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competency based learning

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229561/children-s-selective-trust-decisions-rational-competence-and-limiting-performance-factors
#1
Jonas Hermes, Tanya Behne, Anna Elisa Bich, Christa Thielert, Hannes Rakoczy
Recent research has amply documented that even preschoolers learn selectively from others, preferring, for example, reliable over unreliable and competent over incompetent models. It remains unclear, however, what the cognitive foundations of such selective learning are, in particular, whether it builds on rational inferences or on less sophisticated processes. The current study, therefore, was designed to test directly the possibility that children are in principle capable of selective learning based on rational inference, yet revert to simpler strategies such as global impression formation under certain circumstances...
February 22, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229247/achieving-population-level-change-through-a-system-contextual-approach-to-supporting-competent-parenting
#2
REVIEW
Matthew R Sanders, Kylie Burke, Ronald J Prinz, Alina Morawska
The quality of parenting children receive affects a diverse range of child and youth outcomes. Addressing the quality of parenting on a broad scale is a critical part of producing a more nurturing society. To achieve a meaningful population-level reduction in the prevalence rates of child maltreatment and social and emotional problems that are directly or indirectly influenced by parenting practices requires the adoption of a broad ecological perspective in supporting families to raise children. We make the case for adopting a multilevel, whole of population approach to enhance competent parenting and describe the essential tasks that must be accomplished for the approach to be successful and its effects measurable...
February 22, 2017: Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228370/enhancing-doctors-competencies-in-communication-with-and-activation-of-older-patients-the-promoting-active-aging-practa-computer-based-intervention-study
#3
Dorota Wlodarczyk, Joanna Chylińska, Magdalena Lazarewicz, Marta Rzadkiewicz, Mariusz Jaworski, Miroslawa Adamus, Gørill Haugan, Monica Lillefjell, Geir Arild Espnes
BACKGROUND: Demographic changes over the past decades call for the promotion of health and disease prevention for older patients, as well as strategies to enhance their independence, productivity, and quality of life. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to examine the effects of a computer-based educational intervention designed for general practitioners (GPs) to promote active aging. METHODS: The Promoting Active Aging (PRACTA) study consisted of a baseline questionnaire, implementation of an intervention, and a follow-up questionnaire that was administered 1 month after the intervention...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226742/a-cnn-based-neurobiology-inspired-approach-for-retinal-image-quality-assessment
#4
Dwarikanath Mahapatra, Pallab K Roy, Suman Sedai, Rahil Garnavi, Dwarikanath Mahapatra, Pallab K Roy, Suman Sedai, Rahil Garnavi, Suman Sedai, Pallab K Roy, Rahil Garnavi, Dwarikanath Mahapatra
Retinal image quality assessment (IQA) algorithms use different hand crafted features for training classifiers without considering the working of the human visual system (HVS) which plays an important role in IQA. We propose a convolutional neural network (CNN) based approach that determines image quality using the underlying principles behind the working of the HVS. CNNs provide a principled approach to feature learning and hence higher accuracy in decision making. Experimental results demonstrate the superior performance of our proposed algorithm over competing methods...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219100/-current-developments-of-the-interdisciplinary-subject-rehabilitation-physical-medicine-naturopathic-treatment-in-the-german-medical-faculties-results-of-the-dgrw-faculty-survey-in-2015
#5
S Schmidt, C Bergelt, R Deck, G Krischak, M Morfeld, M Michel, S R Schwarzkopf, K Spyra, S Walter, W Mau
To ascertain the current development of the rehabilitation-related medical teaching in the interdisciplinary subject Rehabilitation, Physical Medicine, Naturopathic Treatment (Q12) regarding its execution, content, exams and evaluation of teaching at the Medical Faculties the German Society of Rehabilitation Science conducted another faculty survey in 2015. Representatives of all degree courses of human medicine in German Universities (n=41) received a pseudonymised standardised questionnaire in summer 2015...
February 2017: Die Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214430/development-of-evidence-based-practice-in-academic-service-partnerships-experiences-of-working-life-representatives-from-social-and-health-care-sectors
#6
Hanna-Leena Melender
Learning about how to develop and lead the implementation of evidence based practice (EBP) in services is an important part of the education of developers and managers for the social and health care sectors. In order to develop this teaching and to support the development of EBP in services, a Teaching Development Effort (TDE) was conducted by establishing academic service partnerships (ASPs) and connecting Master's students' assignments with them. The TDE was conducted as a part of a larger project whose main aims were to strengthen, develop and renew transfers of knowledge and competence between higher education institutions and workplaces, and to strive for a more multidisciplinary quality in workplace innovations...
