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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775986/effects-of-two-training-programs-on-transcriptional-levels-of-neurotrophins-and-glial-cells-population-in-hippocampus-of-experimental-multiple-sclerosis
#1
Maryam Naghibzadeh, Rouhollah Ranjbar, Mohammad Reza Tabandeh, Abdolhamid Habibi
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) versus low-intensity continuous training (LICT) on transcriptional levels of neurotrophic factors and oligodendrocyte/microglia cell loss in a cuprizone (CP) induced animal model of demyelination. Male C57BL/6 mice were assigned to six groups: control (C), cuprizone-induced demyelination (CP), interval training (IT), continuous training (CT), IT plus CP (ITCP), and CT plus CP (CTCP). Training programs on the treadmill were performed for four weeks, and then demyelination was induced by feeding mice a diet containing 0...
May 18, 2018: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772467/yawning-and-cortisol-levels-in-multiple-sclerosis-potential-new-diagnostic-tool
#2
Simon B N Thompson, Alister Coleman, Nicola Williams
Yawning is a significant behavioural response and, together with cortisol, is potentially a new diagnostic marker of neurological diseases. Evidence of an association between yawning and cortisol was found which supports the Thompson Cortisol Hypothesis and thermoregulation hypotheses, indication that brain cooling occurs when yawning. 117 volunteers aged 18-69 years were randomly allocated to experimentally controlled conditions to provoke yawning. Thirty-three had been diagnosed with multiple sclerosis. Saliva cortisol samples were collected before and after yawning or after stimuli presentation in the absence of yawning...
May 2, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771271/discontinuing-treatment-against-medical-advice-the-role-of-perceived-autonomy-support-from-providers-in-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis
#3
Morgan Glusman, Amanda Bruce, Joanie Thelen, Julia Smith, Sharon Lynch, Delwyn Catley, Kimberley K Bennett, Jared Bruce
Background: Long-term medication adherence is problematic among patients with chronic medical conditions. To our knowledge, this was the first study to examine factors associated with nonadherence among patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis who discontinue disease-modifying treatments against medical advice. Purpose: To examine differences in perceived provider autonomy support between disease-modifying treatment-adherent relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients and relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients who discontinued disease-modifying treatments against medical advice...
May 16, 2018: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770251/review-of-the-neurological-benefits-of-phytocannabinoids
#4
REVIEW
Joseph Maroon, Jeff Bost
Background: Numerous physical, psychological, and emotional benefits have been attributed to marijuana since its first reported use in 2,600 BC in a Chinese pharmacopoeia. The phytocannabinoids, cannabidiol (CBD), and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) are the most studied extracts from cannabis sativa subspecies hemp and marijuana. CBD and Δ9-THC interact uniquely with the endocannabinoid system (ECS). Through direct and indirect actions, intrinsic endocannabinoids and plant-based phytocannabinoids modulate and influence a variety of physiological systems influenced by the ECS...
2018: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769726/microglial-control-of-astrocytes-in-response-to-microbial-metabolites
#5
Veit Rothhammer, Davis M Borucki, Emily C Tjon, Maisa C Takenaka, Chun-Cheih Chao, Alberto Ardura-Fabregat, Kalil Alves de Lima, Cristina Gutiérrez-Vázquez, Patrick Hewson, Ori Staszewski, Manon Blain, Luke Healy, Tradite Neziraj, Matilde Borio, Michael Wheeler, Loic Lionel Dragin, David A Laplaud, Jack Antel, Jorge Ivan Alvarez, Marco Prinz, Francisco J Quintana
Microglia and astrocytes modulate inflammation and neurodegeneration in the central nervous system (CNS)1-3 . Microglia modulate pro-inflammatory and neurotoxic activities in astrocytes, but the mechanisms involved are not completely understood4,5 . Here we report that TGFα and VEGF-B produced by microglia regulate the pathogenic activities of astrocytes in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mouse model of multiple sclerosis. Microglia-derived TGFα acts via the ErbB1 receptor in astrocytes to limit their pathogenic activities and EAE development...
May 16, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768970/neurologic-manifestations-of-antiphospholipid-syndrome
#6
I F Ricarte, L A Dutra, F F Abrantes, F F Toso, O G P Barsottini, G S Silva, A W S de Souza, D Andrade
Neurological involvement in antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) is common, and its occurrence increases morbidity and mortality. Patients may present variable neurological involvement, such as cerebrovascular disease, cognitive dysfunction, headache, seizures, movement disorders, multiple sclerosis-like syndrome, transverse myelitis and ocular symptoms. Most neurological manifestations are associated with thrombosis of the microcirculation or of large vessels; nonetheless, there is compelling evidence suggesting that, in some cases, symptoms are secondary to an immune-mediated pathogenesis, with direct binding of aPL on neurons and glia...
