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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105081/cross-feeding-of-glucose-metabolism-byproducts-of-escherichia-coli-human-gut-isolates-and-probiotic-strains-affect-survival-of-vibrio-cholerae
#1
Chirantana Sengupta, Manjula Ekka, Saurabh Arora, Prashant D Dhaware, Rukhsana Chowdhury, Saumya Raychaudhuri
Vibrio cholerae converts glucose into either acid or the neutral end product acetoin and its survival in carbohydrate enriched media is linked to the nature of the byproducts produced. It has been demonstrated in this study that Escherichia coli strain isolated from the gut of healthy human volunteers and the commonly used probiotic E. coli Nissle strain that metabolize glucose to acidic byproducts drastically reduce the survival of V. cholerae strains irrespective of their glucose sensitivity and acetoin production status...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104997/poverty-related-diseases-prds-unravelling-complexities-in-disease-responses-in-cameroon
#2
Valerie Makoge, Harro Maat, Lenneke Vaandrager, Maria Koelen
BACKGROUND: In Cameroon, poverty-related diseases (PRDs) are a major public health concern. Research and policies addressing PRDs are based on a particular understanding of the interaction between poverty and disease, usually an association between poverty indicators and health indicators for a specific country or region. Such indicators are useful but fail to explain the nature of the linkages between poverty and disease or poverty and health. This paper presents results of a study among university students, unravelling how they perceive diseases, the linkages with poverty, their responses to diseases and the motivations behind reported responses...
2017: Tropical Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103259/characterization-and-genetic-variation-of-vibrio-cholerae-isolated-from-clinical-and-environmental-sources-in-thailand
#3
Achiraya Siriphap, Pimlapas Leekitcharoenphon, Rolf S Kaas, Chonchanok Theethakaew, Frank M Aarestrup, Orasa Sutheinkul, Rene S Hendriksen
Cholera is still an important public health problem in several countries, including Thailand. In this study, a collection of clinical and environmental V. cholerae serogroup O1, O139, and non-O1/non-O139 strains originating from Thailand (1983 to 2013) was characterized to determine phenotypic and genotypic traits and to investigate the genetic relatedness. Using a combination of conventional methods and whole genome sequencing (WGS), 78 V. cholerae strains were identified. WGS was used to determine the serogroup, biotype, virulence, mobile genetic elements, and antimicrobial resistance genes using online bioinformatics tools...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103233/evaluation-of-a-smartphone-decision-support-tool-for-diarrheal-disease-management-in-a-resource-limited-setting
#4
Farhana Haque, Robyn L Ball, Selina Khatun, Mujaddeed Ahmed, Saraswati Kache, Mohammod Jobayer Chisti, Shafiqul Alam Sarker, Stace D Maples, Dane Pieri, Teja Vardhan Korrapati, Clea Sarnquist, Nancy Federspiel, Muhammad Waliur Rahman, Jason R Andrews, Mahmudur Rahman, Eric Jorge Nelson
The emergence of mobile technology offers new opportunities to improve clinical guideline adherence in resource-limited settings. We conducted a clinical pilot study in rural Bangladesh to evaluate the impact of a smartphone adaptation of the World Health Organization (WHO) diarrheal disease management guidelines, including a modality for age-based weight estimation. Software development was guided by end-user input and evaluated in a resource-limited district and sub-district hospital during the fall 2015 cholera season; both hospitals lacked scales which necessitated weight estimation...
January 19, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098242/merr-and-chrr-mediate-blue-light-induced-photo-oxidative-stress-response-at-the-transcriptional-level-in-vibrio-cholerae
#5
Mehmet Tardu, Selma Bulut, Ibrahim Halil Kavakli
Blue light (BL) is a major environmental factor that affects the physiology, behavior, and infectivity of bacteria as it contributes to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) while increasing photo-oxidative stress in cells. However, precise photo-oxidative response mechanism in non-phototrophic bacteria is yet to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated the effect of BL in Vibrio cholerae by using genetics and transcriptome profiling. Genome-wide analysis revealed that transcription of 6.3% of V...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097463/neurokinin-1-receptor-immunopositive-neurons-in-the-medullary-dorsal-horn-provide-collateral-axons-to-both-the-thalamus-and-parabrachial-nucleus-in-rats
#6
Xu Li, Shun-Nan Ge, Yang Li, Han-Tao Wang
It has been suggested that the trigemino-thalamic and trigemino-parabrachial projection neurons in the medullary dorsal horn (MDH) are highly implicated in the sensory-discriminative and emotional/affective aspects of orofacial pain, respectively. In previous studies, some neurons were reported to send projections to both the thalamus and parabrachial nucleus by way of collaterals in the MDH. However, little is known about the chemoarchitecture of this group of neurons. Thus, in the present study, we determined whether the neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor, which is crucial for primary orofacial pain signaling, was expressed in MDH neurons co-innervating the thalamus and parabrachial nucleus...
