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H W Kim, Y J Hong, J I Jo, S D Ha, S H Kim, H J Lee, M S Rhee
Microbiological quality of 206 raw ready-to-eat seafood samples were investigated according to species (gizzard shad, halibut, rockfish, tuna, oyster, and squid) and distribution channels (fishery, hyper, and online market). Enumeration of Aerobic Plate Count (APC) and total coliforms (TC) and pathogenic bacteria (Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus) were performed, and level of microbiological quality were classified into four groups: satisfactory, acceptable, unsatisfactory, and unacceptable...
October 16, 2016: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Amanda A Koepke, Ira M Longini, M Elizabeth Halloran, Jon Wakefield, Vladimir N Minin
Despite seasonal cholera outbreaks in Bangladesh, little is known about the relationship between environmental conditions and cholera cases. We seek to develop a predictive model for cholera outbreaks in Bangladesh based on environmental predictors. To do this, we estimate the contribution of environmental variables, such as water depth and water temperature, to cholera outbreaks in the context of a disease transmission model. We implement a method which simultaneously accounts for disease dynamics and environmental variables in a Susceptible-Infected-Recovered-Susceptible (SIRS) model...
June 2016: Annals of Applied Statistics
Xuanyi Meng, Xin Li, Jinyan Gao, Hongbing Chen
Bovine α-lactalbumin (ALA) is a known food allergen present in milk to induce anaphylaxis. A previous study demonstrated that irradiated ALA (iALA) decreased the IgE-binding properties and weakened the degranulation capacity of basophils in vitro. The present study aimed to further assess the potential allergenicity of iALA in vivo in a BALB/c mouse model. The mice (n = 10/group) were intragastrically sensitized and orally challenged with either iALA or ALA using cholera toxin as adjuvant. In contrast to the ALA group, the iALA group did not show anaphylactic shock symptoms...
October 13, 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Nikolas T Weissmueller, Hoang Dung Lu, Amanda Hurley, Robert K Prud'homme
One factor limiting the expansion of nanomedicines has been the high cost of the materials and processes required for their production. We present a continuous, scalable, low cost nano-encapsulation process, Flash Nanoprecipitation (FNP) that enables the production of nanocarriers (NCs) with a narrow size distribution using zein corn proteins. Zein is a low cost, GRAS protein (having the FDA status of "Generally Regarded as Safe") currently used in food applications, which acts as an effective encapsulant for hydrophobic compounds using FNP...
October 16, 2016: Biomacromolecules
Marcus M Dillon, Way Sung, Robert Sebra, Michael Lynch, Vaughn S Cooper
The vast diversity in nucleotide composition and architecture among bacterial genomes may be partly explained by inherent biases in the rates and spectra of spontaneous mutations. Bacterial genomes with multiple chromosomes are relatively unusual but some are relevant to human health, none more so than the causative agent of cholera, Vibrio cholerae Here, we present the genome-wide mutation spectra in wild-type and mismatch repair (MMR) defective backgrounds of two Vibrio species, the low-%GC squid symbiont V...
October 15, 2016: Molecular Biology and Evolution
David S Senchina
Infectious diseases are potential catalysts for exploring 'engaged citizen' or socioscientific themes given their interwoven economic, political, scientific, and social dimensions. This article describes how an undergraduate course on the history of infectious diseases was modified to explore the impact of two 'engaged citizen' themes (poverty and technology), and to consider the ramifications of those themes on past, present, and future infectious disease outbreaks. Four outbreaks were used as the foundation for the course: plague (1350s), puerperal fever (1840s), cholera (1850s), and syphilis (1930s)...
October 14, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Kathrin I Mohr
For thousands of years people were delivered helplessly to various kinds of infections, which often reached epidemic proportions and have cost the lives of millions of people. This is precisely the age since mankind has been thinking of infectious diseases and the question of their causes. However, due to a lack of knowledge, the search for strategies to fight, heal, and prevent the spread of communicable diseases was unsuccessful for a long time. It was not until the discovery of the healing effects of (antibiotic producing) molds, the first microscopic observations of microorganisms in the seventeenth century, the refutation of the abiogenesis theory, and the dissolution of the question "What is the nature of infectious diseases?" that the first milestones within the history of antibiotics research were set...
October 15, 2016: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 12, 2016: Nature
Brian J Akerley
The property of transposons to randomly insert into target DNA has long been exploited for generalized mutagenesis and forward genetic screens. Newer applications that monitor the relative abundance of each transposon insertion in large libraries of mutants can be used to evaluate the roles in cellular fitness of all genes of an organism, provided that transposition is in fact random across all genes. In a recent article, Kimura and colleagues identified an important exception to the latter assumption [S. Kimura, T...
