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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821656/dissociable-effects-on-birdsong-of-androgen-signaling-in-cortex-like-brain-regions-of-canaries
#1
Beau A Alward, Jacques Balthazart, Gregory F Ball
The neural basis of how learned vocalizations change during development and in adulthood represents a major challenge facing cognitive neuroscience. This plasticity in the degree to which learned vocalizations can change in both humans and songbirds is linked to the actions of sex steroid hormones during ontogeny but also in adulthood in the context of seasonal changes in birdsong. We investigated the role of steroid hormone signaling in the brain on distinct features of birdsong using adult male canaries (Serinus canaria), which show extensive seasonal vocal plasticity as adults...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820067/a-comprehensive-review-on-ebola-ebov-virus-future-prospects
#2
Dr Abdru Rauf, Muhammad, Abdur Rauf, Ahsan Khan, Muhammad Rizwan, Seema Patel, Haroon Khan, Adel Mahasneh, Mohammad S Mubarak
Ebola virus (EBOV) was discovered for the first time in 1976. It belongs to the family Filoviridae, which causes hemorrhagic fever that could lead to death in a few days. West Africa faced a major outbreak where symptoms appeared in the form of chills, myalgia, fever, diarrhea, and vomiting, and the disease finally reached a severe state as a result of hemorrhagic complications and failure of multiple organs. EBOV spreads by contact with body fluids of an infected person such as blood, saliva, urine, and seminal fluid, and also spreads by a contact with contaminated surfaces...
August 16, 2017: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816022/assessing-human-risk-of-illness-with-west-nile-virus-mosquito-surveillance-data-to-improve-public-health-preparedness
#3
S Karki, N E Westcott, E J Muturi, W M Brown, M O Ruiz
Surveillance for West Nile virus (WNV) and other mosquito-borne pathogens involves costly and time-consuming collection and testing of mosquito samples. One difficulty faced by public health personnel is how to interpret mosquito data relative to human risk, thus leading to a failure to fully exploit the information from mosquito testing. The objective of our study was to use the information gained from historic West Nile virus mosquito testing to determine human risk relative to mosquito infection and to assess the usefulness of our mosquito infection forecasting models to give advance warning...
August 16, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815925/the-effects-of-hydropeaking-on-riverine-plants-a-review
#4
María D Bejarano, Roland Jansson, Christer Nilsson
Hydropeaking refers to frequent, rapid and short-term fluctuations in water flow and water levels downstream and upstream of hydropower stations. Such fluctuations are becoming increasingly common worldwide and are known to have far-reaching effects on riverine vegetation. Novel hydrology caused by hydropeaking has no natural correspondence in freshwater systems, and hence few species have adaptations to all its aspects. Here, we review the literature on hydropeaking effects on riverine plants and define the state of the information on this human alteration of riverine ecosystems...
August 17, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815864/interstitial-deletion-5p14-1-p15-2-and-5q14-3-q23-2-in-a-patient-with-clubfoot-blepharophimosis-arthrogryposis-and-multiple-congenital-abnormalities
#5
Burhan Balta, Murat Erdogan, Ayse B Ergul, Yavuz Sahin, Alper Ozcan
Interstitial deletions of the short and long arms of chromosome 5 are rare cytogenetic abnormalities. The 5p distal deletion is a genetic disorder characterized by a high-pitched cat-like cry, microcephaly, epicanthal folds, micrognathia, severe intellectual disability and motor delays. Previously, more than 46 patients with the 5q deletion have been reported. Here, we report de novo interstitial deletions involving 5p14.1-p15.2 and 5q14.3-q23.2 in a patient with multiple congenital abnormalities, including blepharophimosis, arthrogryposis, short neck, round face, pelvic kidney, agenesis of the corpus callosum, and clubfoot...
August 16, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814810/amygdala-centred-functional-connectivity-affects-daily-cortisol-concentrations-a-putative-link-with-anxiety
#6
Yuko Hakamata, Shotaro Komi, Yoshiya Moriguchi, Shuhei Izawa, Yuki Motomura, Eisuke Sato, Shinya Mizukami, Yoshiharu Kim, Takashi Hanakawa, Yusuke Inoue, Hirokuni Tagaya
The amygdala plays a critical role in emotion. Its functional coupling with the hippocampus and ventromedial prefrontal cortex extending to a portion of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is implicated in anxiogenesis and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system regulation. However, it remains unclear how amygdala-centred functional connectivity (FC) affects anxiety and cortisol concentrations in everyday life. Here, we investigate the relationship between daily cortisol concentrations (dCOR) and amygdala-centred FC during emotional processing in forty-one healthy humans...
August 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814756/giant-pandas-can-discriminate-the-emotions-of-human-facial-pictures
#7
Youxu Li, Qiang Dai, Rong Hou, Zhihe Zhang, Peng Chen, Rui Xue, Feifei Feng, Chao Chen, Jiabin Liu, Xiaodong Gu, Zejun Zhang, Dunwu Qi
Previous studies have shown that giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) can discriminate face-like shapes, but little is known about their cognitive ability with respect to the emotional expressions of humans. We tested whether adult giant pandas can discriminate expressions from pictures of half of a face and found that pandas can learn to discriminate between angry and happy expressions based on global information from the whole face. Young adult pandas (5-7 years old) learned to discriminate expressions more quickly than older individuals (8-16 years old), but no significant differences were found between females and males...
