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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080124/statistical-learning-of-parts-and-wholes-a-neural-network-approach
#1
David C Plaut, Anna K Vande Velde
Statistical learning is often considered to be a means of discovering the units of perception, such as words and objects, and representing them as explicit "chunks." However, entities are not undifferentiated wholes but often contain parts that contribute systematically to their meanings. Studies of incidental auditory or visual statistical learning suggest that, as participants learn about wholes they become insensitive to parts embedded within them, but this seems difficult to reconcile with a broad range of findings in which parts and wholes work together to contribute to behavior...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077739/the-emergence-of-undergraduate-majors-in-global-health-systematic-review-of-programs-and-recommendations-for-future-directions
#2
Paul K Drain, Charles Mock, David Toole, Anne Rosenwald, Megan Jehn, Thomas Csordas, Laura Ferguson, Caryl Waggett, Chinekwu Obidoa, Judith N Wasserheit
Global health education has been expanding rapidly and several universities have created an undergraduate major degree (bachelor's degree) in global heath or global health studies. Because there are currently no national guidelines for undergraduate degrees in global health, each of these programs was developed along individual lines. To guide the development of future global health majors, we conducted a systematic review of undergraduate majors in global health. We identified eight programs and invited program directors or representatives to a symposium at the Consortium of Universities for Global Health 2016 conference to review their existing undergraduate major in global health and to discuss lessons learned and recommendations for other colleges and universities seeking to develop undergraduate degrees in global health...
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065344/abai-s-moc-assessment-of-knowledge-program-matures-adding-value-with-continuous-learning-and-assessment
#3
REVIEW
David I Bernstein, Stephen I Wasserman, William P Thompson, Theodore M Freeman
Rapid changes in modern medicine along with advances in the science of learning and memory have necessitated a shift in the way physician knowledge is assessed. Physician recertification beyond initial certification has historically consisted of retaining large amounts of knowledge over a long time span. The adult learning theory has shown that the maintenance and improvement of our knowledge base is more effective by being exposed to new concepts at regular intervals throughout one's career and reinforcing these concepts on an ongoing basis...
January 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060838/attitudes-and-readiness-of-students-of-healthcare-professions-towards-interprofessional-learning
#4
Mari Kannan Maharajan, Kingston Rajiah, Suan Phaik Khoo, Dinesh Kumar Chellappan, Ranjit De Alwis, Hui Cing Chui, Lui Lee Tan, Yee Ning Tan, Shin Yee Lau
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the attitudes and readiness of students of healthcare professions towards interprofessional learning. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional study design was used. Two different scales were used to measure the readiness for and perception of interprofessional learning; these were the 'Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale' and the 'Interdisciplinary Education Perception Scale'. A convenience sampling method was employed. The sample was drawn from undergraduate students enrolled in years 1 to 5 of medical, dental, pharmacy and health sciences programme...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057833/cognitive-skills-and-the-evolution-of-social-systems
#5
REVIEW
Russell D Fernald
How do animal social skills influence evolution? Complex animal social behaviors require many cognitive skills including individual recognition and observational learning. For social systems to evolve, these abilities need to be transmitted genetically or culturally and supported by the evolution of underlying neural systems. Because animal skill sets are so varied, it seems best to describe animal cognitive behaviors as being a social calculus that can change with experience, which has evolved to match and facilitate the complexity of the social system where it arose...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050944/are-future-medical-oncologists-sufficiently-trained-to-communicate-about-palliative-care-the-medical-oncology-curriculum-in-flanders-belgium
#6
M Horlait, S Van Belle, M Leys
BACKGROUND: Palliative care is considered an integral part of oncology and communicating this with patients is an unavoidable task for oncologists. This contribution investigated to what extent communication skills for communicating palliative care with patients are trained in the formal academic training program in medical oncology in Flanders, Belgium. The programme is based on the recommendations for a Global Core Curriculum in Medical Oncology, developed by The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) together with the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO)...
January 4, 2017: Acta Clinica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029389/neonatology-faculty-development-using-simulation
#7
REVIEW
Heather M French, Roberta L Hales
The goal of faculty development activities is to supply the public with knowledgeable, skilled, and competent physicians who are prepared for high performance in the dynamic and complex healthcare environment. Current faculty development programs lack evidence-based support and are not sufficient to meet the professional needs of practicing physicians. Simulation activities for faculty development offer an alternative to traditional, teacher-centric educational offerings. Grounded in adult learning theory, simulation is a learner-centric, interactive, efficient, and effective method to train busy professionals...
