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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337425/distinct-gene-expression-profiles-and-regulation-networks-of-nasal-polyps-in-eosinophilic-and-non-eosinophilic-chronic-rhinosinusitis
#1
Naoko Okada, Tsuguhisa Nakayama, Daiya Asaka, Natsuki Inoue, Tadao Tsurumoto, Shinya Takaishi, Nobuyoshi Otori, Hiromi Kojima, Akio Matsuda, Keisuke Oboki, Hirohisa Saito, Kenji Matsumoto, Mamoru Yoshikawa
BACKGROUND: Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is known to have 2 phenotypes in East Asia. Eosinophilic CRSwNP (ECRSwNP), defined as tissue eosinophilia and easily recurrent, is distinguished from other non-eosinophilic CRSwNP (NECRSwNP) types. However, the pathogenesis of each remains unclear. METHODS: Nasal polyp tissues from ECRS (ECRSwNP) and NECRS (NECRSwNP) patients were obtained, and their comprehensive gene expression profiles were investigated by microarray analysis...
January 16, 2018: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337258/adding-injury-to-infection-the-relationship-between-injury-status-and-genetic-diversity-of-theileria-infecting-plains-zebra-equus-quagga
#2
Edward M King'ori, Vincent Obanda, Ephantus M Ndambiri, Steven M Runo, Patrick I Chiyo
Asymptomatic tick-borne infections are a common feature in wild herbivores. In human-dominated habitats, snare injuries to wild herbivores are common and are likely to co-occur with enzootic infections. The influence of injury on pattern, course and outcome of enzootic infection in wild herbivores is unknown. We identified Theileria species infecting zebra and assessed the relationship between host injury-status and parasitaemia, parasite diversity and selection regimes. We also determined host leucocyte differential as this can reveal mechanisms by which injuries influence infections...
January 11, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328030/modern-approaches-to-fractional-exhaled-nitric-oxide-as-a-useful-biomarker-for-allergic-asthma-phenotyping-and-management
#3
N Mgaloblishvili, M Gotua
Asthma is a pathologically heterogeneous disease, consisting of several phenotypes. Different types of airway inflammation are the cornerstone feature of this condition. Fraction of nitric oxide in exhaled air (FENO) has been proposed as a noninvasive, specific biomarker for eosinophilic airway inflammation and has been shown to be elevated in patients with allergic asthma phenotype. More recent studies indicate that FeNO identifies T-helper cell type 2 (Th2)-mediated airway inflammation with a high predictive value for identifying inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) responsive airway inflammation...
December 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320511/application-of-a-phenotypic-drug-discovery-strategy-to-identify-biological-and-chemical-starting-points-for-inhibition-of-tslp-production-in-lung-epithelial-cells
#4
Adelina Orellana, Vicente García-González, Rosa López, Sonia Pascual-Guiral, Estrella Lozoya, Julia Díaz, Daniel Casals, Antolín Barrena, Stephane Paris, Miriam Andrés, Victor Segarra, Dolors Vilella, Rajneesh Malhotra, Paul Eastwood, Anna Planagumà, Montserrat Miralpeix, Arsenio Nueda
Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is a cytokine released by human lung epithelium in response to external insult. Considered as a master switch in T helper 2 lymphocyte (Th2) mediated responses, TSLP is believed to play a key role in allergic diseases including asthma. The aim of this study was to use a phenotypic approach to identify new biological and chemical starting points for inhibition of TSLP production in human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE), with the objective of reducing Th2-mediated airway inflammation...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318959/novel-biological-therapies-in-severe-asthma-targeting-the-right-trait
#5
Gilda Varricchi, Giancarlo Marone, Giuseppe Spadaro, Michele Russo, Francescopaolo Granata, Arturo Genovese, Gianni Marone
Asthma is a heterogeneous disease characterized by chronic airway inflammation that results in a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. Patients with severe asthma represent a substantial share of consumption of healthcare resources and hospitalization. Moreover, these patients are at risk of increased morbidity and mortality. Recently, several phenotypes and endotypes of asthma have been identified. The identification of specific subtypes of asthma is fundamental for optimizing the clinical benefit of novel treatments...
