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Cholera

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165706/cholera-epidemics-of-the-past-offer-new-insights-into-an-old-enemy
#1
Matthew Phelps, Mads Linnet Perner, Virginia E Pitzer, Viggo Andreasen, Peter K M Jensen, Lone Simonsen
Background: Although cholera is considered the quintessential long-cycle waterborne disease, studies have emphasized the existence of short-cycle (food, household) transmission. We investigated singular Danish cholera epidemics (1853) to elucidate epidemiological parameters and modes of spread. Methods: Using time series data from cities with different water systems, we estimated the intrinsic transmissibility (R0). Accessing cause-specific mortality data we studied clinical severity, age-specific impact...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163672/contribution-of-riboflavin-supply-pathways-to-vibrio-cholerae-in-different-environments
#2
Andrés Fuentes Flores, Ignacio Sepúlveda Cisternas, José Ignacio Vásquez Solis de Ovando, Alexia Torres, Víctor Antonio García-Angulo
Background: The waterborne diarrheagenic bacterium Vibrio cholerae, cause of the pandemic cholera disease, thrives in a variety of environments ranging from estuarine waters to the human intestinal tract. This species has two ways to obtain the essential micronutrient riboflavin, de novo biosynthesis and environmental uptake through the RibN importer. The way these functions interrelate to fulfill riboflavin needs in different conditions in this species is unknown. Results: This study analyzed the contributions of riboflavin biosynthesis and transport to the culturability of Vibrio cholerae in river and seawater in vitro and in the Caenorhabditis elegans nematode host model...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162969/clinical-immunology-of-cholera-current-trends-and-directions-for-future-advancement
#3
Francesco Chiappelli, Allen Khakshooy, Nicole Balenton
Cholera remains a feared, aggressive, infectious and lethal disease today, despite several decades of intense research, concerted public health modalities designed to prevent, and to control outbreaks, availability of efficacious vaccines aimed at containing its contagious spread, and effective patient-centered medical interventions for reducing morbidity and mortality. Despite these advances, cholera still strikes communities around the world, especially in countries and regions of the globe where medical and nursing care cannot be as effectively proffered to the population at risk as in First World economies...
2017: Bioinformation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162968/cholera-host-response-gene-networks-preliminary-studies
#4
Paul Shapshak, Charurut Somboonwit, Shu Cao, John T Sinnott
Gene network analysis was performed based on published literature describing genes that are possibly interconnected with cholera vaccine responses in vitro in cell culture and in vivo in human patient punch biopsies as well as DNA extracted from blood. These studies produced divergent results. The differences should be replicated and studied further. Included in such studies, patient ethnicities, states of stress, nutrition, and health, as well as the precise characteristics of the various cholera vaccines and modes of delivery need to be considered as well...
2017: Bioinformation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159689/antibacterial-and-antioxidant-metabolites-of-diaporthe-spp-isolated-from-flowers-of-melodorum-fruticosum
#5
Chutima Tanapichatsakul, Sakon Monggoot, Eleni Gentekaki, Patcharee Pripdeevech
Fifty-two strains of endophytic fungi were isolated from flowers of the medicinal plant Melodorum fruticosum. Seven genera were identified including Alternaria, Aspergillus, Colletotrichum, Diaporthe, Fusarium, Greeneria and Nigrospora. All strains were cultured for 30 days and further macerated in ethyl acetate solvent for 3 days. The obtained fungal extracts were examined for antibacterial activity using agar disc diffusion against nine pathogenic bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, B. cereus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Shigella flexneri, Vibrio cholerae and V...