October 28, 2016: Seminars in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024550/simulation-as-a-tool-to-ensure-competency-and-quality-of-care-in-the-cardiac-critical-care-unit
#8
REVIEW
Véronique Brunette, Nicolas Thibodeau-Jarry
Cardiac critical care units are high-risk clinical environments. Medical emergencies are frequent and require the intervention of a cohesive, efficient, and well trained interprofessional team. In modern clinical practice there is increased emphasis on safety but also increased lack of acceptance of medical errors and as a consequence, increased litigation. In the past decade, simulation-based learning has arisen as an effective and safe means to learn and practice acute care setting skills. It has been used and studied in different contexts including procedural skills training, crisis resource management and team training, patient and family member communication skills, and health care system quality improvement...
January 2017: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019131/heutagogic-approach-to-developing-capable-learners
#9
Reem Rachel Abraham, Ramnarayan Komattil
The twenty-first century higher education sector has come a long way after undergoing continuous metamorphosis from pedagogy to andragogy. Most of the educational approaches adopted in medical schools are directed towards developing more of competencies and less of capability, which is the ability to use competencies in novel contexts. Competencies alone are not sufficient to thrive in the present day work place as medical profession subsumes complex contexts; it is in this scenario that, medical educators are entrusted with the challenging task of developing "capable learners"...
December 25, 2016: Medical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007982/generalization-of-prior-information-for-rapid-bayesian-time-estimation
#10
Neil W Roach, Paul V McGraw, David J Whitaker, James Heron
To enable effective interaction with the environment, the brain combines noisy sensory information with expectations based on prior experience. There is ample evidence showing that humans can learn statistical regularities in sensory input and exploit this knowledge to improve perceptual decisions and actions. However, fundamental questions remain regarding how priors are learned and how they generalize to different sensory and behavioral contexts. In principle, maintaining a large set of highly specific priors may be inefficient and restrict the speed at which expectations can be formed and updated in response to changes in the environment...
December 22, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007293/centripetal-and-centrifugal-forces-in-the-moral-circle-competing-constraints-on-moral-learning
#11
Jesse Graham, Adam Waytz, Peter Meindl, Ravi Iyer, Liane Young
The idea of the moral circle pictures the self in the center, surrounded by concentric circles encompassing increasingly distant possible targets of moral concern, including family, local community, nation, all humans, all mammals, all living things including plants, and all things including inanimate objects. The authors develop the idea of two opposing forces in people's moral circles, with centripetal forces pulling inward, urging greater concern for close others than for distant others, and centrifugal forces pushing outward, resisting "drawing the line" anywhere as a form of prejudice and urging egalitarian concern for all regardless of social distance...
December 19, 2016: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006739/participatory-action-inquiry-using-baccalaureate-nursing-students-the-inclusion-of-integrative-health-care-modalities-in-nursing-core-curriculum
#12
Roxane Raffin Chan, Michelle Schaffrath
Nurses, nursing educators and students support the inclusion of integrative health care (IHC) into nursing core curriculum as a way to create nurses who deliver nursing care to the full extent of their scope of practice and advance evidenced based IHC. Because of the holistic nature of IHC modalities, research to investigate appropriate teaching strategies and potential efficacy of learning IHC in the baccalaureate core curriculum requires a holistic approach. Therefore a phenomenological exploration using participatory action inquiry was conducted at a large Midwestern university...
December 9, 2016: Nurse Education in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004086/beyond-the-use-of-an-explanatory-key-accompanying-submicroscopic-representations
#13
Vesna Ferk Savec, Špela Hrast, Iztok Devetak, Gregor Torkar
When learning chemistry, students encounter various visualizations introducing scientific concepts and processes unobservable to the naked eye. It is often assumed that these visualizations support students' understanding and enable them to solve problems more efficiently. The research presented here investigates students' use of an explanatory key while solving tasks based on submicroscopic representations. The following features of the explanatory key were examined: 1) colored versus black-and-white, and 2) pictorial versus textual...
