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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210461/the-epidemiology-and-antimicrobial-resistance-of-cholera-cases-in-iran-during-2013
#1
Hossein Masoumi-Asl, Mohammad Mehdi Gouya, Mohammad Rahbar, Roghieh Sabourian
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cholera is an endemic diarrheal disease in Iran, caused by Vibrio Cholerae. The epidemiology, transmission route, environmental determinants and antimicrobial resistant pattern of cholera have been changed during recent years. In this study the epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance of cholera in Iran during 2013 outbreak was investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective, cross-sectional study was carried out using cholera national surveillance system collected data in 2013...
August 2016: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207901/yope-specific-cd8-t-cells-provide-protection-against-systemic-and-mucosal-yersinia-pseudotuberculosis-infection
#2
Norberto González-Juarbe, Haiqian Shen, Molly A Bergman, Carlos J Orihuela, Peter H Dube
Prior studies indicated that CD8+ T cells responding to a surrogate single antigen expressed by Y. pseudotuberculosis, ovalbumin, were insufficient to protect against yersiniosis. Herein we tested the hypothesis that CD8+ T cells reactive to the natural Yersinia antigen YopE would be more effective at providing mucosal protection. We first confirmed that immunization with the attenuated ksgA- strain of Y. pseudotuberculosis generated YopE-specific CD8+ T cells. These T cells were protective against challenge with virulent Listeria monocytogenes expressing secreted YopE...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207686/notes-from-the-field-ongoing-cholera-epidemic-tanzania-2015-2016
#3
Rupa Narra, Justin M Maeda, Herilinda Temba, Janneth Mghamba, Ali Nyanga, Ashley L Greiner, Muhammad Bakari, Karlyn D Beer, Sae-Rom Chae, Kathryn G Curran, Rachel B Eidex, James J Gibson, Thomas Handzel, Stephen J Kiberiti, Rogath S Kishimba, Haji Lukupulo, Theophil Malibiche, Khalid Massa, Amani E Massay, Lindsey S McCrickard, Geofrey J Mchau, Vida Mmbaga, Ahmed A Mohamed, Elibariki R Mwakapeje, Emmanuel Nestory, Anna E Newton, Elvis Oyugi, Anu Rajasingham, Michelle E Roland, Neema Rusibamayila, Senga Sembuche, Loveness J Urio, Tiffany A Walker, Alice Wang, Robert E Quick
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 17, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203239/sublingual-priming-with-a-hiv-gp41-based-subunit-vaccine-elicits-mucosal-antibodies-and-persistent-b-memory-responses-in-non-human-primates
#4
Selma Bekri, Pierre Bourdely, Carmelo Luci, Nathalie Dereuddre-Bosquet, Bin Su, Frédéric Martinon, Véronique M Braud, Irene Luque, Pedro L Mateo, Sara Crespillo, Francisco Conejero-Lara, Christiane Moog, Roger Le Grand, Fabienne Anjuère
Persistent B cell responses in mucosal tissues are crucial to control infection against sexually transmitted pathogens like human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1). The genital tract is a major site of infection by HIV. Sublingual (SL) immunization in mice was previously shown to generate HIV-specific B cell immunity that disseminates to the genital tract. We report here the immunogenicity in female cynomolgus macaques of a SL vaccine based on a modified gp41 polypeptide coupled to the cholera toxin B subunit designed to expose hidden epitopes and to improve mucosal retention...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202099/vibrio-alginolyticus-infections-in-the-usa-1988-2012
#5
K M Jacobs Slifka, A E Newton, B E Mahon
Vibrio alginolyticus causes soft tissue and bloodstream infection; little systematically collected clinical and epidemiological information is available. In the USA, V. alginolyticus infections are reported to the Cholera and Other Vibrio Illness Surveillance system. Using data from 1988 to 2012, we categorised infections using specimen source and exposure history, analysed case characteristics, and calculated incidence rates using US Census Bureau data. Most (96%) of the 1331 V. alginolyticus infections were from coastal states...
