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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546472/complete-genome-sequence-of-lytic-bacteriophage-vpusm-8-against-o1-el-tor-inaba-vibrio-cholerae
#1
Ali Al-Fendi, Rafidah Hanim Shueb, Phiaw Chong Foo, Manickam Ravichandran, Chan Yean Yean
The complete genome sequence of bacteriophage VPUSM 8 against O1 El Tor Inaba Vibrio cholerae is reported here. The isolated VPUSM 8 has potential use in future phage therapy or as a biocontrol agent for the prevention and treatment of cholera.
May 25, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545924/retinoic-acid-pre-treatment-down-regulates-v-cholerae-outer-membrane-vesicles-induced-acute-inflammation-and-enhances-mucosal-immunity
#2
Ritam Sinha, Debaki Ranjan Howlader, Atri Ta, Soma Mitra, Santasabuj Das, Hemanta Koley
Bacterial outer membrane vesicles have been extensively investigated and considered as a next generation vaccine. Recently, we have demonstrated that the cholera pentavalent outer membrane vesicles (CPMVs) immunogen induced adaptive immunity and had a strong protective efficacy against the circulating V. cholerae strains in a mouse model. In this present study, we are mainly focusing on reducing outer membrane vesicle (OMV) -mediated toxicity without altering its antigenic property. Therefore, we have selected All-trans Retinoic Acid (ATRA), active metabolites of vitamin A, which have both anti-inflammatory and mucosal adjuvant properties...
May 22, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544984/histo-blood-group-antigens-as-mediators-of-infections
#3
REVIEW
Julie E Heggelund, Annabelle Varrot, Anne Imberty, Ute Krengel
The critical first step of a microbial infection is usually the attachment of pathogens to host cell glycans. Targets on host tissues are in particular the histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs), which are present in rich diversity in the mucus layer and on the underlying mucosa. Recent structural and functional studies have revealed significant new insight into the molecular mechanisms, explaining why individuals with certain blood groups are at increased risk of some infections. The most prominent example of blood-group-associated diseases is cholera, caused by infection with Vibrio cholerae...
May 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543449/the-ascending-projections-of-the-nuclei-of-the-descending-trigeminal-tract-nttd-in-the-zebra-finch-taeniopygia-guttata
#4
Macarena Faunes, J Martin Wild
In our traditional view of the avian somatosensory system, input from the beak and head reaches the telencephalon via a disynaptic pathway, involving projections from the principal sensory nucleus (PrV) directly to nucleus basorostralis (previously called nucleus basalis), whereas input from the rest of the body follows a trisynatic pathway similar to that in mammals, involving projections from the dorsal column nuclei to the thalamus, and thence to somatosensory cortex. However, the role of the nuclei of the descending trigeminal tract (nTTD) in this scenario is unclear, partly because their ascending projections have been examined in only one species, the mallard duck (Arends & Dubbeldam, 1984, Neuroscience 13(3):797-817)...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542616/regulation-of-acetyl-coa-synthetase-transcription-by-the-crbs-r-two-component-system-is-conserved-in-genetically-diverse-environmental-pathogens
#5
Kristin Jacob, Anna Rasmussen, Paul Tyler, Mariah M Servos, Mariame Sylla, Cecilia Prado, Elizabeth Daniele, Josh S Sharp, Alexandra E Purdy
The CrbS/R two-component signal transduction system is a conserved regulatory mechanism through which specific Gram-negative bacteria control acetate flux into primary metabolic pathways. CrbS/R governs expression of acetyl-CoA synthase (acsA), an enzyme that converts acetate to acetyl-CoA, a metabolite at the nexus of the cell's most important energy-harvesting and biosynthetic reactions. During infection, bacteria can utilize this system to hijack host acetate metabolism and alter the course of colonization and pathogenesis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539715/antiprotozoal-antibacterial-and-antidiarrheal-properties-from-the-flowers-of-chiranthodendron-pentadactylon-and-isolated-flavonoids
#6
Fernando Calzada, Teresa Juárez, Normand García-Hernández, Miguel Valdes, Oscar Ávila, Lilian Yepez Mulia, Claudia Velázquez
BACKGROUND: Chiranthodendron pentadactylon Larreat. (Sterculiaceae) is a Mexican plant used in traditional medicine for the treatment of heart disease symptoms and infectious diarrhea. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate in vitro antiprotozoal and antibacterial activities and in vivo antidiarrheal activity from the flowers of C. pentadactylon using the extract, fractions, and major isolated flavonoids. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Bioassay-guided fractionation of the methanol extract of C...
April 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539625/towards-new-cholera-prophylactics-and-treatment-crystal-structures-of-bacterial-enterotoxins-in-complex-with-gm1-mimics
#7
Julie Elisabeth Heggelund, Alasdair Mackenzie, Tobias Martinsen, Joel Benjamin Heim, Pavel Cheshev, Anna Bernardi, Ute Krengel
Cholera is a life-threatening disease in many countries, and new drugs are clearly needed. C-glycosidic antagonists may serve such a purpose. Here we report atomic-resolution crystal structures of three such compounds in complexes with the cholera toxin. The structures give unprecedented atomic details of the molecular interactions and show how the inhibitors efficiently block the GM1 binding site. These molecules are well suited for development into low-cost prophylactic drugs, due to their relatively easy synthesis and their resistance to glycolytic enzymes...
