also correlated with symptom severity. Our study sample included 32 children diagnosed with ASD and 28 age and sex-matched typically developing children...
October 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128405/systems-cues-governing-il6-signaling-in-leishmaniasis
#5
Bhavnita Soni, Bhaskar Saha, Shailza Singh
IL-6 has been proposed to favor the development of Th2 responses and play an important role in the communication between cells of multicellular organisms. They are involved in the regulation of complex cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation and act as key player during inflammation and immune response. Th2 cytokines play an immunoregulatory role in early infection. Literature says in mice infected with L. major, IL-6 may promote the development of both Th1 and Th2 responses. IL-4 is also considered to be the signature cytokine of Th-2 response...
November 8, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124321/vaccine-responses-in-newborns
#6
REVIEW
Anja Saso, Beate Kampmann
Immunisation of the newborn represents a key global strategy in overcoming morbidity and mortality due to infection in early life. Potential limitations, however, include poor immunogenicity, safety concerns and the development of tolerogenicity or hypo-responsiveness to either the same antigen and/or concomitant antigens administered at birth or in the subsequent months. Furthermore, the neonatal immunological milieu is polarised towards Th2-type immunity with dampening of Th1-type responses and impaired humoral immunity, resulting in qualitatively and quantitatively poorer antibody responses compared to older infants...
November 9, 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122456/sentinels-of-the-type-2-immune-response
#7
REVIEW
Jakob von Moltke, Marion Pepper
Type 2 immune responses have evolved to sense and respond to large, non-replicating infections or non-microbial noxious compounds in tissues. The development of these responses therefore depends upon highly coordinated and tightly regulated tissue-residing cellular sensors and responders. Multiple exposure to type 2 helper T cell (Th2)-inducing stimuli further enhances both the diversity and potency of the response. This review discusses advances in our understanding of the interacting cellular subsets that comprise both primary and secondary type 2 responses...
November 6, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106735/human-periodontal-ligament-fibroblasts-synthesize-c-reactive-protein-and-th-related-cytokines-in-response-to-interleukin-il-6-trans-signaling
#8
A Hernández-Caldera, R Vernal, R Paredes, P Veloso-Matta, J Astorga, M Hernández
AIM: To characterize the potential of human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (HPLF) to synthesize CRP and Th-related cytokines in response to IL-6 in periodontal health and apical inflammation. METHODOLOGY: Primary HPLF stimulated with IL-6, soluble(s) IL-6 receptor (R) and controls were assayed for CRP, Th1, Th2, Th17 and Treg-related cytokines by quantitative real time PCR and ELISA, respectively. IL-6R mRNA expression and its soluble protein levels were screened in HPLF cultures, and ex vivo samples of healthy periodontal ligaments (n=5) and apical lesions (n=13)...
November 6, 2017: International Endodontic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097999/clostridium-butyricum-cgmcc0313-1-protects-against-autoimmune-diabetes-by-modulating-intestinal-immune-homeostasis-and-inducing-pancreatic-regulatory-t-cells
#9
Lingling Jia, Kai Shan, Li-Long Pan, Ninghan Feng, Zhuwu Lv, Yajun Sun, Jiahong Li, Chengfei Wu, Hao Zhang, Wei Chen, Julien Diana, Jia Sun, Yong Q Chen
Recent evidence indicates that indigenous Clostridium species induce colonic regulatory T cells (Tregs), and gut lymphocytes are able to migrate to pancreatic islets in an inflammatory environment. Thus, we speculate that supplementation with the well-characterized probiotics Clostridium butyricum CGMCC0313.1 (CB0313.1) may induce pancreatic Tregs and consequently inhibit the diabetes incidence in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. CB0313.1 was administered daily to female NOD mice from 3 to 45 weeks of age. The control group received an equal volume of sterile water...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090236/expression-of-th1-and-th2-cytokine-and-associated-transcription-factors-in-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-and-correlation-with-disease-severity
#10
Hadis Yousefzadeh, Farahzad Jabbari Azad, Maryam Rastin, Mahnaz Banihashemi, Mahmoud Mahmoudi
BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is a T cell-mediated autoimmune disease in patients with elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines belonging mainly to the Th1 pathway. We investigated whether treatment of psoriasis patients with methotrexate (MTX), along with micronutrients, modulated mRNA expression of Th1 and Th2 components and whether expression of these components correlated with psoriasis severity. METHODS: Thirty plaque-type psoriasis patients with Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) scores greater than 10 were recruited; these were 15 non-micronutrients taking- (NMT) patients treated with MTX daily (0...
