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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053740/gene-flow-of-common-ash-fraxinus-excelsior-l-in-a-fragmented-landscape
#1
Devrim Semizer-Cuming, Erik Dahl Kjær, Reiner Finkeldey
Gene flow dynamics of common ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) is affected by several human activities in Central Europe, including habitat fragmentation, agroforestry expansion, controlled and uncontrolled transfer of reproductive material, and a recently introduced emerging infectious disease, ash dieback, caused by Hymenoscyphus fraxineus. Habitat fragmentation may alter genetic connectivity and effective population size, leading to loss of genetic diversity and increased inbreeding in ash populations. Gene flow from cultivated trees in landscapes close to their native counterparts may also influence the adaptability of future generations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051838/lessons-learnt-from-a-three-year-pilot-field-epidemiology-training-programme
#2
Damian Hoy, A Mark Durand, Thane Hancock, Haley L Cash, Kate Hardie, Beverley Paterson, Yvette Paulino, Paul White, Tony Merritt, Dawn Fitzgibbons, Sameer Vali Gopalani, James Flint, Onofre Edwin A Merilles, Mina Kashiwabara, Viema Biaukula, Christelle Lepers, Yvan Souares, Eric Nilles, Anaseini Batikawai, Sevil Huseynova, Mahomed Patel, Salanieta T Saketa, David Durrheim, Alden Henderson, Adam Roth
PROBLEM: The Pacific region has widely dispersed populations, limited financial and human resources and a high burden of disease. There is an urgent need to improve the availability, reliability and timeliness of useable health data. CONTEXT: The purpose of this paper is to share lessons learnt from a three-year pilot field epidemiology training programme that was designed to respond to these Pacific health challenges. The pilot programme built on and further developed an existing field epidemiology training programme for Pacific health staff...
July 2017: Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal: WPSAR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051705/open-defaecation-and-its-effects-on-the-bacteriological-quality-of-drinking-water-sources-in-isiolo-county-kenya
#3
Joab Odhiambo Okullo, Wilkister Nyaora Moturi, George Morara Ogendi
BACKGROUND INFORMATION: The post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals for sanitation call for universal access to adequate and equitable sanitation and an end to open defaecation by 2030. In Isiolo County, a semi-arid region lying in the northern part of Kenya, poor sanitation and water shortage remain a major problem facing the rural communities. OBJECTIVE: The overall aim of the study was to assess the relationship between sanitation practices and the bacteriological quality of drinking water sources...
2017: Environmental Health Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051586/phosphatidylserine-induced-conformational-modulation-of-immune-cell-exhaustion-associated-receptor-tim3
#4
Jeffrey K Weber, Ruhong Zhou
In the face of chronic cancers and protracted viral infections, human immune cells are known to adopt an exhausted state in which their effector functions are lost. In recent years, a number of inhibitory receptors have been connected to the immune cell exhaustion phenotype; furthermore, ligands capable of activating these receptors have been discovered. The molecular mechanisms by which these ligands affect the exhausted states of immune cells, however, are largely unknown. Here, we present the results of molecular dynamics simulations of one potential exhaustion-associated system: the complex of human inhibitory receptor TIM3 (hTIM3) and its ligand phosphatidylserine (PSF)...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051396/facial-transplantation-an-update-of-results-and-perspectives-from-tissue-engineering
#5
Francesco Simonacci, Roberto Toni, Edoardo Raposio
BACKGROUND/AIM: Facial transplantation is a revolutionary procedure developed recently, which is indicated if autologous transfers fail to restore human appearance. More than 30 patients have undergone facial transplantation in different centers worldwide. Here, we provide an update on its main anatomical, surgical, immunological, ethical, and follow- up aspects. We also provide innovative perspectives of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering that could hold promise for this emerging surgical field...
