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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475113/assessment-of-heavy-metal-pollution-and-human-health-risks-in-urban-soils-around-an-electronics-manufacturing-facility
#1
Wei Wu, Ping Wu, Fang Yang, Dan-Ling Sun, De-Xing Zhang, Yi-Kai Zhou
Heavy metal pollution has pervaded many parts of the world, especially in developing countries. The purpose of this study was to determine the concentrations and health risks of heavy metals in urban soils around an electronics manufacturing site in the Hubei Province of China. Soils samples were collected from commercial, roadside, farmland, and residential areas around the electronics manufacturing facility. A total of 136 topsoil samples were collected, and these samples were analyzed for Cr, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Ni, and Pb...
February 20, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475084/full-length-myocilin-protein-is-purified-from-mammalian-cells-as-a-dimer
#2
Parvaneh Katoli, Adarsh Godbole, Michael J Romanowski, Kirk Clark, Erik Meredith, Veronica Saenz-Vash, Y Karen Wang, Nancy Lewicki, Andrew A Nguyen, Jeffrey M Lynch
Myocilin (MYOC) is a secreted protein found in human aqueous humor (AH) and mutations in the MYOC gene are the most common mutation observed in glaucoma patients. Human AH analyzed under non-reducing conditions suggests that MYOC is not normally found in a monomeric form, but rather is predominantly dimeric. Although MYOC was first reported almost 20 years ago, a technical challenge still faced by researchers is an inability to isolate full-length MYOC protein for experimental purposes. Herein we describe two methods by which to isolate sufficient quantities of human full-length MYOC protein from mammalian cells...
February 20, 2018: Protein Expression and Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475077/inequality-between-biases-in-face-memory-event-related-potentials-reveal-dissociable-neural-correlates-of-own-race-and-own-gender-biases
#3
Holger Wiese, Stefan R Schweinberger
Humans are more accurate at remembering faces from their own relative to a different ethnic group (own-race bias). Moreover, better memory for faces from an observer's own relative to the other-gender (own-gender bias) has also been reported, particularly for female participants. Theoretical explanations for these effects either emphasize differential perceptual expertise or socio-cognitive factors. Importantly, both types of explanations typically assume a single common mechanism for the various biases. The present study examined event-related potentials (ERP) in a combined own-race/own-gender bias experiment...
February 2, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474911/identifying-medical-diagnoses-and-treatable-diseases-by-image-based-deep-learning
#4
Daniel S Kermany, Michael Goldbaum, Wenjia Cai, Carolina C S Valentim, Huiying Liang, Sally L Baxter, Alex McKeown, Ge Yang, Xiaokang Wu, Fangbing Yan, Justin Dong, Made K Prasadha, Jacqueline Pei, Magdalena Ting, Jie Zhu, Christina Li, Sierra Hewett, Jason Dong, Ian Ziyar, Alexander Shi, Runze Zhang, Lianghong Zheng, Rui Hou, William Shi, Xin Fu, Yaou Duan, Viet A N Huu, Cindy Wen, Edward D Zhang, Charlotte L Zhang, Oulan Li, Xiaobo Wang, Michael A Singer, Xiaodong Sun, Jie Xu, Ali Tafreshi, M Anthony Lewis, Huimin Xia, Kang Zhang
The implementation of clinical-decision support algorithms for medical imaging faces challenges with reliability and interpretability. Here, we establish a diagnostic tool based on a deep-learning framework for the screening of patients with common treatable blinding retinal diseases. Our framework utilizes transfer learning, which trains a neural network with a fraction of the data of conventional approaches. Applying this approach to a dataset of optical coherence tomography images, we demonstrate performance comparable to that of human experts in classifying age-related macular degeneration and diabetic macular edema...
