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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332927/the-response-of-common-marmoset-immunity-against-cedar-pollen-extract
#1
Yuko Yamada, Shuji Takabayashi, Hideki Kato, Kenji Ishiwata, Naohiro Watanabe, Erika Sasaki, Sonoko Habu
The in vivo model of pollinosis has been established using rodents, but the model cannot completely mimic human pollinosis. We used Callithrix jacchus, the common marmoset (CM), to establish a pollinosis animal model using intranasal weekly administration of cedar pollen extract with cholera toxin adjuvant. Some of the treated CMs exhibited the symptoms of snitching, excess nasal mucus and/or sneezing, but the period was very short, and the symptoms disappeared after several weeks. The CD4+CD25+ cell ratio in the peripheral blood increased in CMs quickly after the nasal administration of cedar pollen extract, but the timing was not parallel with the symptoms...
January 15, 2018: Bioscience Trends
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326272/antagonism-toward-the-intestinal-microbiota-and-its-effect-on-vibrio-cholerae-virulence
#2
Wenjing Zhao, Florence Caro, William Robins, John J Mekalanos
The bacterial type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a nanomachine that delivers toxic effector proteins into target cells, killing them. In mice, we found that the Vibrio cholerae T6SS attacks members of the host commensal microbiota in vivo, facilitating the pathogen's colonization of the gut. This microbial antagonistic interaction drives measurable changes in the pathogenicity of V. cholerae through enhanced intestinal colonization, expression of bacterial virulence genes, and activation of host innate immune genes...
January 12, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320462/unsaturated-fatty-acids-affect-quorum-sensing-communication-system-and-inhibit-motility-and-biofilm-formation-of-acinetobacter-baumannii
#3
Marion Nicol, Stéphane Alexandre, Jean-Baptiste Luizet, Malena Skogman, Thierry Jouenne, Suzana P Salcedo, Emmanuelle Dé
The increasing threat of Acinetobacter baumannii as a nosocomial pathogen is mainly due to the occurrence of multidrug-resistant strains that are associated with the real problem of its eradication from hospital wards. The particular ability of this pathogen to form biofilms contributes to its persistence, increases antibiotic resistance, and promotes persistent/device-related infections. We previously demonstrated that virstatin, which is a small organic compound known to decrease virulence of Vibrio cholera via an inhibition of T4-pili expression, displayed very promising activity to prevent A...
January 10, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320233/antibacterial-activities-of-hibiscus-sabdariffa-extracts-and-chemical-sanitizers-directly-on-green-leaves-contaminated-with-foodborne-pathogens
#4
Carlos A Gómez-Aldapa, Esmeralda Rangel-Vargas, Ma Refugio Torres-Vitela, Angélica Villarruel-López, Otilio A Acevedo-Sandoval, Alberto J Gordillo-Martínez, Angélica Godínez-Oviedo, Javier Castro-Rosas
Leafy greens have been associated with foodborne disease outbreaks in different countries. To decrease microbial contamination of leafy greens, chemical agents are commonly used; however, a number of studies have shown these agents to have limited antimicrobial effect against pathogenic bacteria on vegetables. The objective of this study was to compare the antibacterial effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx extracts (water, methanol, acetone, and ethyl acetate), sodium hypochlorite, acetic acid, and colloidal silver against foodborne bacteria on leafy greens...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319881/systemic-il-2-anti-il-2ab-complex-combined-with-sublingual-immunotherapy-suppresses-experimental-food-allergy-in-mice-through-induction-of-mucosal-regulatory-t-cells
#5
Paola L Smaldini, Fernando Trejo, José L Cohen, Eliane Piaggio, Guillermo H Docena
Therapeutic tolerance restoration has been proven to modify food allergy in patients and animal models and although sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) has showed promise, combined therapy may be necessary to achieve a strong and long-term tolerance. In this work, we combined SLIT with systemic administration of IL-2 associated with an anti-IL-2 monoclonal antibody (IL-2/anti-IL-2Ab complex or IL-2C) to reverse the IgE-mediated experimental allergy. Balb/c mice were sensitized with cholera toxin and milk proteins and orally challenged with allergen to elicit hypersensitivity reactions...