February 9, 2017: Nurse Education in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213889/social-emotional-competence-an-essential-factor-for-promoting-positive-adjustment-and-reducing-risk-in-school-children
#7
Celene E Domitrovich, Joseph A Durlak, Katharine C Staley, Roger P Weissberg
Social-emotional competence is a critical factor to target with universal preventive interventions that are conducted in schools because the construct (a) associates with social, behavioral, and academic outcomes that are important for healthy development; (b) predicts important life outcomes in adulthood; (c) can be improved with feasible and cost-effective interventions; and (d) plays a critical role in the behavior change process. This article reviews this research and what is known about effective intervention approaches...
February 18, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213134/speech-in-noise-perception-in-musicians-a-review
#8
REVIEW
Emily B J Coffey, Nicolette Mogilever, Robert J Zatorre
The ability to understand speech in the presence of competing sound sources is an important neuroscience question in terms of how the nervous system solves this computational problem. It is also a critical clinical problem that disproportionally affects the elderly, children with language-related learning disorders, and those with hearing loss. Recent evidence that musicians have an advantage on this multifaceted skill has led to the suggestion that musical training might be used to improve or delay the decline of speech-in-noise (SIN) function...
February 14, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211048/the-assessment-of-knowledge-and-learning-in-competence-spaces-the-gain-loss-model-for-dependent-skills
#9
Pasquale Anselmi, Luca Stefanutti, Debora de Chiusole, Egidio Robusto
The gain-loss model (GaLoM) is a formal model for assessing knowledge and learning. In its original formulation, the GaLoM assumes independence among the skills. Such an assumption is not reasonable in several domains, in which some preliminary knowledge is the foundation for other knowledge. This paper presents an extension of the GaLoM to the case in which the skills are not independent, and the dependence relation among them is described by a well-graded competence space. The probability of mastering skill s at the pretest is conditional on the presence of all skills on which s depends...
February 17, 2017: British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207842/evaluating-evidence-based-health-care-teaching-and-learning-in-the-undergraduate-human-nutrition-occupational-therapy-physiotherapy-and-speech-language-and-hearing-therapy-programs-at-a-sub-saharan-african-academic-institution
#10
Anel Schoonees, Anke Rohwer, Taryn Young
BACKGROUND: It is important that all undergraduate healthcare students are equipped with evidence-based health care (EBHC) knowledge and skills to encourage evidence-informed decision-making after graduation. We assessed EBHC teaching and learning in undergraduate human nutrition (HN); occupational therapy (OT); physiotherapy (PT); and speech, language and hearing therapy (SPLH) programs at a sub-Saharan African university. METHODS: We used methodological triangulation to obtain a comprehensive understanding of EBHC teaching and learning: (1) through a document review of module guides, we identified learning outcomes related to pre-specified EBHC competencies; we conducted (2) focus group discussions and interviews of lecturers to obtain their perspectives on EBHC and on EBHC teaching and learning; and we (3) invited final year students (2013) and 2012 graduates to complete an online survey on EBHC attitudes, self-perceived EBHC competence, and their experience of EBHC teaching and learning...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203203/health-promotion-development-in-the-spa-treatment-perspectives-for-the-european-countries-learned-from-poland-s-experiences
#11
Joanna Woźniak-Holecka, Piotr Romaniuk, Tomasz Holecki, Aldona Frączkiewicz-Wronka, Sylwia Jaruga
The main aim of the paper is to outline the perspective for future developments of the spa treatment in light of demographic transitions characterized by the increasing number of seniors, as well as changing expectations and health needs of younger population. We made a systematic review of literature referring to the experience of Poland, and similar experiences of other countries in Central Europe. Based on the existing knowledge we conclude that spa treatment should become one of the preferred directions of development of health systems in European countries...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202322/sexual-health-competencies-for-undergraduate-medical-education-in-north-america
#12
Carey Roth Bayer, Kristen L Eckstrand, Gail Knudson, Jean Koehler, Scott Leibowitz, Perry Tsai, Jamie L Feldman
INTRODUCTION: The number of hours spent teaching sexual health content and skills in medical education continues to decrease despite the increase in sexual health issues faced by patients across the lifespan. In 2012 and 2014, experts across sexuality disciplines convened for the Summits on Medical School Education and Sexual Health to strategize and recommend approaches to improve sexual health education in medical education systems and practice settings. One of the summit recommendations was to develop sexual health competencies that could be implemented in undergraduate medical education curricula...
February 12, 2017: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197664/-rehabilitation-in-undergraduate-education-and-advanced-professional-training-of-the-participating-professional-groups
#13
Wilfried Mau, Jürgen Bengel, Klaus Pfeifer
In the German health care system, multiprofessional and coordinated rehabilitation care provides support for successful disease management. Against a background of the conditions and strong dynamics of the provision, this article gives an overview of some of the pertinent developments in rehabilitation-related undergraduate education and advanced professional training of physicians, psychologists, and exercise therapy professions in Germany. Frequently, there are few provisions and great variation between different locations...
