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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235259/what-if-there-were-no-universities
#1
Jan W Vasbinder
To a large extent, the pursuit of science takes place in universities. In this essay, I ask the following questions. Supposing there were no universities, and that all the knowledge mankind has ever collected and generated is somehow accessible, would we invent universities to make this knowledge available to address the problems humanity faces? What should those universities perform, and what role would science play in such universities? To look for answers to those questions, I consider the nature of the problems dealt with by science, the knowledge needed to address those problems, the gap between the two, the need for interdisciplinarity and the need to educate the leaders of the future, and finally, the boundaries of scientific knowledge...
December 12, 2017: PsyCh Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235208/optical-coherence-tomography-for-assessment-of-epithelialization-in-a-human-ex-vivo-wound-model
#2
George D Glinos, Sebastian H Verne, Adam S Aldahan, Liang Liang, Keyvan Nouri, Sharon Elliot, Marilyn Glassberg, Delia Cabrera DeBuc, Tulay Koru-Sengul, Marjana Tomic-Canic, Irena Pastar
The ex vivo human skin wound model is a widely accepted model to study wound epithelialization. Due to a lack of animal models that fully replicate human conditions, the ex vivo model is a valuable tool to study mechanisms of wound re-epithelialization, as well as for pre-clinical testing of novel therapeutics. The current standard for assessment of wound healing in this model is histomorphometric analysis, which is labor intensive, time consuming, and requires multiple biological and technical replicates in addition to assessment of different time points...
December 13, 2017: Wound Repair and Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233179/immature-morphological-properties-in-subcellular-scale-structures-in-the-dentate-gyrus-of-schnurri-2-knockout-mice-a-model-for-schizophrenia-and-intellectual-disability
#3
Akito Nakao, Naoyuki Miyazaki, Koji Ohira, Hideo Hagihara, Tsuyoshi Takagi, Nobuteru Usuda, Shunsuke Ishii, Kazuyoshi Murata, Tsuyoshi Miyakawa
Accumulating evidence suggests that subcellular-scale structures such as dendritic spine and mitochondria may be involved in the pathogenesis/pathophysiology of schizophrenia and intellectual disability. Previously, we proposed mice lacking Schnurri-2 (Shn2; also called major histocompatibility complex [MHC]-binding protein 2 [MBP-2], or human immunodeficiency virus type I enhancer binding protein 2 [HIVEP2]) as a schizophrenia and intellectual disability model with mild chronic inflammation. In the mutants' brains, there are increases in C4b and C1q genes, which are considered to mediate synapse elimination during postnatal development...
December 12, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233063/can-neoliberal-capitalism-affect-human-evolution
#4
Robert Chernomas, Ian Hudson, Gregory Chernomas
The connection between genes and health outcomes is significantly moderated by social factors. Health inequalities result from the differential accumulation of exposures and resource access rooted in class-based circumstances. In the neoliberal era in the United States, changed physical and socioeconomic conditions facing the poorer members of society have been characterized as traumatogenic (capable of producing a wound or injury). This paper will argue that research that points to the transgenerational influence of environmental impacts on health suggests 2 important reconsiderations of the link between the economy and health...
January 2018: International Journal of Health Services: Planning, Administration, Evaluation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232709/local-setting-influences-the-quantity-of-household-food-waste-in-mid-sized-south-african-towns
#5
Gamuchirai Chakona, Charlie M Shackleton
The world faces a food security challenge with approximately 868 million people undernourished and about two billion people suffering from the negative health consequences of micronutrient deficiencies. Yet, it is believed that at least 33% of food produced for human consumption is lost or wasted along the food chain. As food waste has a negative effect on food security, the present study sought to quantify household food waste along the rural-urban continuum in three South African mid-sized towns situated along an agro-ecological gradient...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232695/integrative-assessment-of-climate-change-for-fast-growing-urban-areas-measurement-and-recommendations-for-future-research
#6
Sebastian Scheuer, Dagmar Haase, Martin Volk
Over the 20th century, urbanization has substantially shaped the surface of Earth. With population rapidly shifting from rural locations towards the cities, urban areas have dramatically expanded on a global scale and represent crystallization points of social, cultural and economic assets and activities. This trend is estimated to persist for the next decades, and particularly the developing countries are expected to face rapid urban growth. The management of this growth will require good governance strategies and planning...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232594/understanding-face-familiarity
#7
Robin S S Kramer, Andrew W Young, A Mike Burton
It has been known for many years that identifying familiar faces is much easier than identifying unfamiliar faces, and that this familiar face advantage persists across a range of tasks. However, attempts to understand face familiarity have mostly used a binary contrast between 'familiar' and 'unfamiliar' faces, with no attempt to incorporate the vast range of familiarity we all experience. From family members to casual acquaintances and from personal to media exposure, familiarity is a more complex categorisation than is usually acknowledged...