October 11, 2016: MBio
Susana Ferreira
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 11, 2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Shravan K Chintala, Naveena Daram
Purpose: To investigate the role of RNA 3'-terminal phosphate cyclase (Rtca) in Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3)-mediated loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and their axons. Methods: Polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (Poly[I:C]) or PBS was injected into the vitreous humor of C57BL/6J and Tlr3 knockout mice. C57BL/6J mouse eyes were treated with Rtca silencing RNA or control RNA, with or without PBS or Poly(I:C). At 24, 48, and 72 hours after treatments, RGC loss was determined with the brain-specific homeobox/POU domain protein 3a antibody, and axonal loss was assessed by using the neuronal class III beta-tubulin (Tuj1) antibody...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Donatella Lippi, Eduardo Gotuzzo, Saverio Caini
Cholera is an acute disease of the gastrointestinal tract caused by Vibrio cholerae. Cholera was localized in Asia until 1817, when a first pandemic spread from India to several other regions of the world. After this appearance, six additional major pandemics occurred during the 19th and 20th centuries, the latest of which originated in Indonesia in the 1960s and is still ongoing. In 1854, a cholera outbreak in Soho, London, was investigated by the English physician John Snow (1813 to 1858). He described the time course of the outbreak, managed to understand its routes of transmission, and suggested effective measures to stop its spread, giving rise to modern infectious disease epidemiology...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Meer T Alam, Shrestha S Ray, Camille N Chun, Zahara G Chowdhury, Mohammed H Rashid, Valery E Madsen Beau De Rochars, Afsar Ali
In October of 2010, an outbreak of cholera was confirmed in Haiti for the first time in more than a century. A single clone of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor serotype Ogawa strain was implicated as the cause. Five years after the onset of cholera, in October, 2015, we have discovered a major switch (ranging from 7 to 100%) from Ogawa serotype to Inaba serotype. Furthermore, using wbeT gene sequencing and comparative sequence analysis, we now demonstrate that, among 2013 and 2015 Inaba isolates, the wbeT gene, responsible for switching Ogawa to Inaba serotype, sustained a unique nucleotide mutation not found in isolates obtained from Haiti in 2012...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Debasis Nayak, Manisha Kumari, Sripathi Rajachandar, Sarbani Ashe, Neethi Chandra Thathapudi, Bismita Nayak
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are double edged sword that possesses both beneficial and harmful effects. Although basic research on skin cancer prevention has undergone a huge transformation, cases of recurrence with higher rates of drug resistance are some of its drawbacks. Therefore, targeting mitochondria by ROS overproduction provides an alternate approach for anticancer therapy. In the present study green synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were explored for triggering the ROS production in A431 skin carcinoma cells...
October 7, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Vinciane Saint-Criq, Michael A Gray
Salt and fluid absorption and secretion are two processes that are fundamental to epithelial function and whole body fluid homeostasis, and as such are tightly regulated in epithelial tissues. The CFTR anion channel plays a major role in regulating both secretion and absorption in a diverse range of epithelial tissues, including the airways, the GI and reproductive tracts, sweat and salivary glands. It is not surprising then that defects in CFTR function are linked to disease, including life-threatening secretory diarrhoeas, such as cholera, as well as the inherited disease, cystic fibrosis (CF), one of the most common life-limiting genetic diseases in Caucasian populations...
October 6, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Guadalupe Barrera-Escorcia, Irma Wong-Chang, Carlos Leopoldo Fernández-Rendón, Alfonso Vázquez Botello, Bruno Gómez-Gil, Marcial Leonardo Lizárraga-Partida
Oysters can accumulate potentially pathogenic water bacteria. The objective of this study was to compare two procedures to quantify Vibrio species present in oysters to determine the most sensitive method. We analyzed oyster samples from the Gulf of Mexico, commercialized in Mexico City. The samples were inoculated in tubes with alkaline peptone water (APW), based on three tubes and four dilutions (10(-1) to 10(-4)). From these tubes, the first quantification of Vibrio species was performed (most probable number (MPN) from tubes) and bacteria were inoculated by streaking on thiosulfate-citrate-bile salts-sucrose (TCBS) petri dishes...
November 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Cavin Epie Bekolo, Joris Adriaan Frank van Loenhout, Jose Manuel Rodriguez-Llanes, John Rumunu, Otim Patrick Ramadan, Debarati Guha-Sapir
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether pre-emptive oral cholera vaccination reduces disease severity and mortality in people who develop cholera disease during an outbreak. METHODS: The study involved a retrospective analysis of demographic and clinical data from 41 cholera treatment facilities in South Sudan on patients who developed cholera disease between 23 April and 20 July 2014 during a large outbreak, a few months after a pre-emptive oral vaccination campaign. Patients who developed severe dehydration were regarded as having a severe cholera infection...
September 1, 2016: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
Dominika Drzewiecka, Gabriela Lewandowska
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) pose a threat especially to women, the individuals with weakened immunity or with abnormalities in the urinary tract as well as to hospitalized and catheterized patients. The bacteria from the genus Proteus, especially P. mirabilis, are important UTI pathogenic factors. They frequently cause chronic, recurrent or severely complicated infections, resulting in the urinary stones production due to urease and other virulence factors. The ability to survive inside the stones and the increasing antibiotic resistance make it difficult to eradicate the bacteria from the urinary tract...
September 30, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
Gerardo Chowell, Cécile Viboud, Lone Simonsen, Seyed M Moghadas
Early estimates of the transmission potential of emerging and re-emerging infections are increasingly used to inform public health authorities on the level of risk posed by outbreaks. Existing methods to estimate the reproduction number generally assume exponential growth in case incidence in the first few disease generations, before susceptible depletion sets in. In reality, outbreaks can display subexponential (i.e. polynomial) growth in the first few disease generations, owing to clustering in contact patterns, spatial effects, inhomogeneous mixing, reactive behaviour changes or other mechanisms...
October 2016: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Stefan L Karlsson, Nicholas Thomson, Ankur Mutreja, Thomas Connor, Dipika Sur, Mohammad Ali, John Clemens, Gordon Dougan, Jan Holmgren, Michael Lebens
Genomic data generated from clinical Vibrio cholerae O1 isolates collected over a five year period in an area of Kolkata, India with seasonal cholera outbreaks allowed a detailed genetic analysis of serotype switching that occurred from Ogawa to Inaba and back to Ogawa. The change from Ogawa to Inaba resulted from mutational disruption of the methyltransferase encoded by the wbeT gene. Re-emergence of the Ogawa serotype was found to result either from expansion of an already existing Ogawa clade or reversion of the mutation in an Inaba clade...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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