October 2017: Reports of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073183/adjuvants-and-the-vaccine-response-to-the-ds-cav1-stabilized-fusion-glycoprotein-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus
#11
Mallika Sastry, Baoshan Zhang, Man Chen, M Gordon Joyce, Wing-Pui Kong, Gwo-Yu Chuang, Kiyoon Ko, Azad Kumar, Chiara Silacci, Michelle Thom, Andres M Salazar, Davide Corti, Antonio Lanzavecchia, Geraldine Taylor, John R Mascola, Barney S Graham, Peter D Kwong
Appropriate adjuvant selection may be essential to optimize the potency and to tailor the immune response of subunit vaccines. To induce protective responses against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-a highly prevalent childhood pathogen without a licensed vaccine-we previously engineered a pre-fusion-stabilized trimeric RSV F (pre-F) "DS-Cav1" immunogen, which induced high titer RSV-neutralizing antibodies, in mice and non-human primates, when formulated with adjuvants Poly (I:C) and Poly (IC:LC), respectively...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055264/differences-in-immunomodulatory-properties-between-venlafaxine-and-paroxetine-in-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder
#12
Chun-Yen Chen, Yi-Wei Yeh, Shin-Chang Kuo, Chih-Sung Liang, Pei-Shen Ho, Chang-Chih Huang, Che-Hung Yen, Jia-Fwu Shyu, Ru-Band Lu, San-Yuan Huang
Inflammatory processes play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of depression, and identifying the specific cytokines targeted by different antidepressants is important for personalized treatment. The aims of this study were to examine whether venlafaxine and paroxetine cause different immunomodulatory effects when used to treat patients with major depression and to clarify the relationships between plasma cytokine levels and the therapeutic effectiveness of these drugs. A total of 91 Han Chinese patients with major depression completed the 8-week paroxetine or venlafaxine treatment and 90 healthy controls were recruited...
October 12, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033946/exploitation-of-scavenger-receptor-macrophage-receptor-with-collagenous-structure-by-cryptococcus-neoformans-promotes-alternative-activation-of-pulmonary-lymph-node-cd11b-conventional-dendritic-cells-and-non-protective-th2-bias
#13
Jintao Xu, Adam Flaczyk, Lori M Neal, Zhenzong Fa, Daphne Cheng, Mike Ivey, Bethany B Moore, Jeffrey L Curtis, John J Osterholzer, Michal A Olszewski
Macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO) contributes to fungal containment during the early/innate phase of cryptococcal infection; however, its role in adaptive antifungal immunity remains unknown. Using a murine model of cryptococcosis, we compared host adaptive immune responses in wild-type and MARCO(-/-) mice throughout an extended time course post-infection. Unlike in early infection, MARCO deficiency resulted in improved pulmonary fungal clearance and diminished cryptococcal dissemination during the efferent phase...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030009/immunobiological-efficacy-and-immunotoxicity-of-novel-synthetically-prepared-fluoroquinolone-ethyl-6-fluoro-8-nitro-4-oxo-1-4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxylate
#14
Soňa Jantová, Ema Paulovičová, Lucia Paulovičová, Michaela Janošková, Miroslav Pánik, Viktor Milata
The present study examined the cytotoxicity, anti-cancer reactivity, and immunomodulatory properties of new synthetically prepared fluoroquinolone derivative 6-fluoro-8-nitro-4-oxo-1,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxylate (6FN) in vitro. The cytotoxicity/toxicity studies (concentrations in the range 1-100μM) are focused on the cervical cancer cells HeLa, murine melanoma cancer cells B16, non-cancer fibroblast NIH-3T3 cells and reconstructed human epidermis tissues EpiDerm™. The significant growth inhibition of cancer cells HeLa and B16 was detected...
October 6, 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020495/effect-of-adalimumab-on-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-in-non-infectious-uveitis
#15
Karoline Walscheid, Toni Weinhage, Dirk Foell, Carsten Heinz, Maren Kasper, Arnd Heiligenhaus
PURPOSE: This study analyzed the effect of adalimumab on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in uveitis. METHODS: PBMCs and serum S100A12 levels from 14 uveitis patients and 28 healthy controls were analyzed. Patient samples were taken before (w0), and 6 (w6) and 12 (w12) weeks after initiation of adalimumab therapy. RESULTS: Monocytes expressing CD124, CD86, CD39, CD115, and MHCII were decreased in patients. Adalimumab induced CD86+ and CD39+ monocytes, and further decreased the frequency of MHCII- and CD124-positive cells...