February 16, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199144/attachment-of-13-types-of-foodborne-bacteria-to-jalape%C3%A3-o-and-serrano-peppers-and-antibacterial-effect-of-roselle-calyx-extracts-sodium-hypochlorite-colloidal-silver-and-acetic-acid-against-these-foodborne-bacteria-on-peppers
#6
Esmeralda Rangel-Vargas, Carlos A Gómez-Aldapa, Reyna N Falfan-Cortes, María L Rodríguez-Marín, Angélica Godínez-Oviedo, Otilio A Acevedo-Sandoval, Javier Castro-Rosas
Chili peppers are a very important crop in Mexico. However, these peppers have been associated with Salmonella infection outbreaks in the United States, and Salmonella and diarrheagenic Escherichia coli pathotypes have been isolated from jalapeño and serrano peppers in Mexico. To decrease microbial contamination of fruits and vegetables, chemical agents are commonly used; however, chemical agents used to eliminate pathogenic bacteria on vegetables have a limited antimicrobial effect. Roselle ( Hibiscus sabdariffa ) calyces have been reported to have an antimicrobial effect on pathogenic bacteria...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196960/repair-of-a-bacterial-small-%C3%AE-barrel-toxin-pore-depends-on-channel-width
#7
Gisela von Hoven, Amable J Rivas, Claudia Neukirch, Martina Meyenburg, Qianqian Qin, Sapun Parekh, Nadja Hellmann, Matthias Husmann
Membrane repair emerges as an innate defense protecting target cells against bacterial pore-forming toxins. Here, we report the first paradigm of Ca(2+)-dependent repair following attack by a small β-pore-forming toxin, namely, plasmid-encoded phobalysin of Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae In striking contrast, Vibrio cholerae cytolysin, the closest ortholog of phobalysin, subverted repair. Mutational analysis uncovered a role of channel width in toxicity and repair. Thus, the replacement of serine at phobalysin´s presumed channel narrow point with the bulkier tryptophan, the corresponding residue in Vibrio cholerae cytolysin (W318), modulated Ca(2+) influx, lysosomal exocytosis, and membrane repair...
February 14, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196886/replication-of-vibrio-cholerae-classical-ctx-phage
#8
Eun Jin Kim, Hyun Jin Yu, Je Hee Lee, Jae-Ouk Kim, Seung Hyun Han, Cheol-Heui Yun, Jongsik Chun, G Balakrish Nair, Dong Wook Kim
The toxigenic classical and El Tor biotype Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1 strains are generated by lysogenization of host-type-specific cholera toxin phages (CTX phages). Experimental evidence of the replication and transmission of an El Tor biotype-specific CTX phage, CTX-1, has explained the evolution of V. cholerae El Tor biotype strains. The generation of classical biotype strains has not been demonstrated in the laboratory, and the classical biotype-specific CTX phage, CTX-cla, is considered to be defective with regard to replication...
February 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196715/safety-of-the-oral-cholera-vaccine-in-pregnancy-retrospective-findings-from-a-subgroup-following-mass-vaccination-campaign-in-dhaka-bangladesh
#9
Ashraful Islam Khan, Mohammad Ali, Fahima Chowdhury, Amit Saha, Iqbal Ansary Khan, Arifuzzaman Khan, Afroza Akter, Muhammad Asaduzzaman, Md Taufiqul Islam, Alamgir Kabir, Young Ae You, Nirod Chandra Saha, Alejandro Cravioto, John D Clemens, Firdausi Qadri
BACKGROUND: Pregnant women are vulnerable to complications of cholera. Killed oral cholera vaccines (OCV) are not recommended for pregnant women though there is no evidence of harmful effects during pregnancy. We evaluated the effect of a killed OCV, Shanchol™, on pregnancy outcomes during an effectiveness trial of the vaccine in urban Bangladesh. METHODOLOGY: Individuals ⩾1year were invited to participate in the trial, conducted in 2011 in Dhaka, Bangladesh...
February 11, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196401/systematic-genetic-dissection-of-pts-in-vibrio-cholerae-uncovers-a-novel-glucose-transporter-and-a-limited-role-for-pts-during-infection-of-a-mammalian-host
#10
Chelsea A Hayes, Triana N Dalia, Ankur B Dalia
A common mechanism for high affinity carbohydrate uptake in microbial species is the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system (PTS). This system consists of a shared component, EI, which is required for all PTS transport, and numerous carbohydrate uptake transporters. In V. cholerae, there are 13 distinct PTS transporters. Due to genetic redundancy within this system, the carbohydrate specificity of each of these transporters is not currently defined. Here, using multiplex genome editing by natural transformation (MuGENT), we systematically dissect PTS transport in V...
