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Karin Johansson, Hanna Karlsson, Torbjörn Norén
Diagnostic testing for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has, in recent years, seen the introduction of rapid dual-EIA (enzyme immunoassay) tests combining species-specific glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) with toxin A/B. In a prospective study, we compared the C. DIFF Quik Chek Complete test to a combination of selective culture (SC) and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) of the toxin A gene. Of 419 specimens, 68 were positive in SC including 62 positive in LAMP (14.7%). The combined EIA yielded 82 GDH positives of which 47 were confirmed toxin A/B positive (11%) corresponding to a sensitivity and specificity of 94% for GDH EIA compared to SC and for toxin A/B EIA a sensitivity of 71% and a specificity of 99% compared to LAMP...
November 2016: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
Hae-Sun Chung, Miae Lee
Rapid and accurate diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is crucial for patient care, infection control, and efficient surveillance. We evaluated C. DIFF QUIK CHEK COMPLETE (QCC; TechLab), which detects glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) antigen (QCC-Ag) and toxin A/B (QCC-Tox) simultaneously, and compared it to the laboratory diagnostics for CDI currently in use in a tertiary hospital setting with a high prevalence of CDI. QCC, RIDASCREEN C. difficile toxin A/B assay (Toxin EIA; R-Biopharm AG), chromID C...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
Tilakavati Karupaiah, Khun-Aik Chuah, Karuthan Chinna, Ryosuke Matsuoka, Yasunobu Masuda, Kalyana Sundram, Michihiro Sugano
BACKGROUND: Mayonnaise is used widely in contemporary human diet with widespread use as a salad dressing or spread on breads. Vegetable oils used in its formulation may be a rich source of ω-6 PUFAs and the higher-PUFA content of mayonnaise may be beneficial in mediating a hypocholesterolemic effect. This study, therefore, evaluated the functionality of mayonnaise on cardiometabolic risk within a regular human consumption scenario. METHODS: Subjects underwent a randomized double-blind crossover trial, consuming diets supplemented with 20 g/day of either soybean oil-based mayonnaise (SB-mayo) or palm olein-based mayonnaise (PO-mayo) for 4 weeks each with a 2-week wash-out period...
2016: Lipids in Health and Disease
B Kullin, T Brock, N Rajabally, F Anwar, G Vedantam, S Reid, V Abratt
The C. difficile infection rate in South Africa is concerning. Many strains previously isolated from diarrhetic patients at Groote Schuur Hospital were ribotype 017. This study further characterised these strains with respect to their clonal relationships, antibiotic susceptibility, toxin production and various attributes impacting on pathogen colonisation. Multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) was used to characterise all C. difficile isolates. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined by E-test and PCR-based analysis of the ermB, gyrA and gyrB genes...
October 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Kathleen Murray
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Nursing Management
Viytta N Abdullatif, Andrew Noymer
Enterocolitis due to Clostridium difficile is major emerging cause of death in the U.S. Between 1999 and 2012, C. diff. deaths rose by a staggering almost ten-fold amount, to 7,739 from 793. This article has three goals. First, we present a demographic description of C. diff. mortality in the U.S. since 1999. Second, we test a hypothesis that the increase in C. diff. deaths is due to population aging. We find that the emergence of this cause of death follows a proportional hazard pattern above age 40. Thus, population aging is not the only factor responsible for the increase in C...
2016: Biodemography and Social Biology
Richard E Nelson, Makoto Jones, Molly Leecaster, Matthew H Samore, William Ray, Angela Huttner, Benedikt Huttner, Karim Khader, Vanessa W Stevens, Dale Gerding, Marin L Schweizer, Michael A Rubin
BACKGROUND: A number of strategies exist to reduce Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) transmission. We conducted an economic evaluation of "bundling" these strategies together. METHODS: We constructed an agent-based computer simulation of nosocomial C. difficile transmission and infection in a hospital setting. This model included the following components: interactions between patients and health care workers; room contamination via C. difficile shedding; C. difficile hand carriage and removal via hand hygiene; patient acquisition of C...
2016: PloS One
Yuka Yamagishi, Hiroshige Mikamo
Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is a major pathogen for diarrhea in hospitalized patients and because of outbreak of highly virulent strain in EU and US, increased length of hospital stay and increased numbers of severe patients and deaths have become major challenges. In recent years, transmissions through community-acquired or food-borne infections are reported. National surveillance has been already performed overseas. Guidelines for preventing C. difficile infection (CDI) is available, and education activities are promoted for preventing the infection spread...
December 2015: Japanese Journal of Antibiotics
Özlem Yoldaş, Mustafa Altındiş, Davut Cufalı, Gülşah Aşık, Recep Keşli
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile is a common cause of hospital-acquired diarrhea, which is usually associated with previous antibiotic use. The clinical manifestations of C. difficile infection (CDI) may range from mild diarrhea to fulminant colitis. Clostridium difficile should be considered in diarrhea cases with a history of antibiotic use within the last 8 weeks (community-associated CDI) or with a hospital stay of at least 3 days, regardless of the duration of antibiotic use (hospital-acquired CDI)...
