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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694363/stimulated-enrichment-of-clostridium-difficile-specific-iga-in-mature-cow-s-milk
#1
Christiane Schmautz, Maria Hillreiner, Ines Ballweg, Michael W Pfaffl, Heike Kliem
Cow milk products enriched with Clostridium difficile (C. diff.) specific IgA are possible alternative therapeutics against C. diff. associated diarrhea. A persistently high level of C. diff. specific IgA in mature milk triggered by continuous immunizations of dairy cows against C. diff. was hypothesized. Nine Brown Swiss cows were repeatedly vaccinated against C. diff. and divided into low responder (LR) and high responder (HR) cows, as measured by their production of anti-C. diff. specific IgA in milk (threshold: 8...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593183/evaluation-of-antigen-positive-toxin-negative-enzyme-immunoassay-results-for-the-diagnosis-of-toxigenic-clostridium-difficile-infection
#2
Yukinobu Akamatsu, Shota Morishita, Ryo Okamoto, Kensaku Okada, Tsuyoshi Kitaura, Naomi Miyake, Kosuke Yamaguchi, Masaki Nakamoto, Hisashi Shimohiro, Miyako Takata, Akira Yamasaki, Naoto Burioka, Eiji Shimizu
Clostridium difficile (C. difficile)-associated diarrhea (CDAD) is a challenging nosocomial infectious disease. C. DIFF Quik Chek Complete assay is widely used to detect glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) antigen and toxin A/B of C. difficile simultaneously. However, the interpretation of GDH positive/toxin negative results is problematic. We performed a retrospective study of patients with GDH positive/toxin negative results to determine the probability of detecting toxigenic C. difficile and its risk factors. Between April 2012 and March 2017, we investigated cultures of fecal specimens followed by toxin detection tests...
2018: Journal of Medical Investigation: JMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567127/poor-yield-of-clostridium-difficile-testing-algorithms-using-glutamate-dehydrogenase-antigen-and-c-difficile-toxin-enzyme-immunoassays-in-a-pediatric-population-with-declining-prevalence-of-clostridium-difficile-strain-bi-nap1-027
#3
Emily J Gomez, Sandra Montgomery, Kevin Alby, Diana P Robinson, Sylvester S Roundtree, Deborah Blecker-Shelly, Kaede V Sullivan
We compared the performance of algorithmic Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) diagnosis with four molecular tests in children. Stool samples in patients 1-18 years old were tested with an algorithm (C. Diff Quik Chek Complete (QCC) reflexed to illumigene C. difficile); AmpliVue C. difficile (ACD); Lyra Direct C. difficile (Lyra); BD MAX C diff (BDM); and Xpert C. difficile (XCD). The gold standard was positivity by two tests. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 85%, 99%, 93%, 97% for the algorithm; 21%, 99%, 78%, 87% for QCC's toxin component; 94%, 99%, 94%, 99% for ACD; 88%, 99%, 94%, 98% for Lyra; 94%, 100%, 100%, 99% for BDM, and 94%, 99%, 94% and 99% for XCD...
February 25, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485467/combating-hospital-acquired-c-diff
#4
Shelley Johnson
A successful collaboration between clinical nurse leaders and clinical nurse specialists.
March 2018: Nursing Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447694/an-additive-sugar-helps-the-c-diff-go-round
#5
COMMENT
Michael C Abt
Outbreaks of hypervirulent strains of Clostridium difficile began to be reported in healthcare facilities worldwide around 20 years ago. Concurrently, trehalose became a common additive used by the global food industry. A new study provides evidence that these two observations are a linked phenomenon (Collins et al., 2018).
February 14, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152554/prevalence-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-patients-after-radical-cystectomy-and-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy
#6
Katherine J Cotter, Yunhua Fan, Gretchen K Sieger, Christopher J Weight, Badrinath R Konety
Background and Objectives: Clostridium Difficile is the most common cause of nosocomial infectious diarrhea. This study evaluates the prevalence and predictors of Clostridium Difficile infections in patients undergoing radical cystectomy with or without neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Methods: Retrospective chart review was performed of all patients undergoing cystectomy and urinary diversion at a single institution from 2011-2017. Infection was documented in all cases with testing for Clostridium Difficile polymerase chain reaction toxin B...
October 27, 2017: Bladder Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150184/-glutamate-dehydrogenase-its-diagnostic-value-in-clostridioides-difficile-diarrhea
#7
Daniela Vaustat, Raquel Rollet
Clostridioides difficile is the main etiological agent of diarrhea associated with health care, it produces toxins and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), an enzyme that is highly conserved in this species. Rapid diagnosis and effective treatment produce prompt improvement of the patient and subsequent control of the microorganism spread. There are several techniques whose results are interpreted in the context of algorithms. However, the optimal diagnostic method is yet unknown. The performance of GDH as a screening test for the diagnosis of C...