November 20, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157211/alkaline-peptone-water-enrichment-with-a-dipstick-test-to-quickly-detect-and-monitor-cholera-outbreaks
#6
Godfrey Bwire, Christopher Garimoi Orach, Dauda Abdallah, Amanda Kay Debes, Atek Kagirita, Malathi Ram, David A Sack
BACKGROUND: Detection, confirmation and monitoring of cholera outbreaks in many developing countries including Uganda is a big challenge due to lack of the required resources and the time the test takes. Culture method which takes 24-48 h to get the feedback and requires highly skilled laboratory staff plus other complex resources is the standard test. This study evaluated the new cholera rapid detection method that relies on Crystal VC dipsticks after enrichment with alkaline peptone water (APW) against the culture method for monitoring the progress of cholera outbreaks in rural setting...
November 21, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156138/plasmonic-sensing-with-3d-printed-optics
#7
Samuel S Hinman, Kristy S McKeating, Quan Cheng
Three-dimensional (3D) printing has undergone an exponential growth in popularity due to its revolutionary and near limitless manufacturing capabilities. Recent trends have seen this technology utilized across a variety of scientific disciplines, including the measurement sciences, but precise fabrication of optical components for high-performance biosensing has not yet been demonstrated. We report here 3D printing of high-quality, custom prisms by stereolithography that enable Kretschmann-configured plasmonic sensing of bacterial toxins...
November 22, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155937/nanoparticle-based-lateral-flow-biosensor-combined-with-multiple-cross-displacement-amplification-for-rapid-visual-and-sensitive-detection-of-vibrio-cholerae
#8
Yi Wang, Hui Li, Yan Wang, Lu Zhang, Jingyun Zhang, Jianguo Xu, Changyun Ye
Vibrio cholerae (V. cholerae) is an important human pathogen that is responsible for cholera, a severe acute watery diarrhea. In the current study, a multiple cross displacement amplification (MCDA) coupled with amplicon detection by chromatographic lateral flow biosensor (LFB) method (MCDA-LFB) was successfully established and evaluated for identification of V. cholerae. A set of ten primers was designed specifically to recognize ten different regions of the V. cholerae-specific gene ompW. The optimized time and temperature conditions for the MCDA were 30 min at 63˚C...
November 16, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155825/poverty-and-health-among-cdc-plantation-labourers-in-cameroon-perceptions-challenges-and-coping-strategies
#9
Valerie Makoge, Lenneke Vaandrager, Harro Maat, Maria Koelen
Creating better access to good quality healthcare for the poor is a major challenge to development. In this study, we examined inter-linkages between poverty and disease, referred to as poverty-related diseases (PRDs), by investigating how Cameroon Development Corporation (CDC) camp dwellers respond to diseases that adversely affect their health and wellbeing. Living in plantation camps is associated with poverty, overcrowding, poor sanitation and the rapid spread of diseases. In a survey of 237 CDC camp dwellers in Cameroon, we used the health belief model to understand the drivers (perceived threats, benefits and cues for treatment seeking) of reported responses...
November 20, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155670/lessons-learned-from-emergency-response-vaccination-efforts-for-cholera-typhoid-yellow-fever-and-ebola
#10
Jenny A Walldorf, Kashmira A Date, Nandini Sreenivasan, Jennifer B Harris, Terri B Hyde
Countries must be prepared to respond to public health threats associated with emergencies, such as natural disasters, sociopolitical conflicts, or uncontrolled disease outbreaks. Rapid vaccination of populations vulnerable to epidemic-prone vaccine-preventable diseases is a major component of emergency response. Emergency vaccination planning presents challenges, including how to predict resource needs, expand vaccine availability during global shortages, and address regulatory barriers to deliver new products...
December 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155665/cholera-mortality-during-urban-epidemic-dar-es-salaam-tanzania-august-16-2015-january-16-2016-1
#11
Lindsey S McCrickard, Amani Elibariki Massay, Rupa Narra, Janneth Mghamba, Ahmed Abade Mohamed, Rogath Saika Kishimba, Loveness John Urio, Neema Rusibayamila, Grace Magembe, Muhammud Bakari, James J Gibson, Rachel Barwick Eidex, Robert E Quick
In 2015, a cholera epidemic occurred in Tanzania; most cases and deaths occurred in Dar es Salaam early in the outbreak. We evaluated cholera mortality through passive surveillance, burial permits, and interviews conducted with decedents' caretakers. Active case finding identified 101 suspected cholera deaths. Routine surveillance had captured only 48 (48%) of all cholera deaths, and burial permit assessments captured the remainder. We interviewed caregivers of 56 decedents to assess cholera management behaviors...
