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Facial Action Coding System

M J Guesgen, N J Beausoleil, M Leach, E O Minot, M Stewart, K J Stafford
Facial expressions are routinely used to assess pain in humans, particularly those who are non-verbal. Recently, there has been an interest in developing coding systems for facial grimacing in non-human animals, such as rodents, rabbits, horses and sheep. The aims of this preliminary study were to: 1. Qualitatively identify facial feature changes in lambs experiencing pain as a result of tail-docking and compile these changes to create a Lamb Grimace Scale (LGS); 2. Determine whether human observers can use the LGS to differentiate tail-docked lambs from control lambs and differentiate lambs before and after docking; 3...
September 28, 2016: Behavioural Processes
Sélim Yahia Coll, Didier Grandjean
Our brain codes the features of perceptual events in a distributed fashion, raising the question of how information belonging to one event is processed without any interference of features from other events. Hommel (1998) suggested the "event file" concept to elucidate these mechanisms: an episodic memory trace "binding" together perceptual features and actions related to an object. Using a similar paradigm, we designed a pilot experiment and four additional experiments to investigate whether emotion, similarly than perceptual features, could bind with a motor response when the emotion was relevant and irrelevant for the task...
October 2016: Acta Psychologica
Astrid Bock, Eva Huber, Cord Benecke
OBJECTIVES: For a clinically relevant understanding of facial displays of patients with mental disorders it is crucial to go beyond merely counting frequencies of facial expressions, but include the contextual information of the expression. We assume that patients with different levels of structural integration differ in the contextual embedding of their negative facial expressions of emotions. METHODS: Facial affective behaviour of 80 female participants during an OPD interview was analysed using FACS (Facial Action Coding System) and the RFE coding system (Referencesof- Facial-Expression coding system; Bock et al...
September 2016: Zeitschrift Für Psychosomatische Medizin und Psychotherapie
Tali Benromano, Chaim G Pick, Joav Merick, Ruth Defrin
OBJECTIVE: As individuals with intellectual disability (ID) due to cerebral palsy (CP) are at high risk of experiencing pain, measuring their pain is crucial for adequate treatment. While verbal reports are the gold standard in pain measurements, they may not be sufficient in ID. The aim was to detect behavioral/autonomic responses that may indicate the presence and intensity of pain in individuals with CP and ID, using calibrated stimuli, here for the first time. SUBJECTS: Thirteen adults with CP and ID (CPID), 15 healthy controls (HC), and 5 adults with CP with no ID (CPNID)...
July 29, 2016: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
Martin Schulte-Rüther, Ellen Otte, Kübra Adigüzel, Christine Firk, Beate Herpertz-Dahlmann, Iring Koch, Kerstin Konrad
It has been suggested that an early deficit in the human mirror neuron system (MNS) is an important feature of autism. Recent findings related to simple hand and finger movements do not support a general dysfunction of the MNS in autism. Studies investigating facial actions (e.g., emotional expressions) have been more consistent, however, mostly relied on passive observation tasks. We used a new variant of a compatibility task for the assessment of automatic facial mimicry responses that allowed for simultaneous control of attention to facial stimuli...
June 28, 2016: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
Stefan Lautenbacher, Miriam Kunz
The analysis of the facial expression of pain promises to be one of the most sensitive tools for the detection of pain in patients with moderate to severe forms of dementia, who can no longer self-report pain. Fine-grain analysis using the Facial Action Coding System (FACS) is possible in research but not feasible for clinical use at the moment because it is too time and effort consuming. Studies using the FACS showed either enhanced facial responses or no alterations of facial activity during pain in patients with cognitive impairment...
June 2, 2016: Current Alzheimer Research
Sarah Zanette, Xiaoqing Gao, Megan Brunet, Marian Stewart Bartlett, Kang Lee
The current study used computer vision technology to examine the nonverbal facial expressions of children (6-11years old) telling antisocial and prosocial lies. Children in the antisocial lying group completed a temptation resistance paradigm where they were asked not to peek at a gift being wrapped for them. All children peeked at the gift and subsequently lied about their behavior. Children in the prosocial lying group were given an undesirable gift and asked if they liked it. All children lied about liking the gift...
October 2016: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Brendon Stubbs, Trevor Thompson, Marco Solmi, Davy Vancampfort, Giuseppe Sergi, Claudio Luchini, Nicola Veronese
BACKGROUND: Clinical studies suggest people with Alzheimer's disease (AD) have altered pain sensitivity. Experimental pain research is equivocal. OBJECTIVE: Conduct a meta-analysis to investigate if people with AD have altered pain sensitivity compared to healthy controls (HCs). METHODS: Three authors searched electronic databases from inception till November 2015 for experimental pain studies in AD vs. HCs. Outcome measures were pain threshold, tolerance, pain ratings, heart rate response to noxious stimuli and the Facial Action Coding System (FACS)...
September 2016: Experimental Gerontology
Martina Vicianova
Since time immemorial, lying has been a part of everyday life. For this reason, it has become a subject of interest in several disciplines, including psychology. The purpose of this article is to provide a general overview of the literature and thinking to date about the evolution of lie detection techniques. The first part explores ancient methods recorded circa 1000 B.C. (e.g., God's judgment in Europe). The second part describes technical methods based on sciences such as phrenology, polygraph and graphology...