2017: Annali Italiani di Chirurgia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050529/e-learning-in-medical-education-the-potential-environmental-impact
#6
Kieran Walsh
Introduction There is a growing interest in the use of e-learning in medical education. However until recently there has been little interest in the potential environmental benefits of e-learning. This paper models various environmental outcomes that might emerge from the use of an e-learning resource (BMJ Learning) in CPD. Methods We modeled the use of e-learning as a component of CPD and evaluated the potential impact of this use on the learner's carbon footprint. We looked at a number of models - all from the perspective of a General Practitioner (GP)...
October 19, 2017: Education for Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048214/validation-of-a-full-immersion-simulation-platform-for-percutaneous-nephrolithotomy-using-3d-printing-technology
#7
Ahmed Ghazi, Timothy Campbell, Rachel Melnyk, Changyong Feng, Alex Andrusco, Jonathan Stone, Erdal Erturk
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: The restriction of resident hours with an increasing focus on patient safety and a reduced caseload has impacted surgical training. A complex and complication prone procedure such as percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) with a steep learning curve may create an unsafe environment for hands-on resident training. In this study, we validate a high fidelity, inanimate PCNL model within a full immersion simulation environment. METHODS: Anatomically correct models of the human pelvicalyceal system (PCS), kidney, and relevant adjacent structures were created using poly-vinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogels and 3D-printed injection molds...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Endourology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047393/the-human-behaviour-change-project-harnessing-the-power-of-artificial-intelligence-and-machine-learning-for-evidence-synthesis-and-interpretation
#8
Susan Michie, James Thomas, Marie Johnston, Pol Mac Aonghusa, John Shawe-Taylor, Michael P Kelly, Léa A Deleris, Ailbhe N Finnerty, Marta M Marques, Emma Norris, Alison O'Mara-Eves, Robert West
BACKGROUND: Behaviour change is key to addressing both the challenges facing human health and wellbeing and to promoting the uptake of research findings in health policy and practice. We need to make better use of the vast amount of accumulating evidence from behaviour change intervention (BCI) evaluations and promote the uptake of that evidence into a wide range of contexts. The scale and complexity of the task of synthesising and interpreting this evidence, and increasing evidence timeliness and accessibility, will require increased computer support...
October 18, 2017: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046483/deficiency-of-shank2-causes-mania-like-behavior-that-responds-to-mood-stabilizers
#9
Andrea L Pappas, Alexandra L Bey, Xiaoming Wang, Mark Rossi, Yong Ho Kim, Haidun Yan, Fiona Porkka, Lara J Duffney, Samantha M Phillips, Xinyu Cao, Jin-Dong Ding, Ramona M Rodriguiz, Henry H Yin, Richard J Weinberg, Ru-Rong Ji, William C Wetsel, Yong-Hui Jiang
Genetic defects in the synaptic scaffolding protein gene, SHANK2, are linked to a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorders, schizophrenia, intellectual disability, and bipolar disorder, but the molecular mechanisms underlying the pleotropic effects of SHANK2 mutations are poorly understood. We generated and characterized a line of Shank2 mutant mice by deleting exon 24 (Δe24). Shank2Δe24-/- mice engage in significantly increased locomotor activity, display abnormal reward-seeking behavior, are anhedonic, have perturbations in circadian rhythms, and show deficits in social and cognitive behaviors...
October 19, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046308/progress-toward-development-of-a-vaccine-against-congenital-cytomegalovirus-infection
#10
Mark R Schleiss, Sallie R Permar, Stanley A Plotkin
A vaccine against congenital human cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a major public health priority. Congenital CMV causes substantial long-term morbidity in newborns, particularly sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL), and the public health impact of this infection on maternal and child health is under-recognized. Although progress toward development of a vaccine has been limited by an incomplete understanding of the correlates of protective immunity for the fetus, knowledge about some of the key components of the maternal immune response necessary for preventing trans-placental transmission is accumulating...