February 22, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474416/primate-social-attention-species-differences-and-effects-of-individual-experience-in-humans-great-apes-and-macaques
#5
Fumihiro Kano, Stephen V Shepherd, Satoshi Hirata, Josep Call
When viewing social scenes, humans and nonhuman primates focus on particular features, such as the models' eyes, mouth, and action targets. Previous studies reported that such viewing patterns vary significantly across individuals in humans, and also across closely-related primate species. However, the nature of these individual and species differences remains unclear, particularly among nonhuman primates. In large samples of human and nonhuman primates, we examined species differences and the effects of experience on patterns of gaze toward social movies...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474175/health-utility-of-pregnant-women-living-with-hiv-aids-prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hiv-pmtct-programs-in-yunnan-province-a-cross-sectional-study
#6
Xiaowen Wang, Guangping Guo, Xiumin Liang, Ling Zhou, Jiarui Zheng, Shaoqin Li, Hongzhuan Luo, Yuyan Yang, Liyuan Yang, Ting Tan, Jun Yu, Lin Lu
BACKGROUND: Health utility (HU) is essential to understanding the effects of HIV infection as a chronic disease. No HU data on pregnant women living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Yunnan Province are available. This study aims to construct a database on HU and explore factors associated with HU by pregnant women living with HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) who were enrolled in the Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) programs in Yunnan Province...
July 3, 2017: Value in Health Regional Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473843/prevalence-of-oral-clefts-among-live-births-in-gansu-province-china
#7
Mengying Wang, Ruogu Meng, Zhuqing Wang, Dongjing Liu, Hui Huang, Chuyun Kang, Hongtian Li, Tao Wu, Siyan Zhan
Background: Oral clefts (OCs) are common human birth defects. Children with OCs in underdeveloped regions are more likely to suffer from poverty and hardship in their future lives. Here, we attempted to estimate the prevalence of OCs among live births in Gansu Province in 2008 to understand the epidemiologic pattern of the disease. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2008 to December 2008 in Gansu Province. The live births delivered between January and December 2008 with OCs were investigated through face-to-face questionnaire survey...
February 23, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473024/-plasmodium-vivax-biology-insights-provided-by-genomics-transcriptomics-and-proteomics
#8
REVIEW
Catarina Bourgard, Letusa Albrecht, Ana C A V Kayano, Per Sunnerhagen, Fabio T M Costa
During the last decade, the vast omics field has revolutionized biological research, especially the genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics branches, as technological tools become available to the field researcher and allow difficult question-driven studies to be addressed. Parasitology has greatly benefited from next generation sequencing (NGS) projects, which have resulted in a broadened comprehension of basic parasite molecular biology, ecology and epidemiology. Malariology is one example where application of this technology has greatly contributed to a better understanding of Plasmodium spp...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471535/the-media-model-an-innovative-method-for-digitizing-and-training-community-members-to-facilitate-an-hiv-prevention-intervention
#9
Tiffaney Renfro, Erin Johnson, Danielle N Lambert, Gina Wingood, Ralph J DiClemente
As human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) continues to disproportionately affect African American women, practitioners remain committed to developing innovative strategies to reduce HIV prevalence. These strategies include training community organizations, such as churches, and utilizing digital media to make intervention dissemination more sustainable. This article describes one such effort to train lay community members within predominantly Black churches in Atlanta, GA, to implement an HIV prevention intervention...
February 17, 2018: Translational Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471503/the-role-of-the-reprogramming-method-and-pluripotency-state-in-gamete-differentiation-from-patient-specific-human-pluripotent-stem-cells
#10
S Mishra, E Kacin, P Stamatiadis, S Franck, M Van der Jeught, H Mertes, G Pennings, P De Sutter, K Sermon, B Heindryckx, M Geens
The derivation of gametes from patient-specific pluripotent stem cells may provide new perspectives for genetic parenthood for patients currently facing sterility. We use current data to assess the gamete differentiation potential of patient-specific pluripotent stem cells and to determine which reprogramming strategy holds the greatest promise for future clinical applications. First, we compare the two best established somatic cell reprogramming strategies: the production of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) and somatic cell nuclear transfer followed by embryonic stem cell derivation (SCNT-ESC)...