January 17, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096445/unraveling-the-stereochemical-and-dynamic-aspects-of-the-catalytic-site-of-bacterial-peptidyl-trna-hydrolase
#7
Ashish Kabra, Salman Shahid, Ravi Kant Pal, Rahul Yadav, S V S Rama Krishna Pulavarti, Anupam Jain, Sarita Tripathi, Ashish Arora
Bacterial peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase (Pth; EC 3.1.1.29) hydrolyzes the peptidyl-tRNAs accumulated in the cytoplasm and thereby prevents cell death by alleviating tRNA starvation. X-ray and NMR studies of Vibrio cholerae Pth (VcPth) and mutants of its key residues involved in catalysis show that the activity and selectivity of the protein depends on the stereochemistry and dynamics of residues H24, D97, N118, and N14. D97-H24 interaction is critical for activity because it increases the nucleophilicity of H24. The N118 and N14 have orthogonally competing interactions with H24, both of which reduce the nucleophilicity of H24 and are likely to be offset by positioning of a peptidyl-tRNA substrate...
February 2017: RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093242/the-zn-2-sensing-receptor-znr-gpr39-upregulates-colonocytic-cl-absorption-via-basolateral-kcc1-and-reduces-fluid-loss
#8
Laxmi Sunuwar, Hila Asraf, Mark Donowitz, Israel Sekler, Michal Hershfinkel
Administration of zinc, as a complement to oral rehydration solutions, effectively diminishes duration and severity of diarrhea, but it is not known whether it merely fulfills a nutritional deficiency, or if zinc has a direct role of regulating solute absorption. We show that Zn(2+) acts via a specific receptor, ZnR/GPR39, to reduce fluid loss. Intestinal fluid secretion triggered by cholera toxin (CTx) was lower in WT mice compared to ZnR/GPR39 KO. In the absence of dietary Zn(2+) we observed similar fluid accumulation in WT and ZnR/GPR39 KO mice, indicating that Zn(2+) and ZnR/GPR39 are both required for a beneficial effect of Zn(2+) in diarrhea...
January 13, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087840/vibrio-cholerae-cholix-toxin-induced-hepg2-cell-death-is-enhanced-by-tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha-through-ros-and-intracellular-signal-regulated-kinases
#9
Kohei Ogura, Yasuhiro Terasaki, Tohru Miyoshi-Akiyama, Mika Terasaki, Joel Moss, Masatoshi Noda, Kinnosuke Yahiro
Cholix toxin (Cholix) from Vibrio cholerae is a potent virulence factor exhibiting ADP-ribosyltransferase activity on eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2) of host cells, resulting in inhibition of protein synthesis. Administration of Cholix or its homologue Pseudomonas exotoxin A (PEA) to mice causes lethal hepatocyte damage. In this study, we demonstrate cytotoxicity of Cholix on immortalized human hepatocytes in the presence of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), which has been reported to play a fatal role in PEA administered to mice...
January 13, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086991/does-waterfall-aerosol-influence-mucosal-immunity-and-chronic-stress-a-randomized-controlled-clinical-trial
#10
Carina Grafetstätter, Martin Gaisberger, Johanna Prossegger, Markus Ritter, Predrag Kolarž, Christina Pichler, Josef Thalhamer, Arnulf Hartl
BACKGROUND: The specific microclimate of alpine waterfalls with high levels of ionized water aerosols has been suggested to trigger beneficial immunological and psychological effects. In the present three-armed randomized controlled clinical study, we focused on effects on (i) immunological reagibility, on (ii) physiological stress responses, and on (iii) stress-related psychological parameters. METHODS: People with moderate to high stress levels (n = 65) spent an active sojourn with daily hiking tours in the National Park Hohe Tauern (Großkirchheim, Austria)...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076802/peldor-spectroscopy-reveals-two-defined-states-of-a-sialic-acid-trap-transporter-sbp-in-solution
#11
Janin Glaenzer, Martin F Peter, Gavin H Thomas, Gregor Hagelueken
The tripartite ATP-independent periplasmic (TRAP) transporters are a widespread class of membrane transporters in bacteria and archaea. Typical substrates for TRAP transporters are organic acids including the sialic acid N-acetylneuraminic acid. The substrate binding proteins (SBP) of TRAP transporters are the best studied component and are responsible for initial high-affinity substrate binding. To better understand the dynamics of the ligand binding process, pulsed electron-electron double resonance (PELDOR, also known as DEER) spectroscopy was applied to study the conformational changes in the N-acetylneuraminic acid-specific SBP VcSiaP...