January 9, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313707/sputum-eosinophilia-and-mri-ventilation-heterogeneity-in-severe-asthma
#6
Sarah Svenningsen, Rachel L Eddy, Hui Fang Lim, P Gerard Cox, Parameswaran Nair, Grace Parraga
RATIONALE: Inflammation and smooth muscle dysfunction are integral components of severe asthma that contribute to luminal obstruction causing airflow limitation, ventilation heterogeneity and symptoms. This is important for guiding treatment decisions directed at inflammatory (eg. anti-Th2 monoclonal antibodies) and non-inflammatory, smooth muscle-mediated (eg. bronchial thermoplasty) components of severe asthma. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the contribution of eosinophilic-bronchitis and smooth muscle dysfunction to magnetic-resonance-imaging (MRI) ventilation heterogeneity in severe asthmatics...
January 9, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306759/il-4-and-serum-amyloid-p-inversely-regulate-fibrocyte-differentiation-by-targeting-store-operated-ca2-channels
#7
Jin-Nan Zhong, Lan Lan, Yi-Fei Chen, Ge Huang, Guang-Zhen He, Jiong Yang, Ya-Dong Gao
BACKGROUND: Circulating fibrocytes (CFs) have been shown to participate in subepithelial fibrosis of asthma with chronic airflow limitation by acting as an important source of fibroblasts deposited beneath airway epithelia. Serum amyloid P (SAP) is an innate inhibitor of fibrocytes differentiation. Store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) is the major Ca2+ influx of non-excitable cells. In this study, the role of SOCE in the regulation of fibrocytes differentiation and the effects of Th2 cytokine IL-4 and SAP on SOCE of fibrocytes were investigated...
July 12, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305916/pkc-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-regulates-th17-differentiation-and-house-dust-mite-induced-allergic-airway-inflammation
#8
Yingying Yang, Panpan Dong, Jing Zhao, Wei Zhou, Yonghua Zhou, Yongliang Xu, Congjin Mei, Fukun Guo, Yi Zheng, Jun-Qi Yang
Asthma is a chronic airway inflammation in which Th2 and Th17 cells play critical roles in its pathogenesis. We have reported that atypical protein kinase (PKC) λ/ι is a new regulator for Th2 differentiation and function. However, the role of PKCλ/ι for Th17 cells remains elusive. In this study, we explored the effect of PKCλ/ι on Th17 cells in the context of ex vivo cell culture systems and an in vivo murine model of allergic airway inflammation with the use of activated T cell-specific conditional PKCλ/ι-deficient mice...
January 3, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290094/a-candidate-tolerance-gene-identified-in-a-natural-population-of-field-voles-microtus-agrestis
#9
Klara M Wanelik, Michael Begon, Richard J Birtles, Janette E Bradley, Ida M Friberg, Joseph A Jackson, Christopher H Taylor, Anna G Thomason, Andrew K Turner, Steve Paterson
The animal immune response has hitherto been viewed primarily in the context of resistance only. However, individuals, can also employ a tolerance strategy to maintain good health in the face of on-going infection. To shed light on the genetic and physiological basis of tolerance, we use a natural population of field voles, Microtus agrestis, to search for an association between the expression of the transcription factor Gata3, previously identified as a marker of tolerance in this system, and polymorphism in 84 immune and non-immune genes...
December 31, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284778/alterations-of-antitumor-and-metabolic-responses-in-l5178y-r-lymphoma-bearing-mice-after-only-30-minute-daily-chronic-stress-exposure
#10
D Caballero-Hernandez, D Najera-Valderrabano, A Valadez-Lira, M Franco-Molina, R Gomez-Flores, P Tamez-Guerra, R Tamez-Guerra, C Rodríguez-Padilla
AIM: In stress research, reducing times of stress induction may contribute to improving the well-being of experimental animals, especially in cancer models, already under physiological distress. To support this idea, we evaluated the effects of a short-timed stress protocol on endocrine, metabolic and immune indicators in mice bearing the L5178Y-R lymphoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 30-minute daily stress protocol was applied for 28 days to healthy and lymphoma-bearing BALB/c mice; body weight, plasma levels of corticosterone, norepinephrine, Th1/Th2 cytokines, insulin, and leptin, were measured...