October 18, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045452/prospective-multicenter-french-study-evaluating-the-clinical-impact-of-the-breast-cancer-intrinsic-subtype-prosigna%C3%A2-test-in-the-management-of-early-stage-breast-cancers
#11
Delphine Hequet, Céline Callens, David Gentien, Benoit Albaud, Marie-Ange Mouret-Reynier, Coraline Dubot, Paul Cottu, Cyrille Huchon, Sonia Zilberman, Helene Berseneff, Cyril Foa, Rémy Salmon, Aurélie Roulot, Florence Lerebours, Anne Salomon, Nadeem Ghali, Pascale Morel, Qianyi Li, Anne Cayre, Jean-Marc Guinebretière, John Hornberger, Frédérique Penault-Llorca, Roman Rouzier
PURPOSE: The Prosigna® breast cancer prognostic gene signature assay identifies a gene-expression profile that permits the classification of tumors into subtypes and gives a score for the risk of recurrence (ROR) at 10 years. The primary objective of this multicenter study was to evaluate the impact of Prosigna's assay information on physicians' adjuvant treatment decisions in patients with early-stage breast cancer. Secondary objectives were to assess confidence of practitioners in their therapeutic recommendations before and after the added information provided by the Prosigna assay; and to evaluate the emotional state of patients before and after the Prosigna test results...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044526/an-investigation-into-the-relationship-between-human-cranial-and-pelvic-sexual-dimorphism
#12
Kaleigh C Best, Heather M Garvin, Luis L Cabo
When faced with commingled remains, it might be assumed that a more "masculine" pelvis is associated with a more "masculine" cranium, but this relationship has not been specifically tested. This study uses geometric morphometric analyses of pelvic and cranial landmarks to assess whether there is an intra-individual relationship between the degrees of sexual expression in these two skeletal regions. Principal component and discriminant function scores were used to assess sexual dimorphism in 113 U.S. Black individuals...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044374/human-and-livestock-trematode-infections-in-a-mobile-pastoralist-setting-at-lake-chad-added-value-of-a-one-health-approach-beyond-zoonotic-diseases-research
#13
Helena Greter, Annour A Batil, Bongo N Ngandolo, Idriss O Alfaroukh, Doumagoum D Moto, Jan Hattendorf, Jürg Utzinger, Jakob Zinsstag
Background: At Lake Chad in Central Africa, mobile pastoralists face economic losses due to livestock trematodiases. Fasciola gigantica and Schistosoma bovis-trematodes that affect livestock-share transmission ecology traits with Schistosoma haematobium and S. mansoni that cause human schistosomiasis. This project aimed at assessing treatment strategies and elucidating the predictive potential of human and livestock trematode infections. Methods: Schistosomiasis and fascioliasis were investigated concurrently in humans and cattle by repeated cross-sectional surveys...
June 1, 2017: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043974/-what-are-the-cephalometric-features-of-good-and-bad-guys-in-cartoons
#14
Alexandre Weiss, Cyril Villat, Alban Poitel, Sarah Gebeile-Chauty
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to search for links between specific facial features and the psychology of the "good" and "bad" guys in cartoons. MATERIAL AND METHOD: We made 60 cephalometric tracings and compared the characters' profiles using statistical tests. RESULTS: The "bad guy" profile is closer to the normal profile of real humans than that of the "good guys". Profiles perceived as "good" in cartoons appear to be stereotyped...
September 2017: L' Orthodontie Française
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043113/simultaneous-tracking-of-cardiorespiratory-signals-for-multiple-persons-using-a-machine-vision-system-with-noise-artifact-removal
#15
Ali Al-Naji, Javaan Chahl
Most existing non-contact monitoring systems are limited to detecting physiological signs from a single subject at a time. Still, another challenge facing these systems is that they are prone to noise artifacts resulting from motion of subjects, facial expressions, talking, skin tone, and illumination variations. This paper proposes an efficient non-contact system based on a digital camera to track the cardiorespiratory signal from a number of subjects (up to six persons) at the same time with a new method for noise artifact removal...