January 10, 2018: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317118/safety-and-immunogenicity-of-single-dose-live-oral-cholera-vaccine-strain-cvd-103-hgr-in-healthy-adults-age-18-45
#6
James M McCarty, Michael D Lock, Kristin M Hunt, Jakub K Simon, Marc Gurwith
The attenuated recombinant Vibrio cholerae O1 vaccine strain CVD 103-HgR, re-developed as PXVX0200, elicits a rapid serum vibriocidal antibody (SVA) response and protects against cholera diarrhea in volunteer challenge studies. We performed a phase 3, placebo controlled, double blind, multi-center study to further assess the safety, immunogenicity, and lot-to-lot consistency of PXVX0200. Adult volunteers 18-45 years of age were randomized 8:1 to receive a single dose of 1 × 109 CFU of PXVX0200 from three production lots or saline placebo...
January 6, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317005/a-quantitative-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-the-effectiveness-of-oral-cholera-vaccine-as-a-reactive-measure-in-cholera-outbreaks
#7
Patricia Schwerdtle, Coretta-Kings Onekon, Katrina Recoche
Introduction The efficacy of oral cholera vaccines (OCVs) in laboratory conditions has been established, and the World Health Organization (WHO; Geneva, Switzerland) has recommended their preventative use in high-risk settings. The WHO recommendation has not been fully operationalized, nor has it been extended to apply to the reactive use of OCVs in real field epidemic conditions due to concerns about potential resource diversion, feasibility, cost, and acceptability. The purpose of this study is to assess and synthesize existing evidence of OCV effectiveness when used reactively in real field conditions...
January 10, 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316507/the-%C3%AE-carbonic-anhydrase-from-the-pathogenic-bacterium-vibrio-cholerae-is-potently-activated-by-amines-and-amino-acids
#8
Andrea Angeli, Sonia Del Prete, William A Donald, Clemente Capasso, Claudiu T Supuran
The γ-class carbonic anhydrase (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1) from the pathogenic bacterium Vibrio cholerae, VchCAγ, was investigated for its activation with a panel of natural and non-natural amino acids and amines. The enzyme was effectively activated by l-tryptophan, 1-(2-minoethyl)-piperazine and 4-(2-aminoethyl)-morpholine, in the low nanomolar range (KAs 8-71 nM). In contrast, l-/d-Phe, l-/d-DOPA, d-Trp, l-/d-Tyr, 4-amino-l-Phe, histamine, dopamine, serotonin, some pyridyl-alkylamines, as well as l-adrenaline were submicromolar activators (KAs between 0...
January 4, 2018: Bioorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315809/analysis-of-vibrio-seventh-pandemic-island-ii-and-novel-genomic-islands-in-relation-to-attachment-sequences-among-a-wide-variety-of-vibrio-cholerae-strains
#9
Tuan Hai Nguyen, Tho Duc Pham, Naomi Higa, Hanako Iwashita, Taichiro Takemura, Makoto Ohnishi, Kouichi Morita, Tetsu Yamashiro
Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor, the pathogen responsible for the current cholera pandemic became pathogenic by acquiring virulent factors including Vibrio seventh pandemic islands (VSP)-I and -II. Diversity of VSP-II are well recognized, however, studies addressing attachment sequence left (attL) sequences of VSP-II are few. In this report, a wide variety of V. cholerae strains were analyzed for the structure and distribution of VSP-II in relation to their attachment sequences. Of 188 V. cholerae strains analyzed, 81% (153/188) strains carried VSP-II, of those, typical VSP-II, and a short variant was found in 36% (55/153), and 63% (96/153), respectively...
January 8, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315383/multiple-intraintestinal-signals-coordinate-the-regulation-of-vibrio-cholerae-virulence-determinants
#10
Kenneth M Peterson, Patrick S Gellings
Vibrio cholerae is a gram-negative motile bacterium capable of causing fatal pandemic disease in humans via oral ingestion of contaminated water or food. Within the human intestine the motile vibrios must evade the innate host defense mechanisms, penetrate the mucus layer covering the small intestine, adhere to and multiply on the surface of the microvilli and cause disease via the action of cholera toxin. The explosive diarrhea associated with V. cholerae intestinal colonization leads to dissemination of the vibrios back into the environment to complete this phase of the life cycle...