August 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814631/face-percept-formation-in-human-ventral-temporal-cortex
#8
Kai J Miller, Dora Hermes, Franco Pestilli, Gagan S Wig, Jeffrey G Ojemann
Loci in ventral temporal cortex are selectively active while viewing faces and other objects, but it remains unclear whether these areas represent accumulation of simple visual information, or processing of intact percept. We measured broadband electrocorticographic changes from implanted electrodes on the ventral temporal brain surface while showing patients noise-degraded images of faces and houses. In a subset of posterior fusiform gyrus face-selective regions, cortical activity decreased parametrically with noise increase, until the perceptual threshold...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814432/minimal-to-no-transfer-of-certolizumab-pegol-into-breast-milk-results-from-cradle-a-prospective-postmarketing-multicentre-pharmacokinetic-study
#9
Megan Eb Clowse, Frauke Förger, Caroline Hwang, John Thorp, Radboud Jem Dolhain, Astrid van Tubergen, Laura Shaughnessy, Jeff Simpson, Marie Teil, Nathalie Toublanc, Maggie Wang, Thomas W Hale
BACKGROUND: Women with chronic inflammatory diseases face uncertainty regarding the safety of biologics during breast feeding. CRADLE was the first industry-sponsored study to evaluate certolizumab pegol (CZP) concentrations in human breast milk and estimate average daily infant dose (ADID) of maternal CZP. METHODS: CRADLE (NCT02154425) was a pharmacokinetic study of lactating mothers receiving CZP. After ≥3 CZP doses, breast milk samples were collected across one dosing period (14 days for 200 mg every 2 weeks [Q2W]; 28 days for 400 mg every 4 weeks [Q4W])...
August 16, 2017: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813964/brain-computer-interface-combining-eye-saccade-two-electrode-eeg-signals-and-voice-cues-to-improve-the-maneuverability-of-wheelchair
#10
Ker-Jiun Wang, Lan Zhang, Bo Luan, Hsiao-Wei Tung, Quanfeng Liu, Jiacheng Wei, Mingui Sun, Zhi-Hong Mao
Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) largely augment human capabilities by translating brain wave signals into feasible commands to operate external devices. However, many issues face the development of BCIs such as the low classification accuracy of brain signals and the tedious human-learning procedures. To solve these problems, we propose to use signals associated with eye saccades and blinks to control a BCI interface. By extracting existing physiological eye signals, the user does not need to adapt his/her brain waves to the device...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813643/multi-connection-pattern-analysis-decoding-the-representational-content-of-neural-communication
#11
Yuanning Li, R Mark Richardson, Avniel Singh Ghuman
The lack of multivariate methods for decoding the representational content of interregional neural communication has left it difficult to know what information is represented in distributed brain circuit interactions. Here we present Multi-Connection Pattern Analysis (MCPA), which works by learning mappings between the activity patterns of the populations as a factor of the information being processed. These maps are used to predict the activity from one neural population based on the activity from the other population...
August 13, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812119/attention-holding-elicited-by-direct-gaze-faces-is-reflected-in-saccadic-peak-velocity
#12
Mario Dalmaso, Luigi Castelli, Giovanni Galfano
Manual response times to peripherally presented targets have been reported to be greater in the presence of task-irrelevant pictorial faces at fixation which establish an eye contact with the observer. This effect is interpreted as evidence that direct-gaze faces hold attention. In three experiments, we investigated whether this attention-holding effect is also reflected in saccadic response times. Participants were asked to make a saccade towards a symbolic target that could appear rightwards or leftwards, in the presence of a task-irrelevant centrally placed face with either direct gaze or closed eyes...
August 10, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811505/identification-and-quantification-of-plasma-free-salusin-%C3%AE-an-endogenous-parasympathomimetic-peptide
#13
Kazumi Fujimoto, Akinori Hayashi, Yoshio Kodera, Tatsuya Saito, Takuya Toki, Akifumi Ogawa, Yuji Kamata, Koji Takano, Hideki Katakami, Masayoshi Shichiri
Salusin-β is an endogenous parasympathomimetic proatherosclerotic peptide. Salusin-β was initially predicted from bioinformatic analyses and later immunologically detected in human biofluids. However, elucidation of salusin-β bioactivity has faced enormous challenges because of its unique physicochemical characteristics that cause it to strongly adhere to laboratory apparatus materials. In the strictest sense, the discovery of bioactive peptides is not complete until their exact native sequences have been confirmed in the peripheral circulation...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811258/category-selective-human-brain-processes-elicited-in-fast-periodic-visual-stimulation-streams-are-immune-to-temporal-predictability
#14
Genevieve L Quek, Bruno Rossion
Recording direct neural activity when periodically inserting exemplars of a particular category in a rapid visual stream of other objects offers an objective and efficient way to quantify perceptual categorization and characterize its spatiotemporal dynamics. However, since periodicity entails predictability, perceptual categorization processes identified within this framework may be partly generated or modulated by temporal expectations. Here we present a stringent test of the hypothesis that temporal predictability generates or modulates category-selective neural processes as measured in a rapid periodic visual stimulation stream...