November 14, 2017: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751156/performance-evaluation-of-the-verigene-%C3%A2-clostridium-difficile-nucleic-acid-test-an-automated-multiplex-molecular-testing-system-for-detection-of-c-%C3%A2-difficile-toxin
#8
Kosuke Kosai, Yuki Iwanaga, Norihiko Akamatsu, Yuya Okada, Norihito Kaku, Naoki Uno, Yoshitomo Morinaga, Hiroo Hasegawa, Taiga Miyazaki, Koichi Izumikawa, Hiroshi Mukae, Katsunori Yanagihara
The Verigene(®)Clostridium difficile nucleic acid test (Verigene(®) CDF test) is an automatic and rapid detection system for the genes encoding tcdA, tcdB, binary toxin, and the single nucleotide deletion at base pair 117 in the tcdC based on microarray and PCR amplification. We compared the performance of the Verigene(®) CDF test to that of two enzyme immunoassays, C. DIFF QUIK CHEK COMPLETE and X/Pect Toxin A/B, using 118 specimens. We found overall concordance rates of 81.4% and 78.8% between C. DIFF QUIK CHEK COMPLETE and Verigene(®) CDF test, and X/Pect Toxin A/B and Verigene(®) CDF test...
October 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730697/impact-of-simultaneous-glutamate-dehydrogenase-and-toxin-a-b-rapid-immunoassay-on-clostridium-difficile-diagnosis-and-treatment-in-hospitalized-patients-with-antibiotic-associated-diarrhea-in-a-university-hospital-of-brazil
#9
Guilherme Grossi Lopes Cançado, Rodrigo Otávio Silveira Silva, Amanda Pontes Nader, Francisco Carlos Faria Lobato, Eduardo Garcia Vilela
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Clostridium difficile is a major cause of health care-associated infection, but disagreement between diagnostic tests is an ongoing barrier to clinical decision-making. Conventional enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for toxin detection is currently the most frequently used technique for C. difficile infection (CDI) diagnosis, but its low sensitivity makes the development of an alternative strategy necessary for improving the diagnosis in developing countries. METHODS: Between years 2011 and 2015, 154 stool samples from patients with antibiotic-associated diarrhea were examined by toxigenic culture and EIA for the diagnosis of CDI...
February 2018: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707191/clostridium-difficile-colitis-and-colonoscopy-pediatric-perspective
#10
REVIEW
Randolph McConnie, Arthur Kastl
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Review tests available for detection of Clostridium difficile (C. Diff) induced disease, including when such tests should be done in children and how they should be interpreted. RECENT FINDINGS: Multiple tests are available for detecting disease due to C. diff. These include colonoscopy and stool analysis. Colonoscopy with biopsy is the most sensitive test for detecting the presence of colitis. The toxins produced by the C. diff. (toxin A, toxin B, and binary toxin) are the agents that cause injury and disease...
August 2017: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631639/prevalence-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-among-the-patients-attending-a-tertiary-care-teaching-hospital
#11
Lavanya Segar, Joshy M Easow, Sreenivasan Srirangaraj, Mohammad Hanifah, Noyal M Joseph, K S Seetha
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile, a most important nosocomial enteric pathogen, is recognized globally as responsible for antibiotic-associated diarrhea and colitis. It is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality due to widespread use of antibiotics. AIMS: The study was done to determine the prevalence of C. difficile infection (CDI) among the patients attending a tertiary care teaching hospital in Puducherry. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: We performed a prospective cohort study in Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Research Institute...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615471/clostridium-difficile-pcr-cycle-threshold-predicts-free-toxin
#12
Fiona Senchyna, Rajiv L Gaur, Saurabh Gombar, Cynthia Y Truong, Lee F Schroeder, Niaz Banaei
There is no stand-alone Clostridium difficile diagnostic that can sensitively and rapidly detect fecal free toxins. We investigated the performance of the C. difficile PCR cycle threshold ( CT ) for predicting free toxin status. Consecutive stool samples ( n = 312) positive for toxigenic C. difficile by the GeneXpert C. difficile /Epi tcdB PCR assay were tested with the rapid membrane C. Diff Quik Chek Complete immunoassay (RMEIA). RMEIA toxin-negative samples were tested with the cell cytotoxicity neutralization assay (CCNA) and tgcBIOMICS enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603640/prevalence-and-molecular-epidemiology-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-indonesia
#13
D A Collins, M H Gasem, T H Habibie, I G Arinton, P Hendriyanto, A P Hartana, T V Riley
Clostridium difficile has not been studied in detail in Asia, particularly Southeast Asia. We thus performed a prevalence study across four hospitals in Central Java province, Indonesia. Stool samples were collected from patients with diarrhoea and tested by enzyme immunoassay for glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and toxin A/B (C DIFF QUIK CHEK COMPLETE, TechLab). Specimens were cultured and molecular typing was performed. In total, 340 samples were tested, of which 70 (20.6%) were GDH positive, with toxin detected in 19 (5...