2017: IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040922/plasticity-induced-by-non-invasive-transcranial-brain-stimulation-a-position-paper
#16
REVIEW
Ying-Zu Huang, Ming-Kue Lu, Andrea Antal, Joseph Classen, Michael Nitsche, Ulf Ziemann, Michael Ridding, Masashi Hamada, Yoshikazu Ugawa, Shapour Jaberzadeh, Antonio Suppa, Walter Paulus, John Rothwell
Several techniques and protocols of non-invasive transcranial brain stimulation (NIBS), including transcranial magnetic and electrical stimuli, have been developed in the past decades. Non-invasive transcranial brain stimulation may modulate cortical excitability outlasting the period of non-invasive transcranial brain stimulation itself from several minutes to more than one hour. Quite a few lines of evidence, including pharmacological, physiological and behavioral studies in humans and animals, suggest that the effects of non-invasive transcranial brain stimulation are produced through effects on synaptic plasticity...
September 28, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040588/glyphosate-resistance-and-epsps-gene-duplication-convergent-evolution-in-multiple-plant-species
#17
Eric L Patterson, Dean J Pettinga, Karl Ravet, Paul Neve, Todd A Gaines
One of the increasingly widespread mechanisms of resistance to the herbicide glyphosate is copy number variation (CNV) of the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene. EPSPS gene duplication has been reported in eight weed species, ranging from 3-5 extra copies to more than 150 extra copies. In the case of Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri), a section of >300 kb containing EPSPS and many other genes has been replicated and inserted at new loci throughout the genome, resulting in significant increase in total genome size...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038595/covariate-selection-for-association-screening-in-multiphenotype-genetic-studies
#18
Hugues Aschard, Vincent Guillemot, Bjarni Vilhjalmsson, Chirag J Patel, David Skurnik, Chun J Ye, Brian Wolpin, Peter Kraft, Noah Zaitlen
Testing for associations in big data faces the problem of multiple comparisons, wherein true signals are difficult to detect on the background of all associations queried. This difficulty is particularly salient in human genetic association studies, in which phenotypic variation is often driven by numerous variants of small effect. The current strategy to improve power to identify these weak associations consists of applying standard marginal statistical approaches and increasing study sample sizes. Although successful, this approach does not leverage the environmental and genetic factors shared among the multiple phenotypes collected in contemporary cohorts...
October 16, 2017: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038295/characterization-of-aromatic-residue-controlled-protein-retention-in-the-endoplasmic-reticulum-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#19
Meng Mei, Chao Zhai, Xinzhi Li, Yu Zhou, Wenfang Peng, Lixin Ma, Qinhong Wang, Brent L Iverson, Guimin Zhang, Li Yi
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention sequence (ERS) is a characteristic short sequence that mediates protein retention in the ER of eukaryotic cells. However, little is known about the detailed molecular mechanism involved in ERS-mediated protein ER retention. Using a new surface display-based fluorescence technique that effectively quantifies ERS-promoted protein ER retention within Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells, we performed comprehensive ERS analyses. It was found that the length, type of amino acid residue, and additional residues at position -5 and -6 of C-terminal HDEL motif all determined the retention of ERS in the yeast ER...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037507/gamma-oscillations-in-the-superior-colliculus-and-pulvinar-in-response-to-faces-support-discrimination-performance-in-monkeys
#20
Quan Van Le, Hiroshi Nishimaru, Jumpei Matsumoto, Yusaku Takamura, Nguyen Minh Nui, Can Van Mao, Etsuro Hori, Rafael S Maior, Carlos Tomaz, Taketoshi Ono, Hisao Nishijo
The subcortical visual pathway including the superior colliculus (SC), pulvinar, and amygdala has been implicated in unconscious visual processing of faces, eyes, and gaze direction in blindsight. Our previous studies reported that monkey SC and pulvinar neurons responded preferentially to images of faces while performing a delayed non-matching to sample (DNMS) task to discriminate different visual stimuli (Nguyen et al., 2013, 2014). However, the contribution of SC and pulvinar neurons to the discrimination of the facial images and subsequent behavioral performance remains unknown...
October 13, 2017: Neuropsychologia
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