December 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155658/building-global-epidemiology-and-response-capacity-with-field-epidemiology-training-programs
#12
Donna S Jones, Richard C Dicker, Robert E Fontaine, Amy L Boore, Jared O Omolo, Rana J Ashgar, Henry C Baggett
More than ever, competent field epidemiologists are needed worldwide. As known, new, and resurgent communicable diseases increase their global impact, the International Health Regulations and the Global Health Security Agenda call for sufficient field epidemiologic capacity in every country to rapidly detect, respond to, and contain public health emergencies, thereby ensuring global health security. To build this capacity, for >35 years the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has worked with countries around the globe to develop Field Epidemiology Training Programs (FETPs)...
December 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152799/molecular-basis-for-the-differential-expression-of-the-global-regulator-viea-in-vibrio-cholerae-biotypes-directed-by-h-ns-leuo-and-quorum-sensing
#13
Julio C Ayala, Hongxia Wang, Jorge A Benitez, Anisia J Silva
VieA is a cyclic diguanylate phosphodiesterase that modulates biofilm development and motility in Vibrio cholerae O1 of the classical biotype. vieA is part of an operon encoding the VieSAB signal transduction pathway that is nearly silent in V. cholerae of the El Tor biotype. A DNA pull-down assay for proteins interacting with the vieSAB promoter identified the LysR-type regulator LeuO. We show that in classical biotype V. cholerae, LeuO cooperates with the nucleoid-associated protein H-NS to repress vieSAB transcription...
November 20, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149072/different-inhibitory-potencies-of-oseltamivir-carboxylate-zanamivir-and-several-tannins-on-bacterial-and-viral-neuraminidases-as-assessed-in-a-cell-free-fluorescence-based-enzyme-inhibition-assay
#14
Stefanie Quosdorf, Anja Schuetz, Herbert Kolodziej
Neuraminidaseis a key enzyme in the life cycle of influenza viruses and is present in some bacterial pathogens. We here assess the inhibitory potency of plant tannins versus clinically used inhibitors on both a viral and a bacterial model neuraminidase by applying the 2'-(4-methylumbelliferyl)-α-d-N-acetylneuraminic acid (MUNANA)-based activity assay. A range of flavan-3-ols, ellagitannins and chemically defined proanthocyanidin fractions was evaluated in comparison to oseltamivir carboxylate and zanamivir for their inhibitory activities against viral influenza A (H1N1) and bacterial Vibrio cholerae neuraminidase (VCNA)...
November 17, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146843/complete-genome-sequences-of-vibrio-cholerae-specific-bacteriophages-24-and-x29
#15
Sudhakar G Bhandare, Andrew Warry, Richard D Emes, Steven P T Hooton, Paul A Barrow, Robert J Atterbury
The complete genomes of two Vibrio cholerae bacteriophages of potential interest for cholera bacteriophage (phage) therapy were sequenced and annotated. The genome size of phage 24 is 44,395 bp encoding 71 putative proteins, and that of phage X29 is 41,569 bp encoding 68 putative proteins.
November 16, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145158/vibrio-cholerae-ompu-induces-il-8-expression-in-human-intestinal-epithelial-cells
#16
Jae Seung Yang, Jun Ho Jeon, Mi Seon Jang, Seok-Seong Kang, Ki Bum Ahn, Manki Song, Cheol-Heui Yun, Seung Hyun Han
Although Vibrio cholerae colonizes the small intestine and induces acute inflammatory responses, less is known about the molecular mechanisms of V. cholerae-induced inflammatory responses in the intestine. We recently reported that OmpU, one of the most abundant outer membrane proteins of V. cholerae, plays an important role in the innate immunity of the whole bacteria. In this study, we evaluated the role of OmpU in induction of IL-8, a representative chemokine that recruits various inflammatory immune cells, in the human intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) line, HT-29...
