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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890946/prevalence-of-asymptomatic-infections-in-sexually-transmitted-diseases-attendees-diagnosed-with-bacterial-vaginosis-vaginal-candidiasis-and-trichomoniasis
#1
R Rajalakshmi, S Kalaivani
BACKGROUND: Sexually transmitted diseases (STD) are a major health problem affecting mostly young people in both developing and developed countries. STD in women causes both acute morbidity and complications such as infertility, ectopic pregnancy, low-birth weight, and prematurity. AIMS: The aim of the study is to assess the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis, vaginal candidiasis, and trichomoniasis among asymptomatic females attending STD outpatient department in a tertiary care hospital in South India...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870929/a-clinical-study-of-cutaneous-changes-in-pregnancy
#2
Vinitha V Panicker, Najeeba Riyaz, P K Balachandran
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Pregnant women experience a myriad of physiological and metabolic changes that affect different organ systems in the body. Cutaneous and appendageal alterations that manifest during pregnancy are largely modulated by hormonal, immunologic, and metabolic factors. Detailed reports encompassing physiological changes and specific dermatoses of pregnancy and effects of various dermatoses on pregnant women are scanty in literature. This study was conducted to examine in detail both physiological changes and specific dermatoses...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27608890/alterations-of-the-vaginal-microbiota-in-the-third-trimester-of-pregnancy-and-pprom
#3
C Genovese, S Corsello, D Nicolosi, V Aidala, E Falcidia, G Tempera
OBJECTIVE: Preterm premature rupture of membranes (pPROM) is a significant issue in obstetric practice. One of the risk factors for pPROM are vaginal infections in the third trimester of pregnancy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed an observational study on 600 pregnant women, analyzing the lactobacillary grade (LBG) and the presence of any pathogenic bacteria and/or Candida at weeks 28 and 32 of pregnancy and recording any pPROM events at delivery. At week 28, in the case of vaginal infection, the patients were treated for 6 days with a topical association of metronidazole+clotrimazole...
August 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27572944/effect-of-restricted-pacifier-use-in-breastfeeding-term-infants-for-increasing-duration-of-breastfeeding
#4
REVIEW
Sharifah Halimah Jaafar, Jacqueline J Ho, Shayesteh Jahanfar, Mubashir Angolkar
BACKGROUND: To successfully initiate and maintain breastfeeding for a longer duration, the World Health Organization's Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding recommends total avoidance of artificial teats or pacifiers for breastfeeding infants. Concerns have been raised that offering the pacifier instead of the breast to calm the infant may lead to less frequent episodes of breastfeeding and as a consequence may reduce breast-milk production and shorten duration of breastfeeding. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of restricted versus unrestricted pacifier use in healthy full-term newborns whose mothers have initiated breastfeeding and intend to exclusively breastfeed, on the duration of breastfeeding, other breastfeeding outcomes and infant health...
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27495167/evaluation-of-the-vaginal-flora-in-pregnant-women-receiving-opioid-maintenance-therapy-a-matched-case-control-study
#5
Alex Farr, Herbert Kiss, Michael Hagmann, Iris Holzer, Verena Kueronya, Peter W Husslein, Ljubomir Petricevic
BACKGROUND: Vaginal infections are a risk factor for preterm delivery. In this study, we sought to evaluate the vaginal flora of pregnant women receiving opioid maintenance therapy (OMT) in comparison to non-dependent, non-maintained controls. METHODS: A total of 3763 women with singleton pregnancies who underwent routine screening for asymptomatic vaginal infections between 10 + 0 and 16 + 0 gestational weeks were examined. Vaginal smears were Gram-stained, and microscopically evaluated for bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis, and trichomoniasis...
2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27432359/murine-uterine-decidualization-is-a-novel-function-of-autoimmune-regulator-beyond-immune-tolerance
#6
Vasanthi Soumya, Renjini A Padmanabhan, Shiny Titus, Malini Laloraya
PROBLEM: Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy, candidiasis, and ectodermal dystrophy (APECED, APS-1) patients characterized by Aire (autoimmune regulator) mutations and Aire homozygous knockouts (Aire(-/-) ) exhibit infertility. It is not clear as to what contributes to infertility in the above. METHOD OF STUDY: This study investigates the expression of "AIRE in the uterus" and its contribution to early pregnancy of mice by using quantitative real-time PCR analysis, immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, and in vivo Aire silencing experiments...
September 2016: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27422139/screening-of-vulvovaginal-infections-during-pregnancy-in-resource-constrained-settings-implications-on-preterm-delivery
#7
Chaitanya Tellapragada, Vandana Kalwaje Eshwara, Parvati Bhat, Asha Kamath, Sandhya Aletty, Chiranjay Mukhopadhyay
The present study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of clinical and microbiological investigations available in limited resource settings for an effective diagnosis of vaginal infections/abnormal vaginal microbiota among pregnant women. As an outcome of the study we intended to find the association of various vaginal infections during pregnancy with preterm delivery. Pregnant women presenting for routine antenatal care at an antenatal clinic in south India were enrolled in the study. Each participant underwent clinical and microbiological examinations for the diagnosis of vaginal infections such as bacterial vaginosis (BV), vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and trichomoniasis...