January 5, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313493/cholera-in-brest-france
#11
Laurence Pougnet, Richard Pougnet, Audrey Voarino, Jeanne Sapin, Isabelle Drouillard, Marie Laure Quilici, Catherine Désidéri-Vaillant
This is a case report about a 54-year-old man with hypovolemic shock, due to diarrhea and major vomiting after his return from India. The isolation of Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1 (Ogawa serotype) explains this typical clinical presentation of cholera, seen in 10% of cholera cases only. The patient had co-infection with Vibrio cholerae and Campylobacter coli. Co-infections appear to be frequent in endemic areas. The purpose of this case report is to recall the relevance of Vibrio isolation when the clinical context is evocative (diarrhea on travel return, raw sea food consumption)...
January 9, 2018: Annales de Biologie Clinique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311281/cyclic-di-gmp-regulates-tfoy-in-vibrio-cholerae-to-control-motility-by-both-transcriptional-and-posttranscriptional-mechanisms
#12
Benjamin R Pursley, Michael M Maiden, Meng-Lun Hsieh, Nicolas Fernandez, Geoffrey B Severin, Christopher M Waters
Cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) is a bacterial second messenger molecule that is a key global regulator in Vibrio cholerae, but the molecular mechanisms by which this molecule regulates downstream phenotypes have not been fully characterized. One such regulatory factor that may respond to c-di-GMP is the Vc2 c-di-GMP-binding riboswitch that is hypothesized to control the expression of the downstream putative transcription factor TfoY. Although much is known about the physical and structural properties of the Vc2 riboswitch aptamer, the nature of its expression and function in V...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307802/glutaminase-free-l-asparaginase-from-vibrio-cholerae-heterologous-expression-purification-and-biochemical-characterization
#13
Remya Radha, Nagarajan Arumugam, Sathyanarayana N Gummadi
l-asparaginase is used as a pivotal agent in treatment of lympho proliferative disorders and holds an excessive demand for food processing aids. Most of the l-asparaginases possess glutaminase activity which might lead to side effects during the treatment. There is a need for new therapeutic enzymes is of great interest in both medical and food applications. In this study, Vibrio cholerael-asparaginase was recombinantly overexpressed in E. coli, purified to homogeneity and molecular size was estimated to be 36...
January 4, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307484/atomic-structure-of-type-vi-contractile-sheath-from-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#14
Osman Salih, Shaoda He, Sara Planamente, Lasse Stach, James T MacDonald, Eleni Manoli, Sjors H W Scheres, Alain Filloux, Paul S Freemont
Pseudomonas aeruginosa has three type VI secretion systems (T6SSs), H1-, H2-, and H3-T6SS, each belonging to a distinct group. The two T6SS components, TssB/VipA and TssC/VipB, assemble to form tubules that conserve structural/functional homology with tail sheaths of contractile bacteriophages and pyocins. Here, we used cryoelectron microscopy to solve the structure of the H1-T6SS P. aeruginosa TssB1C1 sheath at 3.3 Å resolution. Our structure allowed us to resolve some features of the T6SS sheath that were not resolved in the Vibrio cholerae VipAB and Francisella tularensis IglAB structures...
December 21, 2017: Structure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306353/vibrio-cholerae-genomic-diversity-within-and-between-patients
#15
Inès Levade, Yves Terrat, Jean-Baptiste Leducq, Ana A Weil, Leslie M Mayo-Smith, Fahima Chowdhury, Ashraful I Khan, Jacques Boncy, Josiane Buteau, Louise C Ivers, Edward T Ryan, Richelle C Charles, Stephen B Calderwood, Firdausi Qadri, Jason B Harris, Regina C LaRocque, B Jesse Shapiro
Cholera is a severe, water-borne diarrhoeal disease caused by toxin-producing strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. Comparative genomics has revealed 'waves' of cholera transmission and evolution, in which clones are successively replaced over decades and centuries. However, the extent of V. cholerae genetic diversity within an epidemic or even within an individual patient is poorly understood. Here, we characterized V. cholerae genomic diversity at a micro-epidemiological level within and between individual patients from Bangladesh and Haiti...