February 14, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192431/comparative-genome-analysis-of-vsp-ii-and-snps-reveals-heterogenic-variation-in-contemporary-strains-of-vibrio-cholerae-o1-isolated-from-cholera-patients-in-kolkata-india
#11
Daisuke Imamura, Masatomo Morita, Tsuyoshi Sekizuka, Tamaki Mizuno, Taichiro Takemura, Tetsu Yamashiro, Goutam Chowdhury, Gururaja P Pazhani, Asish K Mukhopadhyay, Thandavarayan Ramamurthy, Shin-Ichi Miyoshi, Makoto Kuroda, Sumio Shinoda, Makoto Ohnishi
Cholera is an acute diarrheal disease and a major public health problem in many developing countries in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Since the Bay of Bengal is considered the epicenter for the seventh cholera pandemic, it is important to understand the genetic dynamism of Vibrio cholerae from Kolkata, as a representative of the Bengal region. We analyzed whole genome sequence data of V. cholerae O1 isolated from cholera patients in Kolkata, India, from 2007 to 2014 and identified the heterogeneous genomic region in these strains...
February 13, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192428/a-comparative-study-of-cold-and-warm-adapted-endonucleases-a-using-sequence-analyses-and-molecular-dynamics-simulations
#12
Davide Michetti, Bjørn Olav Brandsdal, Davide Bon, Geir Villy Isaksen, Matteo Tiberti, Elena Papaleo
The psychrophilic and mesophilic endonucleases A (EndA) from Aliivibrio salmonicida (VsEndA) and Vibrio cholera (VcEndA) have been studied experimentally in terms of the biophysical properties related to thermal adaptation. The analyses of their static X-ray structures was no sufficient to rationalize the determinants of their adaptive traits at the molecular level. Thus, we used Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations to compare the two proteins and unveil their structural and dynamical differences. Our simulations did not show a substantial increase in flexibility in the cold-adapted variant on the nanosecond time scale...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192199/viral-hemorrhagic-septicemia-virus-glycoprotein-production-in-tobacco
#13
Nguyen-Quang-Duc Tien, Tae-Jung Kim, Tae-Geum Kim
Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) causes mortality in numerous marine and freshwater fish species resulting in heavy losses in fish farming. The glycoprotein gene of VHSV was fused with the cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) and expressed transiently in leaf tissues of Nicotiana benthamiana via the agroinfiltration method. The glycoprotein gene was divided into two parts to improve assembly of CTB fusion proteins (CTB-VHSV99-235 and CTB-VHSV258-417). Production of CTB fusion proteins was confirmed in the agroinfiltrated leaf tissue by western blot analysis...
February 9, 2017: Protein Expression and Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191473/evolution-of-the-immune-response-against-recombinant-proteins-tcpa-tcpb-and-flaa-as-a-candidate-subunit-cholera-vaccine
#14
Neda Molaee, Ghasem Mosayebi, Alireza Amozande-Nobaveh, Mohammad Reza Soleyman, Hamid Abtahi
Vibrio cholerae is the causative agent of cholera and annually leads to death of thousands of people around the globe. Two factors in the pathogenesis of this bacterium are its pili and flagella. The main subunits of pili TcpA, TcpB, and FlaA are the constituent subunit of flagella. In this study, we studied the ability of pili and flagella subunits to stimulate immune responses in mice. After amplification of TcpA, TcpB, and FlaA genes using PCR, they were cloned in expression plasmids. After production of the above-mentioned proteins by using IPTG, the proteins were purified and then approved using immunoblot method...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182850/conjugate-vaccines-from-bacterial-antigens-by-squaric-acid-chemistry-a-closer-look
#15
Peng Xu, Meagan Kelly, Willie F Vann, Firdausi Qadri, Edward T Ryan, Paul Kovac
Using O-SP-core (O-SPcNH2) polysaccharide, isolated from Vibrio cholerae O1 lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and related synthetic substances, a detailed study of factors that affect conjugation of bacterial polysaccharides to protein carriers by squaric acid chemistry to form conjugate vaccines has been carried out. Several processes previously unrecognized, which take place during the squarate labelling of the O-SPcNH2 and subsequent conjugation of the squarate (O-SPcNH-SqOMe) formed, have been identified. The efficiency of conjugation at pH 8...