January 1, 2018: Lupus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767828/a-digitally-facilitated-citizen-science-driven-approach-accelerates-participant-recruitment-and-increases-study-population-diversity
#7
Milo A Puhan, Nina Steinemann, Christian P Kamm, Stephanie Müller, Jens Kuhle, Roland Kurmann, Pasquale Calabrese, Jürg Kesselring, Viktor von Wyl, Swiss Multiple Sclerosis Registry Smsr
QUESTION UNDER STUDY: Our aim was to assess whether a novel approach of digitally facilitated, citizen-science research, as followed by the Swiss Multiple Sclerosis Registry (Swiss MS Registry), leads to accelerated participant recruitment and more diverse study populations compared with traditional research studies where participants are mostly recruited in study centres without the use of digital technology. METHODS: The Swiss MS Registry is a prospective, longitudinal, observational study covering all Switzerland...
May 16, 2018: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767815/the-effect-of-glatiramer-acetate-on-retinal-nerve-fiber-layer-thickness-in-patients-with-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis-a-longitudinal-optical-coherence-tomography-study
#8
Robert Zivadinov, Eleonora Tavazzi, Jesper Hagemeier, Ellen Carl, David Hojnacki, Channa Kolb, Bianca Weinstock-Guttman
BACKGROUND: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a technique that allows for the assessment of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) and total macular volume (TMV), which reflect neuroaxonal integrity within the retina. As such it has been used in multiple sclerosis (MS) to study neurodegeneration. Glatiramer acetate (GA) is a widely used treatment for MS, which is suggested to have a possible neuroprotective role. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess RFNLT and TMV changes in relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) patients who started treatment with GA and were followed for a 24-month period...
May 16, 2018: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766386/cognitive-assessment-in-multiple-sclerosis-an-italian-consensus
#9
Maria Pia Amato, Vincenzo Brescia Morra, Monica Falautano, Angelo Ghezzi, Benedetta Goretti, Francesco Patti, Alice Riccardi, Flavia Mattioli
The aim of this consensus paper was to define the state of the art on cognitive assessment of persons with multiple sclerosis (PwMS), with the purpose of providing recommendations for the Italian centers involved in MS management. While there are no formal guidelines published regarding the assessment of cognitive function in MS, on the basis of an expert opinion meeting, held in Milan (Italy) on July 4, 2016, we report the recommendations of a panel of Italian experts including MS neurologists and neuropsychologists for the assessment and follow-up of cognitive function in adult MS subjects...
May 15, 2018: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764435/use-of-hospital-palliative-care-according-to-the-place-of-death-and-disease-one-year-before-death-in-2013-a-french-national-observational-study
#10
Claire Poulalhon, Laureen Rotelli-Bihet, Sébastien Moine, Anne Fagot-Campagna, Régis Aubry, Philippe Tuppin
BACKGROUND: Only limited data are available concerning the diseases managed before death and hospital palliative care (HPC) use according to place of death in France. We therefore conducted an observational study based on administrative health data in a large population to identify the diseases treated one year before death in 2013, the place of stay with or without hospital palliative care, and the place of death. METHODS: French health insurance general scheme beneficiaries were identified in the National Health data Information System (Snds) with a selection of information...
May 16, 2018: BMC Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764226/oral-disease-modifying-therapies-for-multiple-sclerosis-in-the-middle-eastern-and-north-african-mena-region-an-overview
#11
Dirk Deleu, Boulenouar Mesraoua, Beatriz Canibaño, Gayane Melikyan, Hassan Al Hail, Lubna El-Sheikh, Musab Ali, Hassan Al Hussein, Faiza Ibrahim, Yolande Hanssens
The introduction of new disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) for remitting-relapsing multiple sclerosis (RRMS) have considerably transformed the landscape of therapeutic opportunities for this chronic disabling disease. Unlike injectable drugs, oral DMTs, promote patient satisfaction and increase therapeutic adherence. This article reviews the salient features about the mode of action, efficacy, safety and tolerability profile of approved oral DMTs in RRMS and reviews their place in clinical algorithms in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region...
May 15, 2018: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761344/beyond-the-magic-bullet-current-progress-of-therapeutic-vaccination-in-multiple-sclerosis
#12
Barbara Willekens, Nathalie Cools
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic immune-mediated disease of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by neuroinflammation, neurodegeneration and impaired repair mechanisms that lead to neurological disability. The crux of MS is the patient's own immune cells attacking self-antigens in the CNS, namely the myelin sheath that protects nerve cells of the brain and spinal cord. Restoring antigen-specific tolerance via therapeutic vaccination is an innovative and exciting approach in MS therapy. Indeed, leveraging the body's attempt to prevent autoimmunity, i...