December 2017: Experimental Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283120/correlation-of-interleukin-33-with-th-cytokines-and-clinical-severity-of-dry-eye-disease
#11
Guoping Luo, Yan Xin, Dajun Qin, Aihua Yan, Zhiyan Zhou, Zhaoxia Liu
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to determine the tear and serum protein levels of interleukin-33 (IL-33) and its correlation with Th cytokines and disease severity in dry eye (DE) syndrome. METHODS: Tear and serum samples were collected from 30 healthy volunteers, 30 DE patients with non-Sjogren's syndrome DE (NSSDE) and 30 DE patients with primary SSDE. The eight most frequent symptoms of DE were scored. All patients underwent corneal and conjunctival staining, tear film breakup time (TBUT), and Schirmer I test...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279262/inkt-cells-are-increased-in-children-with-severe-therapy-resistant-asthma
#12
L Antunes, A P Duarte de Souza, P D de Araújo, L A Pinto, M H Jones, R T Stein, P M Pitrez
BACKGROUND: Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells play complex functions in the immune system, releasing both Th1 and Th2 cytokines. The role of iNKT cells in human asthma is still controversial and never described in severe therapy-resistant asthma in children. The objective of this work was to analyse iNKT frequency in peripheral blood of children with severe therapy-resistant asthma (STRA), compared to children with milder asthma and healthy controls. METHODS: Children with asthma (n=136) (non-severe and STRA) from a referral centre and healthy controls (n=40) were recruited...
December 23, 2017: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277513/risk-factors-treatment-and-immune-dysregulation-in-autoimmune-cytopenia-following-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-in-pediatric-patients
#13
Matthijs D Kruizinga, Maarten J D van Tol, Vincent Bekker, Tanja Netelenbos, Frans J Smiers, Dorine Bresters, Anja M Jansen-Hoogendijk, Monique M van Ostaijen-Ten Dam, Wouter J W Kollen, Jaap J Zwaginga, Arjan C Lankester, Robbert G M Bredius
Auto- or alloimmune cytopenia (AIC) is a known rare complication of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT). AIC after SCT is considered difficult to treat and associated with high morbidity and mortality. In this retrospective study in pediatric patients we evaluated incidence, outcome, potential risk factors and current treatment strategies. A nested matched case-control study was performed to search for biomarkers associated with AIC. Of 531 consecutive SCTs at our center between 2000 and 2016, 26 were complicated by the development of AIC (cumulative incidence 5...
December 19, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274414/lrp-1-attenuates-house-dust-mite-induced-eosinophilic-airway-inflammation-by-suppressing-dendritic-cell-mediated-adaptive-immune-responses
#14
Amarjit Mishra, Xianglan Yao, Ankit Saxena, Elizabeth M Gordon, Maryann Kaler, Rosemarie A Cuento, Amisha V Barochia, Pradeep K Dagur, J Philip McCoy, Karen J Keeran, Kenneth R Jeffries, Xuan Qu, Zu-Xi Yu, Stewart J Levine
BACKGROUND: The LDL-receptor related protein 1 (LRP-1) is a scavenger receptor that regulates adaptive immunity and inflammation. LRP-1 is not known to modulate the pathogenesis of allergic asthma. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether LRP-1 expression by dendritic cells (DCs) modulates adaptive immune responses in house dust mite (HDM)-induced airways disease. METHODS: LRP-1 expression on peripheral blood DCs was quantified by flow cytometry. The role of LRP-1 in modulating HDM-induced airways disease was assessed in mice with a deletion of LRP-1 in CD11c+ cells (Lrp1fl/fl; CD11c-Cre) and by the adoptive transfer of HDM-pulsed CD11b+ DCs from Lrp1fl/fl; CD11c-Cre mice to wild-type mice...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237319/fibrous-nanocellulose-crystalline-nanocellulose-carbon-nanotubes-and-crocidolite-asbestos-elicit-disparate-immune-responses-upon-pharyngeal-aspiration-in-mice
#15
Eun-Jung Park, Timur O Khaliullin, Michael R Shurin, Elena R Kisin, Naveena Yanamala, Bengt Fadeel, Jaerak Chang, Anna A Shvedova
With the rapid development of synthetic alternatives to mineral fibers, their possible effects on the environment and human health have become recognized as important issues worldwide. This study investigated effects of four fibrous materials, i.e. nanofibrillar/nanocrystalline celluloses (NCF and CNC), single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and crocidolite asbestos (ASB), on pulmonary inflammation and immune responses found in the lungs, as well as the effects on spleen and peripheral blood immune cell subsets...