February 14, 2017: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196565/virtual-simulations-a-creative-evidence-based-approach-to-develop-and-educate-nurses
#14
Nancyruth Leibold, Laura Schwarz
The use of virtual simulations in nursing is an innovative strategy that is increasing in application. There are several terms related to virtual simulation; although some are used interchangeably, the meanings are not the same. This article presents examples of virtual simulation, virtual worlds, and virtual patients in continuing education, staff development, and academic nursing education. Virtual simulations in nursing use technology to provide safe, as realistic as possible clinical practice for nurses and nursing students...
February 1, 2017: Creative Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196372/resilience-through-adaptation
#15
Guus A Ten Broeke, George A K van Voorn, Arend Ligtenberg, Jaap Molenaar
Adaptation of agents through learning or evolution is an important component of the resilience of Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS). Without adaptation, the flexibility of such systems to cope with outside pressures would be much lower. To study the capabilities of CAS to adapt, social simulations with agent-based models (ABMs) provide a helpful tool. However, the value of ABMs for studying adaptation depends on the availability of methodologies for sensitivity analysis that can quantify resilience and adaptation in ABMs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192624/mr-based-synthetic-ct-generation-using-a-deep-convolutional-neural-network-method
#16
Xiao Han
PURPOSE: Interests have been rapidly growing in the field of radiotherapy to replace CT with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), due to superior soft tissue contrast offered by MRI and the desire to reduce unnecessary radiation dose. MR-only radiotherapy also simplifies clinical workflow and avoids uncertainties in aligning MR with CT. Methods, however, are needed to derive CT-equivalent representations, often known as synthetic CT (sCT), from patient MR images for the purpose of dose calculation and DRR-based patient positioning...
February 13, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188004/introducing-a-morbidity-and-mortality-conference-in-rwanda
#17
Egide Abahuje, Innocent Nzeyimana, Jennifer L Rickard
OBJECTIVES: To assess the structure, format, and educational features of a morbidity and mortality (M&M) conference in Rwanda. To determine factors associated with adverse events and to define opportunities for improvement. DESIGN: Retrospective, descriptive study of all cases presented at a surgical M&M conference over a 1-year period. Cases were reviewed for factors associated with adverse events and opportunities for improvement. Factors were characterized as delays in presentation, delays in diagnosis, delays in the operating room, errors in judgment, technical errors, advanced disease, and missing resources or malnutrition...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Surgical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185441/evaluation-of-the-ladder-to-the-moon-culture-change-studio-engagement-programme-staff-training-two-quasi-experimental-case-studies
#18
Azucena Guzmán, Jennifer Wenborn, Tom Swinson, Martin Orrell
AIM: To evaluate the impact of the CCSEP on care home staff in two care settings for older people in one nursing home and one residential home. BACKGROUND: Care homes provide personal care and accommodation for older people. The English Dementia Strategy aims to improve the quality of service provision for people with dementia. This includes specific mention of improving the quality of life in care homes and as such includes objectives related to developing the workforce knowledge and skills...
February 9, 2017: International Journal of Older People Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184380/implementation-of-interprofessional-education-ipe-in-16-u-s-medical-schools-common-practices-barriers-and-facilitators
#19
Courtney West, Lori Graham, Ryan T Palmer, Marissa Fuqua Miller, Erin K Thayer, Margaret L Stuber, Linda Awdishu, Rachel A Umoren, Maria A Wamsley, Elizabeth A Nelson, Pablo A Joo, James W Tysinger, Paul George, Patricia A Carney
BACKGROUND: Enhanced patient outcomes and accreditation criteria have led schools to integrate interprofessional education (IPE). While several studies describe IPE curricula at individual institutions, few examine practices across multiple institutions. PURPOSE: To examine the IPE integration at different institutions and determine gaps where there is potential for improvement. METHOD: In this mixed methods study, we obtained survey results from 16 U...
September 2016: J Interprof Educ Pract
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184087/learning-to-look-from-different-perspectives-what-can-dental-undergraduates-learn-from-an-arts-and-humanities-based-teaching-approach
#20
F Smyth Zahra, K Dunton
By its nature, clinical teaching involves supporting small groups of dental students at the chairside as they treat their own patients. Scaffolding their learning in this way enables observation at close quarters of the various stages of development from early novice, just commencing clinical treatment of patients, to those approaching qualification. The students' main concerns throughout are not primarily with the technical skills required, which they have already been taught in the clinical skills laboratories, but dealing with the complex realities and ambiguities of clinical practice; the 'hidden curriculum' of decision making, judgement calls, issues of communication and what it actually means to be professional...
February 10, 2017: British Dental Journal
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