February 19, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470635/distribution-sources-and-toxicity-assessment-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-in-surface-soils-of-a-heavy-industrial-city-liuzhou-china
#11
Ying Miao, Xiangsheng Kong, Chengxi Li
As a heavy industrial city, Liuzhou has been facing a serious pollution problem. It is necessary to take steps to control and prevent environmental pollution wherever possible. Surface soil samples were collected from four communities in Liuzhou City, to determine the concentrations, distributions, sources, and toxicity potential of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present. The mean concentrations of total PAHs in the surface soil are 756.43 ng/g for the heavy industrial area, 605.06 ng/g for the industrial area, 481...
February 22, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470288/digested-early-preterm-human-milk-suppresses-tumor-necrosis-factor-induced-inflammation-and-cytotoxicity-in-intestinal-epithelial-cells
#12
Yimin Chen, Aloka Patel, Paula P Meier, Giamila Fantuzzi
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of digested whole human milk (HM; first sample available after birth from mothers of premature infants) on inflammation, oxidative stress, and cytotoxicity in Caco-2 human intestinal epithelial cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharides or tumor necrosis factor (TNF) to mimic the potential in vivo insults facing the premature infant's gastrointestinal tract. METHODS: Fully differentiated Caco-2 cells were exposed to digested HM (n = 10; samples from 10 different individuals) before stimulation with lipopolysaccharides, TNF, or no stimulation overnight...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469689/genomic-and-structural-features-of-the-yellow-fever-virus-from-the-2016-2017-brazilian-outbreak
#13
Mariela Martínez Gómez, Filipe Vieira Santos de Abreu, Alexandre Araujo Cunha Dos Santos, Iasmim Silva de Mello, Marta Pereira Santos, Ieda Pereira Ribeiro, Anielly Ferreira-de-Brito, Rafaella Moraes de Miranda, Marcia Gonçalves de Castro, Mario Sergio Ribeiro, Roberto da Costa Laterrière Junior, Shirlei Ferreira Aguiar, Guilherme Louzada Silva Meira, Deborah Antunes, Pedro Henrique Monteiro Torres, Daiana Mir, Ana Carolina Paulo Vicente, Ana Carolina Ramos Guimarães, Ernesto Raul Caffarena, Gonzalo Bello, Ricardo Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Myrna Cristina Bonaldo
Southeastern Brazil has been suffering a rapid expansion of a severe sylvatic yellow fever virus (YFV) outbreak since late 2016, which has reached one of the most populated zones in Brazil and South America, heretofore a yellow fever-free zone for more than 70 years. In the current study, we describe the complete genome of 12 YFV samples from mosquitoes, humans and non-human primates from the Brazilian 2017 epidemic. All of the YFV sequences belong to the modern lineage (sub-lineage 1E) of South American genotype I, having been circulating for several months prior to the December 2016 detection...
February 22, 2018: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467737/universal-vaccines-and-vaccine-platforms-to-protect-against-influenza-viruses-in-humans-and-agriculture
#14
REVIEW
Daniela S Rajão, Daniel R Pérez
Influenza virus infections pose a significant threat to public health due to annual seasonal epidemics and occasional pandemics. Influenza is also associated with significant economic losses in animal production. The most effective way to prevent influenza infections is through vaccination. Current vaccine programs rely heavily on the vaccine's ability to stimulate neutralizing antibody responses to the hemagglutinin (HA) protein. One of the biggest challenges to an effective vaccination program lies on the fact that influenza viruses are ever-changing, leading to antigenic drift that results in escape from earlier immune responses...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467699/when-project-commitment-leads-to-learning-from-failure-the-roles-of-perceived-shame-and-personal-control
#15
Wenzhou Wang, Bin Wang, Ke Yang, Chong Yang, Wenlong Yuan, Shanghao Song
Facing a remarkably changing world, researchers have gradually shifted emphasis from successful experiences to failures. In the current study, we build a model to explore the relationship between project commitment and learning from failure, and test how emotion (i.e., perceived shame after failure) and cognition (i.e., attribution for failure) affect this process. After randomly selecting 400 firms from the list of high-tech firms reported by the Beijing Municipal Science and Technology Commission, we use a two-wave investigation of the employees, and the final sample consists of 140 teams from 58 companies in the technology industry in mainland China...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467695/returning-to-work-after-childbirth-in-europe-well-being-work-life-balance-and-the-interplay-of-supervisor-support