August 2015: Europe's journal of psychology
K Limbrecht-Ecklundt, P Werner, H C Traue, A Al-Hamadi, S Walter
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 24, 2016: Der Schmerz
Pongsatorn Paholpak, Liang Li-Jung, Drew R Carr, Elvira Jimenez, Robin J Barrows, Valeiry Sabodash, Mario F Mendez
BACKGROUND: Gaze and eye contact is a critical aspect of social interaction. Patients with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) may exhibit abnormally prolonged stare toward human faces. OBJECTIVE: To study characteristics of social gaze in patients with bvFTD compared to age and education matched-patients with early-onset Alzheimer's disease (eAD) and healthy controls (HC). METHOD: Fifty picture stimuli were presented to each participant (bvFTD = 12, eAD = 18, HC = 13)...
May 7, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Ramprakash Srinivasan, Julie D Golomb, Aleix M Martinez
UNLABELLED: By combining different facial muscle actions, called action units, humans can produce an extraordinarily large number of facial expressions. Computational models and studies in cognitive science and social psychology have long hypothesized that the brain needs to visually interpret these action units to understand other people's actions and intentions. Surprisingly, no studies have identified the neural basis of the visual recognition of these action units. Here, using functional magnetic resonance imaging and an innovative machine learning analysis approach, we identify a consistent and differential coding of action units in the brain...
April 20, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
K Limbrecht-Ecklundt, P Werner, H C Traue, A Al-Hamadi, S Walter
BACKGROUND: The monitoring of facial expressions to assess pain intensity provides a way to determine the need for pain medication in patients who are not able to do so verbally. OBJECTIVES: In this study two methods for facial expression analysis - Facial Action Coding System (FACS) and electromyography (EMG) of the zygomaticus muscle and corrugator supercilii - were compared to verify the possibility of using EMG for pain monitoring. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighty-seven subjects received painful heat stimuli via a thermode on the right forearm in two identical experimental sequences - with and without EMG recording...
June 2016: Der Schmerz
Aiko Murata, Hisamichi Saito, Joanna Schug, Kenji Ogawa, Tatsuya Kameda
A number of studies have shown that individuals often spontaneously mimic the facial expressions of others, a tendency known as facial mimicry. This tendency has generally been considered a reflex-like "automatic" response, but several recent studies have shown that the degree of mimicry may be moderated by contextual information. However, the cognitive and motivational factors underlying the contextual moderation of facial mimicry require further empirical investigation. In this study, we present evidence that the degree to which participants spontaneously mimic a target's facial expressions depends on whether participants are motivated to infer the target's emotional state...
2016: PloS One
Linda Scheider, Bridget M Waller, Leonardo Oña, Anne M Burrows, Katja Liebal
Non-human primates use various communicative means in interactions with others. While primate gestures are commonly considered to be intentionally and flexibly used signals, facial expressions are often referred to as inflexible, automatic expressions of affective internal states. To explore whether and how non-human primates use facial expressions in specific communicative interactions, we studied five species of small apes (gibbons) by employing a newly established Facial Action Coding System for hylobatid species (GibbonFACS)...
2016: PloS One
H Jaffer, E Ichesco, G E Gerstner
OBJECTIVE: Facial expressions are communicative motor outputs, whose kinematics likely are due to musculoskeletal anatomy, neuromotor activity and the well-being and internal states of the individual. However, little has been published on the kinematics of facial expression. This study quantified lip, eye and cheek movements during the production of a Duchenne smile involving movement of lips and tissues surrounding the eyes. DESIGN: The three-dimensional positions of 20 markers placed around the eyes, cheeks, lips and chins of 24 young adult female subjects were digitized while they performed smiles after practicing to feedback from an investigator trained in the facial action coding system (FACS)...
April 2016: Archives of Oral Biology
Martin Krippl, Ahmed A Karim, André Brechmann
Whereas the somatotopy of finger movements has been extensively studied with neuroimaging, the neural foundations of facial movements remain elusive. Therefore, we systematically studied the neuronal correlates of voluntary facial movements using the Facial Action Coding System (FACS, Ekman et al., 2002). The facial movements performed in the MRI scanner were defined as Action Units (AUs) and were controlled by a certified FACS coder. The main goal of the study was to investigate the detailed somatotopy of the facial primary motor area (facial M1)...
2015: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Su-Jing Wang, Wen-Jing Yan, Xiaobai Li, Guoying Zhao, Chun-Guang Zhou, Xiaolan Fu, Minghao Yang, Jianhua Tao
Micro-expressions are brief involuntary facial expressions that reveal genuine emotions and, thus, help detect lies. Because of their many promising applications, they have attracted the attention of researchers from various fields. Recent research reveals that two perceptual color spaces (CIELab and CIELuv) provide useful information for expression recognition. This paper is an extended version of our International Conference on Pattern Recognition paper, in which we propose a novel color space model, tensor independent color space (TICS), to help recognize micro-expressions...
December 2015: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
Takeo Fujiwara, Rie Mizuki, Takahiro Miki, Claude Chemtob
"Emotional numbing" is a symptom of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) characterized by a loss of interest in usually enjoyable activities, feeling detached from others, and an inability to express a full range of emotions. Emotional numbing is usually assessed through self-report, and is particularly difficult to ascertain among young children. We conducted a pilot study to explore the use of facial expression ratings in response to a comedy video clip to assess emotional reactivity among preschool children directly exposed to the Great East Japan Earthquake...
2015: Frontiers in Psychology
Catharine E Fairbairn, Michael A Sayette, Odd O Aalen, Arnoldo Frigessi
Researchers have hypothesized that men gain greater reward from alcohol than women. However, alcohol-administration studies testing participants drinking alone have offered weak support for this hypothesis. Research suggests that social processes may be implicated in gender differences in drinking patterns. We examined the impact of gender and alcohol on "emotional contagion"-a social mechanism central to bonding and cohesion. Social drinkers (360 male, 360 female) consumed alcohol, placebo, or control beverages in groups of three...
September 2015: Clinical Psychological Science
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