July 12, 2016: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27298383/oral-fluconazole-is-often-used-during-pregnancy-in-the-treatment-of-vulvovaginal-candidiasis-despite-safety-concerns-to-the-fetus
#8
Julianna Briglio
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Evidence-based Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27266230/prevalence-of-sexually-transmitted-infection-in-teenage-pregnancy-in-rajavithi-hospital-thailand
#9
Suvanna Asavapiriyanont, Udom Chaovarindr, Surasak Kaoien, Uraiwan Chotigeat, Ekachai Kovavisarach
BACKGROUND: Behavioral and social changes in the modern era have triggered an increase in the incidence of early sexual contact and teenage pregnancy. Since there is no routine Gonococcal & Chlamydial (GC & CT) screening in teens in antenatal clinics in Thailand, the present study was performed to find the prevalence of STI, especially Chlamydial infection, in teenage pregnancy. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), especially Chlamydial infection (CT), in teenage pregnancy and its related factors...
February 2016: Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand, Chotmaihet Thangphaet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27217375/intrauterine-candida-albicans-infection-causes-systemic-fetal-candidiasis-with-progressive-cardiac-dysfunction-in-a-sheep-model-of-early-pregnancy
#10
Sarah J Stock, Olga Patey, Basky Thilaganathan, Scott White, Lucy L Furfaro, Matthew S Payne, Owen B Spiller, Andres Noé, Rory Watts, Sean Carter, Demelza J Ireland, Alan H Jobe, John P Newnham, Matthew W Kemp
INTRODUCTION: Several recent studies have identified a potential role for intrauterine Candida albicans in adverse pregnancy outcomes, including preterm birth. There is, however, a limited understanding of the impact of intrauterine candida infection on fetal well-being in early pregnancy. Using a sheep model of early pregnancy, the aims of this study were to determine (1) the ability of experimentally induced intrauterine C albicans to infect the fetus and (2) whether C albicans exposure in early pregnancy is associated with alterations in fetal cardiac function, as measured by spectral tissue Doppler imaging analysis of fetal cardiac function...
May 23, 2016: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26931504/a-prospective-observational-study-of-vulvovagintis-in-pregnant-women-in-argentina-with-special-reference-to-candidiasis
#11
María J Mucci, María L Cuestas, María M Cervetto, María F Landaburu, María T Mujica
To evaluate the frequency of yeast, bacteria or protozoa in pregnant women and to correlate the possible associations of these microorganisms and their relationships with vulvovaginitis (VV) and cervicitis. Vaginal specimens were collected and prepared for smears in microscope slides for the evaluation of yeast, Trichomonas vaginalis and bacteria. Samples were cultured in specific culture medium. Cervical specimens were used to investigate the presence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Ureaplasma spp...
July 2016: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26861467/microsatellite-analysis-of-genotype-distribution-patterns-of-candida-albicans-vulvovaginal-candidiasis-in-nanjing-china-and-its-association-with-pregnancy-age-and-clinical-presentation
#12
Caixia Li, Le Wang, Hua Tong, Yiping Ge, Huan Mei, Liangyu Chen, Guixia Lv, Weida Liu
PURPOSE: To characterize the genotype distribution pattern of Candida albicans associated with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) in Nanjing, China by microsatellite genotyping. METHODS: A questionnaire was completed by each patient diagnosed with VVC. A total of 208 independent C. albicans was isolated from 208 patients. Microsatellite genotyping characterized the genotype distribution by analysis of the CAI locus marker. RESULTS: PCR of CAI fragments showed the three major genotypes contained 30:45, 21:21 and 32:46 alleles among the 51 genotypes detected, accounting for 29...
August 2016: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26746458/association-between-use-of-oral-fluconazole-during-pregnancy-and-risk-of-spontaneous-abortion-and-stillbirth
#13
Ditte Mølgaard-Nielsen, Henrik Svanström, Mads Melbye, Anders Hviid, Björn Pasternak
IMPORTANCE: Vaginal candidiasis is common during pregnancy. Although intravaginal formulations of topical azole antifungals are first-line treatment for pregnant women, oral fluconazole is often used despite limited safety information. OBJECTIVE: To study the association between oral fluconazole exposure during pregnancy and the risk of spontaneous abortion and stillbirth. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Nationwide register-based cohort study in Denmark, 1997-2013...
January 5, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26690853/vulvovaginal-candidiasis-epidemiology-microbiology-and-risk-factors
#14
Bruna Gonçalves, Carina Ferreira, Carlos Tiago Alves, Mariana Henriques, Joana Azeredo, Sónia Silva
Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is an infection caused by Candida species that affects millions of women every year. Although Candida albicans is the main cause of VVC, the identification of non-Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) species, especially Candida glabrata, as the cause of this infection, appears to be increasing. The development of VVC is usually attributed to the disturbance of the balance between Candida vaginal colonization and host environment by physiological or nonphysiological changes. Several host-related and behavioral risk factors have been proposed as predisposing factors for VVC...