May 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539431/selective-induction-of-homeostatic-th17-cells-in-the-murine-intestine-by-cholera-toxin-interacting-with-the-microbiota
#8
Qing Zhao, Stacey N Harbour, Raivo Kolde, Isabel J Latorre, Hein M Tun, Trenton R Schoeb, Henrietta Turner, James J Moon, Ehsan Khafipour, Ramnik J Xavier, Casey T Weaver, Charles O Elson
Th17 cells play a role as an inflammation mediator in a variety of autoimmune disorders, including inflammatory bowel disease, and thus are widely considered to be pathogenic. However, Th17 cells are present in the normal intestine and show a homeostatic phenotype; that is, they participate in the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis rather than inducing inflammation. We observed an enlarged Th17 population in the small intestine of C57BL/6.IgA(-/-) mice compared with wild-type mice, which was further amplified with cholera toxin (CT) immunization without causing intestinal inflammation...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536532/phase-partitioning-of-gm1-and-its-bodipy-labeled-analog-determine-their-different-binding-to-cholera-toxin
#9
Sami Rissanen, Michal Grzybek, Adam Orłowski, Tomasz Róg, Oana Cramariuc, Ilya Levental, Christian Eggeling, Erdinc Sezgin, Ilpo Vattulainen
Driven by interactions between lipids and proteins, biological membranes display lateral heterogeneity that manifests itself in a mosaic of liquid-ordered (Lo) or raft, and liquid-disordered (Ld) or non-raft domains with a wide range of different properties and compositions. In giant plasma membrane vesicles and giant unilamellar vesicles, specific binding of Cholera Toxin (CTxB) to GM1 glycolipids is a commonly used strategy to label raft domains or Lo membrane environments. However, these studies often use acyl-chain labeled bodipy-GM1 (bdGM1), whose headgroup accessibility and membrane order or phase partitioning may differ from those of GM1, rendering the interpretation of CTxB binding data quite problematic...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535267/the-plasma-and-mucosal-igm-iga-and-igg-responses-to-the-vibrio-cholerae-o1-protein-immunome-in-adults-with-cholera-in-bangladesh
#10
Richelle C Charles, Rie Nakajima, Li Liang, Al Jasinskas, Amanda Berger, Daniel T Leung, Meagan Kelly, Peng Xu, Pavol Kovác, Samantha R Giffen, James D Harbison, Fahima Chowdhury, Ashraful I Khan, Stephen B Calderwood, Taufiqur Rahman Bhuiyan, Jason B Harris, Philip L Felgner, Firdausi Qadri, Edward T Ryan
Background.: Cholera is a severe dehydrating illness of humans caused by toxigenic strains of Vibrio cholerae O1 or O139. Identification of immunogenic V. cholerae antigens could lead to a better understanding of protective immunity in human cholera. Methods.: We probed microarrays containing 3652 V. cholerae antigens with plasma and antibody-in-lymphocyte supernatant (ALS, a surrogate marker of mucosal immune responses) from patients with severe cholera caused by V...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533870/cholera-rice-water-stools
#11
Lykourgos Christos Alexakis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533237/antimicrobial-resistance-risks-of-cholera-prophylaxis-for-united-nations-peacekeepers
#12
Amber Kunkel, Joseph A Lewnard, Virginia E Pitzer, Ted Cohen
More than five years after a United Nations peacekeeping battalion introduced cholera to Haiti, over 150,000 peacekeepers continue to be deployed annually from cholera endemic countries. The United Nations has thus far declined to provide antimicrobial chemoprophylaxis to peacekeepers, a policy based largely on concerns that the risks of drug resistance generation and spread would outweigh the potential benefits of preventing future cholera importations. In this study, we sought to better understand the relative benefits and risks of cholera chemoprophylaxis for peacekeepers in terms of antibiotic resistance...
May 22, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528379/collateralization-of-projections-from-the-paraventricular-nucleus-of-the-thalamus-to-the-nucleus-accumbens-bed-nucleus-of-the-stria-terminalis-and-central-nucleus-of-the-amygdala
#13
Xinwen Dong, Sa Li, Gilbert J Kirouac
The paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (PVT) is a midline thalamic nucleus with dense projections to the nucleus accumbens (NAc), dorsolateral region of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTDL) and the lateral/capsular region of the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeL/CeC). Recent experimental evidence indicates that the PVT is involved in both appetitive and aversive behaviors. However, it is unknown if subgroups of neurons in the PVT innervate different subcortical targets or if the same neurons issue collaterals to multiple areas...
