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Facial Action Coding System

Valerie Bennett, Nadine Gourkow, Daniel S Mills
Leyhausen's (1979) work on cat behaviour and facial expressions associated with offensive and defensive behaviour is widely embraced as the standard for interpretation of agonistic behaviour in this species. However, it is a largely anecdotal description that can be easily misunderstood. Recently a facial action coding system has been developed for cats (CatFACS), similar to that used for objectively coding human facial expressions. This study reports on the use of this system to describe the relationship between behaviour and facial expressions of cats in confinement contexts without and with human interaction, in order to generate hypotheses about the relationship between these expressions and underlying emotional state...
March 21, 2017: Behavioural Processes
Phoebe H C Mui, Martijn B Goudbeek, Marc G J Swerts, Arpine Hovasapian
We examined the effects of social and cultural contexts on smiles displayed by children during gameplay. Eight-year-old Dutch and Chinese children either played a game alone or teamed up to play in pairs. Activation and intensity of facial muscles corresponding to Action Unit (AU) 6 and AU 12 were coded according to Facial Action Coding System. Co-occurrence of activation of AU 6 and AU 12, suggesting the presence of a Duchenne smile, was more frequent among children who teamed up than among children who played alone...
2017: Journal of Nonverbal Behavior
Matteo Bologna, Isabella Berardelli, Giulia Paparella, Luca Marsili, Lucia Ricciardi, Giovanni Fabbrini, Alfredo Berardelli
BACKGROUND: Altered emotional processing, including reduced emotion facial expression and defective emotion recognition, has been reported in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, few studies have objectively investigated facial expression abnormalities in PD using neurophysiological techniques. It is not known whether altered facial expression and recognition in PD are related. OBJECTIVE: To investigate possible deficits in facial emotion expression and emotion recognition and their relationship, if any, in patients with PD...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
Stefan Lautenbacher, Karl-Juergen Bär, Patricia Eisold, Miriam Kunz
Although depression is associated with more clinical pain complaints, psychophysical data sometimes point to hypoalgesic alterations. Studying the more reflex-like facial expression of pain in patients with depression may offer a new perspective. Facial and psychophysical responses to nonpainful and painful heat stimuli were studied in 23 patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and 23 matched control participants. As psychophysical data, pain thresholds, tolerance thresholds, and self-report were assessed...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
Sheri L Johnson, Claudia M Haase, Ursula Beermann, Amy H Sanchez, Jordan A Tharp, Sandy J Lwi, James J Casey, Nguyen Khoi Nguyen
Positive urgency, defined as a tendency to become impulsive during positive affective states, has gained support as a form of impulsivity that is particularly important for understanding psychopathology. Despite this, little is known about the emotional mechanisms and correlates of this form of impulsivity. We hypothesized that positive urgency would be related to greater emotional reactivity in response to a positive film clip. Seventy-five undergraduates watched a positive film clip, and a multimodal assessment of emotion was conducted, including subjective emotional experience, physiological activation (i...
April 2017: Emotion
M J Guesgen, N J Beausoleil, M Leach, E O Minot, M Stewart, K J Stafford
Facial expressions are routinely used to assess pain in humans, particularly those who are non-verbal. Recently, there has been an interest in developing coding systems for facial grimacing in non-human animals, such as rodents, rabbits, horses and sheep. The aims of this preliminary study were to: 1. Qualitatively identify facial feature changes in lambs experiencing pain as a result of tail-docking and compile these changes to create a Lamb Grimace Scale (LGS); 2. Determine whether human observers can use the LGS to differentiate tail-docked lambs from control lambs and differentiate lambs before and after docking; 3...
November 2016: Behavioural Processes
Sélim Yahia Coll, Didier Grandjean
Our brain codes the features of perceptual events in a distributed fashion, raising the question of how information belonging to one event is processed without any interference of features from other events. Hommel (1998) suggested the "event file" concept to elucidate these mechanisms: an episodic memory trace "binding" together perceptual features and actions related to an object. Using a similar paradigm, we designed a pilot experiment and four additional experiments to investigate whether emotion, similarly than perceptual features, could bind with a motor response when the emotion was relevant and irrelevant for the task...
October 2016: Acta Psychologica
Astrid Bock, Eva Huber, Cord Benecke
OBJECTIVES: For a clinically relevant understanding of facial displays of patients with mental disorders it is crucial to go beyond merely counting frequencies of facial expressions, but include the contextual information of the expression. We assume that patients with different levels of structural integration differ in the contextual embedding of their negative facial expressions of emotions. METHODS: Facial affective behaviour of 80 female participants during an OPD interview was analysed using FACS (Facial Action Coding System) and the RFE coding system (Referencesof- Facial-Expression coding system; Bock et al...
September 2016: Zeitschrift Für Psychosomatische Medizin und Psychotherapie
Tali Benromano, Chaim G Pick, Joav Merick, Ruth Defrin
Objective.: As individuals with intellectual disability (ID) due to cerebral palsy (CP) are at high risk of experiencing pain, measuring their pain is crucial for adequate treatment. While verbal reports are the gold standard in pain measurements, they may not be sufficient in ID. The aim was to detect behavioral/autonomic responses that may indicate the presence and intensity of pain in individuals with CP and ID, using calibrated stimuli, here for the first time. Subjects...