January 10, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071141/psychosocial-factors-mediating-the-effect-of-the-chobi7-intervention-on-handwashing-with-soap
#12
Christine Marie George, Shwapon Biswas, Danielle Jung, Jamie Perin, Tahmina Parvin, Shirajum Monira, K M Saif-Ur-Rahman, Mahamud-Ur Rashid, Sazzadul Islam Bhuyian, Elizabeth D Thomas, Robert Dreibelbis, Farzana Begum, Fatema Zohura, Xiaotong Zhang, David A Sack, Munirul Alam, R Bradley Sack, Elli Leontsini, Peter J Winch
Inadequate hand hygiene is estimated to result in nearly 300,000 deaths annually, with the majority of deaths being among children younger than 5 years. In an effort to promote handwashing with soap and water treatment behaviors among highly susceptible household members of cholera patients, we recently developed the Cholera-Hospital-Based Intervention-for-7-Days (CHoBI7); chobi means picture in Bengali. This 1-week handwashing with soap and water treatment intervention is delivered by a promoter in the hospital and the home to cholera patients and their household members...
January 1, 2017: Health Education & Behavior: the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067918/structural-insights-into-the-secretin-translocation-channel-in-the-type-ii-secretion-system
#13
Zhaofeng Yan, Meng Yin, Dandan Xu, Yongqun Zhu, Xueming Li
The secretin GspD of the type II secretion system (T2SS) forms a channel across the outer membrane in Gram-negative bacteria to transport substrates from the periplasm to the extracellular milieu. The lack of an atomic-resolution structure of the GspD channel hinders the investigation of substrate translocation mechanism of T2SS. Here we report cryo-EM structures of two GspD channels (∼1 MDa), from Escherichia coli K12 and Vibrio cholerae, at ∼3 Å resolution. The structures reveal a pentadecameric channel architecture, wherein three rings of GspD N domains form the periplasmic channel...
January 9, 2017: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064049/anti-diarrhoeal-therapeutic-potential-and-safety-assessment-of-sulphated-polysaccharide-fraction-from-gracilaria-intermedia-seaweed-in-mice
#14
Ana Carolina M Leódido, Luis E C Costa, Thiago S L Araújo, Douglas S Costa, Nayara A Sousa, Luan K M Souza, Francisca B M Sousa, Manoel D S Filho, Daniel F P Vasconcelos, Felipe R P Silva, Kerolayne M Nogueira, Alyne R Araújo, Francisco Clark N Barros, Ana Lúcia P Freitas, Jand Venes R Medeiros
Sulphated polysaccharides extracted from algae have been extensively studied for their diverse biological activities. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition, the anti-diarrhoeal effect and acute toxicity of a sulphated polysaccharide fraction obtained from Gracilaria intermedia (SP-Gi). Initially, the FT-IR of SP-Gi revealed to be an agaran with sulphation at C-6 of the l-galactosyl residues. The anti-diarrhoeal activity of SP-Gi was evaluated in a castor oil-induced diarrhoea model...