January 2016: Balkan Medical Journal
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2015: American Nurse
V H Flatow, N Ibragimova, C M Divino, D S A Eshak, B C Twohig, A M Bassily-Marcus, R Kohli-Seth
BACKGROUND: The electronic health record (EHR) is increasingly viewed as a means to provide more coordinated, patient-centered care. Few studies consider the impact of EHRs on quality of care in the intensive care unit (ICU) setting. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate key quality measures of a surgical intensive care unit (SICU) following implementation of the Epic EHR system in a tertiary hospital. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was undertaken to record quality indicators for all patients admitted to the SICU two years before and two years after EHR implementation...
2015: Applied Clinical Informatics
Akio Kikuchi, Hiroko Suzuki, Hiroko Shishido, Satomi Abe, Mikako Nakajima, Junko Maeda, Isao Tamura, Mitsuru Shiroishi, Mariko Usui
We examined how doctors evaluate the results of C. DIFF QUIK CHEK COMPLETE (COMPLETE) in the diagnosis and treatment of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). A total of 887 stool samples submitted from 2012 to 2013 were examined with COMPLETE. Requested specimens among samples with discrepant results were inoculated onto CCMA plates and incubated under anaerobic conditions for 48 h, then retested by COMPLETE if positive culture results were obtained. Of the 887 specimens, 198 (22.3%) were glutamate dehydrogenase-positive and 73(8...
June 2015: Rinsho Byori. the Japanese Journal of Clinical Pathology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 8, 2015: Nursing Times
Guoping Cheng, Zihua Li, Xin Dai, Zaihua Wang, Ping Cai, Li Chen, Zhen Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the incidence and treatment of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in pediatric patients with antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD). METHOD: Clinical data of totally 577 pediatric patients with AAD seen from January 2012 to January 2014 were collected; those children were divided according to age into 4 groups, 0.25 -1 year, >1 -4 years, >4 -12 years and >12 -18 years old groups, and 220 healthy children were enrolled as controls...
March 2015: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
M Krůtová, O Nyč
OBJECTIVE: To assess the availability of the laboratory diagnosis of infections caused by C. difficile in the Czech Republic (CR), including the range of tests used, possible combinations, and adequate interpretation of model results. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data were collected through a web questionnaire survey with the participation of representatives of 61 public and private microbiological laboratories. The questionnaire addressed the use of diagnostic test kits and culture media in the diagnosis of C...
June 2015: Epidemiologie, Mikrobiologie, Imunologie
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2014: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Sudha P Jayaraman, Reza Askari, Molli Bascom, Xiaoxia Liu, Selwyn O Rogers, Michael Klompas
BACKGROUND: There were two major outbreaks of multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDRA) in our general surgery and trauma intensive care units (ICUs) in 2004 and 2011. Both required aggressive multi-faceted interventions to control. We hypothesized that the infection control response may have had a secondary benefit of reducing rates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE), and Clostridium difficile (C. diff). METHODS: We analyzed data retrospectively from a prospective infection control database at a major university hospital and calculated the incidence rates of nosocomial MRSA, VRE, and C...
December 2014: Surgical Infections
Wafaa Jamal, Eunice M Pauline, Vincent O Rotimi
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the performance of the GeneXpert C. difficile assay and C. diff Quik Chek Complete (QCC) kit for the detection of toxins from fecal specimens and cooked meat broth (CMB) culture using toxigenic stool culture as reference method, for the diagnosis of C. difficile infection (CDI) in a community setting. METHODS: Non-repeat stool samples were tested simultaneously by GeneXpert and QCC. Toxin detection was done on neat stool samples, inoculated CMB, and isolated colonies...
December 2014: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Luis Alcalá, Elena Reigadas, Mercedes Marín, Antonia Fernández-Chico, Pilar Catalán, Emilio Bouza
We compared two multistep diagnostic algorithms based on C. Diff Quik Chek Complete and, as confirmatory tests, GenomEra C. difficile and Xpert C. difficile. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 87.2%, 99.7%, 97.1%, and 98.3%, respectively, for the GenomEra-based algorithm and 89.7%, 99.4%, 95.5%, and 98.6%, respectively, for the Xpert-based algorithm. GenomEra represents an alternative to Xpert as a confirmatory test of a multistep algorithm for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) diagnosis...
January 2015: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Daniel R Knight, Michele M Squire, Thomas V Riley
Clostridium difficile is a well-known enteric pathogen of humans and the causative agent of high-morbidity enteritis in piglets aged 1 to 7 days. C. difficile prevalence in Australian piglets is as high as 70%. The current diagnostic assays have been validated only for human infections, and there are no published studies assessing their performance in Australian piglets. We evaluated the suitability of five assays for detecting C. difficile in 157 specimens of piglet feces. The assays included a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LMIA)-PCR for tcdA (illumigene C...
November 2014: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
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