March 1, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
Martin Schulte-Rüther, Ellen Otte, Kübra Adigüzel, Christine Firk, Beate Herpertz-Dahlmann, Iring Koch, Kerstin Konrad
It has been suggested that an early deficit in the human mirror neuron system (MNS) is an important feature of autism. Recent findings related to simple hand and finger movements do not support a general dysfunction of the MNS in autism. Studies investigating facial actions (e.g., emotional expressions) have been more consistent, however, mostly relied on passive observation tasks. We used a new variant of a compatibility task for the assessment of automatic facial mimicry responses that allowed for simultaneous control of attention to facial stimuli...
June 28, 2016: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
Stefan Lautenbacher, Miriam Kunz
The analysis of the facial expression of pain promises to be one of the most sensitive tools for the detection of pain in patients with moderate to severe forms of dementia, who can no longer self-report pain. Fine-grain analysis using the Facial Action Coding System (FACS) is possible in research but not feasible for clinical use at the moment because it is too time and effort consuming. Studies using the FACS showed either enhanced facial responses or no alterations of facial activity during pain in patients with cognitive impairment...
June 2, 2016: Current Alzheimer Research
Sarah Zanette, Xiaoqing Gao, Megan Brunet, Marian Stewart Bartlett, Kang Lee
The current study used computer vision technology to examine the nonverbal facial expressions of children (6-11years old) telling antisocial and prosocial lies. Children in the antisocial lying group completed a temptation resistance paradigm where they were asked not to peek at a gift being wrapped for them. All children peeked at the gift and subsequently lied about their behavior. Children in the prosocial lying group were given an undesirable gift and asked if they liked it. All children lied about liking the gift...
October 2016: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Brendon Stubbs, Trevor Thompson, Marco Solmi, Davy Vancampfort, Giuseppe Sergi, Claudio Luchini, Nicola Veronese
BACKGROUND: Clinical studies suggest people with Alzheimer's disease (AD) have altered pain sensitivity. Experimental pain research is equivocal. OBJECTIVE: Conduct a meta-analysis to investigate if people with AD have altered pain sensitivity compared to healthy controls (HCs). METHODS: Three authors searched electronic databases from inception till November 2015 for experimental pain studies in AD vs. HCs. Outcome measures were pain threshold, tolerance, pain ratings, heart rate response to noxious stimuli and the Facial Action Coding System (FACS)...
September 2016: Experimental Gerontology
Martina Vicianova
Since time immemorial, lying has been a part of everyday life. For this reason, it has become a subject of interest in several disciplines, including psychology. The purpose of this article is to provide a general overview of the literature and thinking to date about the evolution of lie detection techniques. The first part explores ancient methods recorded circa 1000 B.C. (e.g., God's judgment in Europe). The second part describes technical methods based on sciences such as phrenology, polygraph and graphology...
August 2015: Europe's journal of psychology
K Limbrecht-Ecklundt, P Werner, H C Traue, A Al-Hamadi, S Walter
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2016: Der Schmerz
Pongsatorn Paholpak, Liang Li-Jung, Drew R Carr, Elvira Jimenez, Robin J Barrows, Valeiry Sabodash, Mario F Mendez
BACKGROUND: Gaze and eye contact is a critical aspect of social interaction. Patients with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) may exhibit abnormally prolonged stare toward human faces. OBJECTIVE: To study characteristics of social gaze in patients with bvFTD compared to age and education matched-patients with early-onset Alzheimer's disease (eAD) and healthy controls (HC). METHOD: Fifty picture stimuli were presented to each participant (bvFTD = 12, eAD = 18, HC = 13)...
May 7, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Ramprakash Srinivasan, Julie D Golomb, Aleix M Martinez
UNLABELLED: By combining different facial muscle actions, called action units, humans can produce an extraordinarily large number of facial expressions. Computational models and studies in cognitive science and social psychology have long hypothesized that the brain needs to visually interpret these action units to understand other people's actions and intentions. Surprisingly, no studies have identified the neural basis of the visual recognition of these action units. Here, using functional magnetic resonance imaging and an innovative machine learning analysis approach, we identify a consistent and differential coding of action units in the brain...
April 20, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
K Limbrecht-Ecklundt, P Werner, H C Traue, A Al-Hamadi, S Walter
BACKGROUND: The monitoring of facial expressions to assess pain intensity provides a way to determine the need for pain medication in patients who are not able to do so verbally. OBJECTIVES: In this study two methods for facial expression analysis - Facial Action Coding System (FACS) and electromyography (EMG) of the zygomaticus muscle and corrugator supercilii - were compared to verify the possibility of using EMG for pain monitoring. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighty-seven subjects received painful heat stimuli via a thermode on the right forearm in two identical experimental sequences - with and without EMG recording...
June 2016: Der Schmerz
Aiko Murata, Hisamichi Saito, Joanna Schug, Kenji Ogawa, Tatsuya Kameda
A number of studies have shown that individuals often spontaneously mimic the facial expressions of others, a tendency known as facial mimicry. This tendency has generally been considered a reflex-like "automatic" response, but several recent studies have shown that the degree of mimicry may be moderated by contextual information. However, the cognitive and motivational factors underlying the contextual moderation of facial mimicry require further empirical investigation. In this study, we present evidence that the degree to which participants spontaneously mimic a target's facial expressions depends on whether participants are motivated to infer the target's emotional state...
2016: PloS One
Linda Scheider, Bridget M Waller, Leonardo Oña, Anne M Burrows, Katja Liebal
Non-human primates use various communicative means in interactions with others. While primate gestures are commonly considered to be intentionally and flexibly used signals, facial expressions are often referred to as inflexible, automatic expressions of affective internal states. To explore whether and how non-human primates use facial expressions in specific communicative interactions, we studied five species of small apes (gibbons) by employing a newly established Facial Action Coding System for hylobatid species (GibbonFACS)...
2016: PloS One
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