January 5, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063892/an-intraocular-drug-delivery-system-using-targeted-nanocarriers-attenuates-retinal-ganglion-cell-degeneration
#15
Lei Zhao, Guojun Chen, Jun Li, Yingmei Fu, Timur A Mavlyutov, Annie Yao, Robert W Nickells, Shaoqin Gong, Lian-Wang Guo
Glaucoma is a common blinding disease characterized by loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). To date, there is no clinically available treatment directly targeting RGCs. We aim to develop an RGC-targeted intraocular drug delivery system using unimolecular micelle nanoparticles (unimNPs) to prevent RGC loss. The unimNPs were formed by single/individual multi-arm star amphiphilic block copolymer poly(amidoamine)-polyvalerolactone-poly(ethylene glycol) (PAMAM-PVL-PEG). While the hydrophobic PAMAM-PVL core can encapsulate hydrophobic drugs, the hydrophilic PEG shell provides excellent water dispersity...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063048/monitoring-and-modulation-of-inducible-foxp3-regulatory-t-cell-differentiation-in-the-lymph-nodes-draining-the-small-intestine-and-colon
#16
S Veenbergen, L A van Berkel, M F du Pré, A E Kozijn, Janneke N Samsom
The mucosa-draining lymphoid tissue favors differentiation of inducible Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells. Adoptive transfer of T-cell receptor (TCR) transgenic (Tg) T cells is a powerful tool to study antigen-specific regulatory T-cell differentiation in lymphoid tissues in vivo. The kinetics and nature of the T-cell response largely depend on the route of antigen administration and degree of clonal competition. Here, we describe that adoptive transfer of CD4(+) DO11.10 TCR Tg T cells can be used for monitoring Foxp3(+) regulatory T-cell differentiation in the gut-draining lymph nodes...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062293/distribution-of-resistance-genetic-determinants-among-vibrio-cholerae-isolates-of-2012-and-2013-outbreaks-in-ir-iran
#17
Niloofar Rezaie, Bita Bakhshi, Shahin Najar-Peerayeh
The objective of this study was to characterize antimicrobial resistance determinants in relation to antimicrobial susceptibility and genotyping profile in 20 clinical isolates of Vibrio cholerae. All of the isolates were resistant to streptomycin. The second most prevalent resistance was observed to trimethoprim (75%), co-trimoxazole (60%), tetracycline (50%), and minocycline (45%). About 50% of the isolates fulfilled the criteria of Multi Drug Resistance (MDR) phenotype. None of the isolates carried tet A, B, C, and, D determinants...
January 3, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060516/glycosylation-characterization-of-an-influenza-h5n7-hemagglutinin-series-with-engineered-glycosylation-patterns-implications-for-structure-function-relationships
#18
Lisa M Parsons, Yanming An, Robert P de Vries, Cornelis A M de Haan, John F Cipollo
The glycosylation patterns of four recombinant H5 hemagglutinins (HAs) derived from A/Mallard/Denmark/64650/03 (H5N7) have been characterized. The proteins were expressed in (i) HEK293T cells to produce complex glycoforms, (ii) HEK293T cells treated with Vibrio cholera neuraminidase to provide asialo-complex glycoforms, (iii) HEK293S GnTI(-) cells with predominantly the canonical Man5GlcNAc2 glycoform, and (iv) Drosophila S2 insect cells producing primarily paucimannose glycoforms. Previously, these HAs were used to investigate the effect of different glycosylation states on the immune responses in chicken and mouse systems...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057165/current-and-future-diagnostic-tests-for-ebola-virus-disease
#19
Bharti Singh, Advaita Ganguly, Hoon H Sunwoo
Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a major public health concern with a high mortality rate in infected individuals. Outbreaks of Ebola have been widespread-there is no rapid, sensitive, specific, and affordable diagnostic test for the virus, nor there is any treatment for the disease. Overlapping symptoms of other endemic diseases, such as malaria and cholera, make it difficult to diagnose EVD. For clinical management, outbreak investigation, and proper surveillance, EVD requires a detection system, which should be fast, sensitive, specific, efficient, affordable, and user-friendly with in-country staff...
October 2016: Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences: a Publication of the Canadian Society for Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057113/-monitoring-and-research-on-pathogen-spectrum-in-patients-with-acute-diarrhea-from-sentinel-hospital-of-zhejiang-province-during-2009-to-2014
#20
S F Zheng, F Yu, X Chen, D W Cui, X Z Yang, G L Xie, Y Y Wang, J X Yu, Z J Li, Y Chen
Objective: To explore pathogen spectrum constitution of acute diarrhea in outpatient and emergency of Zhejiang Province, and provide basis for treatment, prevention and control of the disease. Methods: During January 2009 to December 2014, we selected seven sentinel hospitals in different regions of Zhejiang, monitored and researched on pathogen spectrum in patients with acute diarrhea from outpatient and emergency. We recorded patients' personal basic information, the main symptoms and signs, and collected stool samples (5 g)...
December 6, 2016: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
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