December 2016: Acta Chimica Slovenica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003176/securing-the-continuity-of-medical-competence-in-times-of-demographic-change-a-proposal
#14
Joachim Paul Hasebrook, Jürgen Hinkelmann, Thomas Volkert, Sibyll Rodde, Klaus Hahnenkamp
BACKGROUND: University hospitals make up the backbone of medical and economic services of hospitals in Germany: they qualify specialist physicians, ensure medical research, and provide highly specialized maximum medical care, which other hospitals cannot undertake. In addition to this assignment, medical research and academic teaching must be managed despite a growing shortage of specialist physicians. By the year 2020, the need for the replacement of retired physicians and increased demand will total 30,000 positions...
December 21, 2016: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001442/-it-s-just-not-the-culture-a-qualitative-study-exploring-residents-perceptions-of-the-impact-of-institutional-culture-on-feedback
#15
Subha Ramani, Sarah E Post, Karen Könings, Karen Mann, Joel T Katz, Cees van der Vleuten
: Phenomenon: Competency-based medical education requires ongoing performance-based feedback for professional growth. In several studies, medical trainees report that the quality of faculty feedback is inadequate. Sociocultural barriers to feedback exchanges are further amplified in graduate and postgraduate medical education settings, where trainees serve as frontline providers of patient care. Factors that affect institutional feedback culture, enhance feedback seeking, acceptance, and bidirectional feedback warrant further exploration in these settings...
December 21, 2016: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001436/teaching-resident-self-assessment-through-triangulation-of-faculty-and-patient-feedback
#16
Drew M Keister, Susan E Hansen, Julie Dostal
PROBLEM: To accurately determine one's ability in any clinical competency, an individual must be able to self-assess performance and identify personal limitations. Existing research demonstrates that physicians of all levels are unreliable self-assessors. This poses a concern in medical practice, which requires continuous updates to clinical competencies and awareness of personal limitations. Few published studies examine graduate medical education curricula designed to develop self-assessment skills...
December 21, 2016: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998806/expert-patient-illness-narratives-as-a-teaching-methodology-a-mixed-method-study-of-student-nurses-satisfaction
#17
Maria Feijoo-Cid, David Moriña, Rebeca Gómez-Ibáñez, Juan M Leyva-Moral
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate nursing students' satisfaction with Expert Patient Illness Narratives as a teaching and learning methodology based on patient involvement. METHODS AND DESIGN: Mixed methods were used in this study: online survey with quantitative and qualitative items designed by researchers. SETTINGS AND PARTICIPANTS: Sixty-four nursing students of the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, attending a Medical Anthropology elective course...
December 7, 2016: Nurse Education Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997477/an-examination-of-the-self-directed-online-leadership-learning-choices-of-public-health-professionals-the-maternal-and-child-health-public-health-leadership-institute-experience
#18
Claudia S P Fernandez, Cheryl C Noble, Elizabeth T Jensen
OBJECTIVES: To assess the self-selected asynchronous leadership module-based learning choices of public health professionals participating in the Maternal and Child Health Public Health Leadership Institute (MCH PHLI). METHODS: Online module completion and evaluation data were used to determine the topics most utilized by the Fellows; whether the topics and mode of training were acceptable, relevant, and practical; and whether participant characteristics explained any usage patterns...
December 16, 2016: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992492/promoting-therapists-use-of-motor-learning-strategies-within-virtual-reality-based-stroke-rehabilitation
#19
Danielle E Levac, Stephanie M N Glegg, Heidi Sveistrup, Heather Colquhoun, Patricia Miller, Hillel Finestone, Vincent DePaul, Jocelyn E Harris, Diana Velikonja
PURPOSE: Therapists use motor learning strategies (MLSs) to structure practice conditions within stroke rehabilitation. Virtual reality (VR)-based rehabilitation is an MLS-oriented stroke intervention, yet little support exists to assist therapists in integrating MLSs with VR system use. METHOD: A pre-post design evaluated a knowledge translation (KT) intervention incorporating interactive e-learning and practice, in which 11 therapists learned how to integrate MLSs within VR-based therapy...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987291/design-of-a-clinical-competency-committee-to-maximize-formative-feedback
#20
Anthony A Donato, Richard Alweis, Suzanne Wenderoth
BACKGROUND: As the next phase in the roll-out of Next Accreditation System, US residency programs are to develop Clinical Competency Committees (CCCs) to formally implement outcome-based medical education objectives in the resident assessment process. However, any changes to an assessment system must consider balancing formative and summative tensions, flexibility and standardization tensions, fairness and transparency to learners, and administrative burden for faculty. OBJECTIVES/METHODS: In this article, one program discusses the approach one internal medicine residency took to create a developmental model CCC...
2016: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives
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