October 11, 2017: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992358/role-of-galectin-3-in-the-pathophysiology-underlying-allergic-lung-inflammation-in-a-timp-1-knockout-model-of-murine-asthma
#16
Manoj J Mammen, Mark F Sands, Elaine Abou-Jaoude, Ravikumar Aalinkeel, Jessica L Reynolds, Neil U Parikh, Umesh Sharma, Stanley A Schwartz, Supriya D Mahajan
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory respiratory disease characterized by airway inflammation, airway hyper-responsiveness and reversible airway obstruction. Understanding the mechanisms that underlie the various endotypes of asthma could lead to novel and more personalized therapies for individuals with asthma. Utilizing a Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) knockout murine allergic asthma model, we previously showed that Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase-1 deficiency results in an asthma phenotype, exhibiting airway hyperreactivity, enhanced eosinophilic inflammation, and TH2 cytokine gene and protein expression following sensitization with ovalbumin...
October 9, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982074/autophagy-regulates-duox1-localization-and-superoxide-production-in-airway-epithelial-cells-during-chronic-il-13-stimulation
#17
John D Dickinson, Jenea M Sweeter, Kristi J Warren, Iman M Ahmad, Xavier De Deken, Matthew C Zimmerman, Steven L Brody
The airway epithelium is a broad interface with the environment, mandating well-orchestrated responses to properly modulate inflammation. Classically, autophagy is a homeostatic pathway triggered in response to external cellular stresses, and is elevated in chronic airway diseases. Recent findings highlight the additional role of autophagy in vesicle trafficking and protein secretion, implicating autophagy pathways in complex cellular responses in disease. Th2 cytokines, IL-13 and IL-4, are increased in asthma and other airway diseases contributing to chronic inflammation...
September 22, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975891/local-immune-response-in-cutaneous-basal-cell-carcinoma
#18
Silje Haukali Omland
BCC is an immunogenic tumor highlighted by the increased risk in immunosuppressed individuals and the frequent occurrence of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in the tumor surroundings. Immunotherapy is evolving as a promising treatment strategy for several cancer types where topical immunostimulators are among the possibilities for superficial BCC. The overall aim of this thesis is to characterize the immunologic response upon BCC as well as characterizing the surrounding tumor stroma. The aim was achieved by the use of a variety of laboratory techniques; immunohistochemistry, immunoflourescence, qRT-PCR and NGS...
October 2017: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973317/dysregulated-t-helper-type-1-th1-th2-cytokine-profile-and-poor-immune-response-in-pregnant-ferrets-infected-with-2009-pandemic-influenza-a-h1n1-virus
#19
Sun-Woo Yoon, Sook-San Wong, Huachen Zhu, Rirong Chen, Long Li, Yu Zhang, Yi Guan, Richard J Webby
Pregnancy has been associated with severe influenza, an association highlighted during the 2009 pandemic of influenza A(H1N1) virus (A[H1N1]pdm09) infection. To assess the underlying mechanism, we infected pregnant and non-pregnant ferrets with A(H1N1) pdm09 virus. A(H1N1)pdm09-infected pregnant ferrets also had higher levels of inflammatory cytokines in their pulmonary tracts. Systemically, total CD8+ T cell counts and A(H1N1)pdm09-specific B-cell responses in blood were significantly lower in pregnant ferrets...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960271/alterations-in-circulating-lymphoid-cell-populations-in-systemic-small-vessel-vasculitis-are-non-specific-manifestations-of-renal-injury
#20
Barbara Fazekas, Ana Moreno-Olivera, Yvelynne Kelly, Paul O'Hara, Susan Murray, Alan Kennedy, Niall Conlon, Jennifer Scott, Ashanty M Melo, Fionnuala B Hickey, Dearbhaile Dooley, Eoin C O'Brien, Sarah Moran, Derek G Doherty, Mark A Little
Innate lymphocyte populations, such as innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), γδ T cells, invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells and mucosal associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are emerging as important effectors of innate immunity and are involved in various inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the frequencies and absolute numbers of innate lymphocytes as well as conventional lymphocytes and monocytes in peripheral blood from a cohort of ANCA associated vasculitis (AAV) patients...
September 28, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
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