December 9, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232131/a-quantitative-assessment-of-the-energetics-of-dopamine-translocation-by-human-dopamine-transporter
#8
Mary Hongying Cheng, Cihan Kaya, Ivet Bahar
Computational evaluation of the energetics of substrate binding, transport and release events of neurotransmitter transporters at the molecular level is a challenge, as the structural transitions of these membrane proteins involve coupled global and local changes that span time scales of several orders of magnitude, from nanoseconds to seconds. Here, we provide a quantitative assessment of the energetics of dopamine (DA) translocation through the human DA transporter (hDAT), using a combination of molecular modeling, simulations and analysis tools...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230171/spatial-temporal-feature-analysis-on-single-trial-event-related-potential-for-rapid-face-identification
#9
Lei Jiang, Yun Wang, Bangyu Cai, Yueming Wang, Yiwen Wang
The event-related potential (ERP) is the brain response measured in electroencephalography (EEG), which reflects the process of human cognitive activity. ERP has been introduced into brain computer interfaces (BCIs) to communicate the computer with the subject's intention. Due to the low signal-to-noise ratio of EEG, most ERP studies are based on grand-averaging over many trials. Recently single-trial ERP detection attracts more attention, which enables real time processing tasks as rapid face identification...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229553/human-vs-mouse-nociceptors-similarities-and-differences
#10
Charlotte Rostock, Katrin Schrenk-Siemens, Jörg Pohle, Jan Siemens
The somatosensory system allows us to detect a diverse range of physical and chemical stimuli including noxious ones, which can initiate protective reflexes to prevent tissue damage. However, the sensation of pain can -under pathological circumstances- outlive its usefulness and perpetrate ongoing suffering. Rodent model systems have been tremendously useful to help understand basic mechanisms of pain perception. Unfortunately, the translation of this knowledge into novel therapies has been challenging. We have investigated similarities and differences of human and mouse peptidergic (TRKA expressing) nociceptors using dual-color fluorescence in situ hybridization of dorsal root ganglia...
December 8, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229435/developmental-and-cytogenetic-assessments-of-preimplantation-embryos-derived-from-in-vivo-or-in-vitro-matured-human-oocytes
#11
Farzaneh Fesahat, Seyed Mehdi Kalantar, Mohammad Hasan Sheikhha, Hojjatollah Saeedi, Fatemeh Montazeri, Razieh Dehghani Firouzabadi, Mohammad Ali Khalili
Aneuploidy is of great relevance to embryo selection, as it represents one of the important causes of implantation failure. Furthermore, immature oocytes, retrieved during gonadotrophin-stimulated IVF cycles, are generally discarded in clinics; whereas, there was no detectable comprehensive evidence on higher rates of aneuploidy based on maturity status on the day of oocyte retrieval. As well, the correlation between embryo morphology on aneuploidy remains unclear. The aim was to evaluate the developmental and genetic integrity of human preimplantation embryos from rescue in-vitro matured MII stage oocytes as well as in vivo matured oocytes...
December 8, 2017: European Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228849/using-prosopagnosia-to-test-and-modify-visual-recognition-theory
#12
Alexander M O'Brien
Biederman's contemporary theory of basic visual object recognition (Recognition-by-Components) is based on structural descriptions of objects and presumes 36 visual primitives (geons) people can discriminate, but there has been no empirical test of the actual use of these 36 geons to visually distinguish objects. In this study, we tested for the actual use of these geons in basic visual discrimination by comparing object discrimination performance patterns (when distinguishing varied stimuli) of an acquired prosopagnosia patient (LB) and healthy control participants...
January 1, 2017: Perceptual and Motor Skills
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228111/obligatory-and-facultative-brain-regions-for-voice-identity-recognition
#13
Claudia Roswandowitz, Claudia Kappes, Hellmuth Obrig, Katharina von Kriegstein
Recognizing the identity of others by their voice is an important skill for social interactions. To date, it remains controversial which parts of the brain are critical structures for this skill. Based on neuroimaging findings, standard models of person-identity recognition suggest that the right temporal lobe is the hub for voice-identity recognition. Neuropsychological case studies, however, reported selective deficits of voice-identity recognition in patients predominantly with right inferior parietal lobe lesions...