November 13, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142593/prevailing-clone-st69-of-vibrio-cholerae-o139-in-india-over-10%C3%A2-years
#17
Shalini Anandan, Naveen Kumar Devanga Ragupathi, Dhiviya Prabaa Muthuirulandi Sethuvel, Suji Thangamani, Balaji Veeraraghavan
Vibrio cholerae is responsible for the cause of severe life-threatening infection known as cholera. The study aimed to analyze the genetic make-up of V. cholerae O139 isolates from India and compare its phylogeny with the global strains. The genome data revealed that all isolates were of same sequence type (ST69) which belongs to seventh pandemic clone, with same virulence gene profile and, antimicrobial resistance gene profile except for two isolates. No known CRISPR repeats were identified in any of these isolates...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142521/fatal-infections-in-older-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-on-anti-tumor-necrosis-factor-therapy
#18
Way-Seah Lee, Najib Azmi, Ruey-Terng Ng, Sik-Yong Ong, Sasheela Sri La Ponnampalavanar, Sanjiv Mahadeva, Ida Hilmi
Anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) is highly effective in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); however, it is associated with an increased risk of infections, particularly in older adults. We reviewed 349 patients with IBD, who were observed over a 12-month period, 74 of whom had received anti-TNF therapy (71 patients were aged <60 years and 3 were aged ≥60 years). All the 3 older patients developed serious infectious complications after receiving anti-TNFs, although all of them were also on concomitant immunosuppressive therapy...
October 2017: Intestinal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138301/genomic-variation-and-evolution-of-vibrio-parahaemolyticus-st36-over-the-course-of-a-transcontinental-epidemic-expansion
#19
Jaime Martinez-Urtaza, Ronny van Aerle, Michel Abanto, Julie Haendiges, Robert A Myers, Joaquin Trinanes, Craig Baker-Austin, Narjol Gonzalez-Escalona
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the leading cause of seafood-related infections with illnesses undergoing a geographic expansion. In this process of expansion, the most fundamental change has been the transition from infections caused by local strains to the surge of pandemic clonal types. Pandemic clone sequence type 3 (ST3) was the only example of transcontinental spreading until 2012, when ST36 was detected outside the region where it is endemic in the U.S. Pacific Northwest causing infections along the U.S. northeast coast and Spain...
November 14, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136953/antidiarrheal-effects-of-water-soluble-proteins-from-plumeria-pudica-latex-in-mice
#20
Lucas de Araújo Bastos Santana, Diego Passos Aragão, Thiago de Souza Lopes Araújo, Nayara Alves de Sousa, Luan Kelves Miranda de Souza, Lucas Eduardo Silva Oliveira, Anna Carolina Toledo da Cunha Pereira, Gustavo Portela Ferreira, Naylla Veras de Moraes Oliveira, Bruna da Silva Souza, Francisca Beatriz Melo Sousa, Márcio Viana Ramos, Cleverson Diniz Teixeira de Freitas, Jand-Venes Rolim Medeiros, Jefferson Soares de Oliveira
The water-soluble protein fraction obtained from Plumeria pudica (LPPp) latex has previously been demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects. In the present study, LPPp was tested for activity against diarrhea induced by castor oil, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) or cholera toxin. Different doses of LPPp (10, 20 or 40mg/kg) significantly inhibited the percentage of diarrheal stools (31.18%, 42.97% and 59.70%, respectively) induced by castor oil. This event was followed by significant reduction of both intestinal fluid accumulation (31...
November 10, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
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