December 2017: Microbial Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304169/the-vibrio-cholera-rnd-efflux-systems-impact-virulence-factor-production-and-adaptive-responses-via-periplasmic-sensor-proteins
#16
X Renee Bina, Mondraya F Howard, Dawn L Taylor-Mulneix, Vanessa M Ante, Dillon E Kunkle, James E Bina
Resistance-nodulation-division (RND) efflux systems are ubiquitous transporters in Gram-negative bacteria that are essential for antibiotic resistance. The RND efflux systems also contribute to diverse phenotypes independent of antimicrobial resistance, but the mechanism by which they affect most of these phenotypes is unclear. This is the case in Vibrio cholerae where the RND systems function in antimicrobial resistance and virulence factor production. Herein, we investigated the linkage between RND efflux and V...
January 5, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302180/the-cholera-epidemic-in-zimbabwe-2008-2009-a-review-and-critique-of-the-evidence
#17
C Nicholas Cuneo, Richard Sollom, Chris Beyrer
The 2008-2009 Zimbabwe cholera epidemic resulted in 98,585 reported cases and caused more than 4,000 deaths. In this study, we used a mixed-methods approach that combined primary qualitative data from a 2008 Physicians for Human Rights-led investigation with a systematic review and content analysis of the scientific literature. Our initial investigation included semi-structured interviews of 92 key informants, which we supplemented with reviews of the social science and human rights literature, as well as international news reports...
December 2017: Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300895/multizonal-cerebellar-influence-over-sensorimotor-areas-of-the-rat-cerebral-cortex
#18
Sho Aoki, Patrice Coulon, Tom J H Ruigrok
The cerebral cortex requires cerebellar input for optimizing sensorimotor processing. However, how the sensorimotor cortex uses cerebellar information is far from understood. One critical and unanswered question is how cerebellar functional entities (zones or modules) are connected to distinct parts of the sensorimotor cortices. Here, we utilized retrograde transneuronal infection of rabies virus (RABV) to study the organization of connections from the cerebellar cortex to M1, M2, and S1 of the rat cerebral cortex...
December 29, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296686/disinfection-of-water-with-new-chitosan-modified-hybrid-clay-composite-adsorbent
#19
Emmanuel I Unuabonah, Adewale Adewuyi, Matthew O Kolawole, Martins O Omorogie, Olalekan C Olatunde, Scott O Fayemi, Christina Günter, Chukwunonso P Okoli, Foluso O Agunbiade, Andreas Taubert
Hybrid clay composites were prepared from Kaolinite clay and Carica papaya seeds via modification with chitosan, Alum, NaOH, and ZnCl2 in different ratios, using solvothermal and surface modification techniques. Several composite adsorbents were prepared, and the most efficient of them for the removal of gram negative enteric bacteria was the hybrid clay composite that was surface-modified with chitosan, Ch-nHYCA 1:5 (Chitosan: nHYCA = 1:5). This composite adsorbent had a maximum adsorption removal value of 4...
August 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295515/establishing-a-system-for-testing-replication-inhibition-of-the-vibrio-cholerae-secondary-chromosome-in-escherichia-coli
#20
Nadine Schallopp, Sarah Milbredt, Theodor Sperlea, Franziska S Kemter, Matthias Bruhn, Daniel Schindler, Torsten Waldminghaus
Regulators of DNA replication in bacteria are an attractive target for new antibiotics, as not only is replication essential for cell viability, but its underlying mechanisms also differ from those operating in eukaryotes. The genetic information of most bacteria is encoded on a single chromosome, but about 10% of species carry a split genome spanning multiple chromosomes. The best studied bacterium in this context is the human pathogen Vibrio cholerae, with a primary chromosome (Chr1) of 3 M bps, and a secondary one (Chr2) of about 1 M bps...
December 23, 2017: Antibiotics
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