#16
Ana M Lucia-Casademunt, Antonia M García-Cabrera, Laura Padilla-Angulo, Deybbi Cuéllar-Molina
Parents returning to work after the arrival of a new son or daughter is an important question for understanding the trajectory of people's lives and professional careers amid current debates about gender equality and work-life balance (WLB). Interestingly, current research concludes that general WLB practices at the workplace may be necessary in the specific case of women returning to work after childbirth because of the particular maternal and infant factors involved. However, WLB practices as a flexible arrangement may work against women because they may be viewed as a lack of organizational commitment...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467610/open-science-meets-stem-cells-a-new-drug-discovery-approach-for-neurodegenerative-disorders
#17
REVIEW
Chanshuai Han, Mathilde Chaineau, Carol X-Q Chen, Lenore K Beitel, Thomas M Durcan
Neurodegenerative diseases are a challenge for drug discovery, as the biological mechanisms are complex and poorly understood, with a paucity of models that faithfully recapitulate these disorders. Recent advances in stem cell technology have provided a paradigm shift, providing researchers with tools to generate human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from patient cells. With the potential to generate any human cell type, we can now generate human neurons and develop "first-of-their-kind" disease-relevant assays for small molecule screening...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466684/cardiovascular-response-to-trigeminal-nerve-stimulation-at-rest-and-during-exercise-in-humans-does-sex-matter
#18
Eliza Prodel, Thales C Barbosa, Antonio Claudio Lucas da Nóbrega, Lauro C Vianna
We sought to investigate the possibility that there are sex differences in the cardiovascular responses to trigeminal nerve stimulation (TGS) with cold exposure to the face, at rest and during dynamic exercise. In nine healthy men (age 28{plus minus}3 yr; height 178{plus minus}1 cm; weight 77{plus minus}8 kg) and thirteen women (age 26{plus minus}5 yr; height 164{plus minus}3 cm; weight 63{plus minus}7 kg) beat-to-beat heart rate (HR) and blood pressure were recorded. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), stroke volume (SV), cardiac index (CI) and total vascular resistance index (TVRI) were calculated...
February 21, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466479/tree-community-variation-in-a-tropical-continental-island-according-to-slope-aspect-and-human-interference
#19
Nathan B Gonçalves, Felipe C Nettesheim, Marilena M S Conde
Associating description of unrecorded tropical tree community structure to sampling approaches that can help determine mechanisms behind floristic variation is important to further the comprehension of how plant species coexist at tropical forests. Thus, this study had the goals of (i) evaluating tree community structure on the continental island of Marambaia (23°4'37.09"S; 43°59'2.15"W) and (ii) testing the prediction that there are local scale changes in a tropical tree community structure between slopes facing different geographic orientation and with distinct human interference history...
February 19, 2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466332/phase-plate-cryo-em-structure-of-a-biased-agonist-bound-human-glp-1-receptor-gs-complex
#20
Yi-Lynn Liang, Maryam Khoshouei, Alisa Glukhova, Sebastian G B Furness, Peishen Zhao, Lachlan Clydesdale, Cassandra Koole, Tin T Truong, David M Thal, Saifei Lei, Mazdak Radjainia, Radostin Danev, Wolfgang Baumeister, Ming-Wei Wang, Laurence J Miller, Arthur Christopoulos, Patrick M Sexton, Denise Wootten
The class B glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) G protein-coupled receptor is a major target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and obesity. Endogenous and mimetic GLP-1 peptides exhibit biased agonism-a difference in functional selectivity-that may provide improved therapeutic outcomes. Here we describe the structure of the human GLP-1 receptor in complex with the G protein-biased peptide exendin-P5 and a Gαs heterotrimer, determined at a global resolution of 3.3 Å. At the extracellular surface, the organization of extracellular loop 3 and proximal transmembrane segments differs between our exendin-P5-bound structure and previous GLP-1-bound GLP-1 receptor structure...
February 21, 2018: Nature
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