May 14, 2018: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758942/lost-in-translation-finding-our-way-to-effective-alzheimer-s-disease-therapies
#13
Joseph Quinn
Efforts over the past two decades to develop effective disease-modifying treatments for Alzheimer's disease have been disappointing, while parallel efforts in another chronic neurologic disease, multiple sclerosis, have been remarkably productive. In an effort to advance development of therapeutics for Alzheimer's disease, these two fields are contrasted in terms of the utility of animal models, definition of study populations, and utility of biomarkers. Possible solutions are suggested, and the review concludes with description of some active peer-reviewed, publicly funded clinical studies which address some of the identified weaknesses in past clinical trials for age-related dementia...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756588/toward-a-shared-care-model-of-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis-role-of-the-primary-care-practitioner
#14
Jiwon Oh, Marie-Sarah Gagné-Brosseau, Melanie Guenette, Catherine Larochelle, François Lemieux, Suresh Menon, Sarah A Morrow, Laurence Poliquin-Lasnier, Chantal Roy-Hewitson, Carolina Rush, Anne-Marie Trudelle, Paul S Giacomini
The objective of this study was to develop a shared-care model to enable primary-care physicians to participate more fully in meeting the complex, multidisciplinary healthcare needs of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). DESIGN: The design consisted of development of consensus recommendations and a shared-care algorithm. PARTICIPANTS: A working group of 11 Canadian neurologists involved in the management of patients with MS were included in this study. MAIN MESSAGE: The clinical management of patients with multiple sclerosis is increasing in complexity as new disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) become available, and ongoing safety monitoring is required...
May 2018: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756580/subtypes-of-antiphospholipid-antibodies-in-neurologic-accidents-an-observational-study
#15
Maryam Sahebari, Maryam Rastin, Reza Boostani, Mohsen Forughipour, Kamila Hashemzadeh, Samira HaajSadeghi
OBJECTIVE: Until now, concomitant neurological manifestations and positive antiphospholipid antibodies (APA(s)) have been investigated in different manners. The most important conflicts in this field are whether those manifestations are directly related to APA(s) or not and treatment strategies. METHOD: In this study, adopting a different manner, we selected patients with a recently defined neurological problem (according to study protocol) and positive APA without any other risk factor, to compare types, amounts, and titer of APAs...
May 14, 2018: Current Rheumatology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755644/potential-implication-of-sgk1-dependent-activity-change-in-bv-2-microglial-cells
#16
Hayato Asai, Koichi Inoue, Eisuke Sakuma, Yoshiaki Shinohara, Takatoshi Ueki
It has recently been established that microglial activation is involved in the pathophysiology of various neurological and psychiatric disorders such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and schizophrenia. The pathological molecular machineries underlying microglial activation and its accelerating molecules have been precisely described in the diseased central nervous system (CNS). However, to date, the details of physiological mechanism, which represses microglial activation, are still to be elucidated. Our latest report demonstrated that serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinases (SGK1 and SGK3) were expressed in multiple microglial cell lines, and their inhibitor enhanced the toxic effect of lipopolysaccharide on microglial production of inflammatory substances such as TNFα and iNOS...
2018: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754046/brain-stiffens-post-mortem
#17
J Weickenmeier, M Kurt, E Ozkaya, R de Rooij, T C Ovaert, R L Ehman, K Butts Pauly, E Kuhl
Alterations in brain rheology are increasingly recognized as a diagnostic marker for various neurological conditions. Magnetic resonance elastography now allows us to assess brain rheology repeatably, reproducibly, and non-invasively in vivo. Recent elastography studies suggest that brain stiffness decreases one percent per year during normal aging, and is significantly reduced in Alzheimer's disease and multiple sclerosis. While existing studies successfully compare brain stiffnesses across different populations, they fail to provide insight into changes within the same brain...
April 22, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751260/forkhead-box-c1-gene-variant-causing-glaucoma-and-small-vessel-angiopathy-can-mimic-multiple-sclerosis
#18
Jagannadha R Avasarala, Julie R Jones, Curtis R Rogers
A 34-year old Caucasian female was initially diagnosed with multiple small-vessel strokes at age 20 years which were etiologically classified as secondary to anti-phospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) although she had no history or laboratory data to suggest APS. Based on her MRI of brain findings, one of her neurologists was concerned she could have multiple sclerosis (MS) and hence the patient was referred to our clinic for further evaluation. The patient's MRI of brain showed confluent lesions in the periventricular and juxta-cortical lesions that fulfil 2017 McDonald criteria for dissemination in space...
April 21, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750884/nutritional-intervention-as-an-essential-part-of-multiple-sclerosis-treatment
#19
A Penesová, Z Dean, B Kollár, A Havranová, R Imrich, M Vlček, Ž Rádiková
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory and demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. In addition to the genetic, epigenetic and immunological components, various other factors e.g. unhealthy dietary habits play a role in the MS pathogenesis. Dietary intervention is a highly appealing approach, as it presents a simple and relatively low risk method to potentially improve outcomes in patients with brain disorders in order to achieve remission and improvement of clinical status, well-being and life expectancy of patients with MS...
May 10, 2018: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750735/the-shifting-landscape-of-disease-modifying-therapies-for-relapsing-multiple-sclerosis
#20
Jodie M Burton, Mark S Freedman
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common nontraumatic neurological disorder of young adults, and roughly 85% of patients present with the relapsing form of the disease. Over the past 2 decades, the treatment arsenal for relapsing MS has expanded and evolved from mildly effective and relatively benign injectable agents to potent cell-depleting monoclonal agents. The latter have the potential to achieve disease remission coupled with risk of moderate to severe adverse events with which all MS care providers will need to acquaint themselves...
June 2018: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
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