December 8, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228023/task-demands-affect-spatial-reference-frame-weighting-during-tactile-localization-in-sighted-and-congenitally-blind-adults
#14
Jonathan T W Schubert, Stephanie Badde, Brigitte Röder, Tobias Heed
Task demands modulate tactile localization in sighted humans, presumably through weight adjustments in the spatial integration of anatomical, skin-based, and external, posture-based information. In contrast, previous studies have suggested that congenitally blind humans, by default, refrain from automatic spatial integration and localize touch using only skin-based information. Here, sighted and congenitally blind participants localized tactile targets on the palm or back of one hand, while ignoring simultaneous tactile distractors at congruent or incongruent locations on the other hand...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226550/alpha-klotho-enrichment-in-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-secretome-contributes-to-antioxidative-protection-in-acute-lung-injury
#15
Amiq Gazdhar, Priya Ravikumar, Johanne Pastor, Manfred Heller, Jianfeng Ye, Jianning Zhang, Orson W Moe, Thomas Geiser, Connie C W Hsia
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has been reported to alleviate organ injury, although the mechanisms of action remain unclear and administration of intact cells faces many limitations. We hypothesized that cell-free conditioned media (CM) containing the secretome of iPSCs possess antioxidative constituents that can alleviate pulmonary oxidant stress damage. We derived iPSCs from human dermal fibroblasts and harvested the CM. Addition of iPSC CM to cultured human alveolar type-1 epithelial cells mitigated hyperoxia-induced depletion of endogenous total antioxidant capacity (TAC) while tracheal instillation of iPSC CM into adult rat lungs enhanced hyperoxia-induced increase in TAC...
December 11, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226255/differential-hemispheric-and-visual-stream-contributions-to-ensemble-coding-of-crowd-emotion
#16
Hee Yeon Im, Daniel N Albohn, Troy G Steiner, Cody A Cushing, Reginald B Adams, Kestutis Kveraga
In crowds, where scrutinizing individual facial expressions is inefficient, humans can make snap judgments about the prevailing mood by reading "crowd emotion". We investigated how the brain accomplishes this feat in a set of behavioral and fMRI studies. Participants were asked to either avoid or approach one of two crowds of faces presented in the left and right visual hemifields. Perception of crowd emotion was improved when crowd stimuli contained goal-congruent cues and was highly lateralized to the right hemisphere...
2017: Nature Human Behaviour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226072/a-thermal-gradient-modulates-the-oxidative-metabolism-and-growth-of-human-keratinocytes
#17
Marta Viano, Daniela Alotto, Alessia Aillon, Carlotta Castagnoli, Francesca Silvagno
During their spatial and differentiative progression, keratinocytes face a thermal gradient, from 37 °C in the proliferating basal layer to 32 °C found in skin surface. In our study, we hypothesized that this difference in temperature must be balanced by increasing the heat produced during respiratory activity. We demonstrated that at 33 °C human primary keratinocytes and HaCaT cells raised mitochondrial energy metabolism, but not glycolytic activity. At 33 °C, the increased mitochondrial ATP synthesis was associated with a strong induction of the modulator of the respiratory chain estrogen receptor β, whereas uncoupling protein 1 expression was not changed...
December 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225977/double-morphology-tertiary-syphilis-and-acquired-immunodeficiency-syndrome-a-rare-association
#18
R M Ngwanya, B Kakande, N P Khumalo
Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Treponema pallidum coinfection is relatively common and accounts for about 25% of primary and secondary syphilis. Tertiary syphilis in HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected patients is vanishingly rare. This is most likely due to early treatment of cases of primary and secondary syphilis. There is rapid progression to tertiary syphilis in HIV-infected patients. Case Presentation: A 49-year-old woman diagnosed with HIV Type 1 infection and cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) count of 482 presented with a four-week history of multiple crusted plaques, nodules, and ulcers on her face, arms, and abdomen...
2017: Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224272/-the-development-and-status-of-bioartificial-liver
#19
G L Li, S M Wang
Liver failure is a serious stage during liver disease development of which mobidity is high. There is no effective treatment at present.Artificial liver support system is one of the important methods to treat liver failure which includes non-biological artificial liver, biological artificial liver and hybrid artificial liver. Among the artificial liver devices. The bioartificial liver is the most similar artifical liver device to human liver in terms of detoxification, synthesis and metabolism currently.The complexity of human liver function makes the biological artificial liver facing great challenges in selection of liver seed cells, construction of bioreactor and the best combination with auxiliary device, which leads to the slow development of bioartificial liver...
December 1, 2017: Zhonghua Wai Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Surgery]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222179/hpv-vaccination-rate-in-french-adolescent-girls-an-example-of-vaccine-distrust
#20
Hervé Lefèvre, Cécile Schrimpf, Marie Rose Moro, Jonathan Lachal
OBJECTIVES: To explore the clinical issues of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination to develop explanatory hypotheses for the low level of vaccination among adolescent girls in France where the full course coverage is low (<15%). DESIGN: We used semistructured interviews. Our qualitative and phenomenological procedure applied interpretative phenomenological analysis. PARTICIPANTS: 16 physicians regularly faced with the prescription of HPV vaccine, represented several medical specialties (paediatrics, general practice, internal medicine, gynaecology), with hospitalist or private practices...
December 8, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
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