July 2017: New Microbes and New Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576711/safety-and-efficacy-of-antibacterial-prophylaxis-after-craniotomy-a-decision-model-analysis
#14
Amal F Alotaibi, Rania A Mekary, Hasan A Zaidi, Timothy R Smith, Ankur Pandya
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic prophylaxis has revolutionized the safety of neurosurgical procedures in the last century. Today, the clinician's drug of choice before surgery often is based on the antibiotic's resistance profile and drug-induced complications. METHODS: A decision tree model was developed to compare cefazolin (cephalosporin), vancomycin, or their combination on 90-day mortality postcraniotomy. We modeled the infection type (methicillin-sensitive, methicillin-resistant, or other organisms), antibiotic-related complications that could affect mortality (e...
September 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215602/clostridium-difficile-infection-in-acute-flares-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-a-prospective-study
#15
Harry Sokol, Valérie Lalande, Cecilia Landman, Anne Bourrier, Isabelle Nion-Larmurier, Sylvie Rajca, Julien Kirchgesner, Philippe Seksik, Jacques Cosnes, Frédéric Barbut, Laurent Beaugerie
OBJECTIVES: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a common complication in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and has been associated with poor IBD outcome. The aims of our study were to look for predictive factors of CDI in patients hospitalized for IBD flare and to evaluate a rapid testing strategy in this population. METHODS: Consecutive patients hospitalized for IBD flare in Saint-Antoine Hospital (Paris, France) were prospectively tested for CDI with a defined strategy involving rapid testing and reference methods...
June 2017: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181032/comprehensive-evaluation-of-chemiluminescent-immunoassays-for-the-laboratory-diagnosis-of-clostridium-difficile-infection
#16
A Makristathis, I Zeller, D Mitteregger, M Kundi, A M Hirschl
For the microbiological diagnosis of a Clostridium (C.) difficile infection (CDI), a two-test algorithm consisting of a C. difficile glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH)-immunoassay followed by a toxin-immunoassay in positive cases is widely used. In this study, two chemiluminescent immunoassays (CLIAs), one for GDH and the other for the toxins A and B, have been evaluated systematically using appropriate reference methods. Three-hundred diarrhoeal stool specimens submitted for CDI diagnosis were analysed by the LIAISON CLIAs (DiaSorin)...
July 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177534/laboratory-diagnosis-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-comparison-of-techlab-c-diff-quik-chek-complete-xpert-c-difficile-and-multistep-algorithmic-approach
#17
Ja Young Seo, Ji Hun Jeong, Kyung Hee Kim, Jeong-Yeal Ahn, Pil-Whan Park, Yiel-Hea Seo
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile is a major pathogen responsible for nosocomial infectious diarrhea. We explored optimal laboratory strategies for diagnosis of C. difficile infection (CDI) in our clinical settings, a 1400-bed tertiary care hospital. METHODS: Using 191 fresh stool samples from adult patients, we evaluated the performance of Xpert C. difficile (Xpert CD), C. diff Quik Chek Complete (which simultaneously detects glutamate dehydrogenase [GDH] and C...
November 2017: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876339/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-clostridium-difficile-c-diff-colitis-review-of-the-literature-and-a-perspective-in-gynecologic-oncology
#18
REVIEW
Kristin N Taylor, Michael T McHale, Cheryl C Saenz, Steven C Plaxe
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a major cause of nosocomial diarrhea with the potential for significant morbidity and mortality. Colonization in a susceptible individual, with risk factors such as prior antibiotic use, advanced age, or medical comorbidities, may result in symptomatic infection. Although patients with a gynecologic malignancy may be at a higher risk of developing CDI due to an increased likelihood of having one or more risk factors, data do not consistently support the idea that chemotherapy or cancer itself are independently associated with CDI...
February 2017: Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27850214/574-extreme-body-mass-indices-are-associated-with-greater-mortality-in-patients-with-c-diff-infections
#19
William McGee, Brian Nathanson, Thomas Higgins
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801920/hydralazine-induced-anca-vasculitis-in-the-setting-of-acute-clostridium-difficile-infection
#20
Somwail Rasla, Amr El Meligy, Dragos F Cucu
We report a rare case of Hydralazine-induced ANCA associated glomerulonephritis with alveolar hemorrhage in the setting of acute Clostridium Difficile Infection. A 71-year-old Caucasian woman with hypertension, who was being treated with hydralazine 25 mg twice a day for six years, presented to the hospital with diarrhea, nausea, vomiting and anemia. She had acute kidney injury and urinalysis showed proteinuria, dysmorphic RBCs, and rare RBC cast. She was found to have Clostridium difficile colitis which was successfully treated...
November 1, 2016: Rhode Island Medical Journal
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