May 20, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524374/possible-role-of-the-myelinated-neural-network-in-the-parietal-peritoneum-in-rats-as-a-mechanoreceptor
#14
Koichi Tanaka, Sachi Kuwahara-Otani, Seishi Maeda, Yusuke Minato, Hideshi Yagi
A network of myelinated nerve fibers in the peritoneum covers the abdominal wall. We studied the topographic distribution of this network, explored the fibers' destination in the central nervous system, and examined the markers in these fibers in order to identify the nature of the sensation conveyed by the network of nerve fibers in rats. We used Sihler's method, which stains myelinated fibers in whole mount materials, and observed a dense nerve network and endings toward the peritoneal cavity in the peritoneum that covers the abdomen's lateral bulge...
May 19, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522707/draft-genome-sequence-of-the-luminescent-strain-vibrio-campbellii-lb102-isolated-from-a-black-tiger-shrimp-penaeus-monodon-broodstock-rearing-system
#15
Sujeet Kumar, Ashok Kumar Jangam, V Akhil, Vidya Rajendran, Vinaya Kumar Katneni, J Joseph Sahaya Rajan, Monendra Grover, Viswas Konasagara Nagaleekar, S V Alavandi, K K Vijayan
We report here the genome sequence of Vibrio campbellii LB102, isolated from the broodstock rearing system of a shrimp hatchery in India. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of effector toxins of the type III (YopT, sharing 39% identity with Yersinia pestis) and type VI (VgrG-3 and hemolysin coregulated protein of V. cholerae) secretion systems.
May 18, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516064/a-novel-role-of-listeria-monocytogenes-membrane-vesicles-in-inhibition-of-autophagy-and-cell-death
#16
Svitlana Vdovikova, Morten Luhr, Paula Szalai, Lars Nygård Skalman, Monika K Francis, Richard Lundmark, Nikolai Engedal, Jörgen Johansson, Sun N Wai
Bacterial membrane vesicle (MV) production has been mainly studied in Gram-negative species. In this study, we show that Listeria monocytogenes, a Gram-positive pathogen that causes the food-borne illness listeriosis, produces MVs both in vitro and in vivo. We found that a major virulence factor, the pore-forming hemolysin listeriolysin O (LLO), is tightly associated with the MVs, where it resides in an oxidized, inactive state. Previous studies have shown that LLO may induce cell death and autophagy. To monitor possible effects of LLO and MVs on autophagy, we performed assays for LC3 lipidation and LDH sequestration as well as analysis by confocal microscopy of HEK293 cells expressing GFP-LC3...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514430/erratum-a-vibrio-cholerae-autoinducer-receptor-pair-that-controls-biofilm-formation
#17
Kai Papenfort, Justin E Silpe, Kelsey R Schramma, Jian-Ping Cong, Mohammad R Seyedsayamdost, Bonnie L Bassler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 17, 2017: Nature Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512090/the-vibrio-cholerae-vexgh-rnd-efflux-system-maintains-cellular-homeostasis-by-effluxing-vibriobactin
#18
Dillon E Kunkle, X Renee Bina, James E Bina
Resistance-nodulation-division (RND) superfamily efflux systems have been widely studied for their role in antibiotic resistance, but their native biological functions remain poorly understood. We previously showed that loss of RND-mediated efflux in Vibrio cholerae resulted in activation of the Cpx two-component regulatory system, which mediates adaptation to stress resulting from misfolded membrane proteins. Here, we investigated the mechanism linking RND-mediated efflux to the Cpx response. We performed transposon mutagenesis screening of RND-deficient V...
May 16, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511837/immunomodulatory-activity-of-recombinant-%C3%AE-gliadin-conjugated-to-cholera-toxin-in-dq8-transgenic-mice
#19
Stefano Rossi, Diomira Luongo, Francesco Maurano, Paolo Bergamo, Mauro Rossi
Coeliac disease (CD) is characterized by an intestinal lesion sustained by an abnormal mucosal T-cell response to wheat gliadin. An immunological approach that is able to suppress this immune response is a perspective worth pursuing. Several strategies of antigen administration have been aimed at the downregulation of pathogenic T-cells. In particular, we previously reported a significant suppression of the systemic cell-mediated response toward wheat gliadin in DQ8 transgenic mice receiving nasally a recombinant α-gliadin...
May 13, 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505561/class-enzyme-based-motors-for-on-the-fly-enantiomer-analysis-of-amino-acids
#20
Laura García-Carmona, María Moreno-Guzmán, María Cristina González, Alberto Escarpa
Here, two class-enzyme motors are properly designed allowing the rapid dispersion of the class-enzyme D-amino acid oxidase (DAO) and L-amino acid oxidase (LAO) for selective "on the fly" biodetection of D and L-amino acids (AAs), respectively. The efficient movement together with the continuous release of fresh class-enzyme leads to a greatly accelerated enzymatic reaction processes without the need of external stirring or chemical and physical attachment of the enzyme. Ultra-fast detection (<2min) and accurate quantifications of L-phenylalanine (L-Phe) in plasma and whole-blood newborns samples diagnosed with Phenylketonuria and total D-AAs in Vibrio cholera cultures are pioneer illustrated as relevant examples of each enantiomer determination...
May 6, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
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