August 12, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811179/lateral-frontal-pole-and-relational-processing-activation-patterns-and-connectivity-profile
#15
Bart Hartogsveld, Bob Bramson, Suhas Vijayakumar, A Dilene van Campen, José P Marques, Karin Roelofs, Ivan Toni, Harold Bekkering, Rogier B Mars
The functional contribution of the lateral prefrontal cortex to behavior has been discussed with reference to several higher-order cognitive domains. In a separate line of research, recent studies have focused on the anatomical organization of this part of the brain. However, these different approaches are rarely combined. Here, we combine previous work using anatomical connectivity that identified a lateral subdivision of the human frontal pole and work that suggested a general role for rostrolateral prefrontal cortex in processing higher-order relations, irrespective of the type of information...
August 12, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810512/co-digestion-of-rice-straw-and-cow-dung-to-supply-cooking-fuel-and-fertilizers-in-rural-india-impact-on-human-health-resource-flows-and-climate-change
#16
Sophie Sfez, Steven De Meester, Jo Dewulf
Anaerobic digestion of cow dung with new feedstock such as crop residues to increase the biogas potential is an option to help overcoming several issues faced by India. Anaerobic digestion provides biogas that can replace biomass cooking fuels and reduce indoor air pollution. It also provides digestate, a fertilizer that can contribute to compensate nutrient shortage on agricultural land. Moreover, it avoids the burning of rice straw in the fields which contributes to air pollution in India and climate change globally...
August 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810183/computer-modeling-of-drug-delivery-in-the-anterior-human-eye-after-subconjunctival-and-episcleral-implantation
#17
Feng Zhang, Han Chen, Yukan Huang
Recently, subconjunctival and episcleral implants have been proposed in the treatment of anterior eye diseases. In order to improve the delivery efficacy, it is important to understand the transport process of the implanted drugs. A 3D computational model, which includes heat transfer, aqueous humor (AH) flow, as well as diffusive and convective transport of the drug concentration, is developed to study the temporal and spatial evolution of the drug in the anterior segment of a human eye after subconjunctival and episcleral implantation, with a focus on drug delivery to three targets: iris, lens, and trabecular meshwork (TM)...
July 31, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809905/endoscopic-forward-viewing-optical-coherence-tomography-and-angiography-with-mhz-swept-source
#18
Kaicheng Liang, Osman O Ahsen, Zhao Wang, Hsiang-Chieh Lee, Wenxuan Liang, Benjamin M Potsaid, Tsung-Han Tsai, Michael G Giacomelli, Vijaysekhar Jayaraman, Hiroshi Mashimo, Xingde Li, James G Fujimoto
Endoscopic optical coherence tomography (OCT) instruments are mostly side viewing and rely on at least one proximal scan, thus limiting accuracy of volumetric imaging and en face visualization. Previous forward-viewing OCT devices had limited axial scan speeds. We report a forward-viewing fiber scanning 3D-OCT probe with 900 μm field of view and 5 μm transverse resolution, imaging at 1 MHz axial scan rate in the human gastrointestinal tract. The probe is 3.3 mm diameter and 20 mm rigid length, thus enabling passage through the endoscopic channel...
August 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808056/the-crystal-structure-of-full-length-sizzled-from-xenopus-laevis-yields-insights-into-wnt-antagonistic-function-of-secreted-frizzled-related-proteins
#19
Qixin Bu, Zhiqiang Li, Junying Zhang, Fei Xu, Jianmei Liu, Heli Liu
The Wnt signaling pathway is crucial to cell proliferation, differentiation and migration. The secreted frizzled-related proteins (sFRPs) represent the largest family of secreted Wnt inhibitors. However, their function in antagonizing Wnt signaling has remained somewhat controversial. Here we report the crystal structure of Sizzled from Xenopus laevis, the first full-length structure of an sFRP. Tethered by an inter-domain disulfide bond and a linker, the N-terminal CRD domain and the C-terminal NTR domain of Sizzled are arranged in a tandem fashion, with the NTR domain occluding the groove of CRD for Wnt accessibility...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807872/cortical-representation-of-persistent-visual-stimuli
#20
Edden M Gerber, Tal Golan, Robert T Knight, Leon Y Deouell
Research into visual neural activity has focused almost exclusively on onset- or change-driven responses and little is known about how information is encoded in the brain during sustained periods of visual perception. We used intracranial recordings in humans to determine the degree to which the presence of a visual stimulus is persistently encoded by neural activity. The correspondence between stimulus duration and neural response duration was strongest in early visual cortex and gradually diminished along the visual hierarchy, such that is was weakest in inferior-temporal category-selective regions...
August 12, 2017: NeuroImage
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