December 2018: Journal of Immunotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230223/glutaraldehyde-cross-linking-of-hiv-1-env-trimers-skews-the-antibody-subclass-response-in-mice
#16
Martina Soldemo, Monika Àdori, Julian M Stark, Yu Feng, Karen Tran, Richard Wilson, Lifei Yang, Javier Guenaga, Richard T Wyatt, Gunilla B Karlsson Hedestam
Well-ordered soluble HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) spike mimetics such as Native Flexibly Linked (NFL) trimers display high homogeneity, desired antigenicity, and high in vitro stability compared to previous generation soluble HIV-1 Env trimers. Glutaraldehyde (GLA) cross-linking was shown to further increase the thermostability of clade C 16055 NFL trimers and enhance the induction of tier 2 autologous neutralizing antibodies in guinea pigs. Here, we investigated if GLA fixation affected other aspects of the Env-specific immune response by performing a comparative immunogenicity study in C57BL/6 mice with non-fixed and GLA-fixed 16055 NFL trimers administered in AbISCO-100 adjuvant...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221262/differences-in-airway-remodeling-and-airway-inflammation-among-moderate-severe-asthma-clinical-phenotypes
#17
Wen-Jing Ye, Wei-Guo Xu, Xue-Jun Guo, Feng-Feng Han, Juan Peng, Xiao-Ming Li, Wen-Bin Guan, Li-Wei Yu, Jin-Yuan Sun, Zhi-Lei Cui, Lin Song, Yue Zhang, Yan-Min Wang, Tian-Yun Yang, Xia-Hui Ge, Di Yao, Song Liu
Background: To identify asthma clinical phenotypes using cluster analysis and improve our understanding of heterogeneity in asthma. Methods: Clustering approaches were applied to 203 patients who were diagnosed with asthma in XinHua Hospital (January 2012 to December 2015). One hundred and twenty patients underwent multi-slice spiral computed tomography (MSCT) examination and 30 underwent bronchial mucosal biopsy for evaluation of airway remodeling and airway inflammation among the phenotypes...
September 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218110/downregulation-of-cathepsin-g-reduces-the-activation-of-cd4-t-cells-in-murine-autoimmune-diabetes
#18
Fang Zou, Xiaoyang Lai, Jing Li, Shuihong Lei, Lei Hu
Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disease due to progressive injury of islet cells mediated by T lymphocytes (T cells). Our previous studies have shown that only cathepsin G (CatG), not other proteases, is involved in the antigen presentation of proinsulin, and if the presentation is inhibited, the activation of CD4+ T cells induced by proinsulin is alleviated in T1DM patients, and CatG-specific inhibitor reduces the activation of CD4+ cells induced by proinsulin in T1DM patients. Therefore, we hypothesize that CatG may play an important role in the activation of CD4+ T cells in T1DM...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214756/serum-cytokine-profile-in-patients-with-chronic-rhinosinusitis-with-nasal-polyposis-infected-by-aspergillus-flavus
#19
Gargi Rai, Mohammad Ahmad Ansari, Sajad Ahmad Dar, Shyama Datt, Neelima Gupta, Sonal Sharma, Shafiul Haque, Vishnampettai Ganapathysubramanian Ramachandran, Arpeeta Mazumdar, Shivprakash Rudramurthy, Arunaloke Chakrabarti, Shukla Das
BACKGROUND: Fungi, especially Aspergillus flavus, can cause chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis and modulate host innate immune components. The objective of this study was to examine the serum levels of T helper (Th) cell subset Th1, Th2, and Th17 cytokines and total IgE in patients having chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis and Aspergillus flavus infection. METHODS: A case-control study including 40 patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis and 20 healthy controls was conducted...
March 2018: Annals of Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205464/interleukin-17-family-cytokines-in-protective-immunity-against-infections-role-of-hematopoietic-cell-derived-and-non-hematopoietic-cell-derived-interleukin-17s
#20
REVIEW
Goro Matsuzaki, Masayuki Umemura
Interleukin (IL)-17 family cytokines consisting of six members participate in immune response in infections, autoimmune diseases and inflammatory diseases. The prototype cytokine of the family, IL-17A, was originally identified from CD4+ T cells which are now termed Th17. Later IL-17A-producing cells are expanded to various hematopoietic cells including CD8+ T cells (Tc17), invariant NKT cells, γ δ T cells, non-T non-B lymphocytes termed type 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3), and neutrophils. Some members of the IL-17 family cytokines other than IL-17A were also expressed by CD4+ T cells: IL-17E by Th2 cells, and IL-17F by Th17 cells...
December 2, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
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