February 9, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179117/evaluation-of-intestinal-damage-caused-by-v-%C3%A2-cholerae-o139-an-in%C3%A2-vivo-study
#16
Chandrika Murugaiah, Nik Zuraina Nik Mohd Noor, Shyamoli Mustafa, Ravichandran Manickam, Lalitha Pattabhiraman
Cholera, a severe form of gastroenteritis, is one of the most widespread diseases in developing countries. The mechanism of intestinal infection caused by V. cholerae O139 remains unclear. In order to explore some morphological aspects of its infection in the intestine including Peyer's patches, we investigated the V. cholerae O139 infection at intestinal site of the rabbit gut-loop model. The electron microscopic analysis revealed denuded mucosal surface with loss of microvilli and integrity of the surface epithelium...
February 4, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179028/betanodavirus-like-particles-enter-host-cells-via-clathrin-mediated-endocytosis-in-a-cholesterol-ph-and-cytoskeleton-dependent-manner
#17
Runqing Huang, Guohua Zhu, Jing Zhang, Yuxiong Lai, Yu Xu, Jianguo He, Junfeng Xie
Betanodavirus, also referred to nervous necrosis virus (NNV), is the causative agent of the fatal disease, viral nervous necrosis and has brought significant economic losses in marine and freshwater cultured fish, especially larvae and juveniles. Here, we used an established invasion model with virus-like particle (VLP)-cells, mimicking orange-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (OGNNV), to investigate the crucial events of virus entry. VLP were observed in the perinuclear regions of Asian sea bass (SB) cells within 1...
February 8, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28175928/genome-characterization-of-pasteurella-multocida-subspecies-septica-and-comparison-with-pasteurella-multocida-subspecies-multocida-and-gallicida
#18
Zhong Peng, Wan Liang, Wenjing Liu, Huanchun Chen, Bin Wu
Pasteurella multocida: subspecies multocida, gallicida, and septica are noted to have a contribution to fowl cholera, a life-threatening disease to both domestic and wild bird species. The genome sequences of avian P. multocida subspecies gallicida and multocida have been well analyzed and compared. However, the genome characterization of avian P. multocida subspecies septica is rarely discussed. In this study, we determined the draft genome sequence of a virulent P. multocida subspecies septica serogroup A strain HB02...
February 7, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171809/the-ins-and-outs-of-cyclic-di-gmp-signaling-in-vibrio-cholerae
#19
REVIEW
Jenna G Conner, David Zamorano-Sánchez, Jin Hwan Park, Holger Sondermann, Fitnat H Yildiz
The second messenger nucleotide cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) governs many cellular processes in the facultative human pathogen Vibrio cholerae. This organism copes with changing environmental conditions in aquatic environments and during transitions to and from human hosts. Modulation of c-di-GMP allows V. cholerae to shift between motile and sessile stages of life, thus allowing adaptation to stressors and environmental conditions during its transmission cycle. The V. cholerae genome encodes a large set of proteins predicted to degrade and produce c-di-GMP...
February 4, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169223/insights-into-the-ion-coupling-mechanism-in-the-mate-transporter-norm-vc
#20
Alexander Krah, Ulrich Zachariae
Bacteria have developed a variety of different mechanisms to defend themselves from compounds that are toxic to them, such as antibiotics. One of these defence mechanisms is the expulsion of drugs or other noxious compounds by multidrug efflux pumps. Multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) transporters are efflux pumps that extrude metabolic waste and a variety of antibiotics out of the cell, using an ion gradient as energy source. They function via an alternative-access mechanism. When ions bind in the outward facing conformation, a large conformational change to the inward facing conformation is induced, from which the ion is released and the extruded chemical compound is bound...
February 7, 2017: Physical Biology
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