November 2016: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26640069/fluconazole-use-and-birth-defects-in-the-national-birth-defects-prevention-study
#15
Meredith M Howley, Tonia C Carter, Marilyn L Browne, Paul A Romitti, Christopher M Cunniff, Charlotte M Druschel
BACKGROUND: Low-dose fluconazole is used commonly to treat vulvovaginal candidiasis, a condition occurring frequently during pregnancy. Conflicting information exists on the association between low-dose fluconazole use among pregnant women and the risk of major birth defects. OBJECTIVE: We used data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study to examine this association. STUDY DESIGN: The National Birth Defects Prevention Study is a multisite, population-based, case-control study that includes pregnancies with estimated delivery dates from 1997 to 2011...
May 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26639686/pharmacists-knowledge-of-the-safety-of-antibiotics-for-systemic-use
#16
Y Yakimova
BACKGROUND: Patients decide to take antibiotics themselves in 21% of cases of acute respiratory viral infections, influenza and acute respiratory infections [1]. The main factor of drug purchase at a pharmacy is pharmacist's recommendation. In 14% of cases of purchase of antibiotics, patients describe the symptoms and do not name a specific drug. This provides opportunity for drug selection at a pharmacy [2]. In these circumstances the role of pharmacists in ensuring the rational use of antimicrobial agents increases significantly...
2015: International Journal of Risk & Safety in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26505064/fluconazole-exposure-during-pregnancy
#17
Yusuf Cem Kaplan, Gideon Koren, Pina Bozzo
QUESTION: One of my patients has just learned that she is 8 weeks pregnant. She took a 150-mg dose of fluconazole 2 weeks ago for the treatment of vaginal candidiasis and she is worried about the effect on her child and pregnancy. Can I reassure her? ANSWER: Short-term and low-dose fluconazole exposure, such as that indicated in the treatment of vaginal candidiasis, is not expected to increase the overall risk of major congenital malformations.
August 2015: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26475265/genital-infections-and-risk-of-premature-rupture-of-membranes-in-mulago-hospital-uganda-a-case-control-study
#18
Sarah Nakubulwa, Dan K Kaye, Freddie Bwanga, Nazarius Mbona Tumwesigye, Florence M Mirembe
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory mediators that weaken and cause membrane rupture are released during the course of genital infections among pregnant women. We set out to determine the association of common genital infections (Trichomonas vaginalis, syphilis, Neisseria gonorrhea, Chlamydia trachomatis, Group B Streptococcus, Bacterial vaginosis, Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 and candidiasis) and premature rupture of membranes in Mulago hospital, Uganda. METHODS: We conducted an unmatched case-control study among women who were in the third trimester of pregnancy at New Mulago hospital, Uganda...
October 16, 2015: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26465813/bacterial-vaginosis-in-pregnant-adolescents-proinflammatory-cytokine-and-bacterial-sialidase-profile-cross-sectional-study
#19
Carolina Sanitá Tafner Ferreira, Camila Marconi, Cristina Maria de Lima Garcia Parada, Marli Teresinha Cassamassimo Duarte, Ana Paula Oliveira Gonçalves, Marilza Vieira Cunha Rudge, Márcia Guimarães da Silva
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Bacterial vaginosis occurs frequently in pregnancy and increases susceptibility to sexually transmitted infections (STI). Considering that adolescents are disproportionally affected by STI, the aim of this study was to evaluate the cervicovaginal levels of interleukin (IL)-1 beta, IL-6, IL-8 and bacterial sialidase in pregnant adolescents with bacterial vaginosis. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study at mother and child referral units in Belém, Pará, Brazil...
November 2015: São Paulo Medical Journal, Revista Paulista de Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26428501/acute-chorioamnionitis-and-funisitis-definition-pathologic-features-and-clinical-significance
#20
REVIEW
Chong Jai Kim, Roberto Romero, Piya Chaemsaithong, Noppadol Chaiyasit, Bo Hyun Yoon, Yeon Mee Kim
Acute inflammatory lesions of the placenta consist of diffuse infiltration of neutrophils at different sites in the organ. These lesions include acute chorioamnionitis, funisitis, and chorionic vasculitis and represent a host response (maternal or fetal) to a chemotactic gradient in the amniotic cavity. While acute chorioamnionitis is evidence of a maternal host response, funisitis and chorionic vasculitis represent fetal inflammatory responses. Intraamniotic infection generally has been considered to be the cause of acute chorioamnionitis and funisitis; however, recent evidence indicates that "sterile" intraamniotic inflammation, which occurs in the absence of demonstrable microorganisms induced by "danger signals," is frequently associated with these lesions...
October 2015: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
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